WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected vegetable crops

  1. Nitrogen accumulation profiles of selected grain and vegetable crops: A bibliography (1940-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meischen, S.J.; Byrd, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    A bibliography of nitrogen accumulation profile data for 25 vegetable and grain crops reported between 1940 and 1992 is presented. The selected crops are asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, field bean, field pea, garlic, lettuce, onions, and peppers.

  2. Appraisal of venomous metals in selected crops and vegetables from industrial areas of the Punjab Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inadequate water sources, usually sewerage water and industrial effluents are being use for irrigation of the agricultural land around the industrial areas in Pakistan wherein crops and vegetables are cultivated. As untreated effluents contain heavy elements, toxic metals and organic pollutants that may find its way through food chain to general public and may cause health hazards. It is, therefore, mandatory to assess the toxic metals in such crops and vegetables. In this regard, samples of corn, millet, cabbage, spinach and potato were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of the Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. The food samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentration values of Arsenic (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g) and Cobalt (0.85 ± 0.01 μg/g) were found in cabbage whereas Manganese (91.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), Antimony (0.15 ± 0.03 μg/g) and Selenium (1.1 ± 0.1 μg/g) were observed in spinach and Chromium (9.63 ± 1.3 μg/g) was found in millet crop. The observed concentrations of all the toxic and heavy metals in crops and vegetables are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  3. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  4. Assessing lead thresholds for phytotoxicity and potential dietary toxicity in selected vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C L; Jia, Y B; Yang, X E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J

    2008-04-01

    Lead tolerance and accumulation in shoots and edible parts varied with crop species and soil type. The critical Pb concentrations at 10% yield reduction were 24.71, 28.25, and 0.567 mg kg(-1) for pakchoi, celery, and hot pepper, respectively under hydroponic conditions, whereas were 13.1, 3.83, 0.734 mg kg(-1) grown in the Inceptisol and 31.7, 30.0, 0.854 mg kg(-1) in the Alluvial soil, respectively. Based on the threshold of human dietary toxicity for Pb, the critical levels of soil available Pb for pakchoi, celery, and hot pepper were 5.07, 8.06, and 0.48 mg kg(-1) for the Inceptisol, and 1.38, 1.47, and 0.162 mg kg(-1) for the Alluvial soil, respectively. Similarly, the total soil Pb thresholds were different from vegetable species and soil types.

  5. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  6. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  7. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  8. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  9. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  11. Selection of hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) and composition of hyperspectral twoband vegetation indices (HVIs) for biophysical characterization and discrimination of crop types using field reflectance and Hyperion/EO-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Mariotto, I.; Gumma, M.K.; Middleton, E.M.; Landis, D.R.; Huemmrich, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy ~70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using ~20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was ~ 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or “the curse of high dimensionality”) in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysi- al

  12. Monitoring of nitrate content of vegetable crops in Uzhgorod district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Mykaylo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to conduct a monitoring study of nitrate content in plant products of Uzhgorod district and to accomplish comparative analysis of the survey results in different periods of crop ripening. Selection of vegetable samples was carried out in Uzhgorod district in the early spring and summer periods. Determination of the nitrate content was performed using an ion-selective method at the Chemical and Toxicological Department of the Regional State Veterinary Medicine Laboratory in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine. Vegetables were tested for nitrate content using the ion-selective method with the laboratory ion meter AI-123. Core investigation samples were crushed and homogenized. A 10.0 g weight of the investigated product, which was prepared according to MIR № 5048-89, was placed in a flat-bottomed or a conical flask, which was then filled with 50 cm3 potassium alumens solution and shaken in a shaking-machine for 5 minutes and then transferred into a measuring glass. The nitrate weight fraction in milligrams per kilogram was obtained together with the weight concentration value of nitrate ions in solution. For our study we selected vegetables grown in both public and private gardens of Uzhgorod district, namely: common onions, radishes, garden parsley, cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers, white cabbages, carrots and table beets. 25 samples were selected for each type of vegetable. Nitrate content was determined in the early spring growing period (from February 9 to May 27, 2011 and in the summer growing period (from June 3 to September 28, 2011, because in these particular periods we recorded the most frequent cases of food poisoning from nitrates among the population of the region. A clear trend has been traced towards increasing the nitrate content in food plant production, at levels which exceed the maximum permissible concentration (MPC. The results of our research demonstrate that the nitrate content exceeded the

  13. Selection of Hyperspectral Narrowbands (HNBs) and Composition of Hyperspectral Twoband Vegetation Indices (HVIs) for Biophysical Characterization and Discrimination of Crop Types Using Field Reflectance and Hyperion-EO-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mariotto, Isabella; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Landis, David R.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy approx. 70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using approx. 20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was approx. 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or "the curse of high dimensionality") in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e

  14. Sustainable irrigation and nitrogen management of fertigated vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Incrocci, L.; Voogt, W.; Pardossi, A.; Magán, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fertigation in combination with drip irrigation is being increasingly used in vegetable crop production. From a nutrient management perspective, this combination provides the technical capacity for precise nitrogen (N) nutrition, both spatially and temporally. With these systems, N and other

  15. Risk elements in selected types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable has an important role in human nutrition. Various parts of the plants have been part of the human diet since the beginning. Vegetables have a number of properties that make its consumption very healthful. It not only is a good source of vitamins, minerals and fiber but also contains protective components so called phytonutrients, has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Daily intake of vegetables offers many health benefits, helps to improve health for example the function of digestive and immune system, reduces the risk of various diseases and so we should take care to its regular consumption. It is widely used, except that it is the basic raw material for the preparation of foods and is also an important raw material for the processing industry. Nowadays has become environmental pollution by heavy metals as a big problem. The contamination of water, soil as well as air pollution by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and production of non-harmful to health, safe and quality food, which may be adverse effects on human health. Therefore, it is important that we devote this issue more attention. The aim of this work was to identify and determine content of heavy metals in selected vegetables. Defined objectives have been achieved by analyzing of selected species samples of root from brassica vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus, parsley (Petroselinum hortesne HOFFM conv. radicosum, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes, celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva ssp. vulgaris. The crops were bought in local market. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained from analyzes of vegetables that were grown in home conditions respectively from markets of local growers. All crops were grown in Slovak Republic. By using Varian AA 240FS and AAS method were analyzed the contents of risk metals in selected vegetables. It was confirmed that

  16. Tropical rotation crops influence nematode densities and vegetable yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C

    1994-09-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops.

  17. Induction of Male sterile mutants in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Nobuhiko [Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, Sapporo (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The cultivars of vegetable crops in Japan are almost all F/sub 1/ hybrid lines. These hybrid cultivars are superior in yield, quality and uniformity by heterosis, and play an important role in the protection of breeder's rights. Utilization of male sterile mutants has such advantages as the reduction of cost for F/sub 1/ production by saving labor, production of better seeds, that is, pollination without emasculation and avoidance of contamination caused by self pollination. Male sterility must be used for some species in which seed production is difficult because of tiny flowers and meager seed production by artificial crossing such as carrot and onion, and those in which pollination by bag or emasculation is expensive such as tomato, and sweet pepper. However, for vegetable crop breeeding, the induction and use of genetic male sterility are more difficult than for other crops, considering the economy and efficiency of research because the type of cultivars needed changes rapidly.

  18. Induction of Male sterile mutants in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Nobuhiko (Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, Sapporo (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    The cultivars of vegetable crops in Japan are almost all F/sub 1/ hybrid lines. These hybrid cultivars are superior in yield, quality and uniformity by heterosis, and play an important role in the protection of breeder's rights. Utilization of male sterile mutants has such advantages as the reduction of cost for F/sub 1/ production by saving labor, production of better seeds, that is, pollination without emasculation and avoidance of contamination caused by self pollination. Male sterility must be used for some species in which seed production is difficult because of tiny flowers and meager seed production by artificial crossing such as carrot and onion, and those in which pollination by bag or emasculation is expensive such as tomato, and sweet pepper. However, for vegetable crop breeeding, the induction and use of genetic male sterility are more difficult than for other crops, considering the economy and efficiency of research because the type of cultivars needed changes rapidly.

  19. Induction of Male sterile mutants in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Nobuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The cultivars of vegetable crops in Japan are almost all F 1 hybrid lines. These hybrid cultivars are superior in yield, quality and uniformity by heterosis, and play an important role in the protection of breeder's rights. Utilization of male sterile mutants has such advantages as the reduction of cost for F 1 production by saving labor, production of better seeds, that is, pollination without emasculation and avoidance of contamination caused by self pollination. Male sterility must be used for some species in which seed production is difficult because of tiny flowers and meager seed production by artificial crossing such as carrot and onion, and those in which pollination by bag or emasculation is expensive such as tomato, and sweet pepper. However, for vegetable crop breeeding, the induction and use of genic male sterility are more difficult than for other crops, considering the economy and efficiency of research because the type of cultivars needed changes rapidly. (Kaihara, S.)

  20. Valuation of vegetable crops produced in the UVI Commercial Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Bailey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The UVI Commercial Aquaponic System is designed to produce fish and vegetables in a recirculating aquaculture system. The integration of these systems intensifies production in a small land area, conserves water, reduces waste discharged into the environment, and recovers nutrients from fish production into valuable vegetable crops. A standard protocol has been developed for the production of tilapia yielding 5 MT per annum. The production of many vegetable crops has also been studied but, because of specific growth patterns and differences of marketable product, no single protocol can be promoted. Each crop yields different value per unit area and this must be considered when selecting varieties to produce to provide the highest returns to the farmer. Variables influencing the value of a crop are density (plants/m2, yield (unit or kg, production period (weeks and unit value ($. Combining these variables to one unit, $/m2/week, provides a common point for comparison among crops. Farmers can focus production efforts on the most valuable crops or continue to produce a variety of crops meeting market demand with the knowledge that each does not contribute equally to profitability.

  1. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  2. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  3. Biodiversity in vegetable crops, a heritage to save: the case of Puglia region

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    Antonio Elia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity in vegetable crops is composed by the genetic diversity, as species diversity (interspecific diversity and as diversity of genes within a species (intraspecific diversity referring to the vegetable grown varieties, and by the diversity of agro-ecosystems (agrobiodiversity. Intraspecific diversity is very ample in vegetable crops and is not reflected, at least not to the same extent, in other groups of crops. The labour operated by farmers over centuries of selection has led to the creation of a plurality of local varieties, following domestication of cultivated forms, and wide agro-biodiversity, a precious heritage both from a genetic and a cultural-historical point of view. The Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT takes into account in its annual survey about forty vegetable crops. Intraspecific diversity in vegetables can also be analyzed by examining the information contained in the common catalogue of varieties of vegetable species. The 27 EU Countries as a whole had entered 19,576 varieties of vegetables in the common catalogue as of August 2011. The Netherlands, which represents 8% of total vegetable production in the EU, has registered 7826 varieties. Italy and Spain, which predominate in Europe for the production of vegetables, have registered only 8% (1513 and 9% (1672 of the total varieties, respectively. As a whole 54% of the European varieties entered in the catalogue are hybrids. Puglia, which contributes with about 22% to the Italian vegetable growing area, is among the leading regions for the productions of broccoli raab, celery, parsley, processing tomato, artichoke, endive and escarole, cabbage, fennel, lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower and broccoli, early potato, and asparagus (all with more than 20% of the national area. The region is particularly rich in local vegetable varieties, obtained by farmers themselves after repeated simple selection procedures generation after generation. The local varieties

  4. Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp. Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

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    Julie Sardos

    Full Text Available Banana (Musa sp. is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility. An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

  7. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha−1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  8. Root-Knot Nematode Management in Double-Cropped Plasticulture Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Desaeger, J. A.; Csinos, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffe...

  9. Impact of perennial energy crops income variability on the crop selection of risk averse farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Peter; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government policy is for the area of perennial energy crops in the UK to expand significantly. Farmers need to choose these crops in preference to conventional rotations for this to be achievable. This paper looks at the potential level and variability of perennial energy crop incomes and the relation to incomes from conventional arable crops. Assuming energy crop prices are correlated to oil prices the results suggests that incomes from them are not well correlated to conventional arable crop incomes. A farm scale mathematical programming model is then used to attempt to understand the affect on risk averse farmers crop selection. The inclusion of risk reduces the energy crop price required for the selection of these crops. However yields towards the highest of those predicted in the UK are still required to make them an optimal choice, suggesting only a small area of energy crops within the UK would be expected to be chosen to be grown. This must be regarded as a tentative conclusion, primarily due to high sensitivity found to crop yields, resulting in the proposal for further work to apply the model using spatially disaggregated data. - Highlights: ► Energy crop and conventional crop incomes suggested as uncorrelated. ► Diversification effect of energy crops investigated for a risk averse farmer. ► Energy crops indicated as optimal selection only on highest yielding UK sites. ► Large establishment grant rates to substantially alter crop selections.

  10. Multivariate ordination identifies vegetation types associated with spider conservation in brassica crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Sohaib Ahmed Saqib

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control emphasizes natural and other non-crop vegetation as a source of natural enemies to focal crops. There is an unmet need for better methods to identify the types of vegetation that are optimal to support specific natural enemies that may colonize the crops. Here we explore the commonality of the spider assemblage—considering abundance and diversity (H—in brassica crops with that of adjacent non-crop and non-brassica crop vegetation. We employ spatial-based multivariate ordination approaches, hierarchical clustering and spatial eigenvector analysis. The small-scale mixed cropping and high disturbance frequency of southern Chinese vegetation farming offered a setting to test the role of alternate vegetation for spider conservation. Our findings indicate that spider families differ markedly in occurrence with respect to vegetation type. Grassy field margins, non-crop vegetation, taro and sweetpotato harbour spider morphospecies and functional groups that are also present in brassica crops. In contrast, pumpkin and litchi contain spiders not found in brassicas, and so may have little benefit for conservation biological control services for brassicas. Our findings also illustrate the utility of advanced statistical approaches for identifying spatial relationships between natural enemies and the land uses most likely to offer alternative habitats for conservation biological control efforts that generates testable hypotheses for future studies.

  11. Selection on crop-derived traits and QTL in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owart, Birkin R; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M; Dechaine, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions.

  12. THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the modern homeland assortment of vegetable crops is given. The donors of the most important traits and the accessions  of vegetable and melon crops perspective for breeding from the VIR collection are shown. The short characteristic of the varieties is given.

  13. Estimating Water Footprints of Vegetable Crops: Influence of Growing Season, Solar Radiation Data and Functional Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie le Roux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water footprint (WF accounting as proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN can potentially provide important information for water resource management, especially in water scarce countries relying on irrigation to help meet their food requirements. However, calculating accurate WFs of short-season vegetable crops such as carrots, cabbage, beetroot, broccoli and lettuce presented some challenges. Planting dates and inter-annual weather conditions impact WF results. Joining weather datasets of just rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature with ones that include solar radiation and wind-speed affected crop model estimates and WF results. The functional unit selected can also have a major impact on results. For example, WFs according to the WFN approach do not account for crop residues used for other purposes, like composting and animal feed. Using yields in dry matter rather than fresh mass also impacts WF metrics, making comparisons difficult. To overcome this, using the nutritional value of crops as a functional unit can connect water use more directly to potential benefits derived from different crops and allow more straightforward comparisons. Grey WFs based on nitrogen only disregards water pollution caused by phosphates, pesticides and salinization. Poor understanding of the fate of nitrogen complicates estimation of nitrogen loads into the aquifer.

  14. Economic significance of Viroids in vegetable and fruit crops (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop losses due to viroid infection occur in vegetable and field crops worldwide. In addition to potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), several viroids in the family Pospiviroidae infect these crops and economic losses range from minimal to severe depending upon the viroid/host combination, the host c...

  15. Compositional Changes in Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Emer, (Thesis)

    2000-01-01

    Compositional, physiological and microbiological changes in selected minimally processed vegetables packaged under a modified atmosphere of 2% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide were monitored over a ten day storage period at 40 C and 80 C. The analysis targeted specific changes in the nutritional, chemical and physiological make up of the vegetables as well as the changes in the microbial levels. In addition the changes in the gas atmospheres within the packs were monitored. It has been widely acc...

  16. Mutation breeding in vivo and in vitro in vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Latado, R.R.; Tsai, S.M.; Derbyshire, M.T.; Yemma, A.F.; Scarpare Filho, J.A.; Ceravolo, L.; Rossi, A.C.; Namekata, T.; Pompeu, J. Jr.; Figueiredo, J.O.; Pio, R.; Tobias Domingues, E.; Santos, P.C.; Boliani, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutation breeding in vivo and/or in vitro in vegetatively propagated crops as well as somaclonal variation can be used in Brazil in several crops to increase the genetic variability in characteristics of high importance. This was the objective of this research using ornamentals, citrus and bananas. Somaclonal variants can also be useful in these crops, based on the preliminary results observed in banana (Mycosphaerella musicola); where a short plant variant was selected in Brazil and the mutant resistant to yellow sigatoka, selected in Venezuela, showed resistance also in Brazil. Despite the increase in genetic variability in M 1 V 4 generation obtained after in vitro irradiation of meristems in banana, mutants resistant or tolerant to Fusarium were not selected, perhaps due to the limited number of plants evaluated. In citrus the first results from yield trials showed that following bud irradiation, it was possible to select plants of interest, e.g. mutants with a reduced number of seeds in the fruits. In ornamentals mutants induced by gamma rays in this project were released to the farmers. The results obtained in this research showed that biotechnology is a powerful tool that can be used in several ways in association with mutation breeding. (author)

  17. Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hewlett, T E; Frederick, J J

    1994-06-01

    The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P crops may provide a means for depressing M. arenaria population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop.

  18. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  19. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  20. Heavy metal toxicities in vegetable crops. VI. The effect of potassium and calcium concentration in the nutrient solution on manganese toxicities in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, T; Ikeda, H

    1977-01-01

    Eight species of vegetable crops were grown in solution culture in order to investigate the effect of potassium and calcium concentration in the nutrient solution on manganese toxicities in vegetable crops. Manganese was supplied at levels of 0.5, 30, and 100 ppm. At each manganese level potassium or calcium was supplied at rates of 2, 6, and 18 me/l. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted to 5. Manganese excess induced interveinal chlorosis on upper leaves in bean, eggplant, pepper, and spinach, and marginal chlorosis on lower leaves in cabbage, lettuce, and celery. In Welsh onions chlorosis was induced on lower leaves. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium reduced the severity of manganese-induced chlorosis. This beneficial effect was generally more marked with calcium than with potassium. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium was effective in alleviating the growth reduction of vegetable crops due to manganese excess. This effect also was more marked with calcium than with potassium. With increasing manganese level in the nutrient solution the manganese concentration in leaves of vegetable crops increased. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium inhibited excessive accumulation of manganese in leaves. The influence of calcium was stronger than that of potassium. In any of the vegetable crops tested, regardless of potassium and calcium treatments, manganese concentration in leaves was closely related to manganese toxicities; the more the accumulation of manganese in leaves increased, the more the severity of manganese-induced chlorosis and growth reduction increased.

  1. Potential of in vitro mutation breeding for the improvement of vegetatively propagated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Significant progress has been realized in a number of technologies (e.g., protoplast cultures), collectively referred to as plant cell and tissue culture, within the last decade. In vitro culture technologies offer great potentials for the improvement of crop plants, both sexually and asexually propagated; however, to realize these potentials plant regeneration from selected cells must be achieved for the species of interest. Where whole plants have been regenerated from selected cells, the mutant trait was expressed in some but not in all cases, and the inheritance patterns included maternal, recessive, semi-dominant and dominant (epigenetic events have also been reported). Improved cultivars of sugarcane have been developed from in vitro culture selections. In vitro mutation breeding can be done using an array of physical and chemical mutagens that has been found to be effective in the treatment of seeds, pollen, vegetative plant parts and growing plants. Selection at the cell level for a range of mutant traits has been demonstrated; however, innovative selection schemes will have to be developed to select for agriculturally important traits such as date of maturity, resistance to lodging, height etc. An interdisciplinary team approach involving the combined use of in vitro culture technology, mutagenesis, and plant breeding/genetics offers the greatest probability for success in crop improvement. (author)

  2. Estimation of Vegetable Crop Parameter by Multi-temporal UAV-Borne Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Moeckel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D point cloud analysis of imagery collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV has been shown to be a valuable tool for estimation of crop phenotypic traits, such as plant height, in several species. Spatial information about these phenotypic traits can be used to derive information about other important crop characteristics, like fresh biomass yield, which could not be derived directly from the point clouds. Previous approaches have often only considered single date measurements using a single point cloud derived metric for the respective trait. Furthermore, most of the studies focused on plant species with a homogenous canopy surface. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of UAV imagery for capturing crop height information of three vegetables (crops eggplant, tomato, and cabbage with a complex vegetation canopy surface during a complete crop growth cycle to infer biomass. Additionally, the effect of crop development stage on the relationship between estimated crop height and field measured crop height was examined. Our study was conducted in an experimental layout at the University of Agricultural Science in Bengaluru, India. For all the crops, the crop height and the biomass was measured at five dates during one crop growth cycle between February and May 2017 (average crop height was 42.5, 35.5, and 16.0 cm for eggplant, tomato, and cabbage. Using a structure from motion approach, a 3D point cloud was created for each crop and sampling date. In total, 14 crop height metrics were extracted from the point clouds. Machine learning methods were used to create prediction models for vegetable crop height. The study demonstrates that the monitoring of crop height using an UAV during an entire growing period results in detailed and precise estimates of crop height and biomass for all three crops (R2 ranging from 0.87 to 0.97, bias ranging from −0.66 to 0.45 cm. The effect of crop development stage on the predicted crop height was

  3. EnviroAtlas - Fruit and vegetable crops for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes data on the area, yield, and number of fruit and vegetable crops grown per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in the conterminous USA....

  4. EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China

    OpenAIRE

    Nicot , Philippe C.; Bardin , Marc; Leyronas , Christel; Desneux , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China. 13. IOBC-WPRS Meeting of the working group "Biological control of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. .

  5. Cover crop frequency and compost effects on a legume-rye cover crop during 8 years of organic vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic matter inputs from compost or cover crops (CC) are important to maintain or improve soil quality, but their impact in high-value vegetable production systems are not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of CC frequency (every winter versus every 4th winter) and yard-waste co...

  6. Transfer factors of radionuclides from Andsols to some selected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain the applicable transfer factor for Japanese environment, we performed radiotracer experiments on the uptake of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 54 Mn, 60 Co and 65 Zn by leaf vegetables (two cabbages, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce), root vegetables (radish and carrot) and other crops (wheat, soy bean sweet potato and tomato) using the Andosol (Kuroboku soil), the most common of Japanese arable soils. The ranges of TFs (on a dry weight basis) of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn for edible parts of crops (leaf vegetables, root vegetables, wheat and soy bean) were 0.09 - 1.42, 0.24 - 3.7, 0.019 - 1.5, 0.31 - 12 and 0.68 - 14, respectively. TFs were, in most cases in the order Mn, Zn, Sr > Cs > Co. (author)

  7. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  8. SO/sub 2/ dose-response sensitivity classification data for crops and natural vegetation species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P.M.; Ballou, S.W.

    1980-09-01

    Over the past several years studies have been made on the interaction of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and vegetation by performing field research and by developing analytical procedures for applying field observation data to energy impact assessments. As a result of this work, numerous reports have been prepared on crop-pollutant interactions, such as dose-response data; on the applications of such data to screening approaches for identifying crops at risk; and on models that predict crop yield reductions from point source emissions of SO/sub 2/. Data that were used for these studies, such as the crop-at-risk screening procedure, are presented in this report. Maps are also presented that show the national distribution of SO/sub 2/-sensitive crops and natural vegetation.

  9. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Karak, an arid region, have limited water and land resources to cultivate various crops specially vegetables. However, a few seasonal vegetable are available to the local communities in meager quantities. The ash, carbohydrate, protein, moisture, fat, fiber contents, energy values and nutrient composition ...

  10. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karak, an arid region, have limited water and land resources to cultivate various crops specially vegetables. However, a few seasonal vegetable are available to the local communities in meager quantities. The ash, carbohydrate, protein, moisture, fat, fiber contents, energy values and nutrient composition of eight ...

  11. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  12. Soil borne gungi associated with different vegetable crop in sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, F.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2014-01-01

    Different soil-borne fungi are responsible for reducing the yield of vegetables throughout the world including Pakistan. There are several soil borne fungal pathogens which aggressively infect vegetable crops. Surveys conducted during September 2010 to October 2011, demonstrated that a great diversity of soil borne plant pathogens associated with different vegetables prevail in vegetable growing areas of Sindh such as Tando Allahayar, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Khairpur, Kunri, Umerkot and Karachi, etc. Our study noted in total thirteen different genera of fungi isolated from vegetable crops (cabbage, brinjal, tomato, radish and spinach). Isolated fungi identified included Alternaria solani, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terrus, Aeromonium fusidiocles, Cladosporium sp., Drechselra hawaiiensis, Eurotium berbanbrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma harzianum, Ulocladium sp., and unidentified black mycelium from the soil and roots of vegetable crops. In addition, it was found that soil is commonly infected by soil-borne fungi and eventually results in heavy losses of vegetable yield in the vegetable growing areas of Sindh province. The infection rapidly increased due to many factors such as, presence of moisture, excess of water and infection may be caused by winds, gales and dust storms as well as by mechanical vectors. (author)

  13. Root-knot nematode management in double-cropped plasticulture vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaeger, J A; Csinos, A S

    2006-03-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffered much greater root-knot nematode (RKN) pressure than first crops, and almost-total yield loss occurred when second crops received no nematicide treatment. On a first crop of eggplant, all fumigants provided good nematode control and average yield increases of 10% to 15 %. On second crops, higher application rates and fumigant combinations (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) improved RKN control and increased yields on average by 20% to 35 % compared to the nonfumigated control. Oxamyl increased yields of the first crop in 2003 on average by 10% to 15% but had no effect in 2004 when RKN failed to establish itself. On double-cropped squash in 2003, oxamyl following fumigation provided significant additional reduction in nematode infection and increased squash yields on average by 30% to 75%.

  14. Assessing Crop Coefficients for Natural Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Data and Eddy Covariance Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Corbari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data. Pastures, deciduous and evergreen forests have been considered and lower crop coefficient values are found with respect to FAO data.

  15. Assessing Crop Coefficients for Natural Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Data and Eddy Covariance Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Galvagno, Marta; Cremonese, Edoardo; Mancini, Marco

    2017-11-18

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data. Pastures, deciduous and evergreen forests have been considered and lower crop coefficient values are found with respect to FAO data.

  16. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  17. Contamination of crop vegetation with trace elements from a fertilizer plant. An INAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Oprea, C.; Frontasyeva, M.; Georgescu, I.I.; Pincovschi, E.; Catana, L.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine various trace elements in crop vegetation (potato, carrot and maize) grown around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Romania. INAA using long-lived radionuclides was applied at NIPNE in Bucharest, and based on short-lived radionuclides at JINR in Dubna. The results for Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Hg were compared with Romanian norms for the alimentary products, as well as with literature data. Concentration ratios to control samples for both soil and crop as well as concentration factors of crop to host soil were assessed. (author)

  18. Plutonium contents of broadleaf vegetable crops grown near a nuclear fuel chemical separations facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K W; Alberts, J J; Adriano, D C; Pinder, III, J E

    1984-02-01

    Among agricultural crops, broadleaf vegetables are particularly prone to intercept and retain aerially released contaminants. The plutonium concentration of four broadleaf crops (broccoli, cabbage, lettuce and turnip greens) was determined, when grown in close proximity to a nuclear-fuel chemical-separations facility. Concentrations varied among species, apparently influenced by the crop morphology, with Pu concentrations increasing in the sequence: cabbage < broccoli < turnip greens < lettuce. Washing of the crops significantly reduced the Pu concentration of lettuce, but had no effect on Pu concentration of broccoli and cabbage. The vast majority of Pu found in the crops was due to direct deposition of recently released Pu and resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles, and was not due to root uptake. Resultant doses from consumption are small relative to the annual background dose.

  19. Development of broomcorn varieties at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broomcorn breeding program at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad has been in continuation since 1952. According to the demand of broomcorn and broom producers, in several cycles during this period, five generations of breeders have exploited wealthy genetic collection and created 11 broomcorn cultivars. In the beginning, the primary target was creation of European dwarf type cultivars. This phase has resulted in three cultivars 'Bački biser', 'Neoplanta' and 'Panonija'. Next phase, which was crowned with cultivars 'Sava', 'Tisa', 'Jumak' and 'Jantar', was focused on higher yield and better quality of broomcorn brushes. Contemporary cultivars 'Reform' and 'Neoplanta plus' which preserve good agro-technological traits of former cultivars, are selected to early maturity and fiber fineness. Selection of new cultivars 'Tan Sava' and 'No. 5' was concentrated on elimination of red coloration of panicles and even earlier maturity. Newly selected inbred lines tolerant to plant diseases and with positive panicle exertion are presently tested as parental lines in experimental hybrids. .

  20. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  1. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  2. Variation and Distribution of Glucosinolates in 42 Cultivars of Brassica oleracea Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Tebbenhoff, S.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain glucosinolates that are precursors for bioactive compounds like isothiocyanates that have been shown to play an important role in human health. This study reports the results of a screening of 11 Brassica oleracea crops consisting of 42 cultivars (6 white

  3. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  4. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna LENZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest. 

  5. Crop Type Classification Using Vegetation Indices of RapidEye Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuner, M.; Sanli, F. B.; Abdikan, S.; Esetlili, M. T.; Kurucu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Cutting-edge remote sensing technology has a significant role for managing the natural resources as well as the any other applications about the earth observation. Crop monitoring is the one of these applications since remote sensing provides us accurate, up-to-date and cost-effective information about the crop types at the different temporal and spatial resolution. In this study, the potential use of three different vegetation indices of RapidEye imagery on crop type classification as well as the effect of each indices on classification accuracy were investigated. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) are the three vegetation indices used in this study since all of these incorporated the near-infrared (NIR) band. RapidEye imagery is highly demanded and preferred for agricultural and forestry applications since it has red-edge and NIR bands. The study area is located in Aegean region of Turkey. Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used here for the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classification. Original bands of RapidEye imagery were excluded and classification was performed with only three vegetation indices. The contribution of each indices on image classification accuracy was also tested with single band classification. Highest classification accuracy of 87, 46 % was obtained using three vegetation indices. This obtained classification accuracy is higher than the classification accuracy of any dual-combination of these vegetation indices. Results demonstrate that NDRE has the highest contribution on classification accuracy compared to the other vegetation indices and the RapidEye imagery can get satisfactory results of classification accuracy without original bands.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity usually leads to greater sustainability in production practices. To understand the environmental implications of the development of village-level multi-cropping in rural China, we compared the environmental impact of a highly diverse vegetable multi-cropping system to a conventional wheat/maize rotation system based on the method of life cycle assessment (LCA. Using household level cultivation data, this study examined the gate-to-gate environmental impacts of on-site cultivation practices relating to the production of 10,000 nutrient equivalent units. Results show that vegetable multi-cropping resulted in decreased average land requirement, and diesel, water and electricity usage by 69.8%, 62.2%, 71.7%, and 63.4%, respectively, while average nitrogen (Total N, phosphorus (P2O5, and potassium (K2O usage in vegetable multi-cropping systems decreased by 16.3%, 42.1%, and 75.8%, respectively. Additional corresponding effects led to a decrease in the total global warming, eutrophication, and acidification potentials from external inputs by 21.6%, 16.7%, and 16.2% of the entire system, respectively. Moreover, the midpoint human toxicity potential from pesticide usage of the vegetable multi-cropping system was lower than that of the conventional system. However, the midpoint eco-toxicity potential from pesticide usage was higher due to certain highly toxic substances, and both human and eco-toxicity potentials from heavy metals were all higher by a few orders of magnitudes. Thus, to mitigate these detrimental consequences, some related measures are proposed for sustainable practices in the future implementation of multi-cropping systems.

  7. Application of radiation induced mutations in the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan Jain, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The NOBEL PEACE PRIZE, 2005, award to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a recognition to the contributions of nuclear technique applications, in a tough face off with plant genetic engineering, in sustainable food production, improvement of nutrition balance, and food security. Nuclear technology is effective in generating genetic variability, selection of useful mutants and multiplication in large numbers. A wide range of mutants of various vegetatively propagated crops have been isolated (www.iaea.org). In vitro plant regeneration is very much genotypic dependent, type of explants; culture medium, plant growth regulators etc. Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal system for the selection and multiplication of mutants and also would save time to dissociate chimeras. The role of molecular tools has become very crucial in understanding the molecular basis of differentiation and genetic variability; gene identification, isolation, and transfer. The new gene discovery with reverse and forward genetics will open the way for developing functional genomic plant breeding. There is no opposition from the consumers to consume food products derived from mutants, unlike strong opposition to the consumption of genetically modified (GM) food. Moreover, bio-safety regulations are not applied to mutants, however, strictly adhere to GM food. Tomorrow's agriculture will be under tremendous pressure for feeding the world's population in the face of climatic changes, salt and drought stresses, and biotic stresses; and mutagenesis would be the answer

  8. UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAKH NATH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

  9. Irradiation service for the vegetatively propagated crop breeding at the institute of radiation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, Hisashi

    1984-01-01

    The entrusted irradiation for vegetatively propagating crops reached about 200 cases since 1962. As to the results, 109 cases which were able to be tracked by questionnaire and others were examined. When the number of cases for each crop was investigated, arbor crops and herbaceous crops were half and half, and in the arbor crops, fruit trees were overwhelmingly many, while in the herbaceous crops, potatoes were more than half, and the number of cases for rush also was many. As the rare examples, there were butterbur, medicinal plants and sugarcane. As the registered practical varieties, there were one case of rush and one case of Chinese mat grass, but in the arbor crops, there was none. The purpose has been mostly the breeding of new varieties, but there were the inactivation of viruses and the effect of insecticide. The aims of breeding have been early growth, high yield, disease resistance, dwarfness and so on. As the mutation actually obtained, the skin color of fruits, the flower color of rose and chrysanthemum, the short vines of potatoes, the quality of rush and so on. The clients were mostly public experiment stations. The method of irradiation and the problems for the future are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Water Footprints of Vegetable Crop Wastage along the Supply Chain in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie le Roux

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Food production in water-scarce countries like South Africa will become more challenging in the future because of the growing population and intensifying water shortages. Reducing food wastage is one way of addressing this challenge. The wastage of carrots, cabbage, beetroot, broccoli and lettuce, produced on the Steenkoppies Aquifer in Gauteng, South Africa, was estimated for each step along the supply chain from the farm to the consumer. Water footprints for these vegetables were used to determine the volume of water lost indirectly as a result of this wastage. Highest percentage wastage occurs at the packhouse level, which is consistent with published literature. Some crops like lettuce have higher average wastage percentages (38% compared to other crops like broccoli (13% and cabbage (14%, and wastage varied between seasons. Care should therefore be taken when applying general wastage values reported for vegetables. The classification of “waste” presented a challenge, because “wasted” vegetables are often used for other beneficial purposes, including livestock feed and composting. It was estimated that blue water lost on the Steenkoppies Aquifer due to vegetable crop wastage (4 Mm3 year−1 represented 25% of the estimated blue water volume that exceeded sustainable limits (17 Mm3 year−1.

  11. Profitability and morphological characters of inter-cropping of different vegetables in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Hamid, F.S.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at National Tea Research Institute, Shinkiari, Mansehra, during 2006-07 to find out the most productive and profitable tea-based intercropping system with different vegetable crops. The vegetables included were brinjal solanum melongena , chilies Capsicum annum, okra Ahle moselous, potato Solanum tuberosum, spinach Spinacia oleracea, garlic Allium sativum, onion Allium cepa, peas Pisum sativum and tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, as intercrop combination in newly planted tea. Intercropping of peas showed up poorest among all other treatments, in net income of Rs. 4,800.0, whereas intercrops significantly affected no. of branches, leaves, fresh and dry weight/plant of tea crop respectively. Considering the net return and total expenditure incurred on raising of intercrops, the highest net profit of Rs. 6,669.0/acre was obtained from potato, followed by garlic at Rs. 6,200.0. All treatments combination is more or less similar in net return, except T/sub 5/. Yield and yield-attributes in all treatments were significantly affected. Whereas branches and fresh weight remained significant among each other except sole tea crop. Agronomic data showed that the cropping days were also varies from 45 to 150 days in all treatments. Therefore it might be more economically viable than sole tea crop, upto complete bush formation. (author)

  12. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m 2 (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Ownership characteristics and crop selection in California cropland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Macaulay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land ownership is one of the primary determinants of how agricultural land is used, and property size has been shown to drive many land use decisions. Land ownership information is also key to understanding food production systems and land fragmentation, and in targeting outreach materials to improve agricultural production and conservation practices. Using a parcel dataset containing all 58 California counties, we describe the characteristics of cropland ownership across California. The largest 5% of properties — with “property” defined as all parcels owned by a given landowner — account for 50.6% of California cropland, while the smallest 84% of properties account for 25% of cropland. Cropland ownership inequality (few large properties, many small properties was greatest in Kings, Kern and Contra Costa counties and lowest in Mendocino, Napa and Santa Clara counties. Of crop types, rice properties had the largest median size, while properties with orchard trees had the smallest median sizes. Cluster analysis of crop mixes revealed that properties with grapes, rice, almonds and alfalfa/hay tended to be planted to individual crops, while crops such as grains, tomatoes and vegetables were more likely to be mixed within a single property. Analyses of cropland ownership patterns can help researchers prioritize outreach efforts and tailor research to stakeholders' needs.

  14. Selectivity of herbicides in crambe crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of crambe can be associated with many factors, among these, the competition with weeds, which reduces the yield, harvest affects and contributes to the increase in seed moisture. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of crambe plants cv. FMS Brilhante to herbicides applied in preplant incorporated (PPI, preemergence (PRE, and postemergence (POST. The study was installed in a green-house and the treatments consisted of the herbicide application in: pre-plant incorporated ofdiclosulam, flumetsulam, metribuzin, and trifluralin;preemergence applicationof atrazine, diclosulam, diuron, flumetsulam, metribuzim, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and trifluralin; and postemergence application ofbentazon, carfentrazone-ethyl, clefoxydim, cletodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, flumioxazin, halosulfuron, imazamox, imazapic, lactofen, nicosulfuron, oxadiazon, quinclorac, and setoxydim. Visual evaluations of phytotoxicity on crambe plants were realized after applications, the seedlings were counted and the height and plant dry matter were determined in the end of the evaluation period. In conditions where the studies were conducted, we can conclude that only the trifluralin application in PRE and the application of clefoxidim+fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, quinclorac, setoxydim and clefoxydim in POST showed selectivity and potential use for FMS Brilhante crambe cultivar.

  15. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  16. Significance of in vitro adventitious bud techniques for mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1982-01-01

    It was investigated whether in vitro propagation techniques are of significance for the production of solid, non-chimeric mutants in mutation breeding programmes of vegetatively propagated crops. Irradiated explants of chrysanthemum, potato, begonia and carnation were used for the production of (adventitious) shoots and plantlets to determine the number and frequency of solid mutants and chimeras respectively. It was demonstrated that by the methods described high numbers of solid, non-chimeric mutants can be obtained and that the percentage of chimeras is comparable to the low figures reported after use of in vivo adventitious bud techniques. Consequently, the micro-propagation techniques seem very promising for the commercial plant breeder of vegetatively propagated crops. (author)

  17. Investigating Strategies for Sustainable Vegetable Food Crop System in Three Agro Ecological Zones of the Humid Tropics Area of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    TATA NGOME, Precillia Ijang; AFARI-SEFA, Victor; NTSOMBOH-NTSEFONG, Godswill; OKOLLE, Justin; BILLA, Samuel Fru; MOMA, Crescence; ATEMKENG FONJI, Maureen; NGOME, Ajebesone Francis

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable cultivation remains an essential component of local people’s livelihoods. However, marked trend shifts in the varieties of vegetables due to large-scale commercial vegetable farming of exotic varieties in the broader market economy have resulted in the gradual disappearance of biodiversity involving vital species. The present study examined the situation of vegetable crop farming in three agro-ecological zones of Cameroon. Data were collected from a random sample of 235 respondents ...

  18. Performance evaluation of selected crop yield-water use models for wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Igbadun

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield-water use models that provide useful information about the exact form of crop response to different amounts of water used by the crop throughout its growth stages and those that provide adequate information for decisions on optimal use of water in the farm were evaluated. Three crop yield models: Jensen (1968, Minhas et al., (1974 and Bras and Cordova (1981 additive type models were studied. Wheat (Triticum aestivum was planted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm during the 1995/96 and 1996/97 irrigation seasons of November to March. The data collected from the field experiments during the 1995/96 planting season were used to calibrate the models and their stress sensitivity factors estimated for four selected growth stages of the wheat crop. The ability of the model to predict grain yield of wheat with the estimated stress sensitivity factors was evaluated by comparing predicted grain yields by each model with those obtained in the field during the 1996/97 season. The three models performed fairly well in predicting grain yields, as the predicted results were not significantly different from the field measured grain yield at 5% level of significance.

  19. Accumulation of nuclear fission products by vegetable crops and their removal during processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation and turn over of 90 Sr and 137 Cs throughout the growth cycle of a vegetable crop was studied as well as the removal of these radionuclides in several vegetables by washing, blanching, freezing, canning, and pickling procedures. The results indicated that radiocontamination of vegetable crops with 137 Cs would result in greatest internal concentrations if exposure occurred early in the growth cycle of the plant, whereas, the greatest contamination by 90 Sr would occur from exposure during the middle of the growing period. Pulse labelling experiments were employed to examine turn over of radionuclides in kale. No net efflux of radionuclides from plants following exposure to either radionuclide was observed. Of the processing treatments employed on several types of vegetables, a combination of pickling and canning of cucumbers resulted in the greatest decontamination - 94% for 137 Cs and 65% for 90 Sr. Canning was highly effective in reducing radionuclide concentrations in beans and kale. However, freezing significantly reduced the radionuclide content of only 137 Cs in kale. Preparatory procedures prior to processing did not significantly reduce radionuclide levels except for 137 Cs in beans. The combination of washing, blanching, and canning sweet potatoes exposed to radionuclides resulted in the removal of 1.4% 137 Cs and 26.5% 90 Sr relative to unprocessed controls. The blanching process resulted in a transfer of radioactivity from the peel to the core, indicating that skins of contaminated potatoes should be removed prior to thermal treatment

  20. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  1. 78 FR 44922 - Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request... assured of consideration. Additional Information or Comments: Contact Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing....regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders. OMB Number...

  2. Transfer of radionuclides to vegetable and other crops grown on land reclaimed from the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    An area of reclaimed land on the Lancashire coast has been used to grow a wide range of crops to provide data on transfer parameters of radionuclides in foodchains when the activity is almost entirely of marine origin. Activity concentrations in the foodstuffs were low and not of radiological significance. However, meaningful results could be obtained if large sample sizes were employed. This paper sets out the methodology applied to a substantial field investigation of transfer to vegetable crops. The large sample sizes could be accommodated adequately with only minor modifications to established analytical procedures. The results of the study are discussed briefly. Since the growing conditions were virtually identical for each crop, comparisons of transfer factors between the different crops should therefore be valid. For some radionuclides, notably 239,240 Pu, 241 Am and 99 Tc, the work has added significantly to the data that are presently available. For most of the radionuclides studied, uptake by crops could be adequately predicted using the parameter values currently used in generic assessments, but for 99 Tc, lower values would be more appropriate

  3. Estimating riparian and agricultural evapotranspiration by reference crop evapotranspiration and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nguyen, Uyen; Scott, Russell; Doody, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Dryland river basins frequently support both irrigated agriculture and riparian vegetation and remote sensing methods are needed to monitor water use by both crops and natural vegetation in irrigation districts. We developed an algorithm for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor on the EOS-1 Terra satellite and locally-derived measurements of reference crop ET (ETo). The algorithm was calibrated with five years of ETa data from three eddy covariance flux towers set in riparian plant associations on the upper San Pedro River, Arizona, supplemented with ETa data for alfalfa and cotton from the literature. The algorithm was based on an equation of the form ETa = ETo [a(1 − e−bEVI) − c], where the term (1 − e−bEVI) is derived from the Beer-Lambert Law to express light absorption by a canopy, with EVI replacing leaf area index as an estimate of the density of light-absorbing units. The resulting algorithm capably predicted ETa across riparian plants and crops (r2 = 0.73). It was then tested against water balance data for five irrigation districts and flux tower data for two riparian zones for which season-long or multi-year ETa data were available. Predictions were within 10% of measured results in each case, with a non-significant (P = 0.89) difference between mean measured and modeled ETa of 5.4% over all validation sites. Validation and calibration data sets were combined to present a final predictive equation for application across crops and riparian plant associations for monitoring individual irrigation districts or for conducting global water use assessments of mixed agricultural and riparian biomes.

  4. Detection of crop water status in mature olive orchards using vegetation spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, Giovanni; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Farina, Giuseppe; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Leaf/stem water potentials are generally considered the most accurate indicators of crop water status (CWS) and they are quite often used for irrigation scheduling, even if costly and time-consuming. For this reason, in the last decade vegetation spectral measurements have been proposed, not only for environmental monitoring, but also in precision agriculture, to evaluate crop parameters and consequently for irrigation scheduling. Objective of the study was to assess the potential of hyperspectral reflectance (450-2400 nm) data to predict the crop water status (CWS) of a Mediterranean olive orchard. Different approaches were tested and particularly, (i) several standard broad- and narrow-band vegetation indices (VIs), (ii) specific VIs computed on the basis of some key wavelengths, predetermined by simple correlations and finally, (iii) using partial least squares (PLS) regression technique. To this aim, an intensive experimental campaign was carried out in 2010 and a total of 201 reflectance spectra, at leaf and canopy level, were collected with an ASD FieldSpec Pro (Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc.) handheld field spectroradiometer. CWS was contemporarily determined by measuring leaf and stem water potentials with the Scholander chamber. The results indicated that the considered standard vegetation indices were weakly correlated with CWS. On the other side, the prediction of CWS can be improved using VIs pointed to key-specific wavelengths, predetermined with a correlation analysis. The best prediction accuracy, however, can be achieved with models based on PLS regressions. The results confirmed the dependence of leaf/canopy optical features from CWS so that, for the examined crop, the proposed methodology can be considered a promising tool that could also be extended for operational applications using multispectral aerial sensors.

  5. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  6. Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables sold in a north-central ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... of the pure isolates testing positive as being pathogenic after biochemical analysis.

  7. Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil spill in the Con Joubert Bird Sanctuary wetland: A pilot study. Mapurunyane C Selala, Paul J Oberholster, Karen AK Surridge, Arno R de Klerk, Anna-Maria Botha ...

  8. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    Mulching is the most common technique used worldwide by vegetable growers in protected cultivation. For this purpose, several plastic materials have been used, with polyethylene (PE) being the most widespread. However, PE is produced from petroleum derivatives, it is not degradable, and thus pollutes the environment for periods much longer than the crop duration (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011), which are very important negative aspects especially for organic farmers. A large portion of plastic films is left on the field or burnt uncontrollably by the farmers, with the associated negative consequences to the environment (Moreno and Moreno, 2008). Therefore, the best solution is to find a material with a lifetime similar to the crop duration time that can be later incorporated by the agricultural system through a biodegradation process (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011). In this context, various biodegradable materials have been considered as alternatives in the last few years, including oxo-biodegradable films, biopolymer mulches, different types of papers, and crop residues (Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012). In this work we evaluate the evolution of different properties related to mulch degradation in both the buried and the superficial (exposed) part of mulch materials of different composition (standard black PE, papers and black biodegradable plastics) in summer vegetable crops under organic management in Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain). As results, it is remarkable the early deterioration suffered by the buried part of the papers, disappearing completely in the soil at the end of the crop cycles and therefore indicating the total incorporation of these materials to the soil once the crop has finished. In the case of the degradation of the exposed mulch, small differences between crops were observed. In general, all the materials were less degraded under the plants than when receiving directly the solar radiation. As conclusion, biodegradable mulches degrade

  9. Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Donald H.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

  10. Photosynthetically supplemental lighting for vegetable crop production with super-bright laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Shi, Jintong

    2007-02-01

    Although many artificial light sources like high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, fluorescent lamp and so on are commonly used in horticulture, they are not widely applied because of the disadvantages of unreasonable spectra, high cost and complex control. Recently new light sources of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) are becoming more and more popular in the field of display and illumination with the improvement of material and manufacturing, long life-span and increasingly low cost. A new type of super-bright red LD (BL650, central wavelength is 650 nm) was selected to make up of the supplemental lighting panel, on which LDs were distributed with regular hexagon array. Drive circuit was designed to power it and adjust light intensity. System performance including temperature rise and light intensity distribution under different vertical/horizontal distances were tested. Photosynthesis of sweet pepper and eggplant leaf under LD was measured with LI-6400 to show the supplemental lighting effects. The results show that LD system can supply the maximum light intensity of 180 μmol/m2 •s at the distance of 50 mm below the panel and the temperature rise is little within 1 °C. Net photosynthetic rate became faster when LD system increased light intensity. Compared with sunlight and LED supplemental lighting system, LD's promotion on photosynthesis is in the middle. Thus it is feasible for LD light source to supplement light for vegetable crops. Further study would focus on the integration of LD and other artificial light sources.

  11. Effects of glufosinate-ammonium on off crop vegetation--interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Snoo, G R; De Jong, F M; Van Der Poll, R J; Van Der Linden, M G

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a field study was conducted at four different locations concerning the effects of low dosages of glufosinate-ammonium, a leaf acting herbicide, on off crop vegetation. Therefore species rich road verges and ditch banks not adapted to a history of herbicide use were sprayed twice with different dosages of glufosinate-ammonium, simulating drift (0, 2, 4, 16, 32 and 64% of the maximum field dose: 800 g a.i./ha). The parameters studied were short term phytotoxic effects and the effects on biomass, species cover and number of species in autumn (Braun-Blanquêt relevés). The results show significant phytotoxic effects at all dosages of glufosinate-ammonium on the non-target vegetation. The low concentrations (2 and 4%) had most impact when applied early in the season (9% average at the 2% dosage and 22% at 4% dosage, after the first spraying. At high dosages (32 and 64%) a decrease of the biomass of the vegetation was found in August. A comparison between treatments in August shows a small decrease in species number and cover in the 64% compared to the control. In the comparison between the spring and August relevés, the decrease in the mean number of species was significantly stronger in the treated plots than in the untreated ones of 4% and higher. For monocotyledons in all treatments except 16%, a significantly stronger decrease in species number was found compared to the untreated. For dicotyledons only the 64% dosage differed from the untreated. Only at the 64% treatment the total cover of species decreased more than in the untreated plots. Since drift percentages of 2-4% can be expected at 1-2 m from a treated plot it can be concluded that the use of glufosinate-ammonium could result in visible short term phytotoxic effects (max 22%) on off-crop vegetation such as ditch banks and verges. There are also indications that effects on the number and cover of species in autumn can occur. Because in future glufosinate-ammonium could be used on a large scale in

  12. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  13. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Ghatak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet.

  14. Antioxidant activity in selected Slovenian organic and conventional crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca KNAP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for organically produced food is increasing. There is widespread belief that organic food is substantially healthier and safer than conventional food. According to literature organic food is free of phytopharmaceutical residues, contain less nitrates and more antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to verify if there are any differences in the antioxidant activity between selected Slovenian organic and conventional crops. Method of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl was used to determine the antioxidant activity of 16 samples from organic and conventional farms. The same varieties of crops were analysed. DPPH method was employed to measure the antioxidant activity of polar antioxidants (AAp and antioxidant activity of fraction in ethyl acetate soluble antioxidants (EA AA. Descriptive statistics and variance analysis were used to describe differences between farming systems. Estimated differences between interactions for the same crop and different farming practice were mostly not statistically significant except for the AAp for basil and beetroot. Higher statistically significant values were estimated for conventional crops. For the EA AA in broccoli, cucumber, rocket and cherry statistically significant higher values were estimated for organic production.

  15. The Deterioration of Morocco’s Vegetable Crop Genetic Diversity: An Analysis of the Souss-Massa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Alan Walters

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop domestication and breeding efforts during the last half-century in developed countries has significantly reduced the genetic diversity in all major vegetable crops grown throughout the world. This includes developing countries such as Morocco, in which more than 90% of all farms are less than 10 ha in size, which are generally maintained by subsistence farmers who try to maximize crop and animal productivity on a limited land area. Near Agadir, in the remote Anti-Atlas mountain areas of the Souss-Massa region, many small landowner vegetable growers are known to still utilize crop populations (landraces. Thus, an assessment of the current status of vegetable landraces was made in this mountainous region of Southwestern Morocco during 2014. This assessment indicated that a significant loss of vegetable crop landraces has occurred in the last 30 years in this region of Morocco. Although many vegetable crops are still maintained as landrace populations by small subsistence farmers in remote areas in the Souss-Massa region, only 31% of these farmers cultivated landraces and saved seed in the villages assessed, with the average farmer age cultivating landraces being 52 years old. Moreover, the approximated loss of vegetable crop landraces over the last 30 years was an astounding 80 to 90%. Vegetable crops notably lost during this time period included carrot (Daucus carota, fava beans (Vicia faba, melon (Cucumis melo, pea (Pisum sativum, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon. The most significant loss was tomato as no landraces of this crop were found in this region. The vegetable crop landraces that are still widely grown included carrot, melon, onion (Allium cepa, turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa, and watermelon, while limited amounts of eggplant (Solanum melongea, fava bean, pea, pepper (Capsicum annuum, and pumpkin (Cucurbita moshata and C. maxima were found. This recent genetic deterioration will have a profound

  16. Weed supression by smother crops and selective herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a smother crop is thought to suppress weed density and to add other beneficial effects in sustainable agricultural systems. Weed suppression ought to be considered an essential component of integrated weed management. However, very little is known about the effects of green manure plants on weeds. This study evaluated the influence of three green manure species on weed suppression and selectivity of herbicides. A field experiment was designed to determine the effect of the green manure species Crotalaria juncea, Arachis pintoi and pigeon pea on the weeds Brachiaria decumbens, guineagrass and hairy beggarticks, and on the natural weed infestation in the inter rows area of an avocado orchard. The weed species were suppressed differently by each green manure species. Soil samples collected from the field experiment presented a residual effect, of at least 30 d, in suppressing weed seed bank recruitment; this residual effect was caused by the residues of the green manure present in the soil. When the green manure was incorporated into the top 5 cm of soil or left on the surface, in a greenhouse experiment, the emergence of weed seeds was significantly inhibited, depending on the species, and on the amount and depth of green manure incorporation. Greenhouse experiments indicate that pre-emergence herbicides cause lower phytotoxicity than post-emergence Arachis pintoi. Smother crops using green manure species, when well established in an area, provide additional weed control to the cropping system and are effective and valuable tools in integrated weed management.

  17. Angolan vegetable crops have unique genotypes of potential value for future breeding programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Domingos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out in Angola with the aim of collecting vegetable crops. Collecting expeditions were conducted in Kwanza-Sul, Benguela, Huíla and Namibe Provinces and a total of 80 accessions belonging to 22 species was collected from farmers and local markets. Species belonging to the Solanaceae (37 accessions and Cucurbitaceae (36 accessions families were the most frequently found with pepper and eggplant being the predominant solanaceous crops collected. Peppers were sold in local markets as a mixture of different types, even different species: Capsicum chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. Most of the eggplant accessions collected belonged to Solanum aethiopicum L. Gilo Group, the so-called ‘scarlet eggplant’. Cucurbita genus was better represented than the other cucurbit crops. A high morphological variation was present in the Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata accessions. A set of 22 Cucurbita accessions from Angola, along with 32 Cucurbita controls from a wide range of origins, was cultivated in Valencia, Spain and characterised based on morphology and molecularity using a set of 15 microsatellite markers. A strong dependence on latitude was found in most of the accessions and as a result, many accessions did not set fruit. The molecular analysis showed high molecular variability and uniqueness in the collected accessions, as shown by their segregation from the set of global controls. In summary, the material collected is quite valuable because of its uniqueness and the potential of the breeding characteristics it possesses.

  18. Vegetation index-based crop coefficients to estimate evapotranspiration by remote sensing in agricultural and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Nagler, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Crop coefficients were developed to determine crop water needs based on the evapotranspiration (ET) of a reference crop under a given set of meteorological conditions. Starting in the 1980s, crop coefficients developed through lysimeter studies or set by expert opinion began to be supplemented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) that measured the actual status of the crop on a field-by-field basis. VIs measure the density of green foliage based on the reflectance of visible and near infrared (NIR) light from the canopy, and are highly correlated with plant physiological processes that depend on light absorption by a canopy such as ET and photosynthesis. Reflectance-based crop coefficients have now been developed for numerous individual crops, including corn, wheat, alfalfa, cotton, potato, sugar beet, vegetables, grapes and orchard crops. Other research has shown that VIs can be used to predict ET over fields of mixed crops, allowing them to be used to monitor ET over entire irrigation districts. VI-based crop coefficients can help reduce agricultural water use by matching irrigation rates to the actual water needs of a crop as it grows instead of to a modeled crop growing under optimal conditions. Recently, the concept has been applied to natural ecosystems at the local, regional and continental scales of measurement, using time-series satellite data from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. VIs or other visible-NIR band algorithms are combined with meteorological data to predict ET in numerous biome types, from deserts, to arctic tundra, to tropical rainforests. These methods often closely match ET measured on the ground at the global FluxNet array of eddy covariance moisture and carbon flux towers. The primary advantage of VI methods for estimating ET is that transpiration is closely related to radiation absorbed by the plant canopy, which is closely related to VIs. The primary disadvantage is that they cannot capture stress effects or soil

  19. Selection during crop diversification involves correlated evolution of the circadian clock and ecophysiological traits in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkhunova, Yulia; Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; Baker, Robert L; Aston, Timothy Llewellyn; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Crop selection often leads to dramatic morphological diversification, in which allocation to the harvestable component increases. Shifts in allocation are predicted to impact (as well as rely on) physiological traits; yet, little is known about the evolution of gas exchange and related anatomical features during crop diversification. In Brassica rapa, we tested for physiological differentiation among three crop morphotypes (leaf, turnip, and oilseed) and for correlated evolution of circadian, gas exchange, and phenological traits. We also examined internal and surficial leaf anatomical features and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Crop types differed in gas exchange; oilseed varieties had higher net carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance relative to vegetable types. Phylogenetically independent contrasts indicated correlated evolution between circadian traits and both gas exchange and biomass accumulation; shifts to shorter circadian period (closer to 24 h) between phylogenetic nodes are associated with higher stomatal conductance, lower photosynthetic rate (when CO2 supply is factored out), and lower biomass accumulation. Crop type differences in gas exchange are also associated with stomatal density, epidermal thickness, numbers of palisade layers, and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Brassica crop diversification involves correlated evolution of circadian and physiological traits, which is potentially relevant to understanding mechanistic targets for crop improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  1. PRODUCT NEEM AZAL T/S - BROAD-SPECTRUM PHYPOPESTICIDE FOR CONTROL OF PESTS ON VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinelina Yankova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments for determination of the effectiveness of product Neem Azal T/S (a. i. azadirachtin were conducted at a concentration of 0,3% against some major pests in vegetable crops grown in greenhouses at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2010-2016. It was established very good insecticidal and acaricidal action of phytopesticide against: cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.; green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulz.; western flower trips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.; cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.; tomato borer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae Koch.. This product is a successful alternative to using chemical insecticides and acaricides.

  2. Vegetation in group selection openings: ecology and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1991-01-01

    Group selection openings ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 acres in mixed conifer stands in northern and central California were evaluated for effect of site preparation, opening size, kind and amount of vegetation, and release treatment. Small openings, in general, are characterized by less sunlight and lower temperature extremes than clearcuttings. Roots from border trees...

  3. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbasum, R.; Aman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  4. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  5. Combined amplification and hybridization techniques for genome scanning in vegetatively propagated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, G; Ramser, J; Terauchi, R [Biocentre, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Lopez-Peralta, C [IRGP, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico, Texcoco (Mexico); Asemota, H N [Biotechnology Centre, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston (Jamaica); Weising, K [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1998-10-01

    A combination of PCR- and hybridization-based genome scanning techniques and sequence comparisons between non-coding chloroplast DNA flanking tRNA genes has been employed to screen Dioscorea species for intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. This methodology detected extensive polymorphisms within Dioscorea bulbifera L., and revealed taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Guinea yams varieties and their potential wild progenitors. Finally, screening of yam germplasm grown in Jamaica permitted reliable discrimination between all major cultivars. Genome scanning by micro satellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in combination with the novel random amplified micro satellite polymorphisms (RAMPO) hybridization technique has shown high potential for the genetic analysis of yams, and holds promise for other vegetatively propagated orphan crops. (author) 46 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Combined amplification and hybridization techniques for genome scanning in vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, G.; Ramser, J.; Terauchi, R.; Lopez-Peralta, C.; Asemota, H.N.; Weising, K.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of PCR- and hybridization-based genome scanning techniques and sequence comparisons between non-coding chloroplast DNA flanking tRNA genes has been employed to screen Dioscorea species for intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. This methodology detected extensive polymorphisms within Dioscorea bulbifera L., and revealed taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Guinea yams varieties and their potential wild progenitors. Finally, screening of yam germplasm grown in Jamaica permitted reliable discrimination between all major cultivars. Genome scanning by micro satellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in combination with the novel random amplified micro satellite polymorphisms (RAMPO) hybridization technique has shown high potential for the genetic analysis of yams, and holds promise for other vegetatively propagated orphan crops. (author)

  7. Spectral data based vegetation indices to characterise crop growth parameters and radiation interception in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, G.; Chakravarty, N.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Four spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra-red/red (IR/R) ratio, normalized difference (N.D.), greenness index (GNI) and brightness index (BNI) were derived to characterise leaf area index, above ground biomass production and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in Brassica oilseed crop. It was found from correlation study among different spectral indices, plant growth parameters and radiation interception that there was strong relationship between infrared/red and normalized difference with green area index for all the three Brassica cultivars whereas these spectral were not significantly correlated with above ground biomass. On the other hand, the brightness and greenness indices were closely correlated with above groundry biomass as compared to infrared/red ratio and normalized difference. All the four spectral indices were correlated with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IP AR). The best fit equations relating them were derived, which can be incorporated in the algorithms of crop growth simulation model to estimate plant growth parameters and radiation interception using spectral indices

  8. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris

    2015-01-01

    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 μg, respectively, depending on the exposure route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryopreservation techniques and their application in vegetatively propagated crop plants in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NUKARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation protocols have been introduced as techniques for germplasm preservation of vegetatively propagated horticultural and staple food crops. In Finland, cryopreservation has been studied since 1990’s, beginning with cryopreservation of forest tree breeding material and since 2004 on cryopreservation of genetic resources of horticultural plants and potato. Priority was given to cryopreservation of raspberry (Rubus ideaus L., strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and the possibility to use cryotherapy in eradication of raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV from in vitro cultures were studied on raspberry. Modified droplet vitrification cryopreservation protocols were designed for raspberry and strawberry and cryotherapy combined with thermotherapy was proven to be a successful application to eliminate RBDV from infected raspberries. Cryotherapy method can be applied for a large scale elimination of viruses from plant germplasm and from candidate nuclear stock in a certified plant production scheme. Routine use of cryotechniques in germplasm preservation of vegetatively propagated horticultural plants was started. Besides for long term germplasm preservation, cryopreservation techniques can be applied also for maintenance of mother stocks in certified plant production schemes and in commercial plant production. Cryopreservation of potato shoot tips needs additional detailed research to obtain sufficient recovery and regrowth rates.;

  10. Arsenic in garden soils and vegetable crops in Cornwall, England: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Thornton, I

    1985-12-01

    Total concentrations of arsenic in surface (0-15cm) garden soils in the historical mining area of Hayle-Camborne-Godolphin, Cornwall, England are large and range widely (144-892 μg/g). Amounts of water soluble and acid-fluoride extractable soil arsenic are significantly correlated with total content.Examination of 6 salad and vegetable crops grown in 32 gardens has shown arsenic concentrations in the edible tissues to be only slightly elevated. There were strong correlations between arsenic in beetroot, lettuce, onion and peas and soil arsenic (total, water soluble and acid extractable). Regression equations have been calculated. Ridge regression analysis applied to test the importance of other soil variables has shown both iron and phosphorus to influence the uptake of arsenic.Arsenic in all the vegetables sampled was below the statutory limit in the U.K. of 1 mg/kg fresh weight. Implications for health should be assessed in relation to other exposure routesvia water, air and directly ingested dust and soil.

  11. Genomic Selection in Multi-environment Crop Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, Helena; Cullis, Brian; Thompson, Robin; Comadran, Jordi; Halpin, Claire; Waugh, Robbie

    2016-05-03

    Genomic selection in crop breeding introduces modeling challenges not found in animal studies. These include the need to accommodate replicate plants for each line, consider spatial variation in field trials, address line by environment interactions, and capture nonadditive effects. Here, we propose a flexible single-stage genomic selection approach that resolves these issues. Our linear mixed model incorporates spatial variation through environment-specific terms, and also randomization-based design terms. It considers marker, and marker by environment interactions using ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction to extend genomic selection to multiple environments. Since the approach uses the raw data from line replicates, the line genetic variation is partitioned into marker and nonmarker residual genetic variation (i.e., additive and nonadditive effects). This results in a more precise estimate of marker genetic effects. Using barley height data from trials, in 2 different years, of up to 477 cultivars, we demonstrate that our new genomic selection model improves predictions compared to current models. Analyzing single trials revealed improvements in predictive ability of up to 5.7%. For the multiple environment trial (MET) model, combining both year trials improved predictive ability up to 11.4% compared to a single environment analysis. Benefits were significant even when fewer markers were used. Compared to a single-year standard model run with 3490 markers, our partitioned MET model achieved the same predictive ability using between 500 and 1000 markers depending on the trial. Our approach can be used to increase accuracy and confidence in the selection of the best lines for breeding and/or, to reduce costs by using fewer markers. Copyright © 2016 Oakey et al.

  12. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  13. Assessment of agricultural crops and natural vegetation in Scotland for energy production by anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Lawson, David; Madsen, René Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    The current paper investigates the use of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commonly found in Scotland as a source of bioenergy. Such biomass is shown to have a high moisture content upon harvest (∼80%) which renders them suitable for wet conversion technologies such as anaerobic digestion...

  14. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic

  15. Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Shah, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pesticides residues on edible portions whereas highly significant differences (p<0.001) were observed for the leafy portions. The residual level of cypermethrin was highest (16.2 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd, while Lambdacyhalothrin and Mancozeb residues were detected high (4.50 mg kg/sup -1/, 6.26 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd and Cucumber respectively. Cypermethrin residues were high (1.86 mg kg/sup -1/) in Okra leaves. Mancozeb and Lambdacyhalothrin residual level was high (1.23 mg kg/sup -1/, and 0.0002 mg kg/sup -1/) in chili and tomato leaves. Cypermethrin residues were readily detected in edible and leaf portion of the selected vegetables. (author)

  16. Evaluation and cross-comparison of vegetation indices for crop monitoring from sentinel-2 and worldview-2 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Dercas, Nicholas; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Spyropoulos, Nikolaos V.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers throughout the world are constantly searching for ways to maximize their returns. Remote Sensing applications are designed to provide farmers with timely crop monitoring and production information. Such information can be used to identify crop vigor problems. Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from satellite data have been widely used to assess variations in the physiological state and biophysical properties of vegetation. However, due to the various sensor characteristics, there are differences among VIs derived from multiple sensors for the same target. Therefore, multi-sensor VI capability and effectiveness are critical but complicated issues in the application of multi-sensor vegetation observations. Various factors such as the atmospheric conditions during acquisition, sensor and geometric characteristics, such as viewing angle, field of view, and sun elevation influence direct comparability of vegetation indicators among different sensors. In the present study, two experimental areas were used which are located near the villages Nea Lefki and Melia of Larissa Prefecture in Thessaly Plain area, containing a wheat and a cotton crop, respectively. Two satellite systems with different spatial resolution, WorldView-2 (W2) and Sentinel-2 (S2) with 2 and 10 meters pixel size, were used. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) were calculated and a statistical comparison of the VIs was made to designate their correlation and dependency. Finally, several other innovative indices were calculated and compared to evaluate their effectiveness in the detection of problematic plant growth areas.

  17. Effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide on the incidence of injury symptoms in vegetable crops and on their growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T; Ishikawa, H

    1971-05-01

    Four types of fruit crops (tomato, eggplant, cucumber, and green pepper), two types of root crops (turnip and radish), and four types of leaf crops (Chinese cabbage, cabbage, lettuce, and spinach) were continuously exposed for periods of 14-56 days to gas with a concentration of 0-0.26 ppm in order to study the effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetable crops. The injury symptoms which were observed included: grayish-white or brown flecks on the leaves, yellowing of the leaves, and morphological changes in the leaves. The green peppers and radishes had the greatest resistance to SO/sub 2/ of all the vegetable crops tested; no injury symptoms appeared at 0.26 ppm; and there was no inhibition of their growth. The spinach was the most sensitive, injury symptoms appearing in one day (during summer and autumn) at 0.26 ppm. The other crops displayed a medium degree of sensitivity. That is, no injury symptoms appeared at a low concentration of 0.065 ppm; inhibition of growth was observed only in turnips, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage; but the others were not inhibited. There were no direct effects on flowering and fruiting within the experimental range of gas concentrations. Injury symptoms tended to appear less readily during the winter season.

  18. Genomic regions under selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce: implications for crop breeding and environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The results of this thesis show that the probability of introgression of a putative transgene to wild relatives indeed depends strongly on the insertion location of the transgene. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection in multiple

  19. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  20. Wheat Yield Forecasting for Punjab Province from Vegetation Index Time Series and Historic Crop Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dempewolf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, government planners and agricultural market participants in Pakistan require accurate and timely information about wheat yield and production. Punjab Province is by far the most important wheat producing region in the country. The manual collection of field data and data processing for crop forecasting by the provincial government requires significant amounts of time before official reports can be released. Several studies have shown that wheat yield can be effectively forecast using satellite remote sensing data. In this study, we developed a methodology for estimating wheat yield and area for Punjab Province from freely available Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery approximately six weeks before harvest. Wheat yield was derived by regressing reported yield values against time series of four different peak-season MODIS-derived vegetation indices. We also tested deriving wheat area from the same MODIS time series using a regression-tree approach. Among the four evaluated indices, WDRVI provided more consistent and accurate yield forecasts compared to NDVI, EVI2 and saturation-adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (SANDVI. The lowest RMSE values at the district level for forecast versus reported yield were found when using six or more years of training data. Forecast yield for the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 growing seasons were within 0.2% and 11.5% of final reported values. Absolute deviations of wheat area and production forecasts from reported values were slightly greater compared to using the previous year's or the three- or six-year moving average values, implying that 250-m MODIS data does not provide sufficient spatial resolution for providing improved wheat area and production forecasts.

  1. Yields of Selected Catch Crops in Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Handlířová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catch crops mainly reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrients as well as enrich the soil organic matter. The aim of this research is to evaluate the yields of catch crops of Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, Carthamus tinctorius and Secale cereale v. multicaule, and thus determine the possible applicability of catch crops in areas with high average annual temperature and low precipitation totals. The small-plot field experiment was performed on clay-loam gleyic fluvisol at the Field Experimental Station in Žabčice, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, within the period of 2006-2014. The catch crops were set up after winter wheat in mid-August. The results have shown a statistically significant difference among different catch crops in yield of dry matter and even among years. The yield of catch crops is mainly dependent on a sufficient supply of water in the soil and the appropriate amount and distribution of rainfall over the growing season. Sinapis alba and Phacelia tanacetifolia regularly reached the highest yields. High yields were also achieved with Fagopyrum esculentum. Due to the method of crop rotation in the Czech Republic, with a predominance of Brassica napus var. napus, it is inappropriate to include Sinapis alba. It is the best to grow Phacelia tanacetifolia and even Fagopyrum esculentum, or a mixture thereof, depending on the use of catch crops.

  2. Development of ELISA for the detection of transgenic vegetative insecticidal protein in GM crops/produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R

    2012-01-11

    In the process of the development of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops and also to evaluate the consistency in the expression of toxin under field conditions, immunological assays are commonly being used. An immunoassay was developed to support the labelling of vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A)-based GM produce. The developed ELISA for the measurement of Vip3A is a triple antibody sandwich procedure utilising a polyclonal capture antibody (mouse anti-Vip3A) and a polyclonal detection antibody (rabbit anti-Vip3A) followed by use of a third HRP-conjugated anti-species antibody (goat anti-rabbit IgG). The limit of detection limit of the ELISA assay was 16 ng ml(-1) with a linear quantification range from approximately 31 to 500 ng ml(-1) of Vip3A protein. Furthermore, the assay was in-house validated with GM brinjal samples. The assay was specific, sensitive and reproducible, which can be helpful to detect and track down the spread of unapproved and intentionally/unintentionally released GM produce harbouring Vip protein.

  3. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  4. Agricultural terminology in Russian language on the Institute of field and vegetable crops example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savin Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary science demands that scientists are following domestic and foreign scientific and technical achievements through conference attendances and scientific and professional literature. Agricultural science is based on practical data, field experiments, but nevertheless it is essential to be up to date with the work of foreign researchers, scientific centers and institutions through their publications. The aim of this paper was to present a part of the agricultural lexicon (with the accent on the plant species names, as well as the general scientific and organizational terms with the equivalents in Russian - Serbian and Serbian - Russian, which is of the great importance in activities of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, presented through perennial practices of translation. Those terms are recognized as important and frequent, without wishing to go into professional divisions in agriculture as science. This paper is dedicated to the scientists who posses basic linguistic knowledge of Russian language and are starting to use Russian scientific and professional literature in agriculture, as well as students of Russian language for the purpose of establishing and widening linguistic fund.

  5. COMPLEX OF PATHOGENES ON VEGETABLE CROPS IN CONDITION OF CENTRAL REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Timina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of monitoring of causative agents of diseases of vegetable crops and studying of its species specification, the genus and species of fungi and bacteria, were found. Previously unknown in the Central region of Russia pathogens of carrot were identified: Sclerotinia nevales, Gleocladium roseum, Verticillium spp, Trichotecium roseum, Streptomyces scabies, F. nivale, F. chlamidosporum, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, Chaetomium spp., Erysiphe umbelliferum, Erwinia carotovora. Main causative agents of diseases  of carrot during storage were also described: Alternaria infectoria, A. alternatа, A. arborescens, A. radicina, A. cheiranthi, A. corotiincultae, A. cinerariae, Embellisia spp., Nimbia spp., Cladosporium spp. It was found new pathogen for onion (Aspergillus niger, garlic (Fusarium semitectum, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F.avenacium, red beet (Typhula ishikariensis, and radish (Drechslera Bondartseva.

  6. Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Kim P M; Patti, Antonio F; Christen, Evan W; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2010-08-15

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Application and Evaluation of Modified Atmosphere Packaging in Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Aine, (Thesis)

    2003-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to optimise the processing and storage of selected vegetable within the parameters of extended shelf life, time/temperature relationships and sensory quality. The vegetables were selected on the basis of the results of a survey of the Irish vegetable industry. The current literature in the field of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the Irish vegetable industry was reviewed. The current state and future requirements of the Irish vegetable industry was in...

  8. Demand Analysis of Selected Fruits and Vegetables in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior and prospective changes in demand of food product have a significant impact on production and distribution decisions. Consumer responsiveness to changes in prices, income and other demand determinants is very important to production and market decision-makers. The present study estimates demand responses for selected fruits and vegetables in Oman using consumer aggregated national data. The main objective is to generate information needed for making public as well as private decisions. Results indicate that most fruit and vegetable consumers respond to price, and income changes in the expected manner. Responses are different from one commodity to another depending on its nature and importance in the consumer's diet habits. In a few cases income is not a significant determinant of the demand. Moreover, many fruits and vegetables have shown a relationship of substitution and complementary consistent with Omani diet. These results are useful in farmers and distributers to allow them to adjust their production and marketing services according to the consumer’s response.

  9. Marker assisted selection and crop management for salt tolerance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Accepted 4 July, 2011. Salinity is one of the major abiotic constraints for crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas ... INTRODUCTION. Salt tolerance is ... arid and arid climates (Asch et al.,1997) in general, and.

  10. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  11. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  12. Tropospheric Ozone: a Menace for Crops and Natural Vegetation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Saitanis

    Full Text Available Based on instrumental monitoring (AOT40s and phytodetection (with Bel-W3 and KK6/5 tobacco cultivars data we evaluated ambient ozone phytotoxicity in Greece. In the greater region of Mesogia-Attica, during the summer of 2000, the year before the new airport Eleftherios Venizelos (March 2001 began operating in this region, the AOT40s (ppb*h were 16,325 over 110 days at Spata; 18,646 over 113 days at Markopoulo; 8,093 over 22 days at Artemis and 16,679 over 121 days in Athens. The Bel- W3 and KK6/5 plants were extensively injured at all places with the greatest injury occurring at Artemis. During the same summer, ozone was also monitored in three rural areas of Corinth, at the Astronomical Observatory of Krionerion, Bogdani Hill and Kiato; The highest average daily AOT40 (192 ppb*h was observed in Krionerio, and it was almost equal to that occurred in Athens (193 ppb*h. Bel-W3 and KK6/5 plants placed at 11 rural areas in Corinth showed extended injury. The following year (2001, high injury was observed on other sets of bioindicator plants exposed in a network of 28 locations throughout the greater area of Volos and Pelion Mountain. Symptoms were more severe at Mortias, Xinovrisi, Tsagarada, Makrinitsa and Chania. The AOT40 (May-July was 11,391 and 10,351 ppb*hours for 2001 and 2002 respectively. Severe ozone-like symptoms have also been observed on field-cultivated grape vines, onion and watermelon plants. Synoptically, our investigations suggest that ozone occurs in the Greek mainland at levels that are potentially phytotoxic for sensitive crop species and for sensitive natural vegetation species including forest trees.

  13. Hortaliças como alimentos funcionais Vegetable crops as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia G B de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    in association with a more sedentary lifestyle, are responsible for an increase in diet-related diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, hypertension, osteoporosis, and cancer. It is believed that the ingestion of fruits and vegetables helps in the prevention of these diseases. Vegetables are an important component of the diet, usually in association with protein- and starch-rich foods. They are responsible not only for adding variety of color and texture to meals, but also for providing important nutrients. Vegetables are low fat and low calorie foods, with relatively small amounts of protein, but they are rich in carbohydrates and fibers and add significant amounts of micronutrients to the human diet. They are also a source of functional substances, which might benefit one or more physiological functions in the body, besides adequate nutritional effects. Functional elements might play a role in improving health and well-being, as well as reducing the risk of the onset of diet-related diseases. The development of vegetable cultivars with greater amounts of these substances is one of the main goals of modern breeding programs. Many of these programs, working on different vegetables, are currently underway in Brazil and other countries, aiming to improve the amount and variety of carotenoids present in the diet. In the present paper, the main aspects of vegetable crops as functional foods are discussed. The most important achievements of tomato and carrot breeding programs in Brazil aiming to improve the amount and types of functional compounds are also presented.

  14. Water footprint of growing vegetables in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop water footprint (WF) is the volume of fresh water used to produce a certain crop in all the steps in the production line. The CROPWAT model was used to calculate crop evapotranspiration, differentiating green and blue water in Zanyokwe (ZIS), Thabina (TIS) and Tugela Ferry (TFIS) Irrigation Schemes. Green beans ...

  15. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  16. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop-wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL)

  17. Blue and green water use of cultivating selected crops in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Siti Norliyana; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainability of water resources should be a concern parallel to the fast pace of economic development. This study was conducted to estimate the total water consumption of growing 9 crops in Peninsular Malaysia which divided into two category of crops; fruits and vegetables, i.e. mandarin, banana, mango, pineapple, watermelon, cucumber, eggplant, green bean and lettuce. The water footprint of these crops was estimated based on 9 years data of climate and crop (2005-2013). The crop water use was determined using CROPWAT 8.0 model and Penman-Monteith equation. It was found that the green water footprint for cultivating 9 crops was higher compared to blue water footprint. The blue water footprint ranged from 20.97m3/ton to 197.84m3/ton, whereas the green water footprint ranged from 129.8m3/ton to 1586.2m3/ton. Banana has the highest total water footprint (1717.10m3/ton) and the lowest total water footprint was obtained for cucumber (175.07m3/ton). In conclusion, water consumption for cultivating agricultural crops will accelerate the competition on the consumption of clean water with the other sectors. However, the availability of water resource in Peninsular Malaysia is still sufficient to fulfill the demands for water at the present time. Further study should include grey water as well as an indicator for water quality to help in assessing the sustainable, efficient and equitable use of water resources.

  18. Molecular breeding for virus resistance : an applied approach in vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Viral diseases cause significant economic losses in most, if not all, crop species throughout the world. Total cost is not only restricted to reduction in crop yield and quality, but also include the development and application of a wide array of disease control measures. Routinely employed

  19. Drought stress impact on vegetable crop yields in the Elbe River lowland between 1961 and 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potopová, V.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Türkott, L.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Soukup, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 127-143 ISSN 0211-6820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14043; GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index * drought stress * reference evapotranspiration * crop evapotranspiration * crop coefficient * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Emamectin benzoate (Affirm). a modern insecticide for the control of lepidoptera larvae on fruits, grapes and vegetables crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, R; Correia, R; Thomas, C; Decaudin, B; Cisneros, J; Lopez, A

    2010-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.

  1. Comparing Broad-Band and Red Edge-Based Spectral Vegetation Indices to Estimate Nitrogen Concentration of Crops Using Casi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liao, Qinhong; Yang, Guijun; Feng, Haikuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Yue, Jibo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn't show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  2. Use of reflected GNSS SNR data to retrieve either soil moisture or vegetation height from a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate soil moisture and vegetation height from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR data using direct and reflected signals by the land surface surrounding a ground-based antenna. Observations are collected from a rainfed wheat field in southwestern France. Surface soil moisture is retrieved based on SNR phases estimated by the Least Square Estimation method, assuming the relative antenna height is constant. It is found that vegetation growth breaks up the constant relative antenna height assumption. A vegetation-height retrieval algorithm is proposed using the SNR-dominant period (the peak period in the average power spectrum derived from a wavelet analysis of SNR. Soil moisture and vegetation height are retrieved at different time periods (before and after vegetation's significant growth in March. The retrievals are compared with two independent reference data sets: in situ observations of soil moisture and vegetation height, and numerical simulations of soil moisture, vegetation height and above-ground dry biomass from the ISBA (interactions between soil, biosphere and atmosphere land surface model. Results show that changes in soil moisture mainly affect the multipath phase of the SNR data (assuming the relative antenna height is constant with little change in the dominant period of the SNR data, whereas changes in vegetation height are more likely to modulate the SNR-dominant period. Surface volumetric soil moisture can be estimated (R2  =  0.74, RMSE  =  0.009 m3 m−3 when the wheat is smaller than one wavelength (∼ 19 cm. The quality of the estimates markedly decreases when the vegetation height increases. This is because the reflected GNSS signal is less affected by the soil. When vegetation replaces soil as the dominant reflecting surface, a wavelet analysis provides an accurate estimation of the wheat crop height (R2  =  0.98, RMSE  =  6

  3. Back to the Origin: In Situ Studies Are Needed to Understand Selection during Crop Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop domestication has been embraced as a model system to study the genetics of plant evolution. Yet, the role of the environment, including biotic forces such as microbial and insect communities, in contributing to crop phenotypes under domestication and diversification has been poorly explored. In particular, there has been limited progress in understanding how human selection, agricultural cultivation (soil disturbance, fertilization, and irrigation, and biotic forces act as selective pressures on crop phenotypes. For example, geographically-structured pathogenic, pestiferous, and mutualistic interactions with crop plants have likely given rise to landraces that interact differently with local microbial and insect communities. In order to understand the adaptive role of crop traits, we argue that more studies should be conducted in the geographic centers of origin to test hypotheses on how abiotic, biotic, and human selective forces have shaped the phenotypes of domesticated plants during crop domestication and subsequent diversification into landraces. In these centers of origin, locally endemic species associated with wild ancestors have likely contributed to the selection on plant phenotypes. We address a range of questions that can only be studied in the geographic center of crop origin, placing emphasis on Mesoamerican polyculture systems, and highlight the significance of in situ studies for increasing the sustainability of modern agricultural systems.

  4. Use of novel DNA fingerprinting techniques for the detection and characterization of genetic variation in vegetatively propagated crops. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Vegetative propagated crops, such as banana and platain, sweet potato, yam, sugarcane and cassava, represent important sources of food in the developing countries. Although some of these crops may produce seeds, they must for practical purposes be propagated vegetatively. As normal plant breeding strategies based on genetic hybridization are of limited value or not applicable to such crops, it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity already existing in these crops and to design breeding strategies accordingly. If the existing genetic variation is shown to be too narrow for breeding purposes, one promising possibility for the introduction of genetic variability is the use of mutations induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. This CRP focused on: the detection of genetic diversity induced by mutagenic treatment or in vitro culture; the development of crop-specific markers; and increasing co-operation between molecular biologists in advanced laboratories and plant breeders and molecular biologists in the developing countries. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the introduction and application of new molecular methods by laboratories in developing countries, specially for the analysis of local crop genetic diversity. These exciting preliminary results show the potential for applications in crop improvement but much work remains to be done. Many of the vegetatively propagated species are ''orphan crops'', under-investigated on the international level. The development of new uses of transgenesis for the development of edible vaccines should not be overlooked. The challenge that remains is in the application of these new tools for practical end-user oriented improvements in vegetatively propagated crops. The present publication summarizes the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Novel DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for the Detection and Characterization of Genetic Variation in Vegetatively Propagated Crops

  5. Use of novel DNA fingerprinting techniques for the detection and characterization of genetic variation in vegetatively propagated crops. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Vegetative propagated crops, such as banana and platain, sweet potato, yam, sugarcane and cassava, represent important sources of food in the developing countries. Although some of these crops may produce seeds, they must for practical purposes be propagated vegetatively. As normal plant breeding strategies based on genetic hybridization are of limited value or not applicable to such crops, it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity already existing in these crops and to design breeding strategies accordingly. If the existing genetic variation is shown to be too narrow for breeding purposes, one promising possibility for the introduction of genetic variability is the use of mutations induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. This CRP focused on: the detection of genetic diversity induced by mutagenic treatment or in vitro culture; the development of crop-specific markers; and increasing co-operation between molecular biologists in advanced laboratories and plant breeders and molecular biologists in the developing countries. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the introduction and application of new molecular methods by laboratories in developing countries, specially for the analysis of local crop genetic diversity. These exciting preliminary results show the potential for applications in crop improvement but much work remains to be done. Many of the vegetatively propagated species are ``orphan crops``, under-investigated on the international level. The development of new uses of transgenesis for the development of edible vaccines should not be overlooked. The challenge that remains is in the application of these new tools for practical end-user oriented improvements in vegetatively propagated crops. The present publication summarizes the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Novel DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for the Detection and Characterization of Genetic Variation in Vegetatively Propagated Crops Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  7. GENETIC RESOURCES OF ROOT VEGETABLES CROPS IN CENTRAL REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Yudaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the research carried out in 2013-2016, the viability and originality of 1157 accessions of root vegetables have been preserved. 250 breeding accessions of carrot, beetroot and radish have been assessed for different economically valuable traits in open field and laboratory tests. Out of them, 65 accessions were selected out as sources of economically valuable traits. The early-maturing accessions of radish, such as ‘Korsar’, ‘Francuzsky Zavtrak’, ‘Mikhnevsky 1’, ‘18 Dney’, ‘Koroleva Margo’, ‘Polyna’, ‘Rozovo-Krasny s Belym Konchikom’, ‘Sofit’, ‘Kvarta’, ‘Saksa’, ‘Variant’ were regarded. The carrot accessions, such as ‘Scarlet’, ‘Koroleva Oseni’, ‘Dlinnaya Krasnaya’ were distinguished as sources of high yield capacity. The sources of high root yield in beetroot were varieties: ‘Valenta’, ‘Mestnaya iz Madagaskara’, Goldiers Super Black Beet, Zwaans Early Red Chief. The long shelf-life during wintertime was observed in beetroot varieties: ‘Slowiblot’, ‘Valenta’, ‘Lomarina’. The varieties: ‘Nevezhes’, ‘Neger Schwarz Halblange’, ‘Goldiers Super Black Beet’ were distinguished by high root marketability. With the use of world plant collection at VIR, the following varieties of root vegetables: ‘Dar Podmoskovya’ in carrot; ‘Osennya Princessa’ in beetroot; ‘Mikhnevskiy 1 ‘in garden radish; ‘Osenniy Krasavets’ in daikon; ‘Albina’ in root parsley; ‘Atlant’ in parsnip; Moscowskiy Krasavets in celery, and ‘Oseniya Udacha’ in wild radish were developed. It was also shown those varieties that had high yield capacity and root marketability were distinguished by small epidermal cell structure and large number of stomata per unit of leaf surface. It may be supposed that the large number of stomata per unit of leaf surface and small epidermal cell structure was the evidence of adaptive capacity of accessions taken for the study. 

  8. Selectivity and stability of vegetation-applied herbicides in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An experiment was carried out during 2013 – 2015 in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan, with two cotton cultivars − Helius and Darmi (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Herbicides: Goal 2 E, oxyfluorfen (80 ml/da; Linuron 45 SC, linuron (200 ml/da; Wing-P, pendimethalin + dimethenamid (400 ml/da; Merlin 750 WG, isoxaflutol (5 g/da; Bazagran 480 SL, bentazone (150 ml/da were investigated. They were treated separately or combined with growth regulator Amalgerol (500 ml/da or foliar fertilizer Lactofol O (500 ml/da in the budding stage of the cotton. It was established that selectivity is the lowest in the two cotton cultivars with herbicides Linuron 45 CK and Merlin 750 WG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides and their tank mixtures on the cotton by influence of different meteorological conditions. It has been found that the highest phytotoxicity on cotton is given the vegetation-applied herbicides Merlin and Linuron. Foliar fertilizer Laktofol O reduces phytotoxicity of herbicides Goal, Wing, Merlin and Bazagran in two cotton cultivars. Herbicides Wing and Bazagran have excellent selectivity for the two cotton cultivars – Helius and Darmi. The highest yield was obtained by vegetation treatment with herbicide Bazagran, followed by herbicides Wing and Goal. Tank mixtures of Goal, Bazagran and Wing with Laktofol, followed by those with Amalgerol are technologically the most valuable. They combine high yield with high stability over the years. Аlone application of herbicides Linuron and Merlin and their tank mixtures with Amalgerol and Laktofol have low estimate.

  9. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  11. Assessment of pest and pesticide trends in vegetable crops in united arab emirates and sultanate of oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waakeh, W.; Aldahmani, J.H.; Deadman, M.L.; Saadi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary survey on pesticide uses in 40 vegetable-growing farms representing different agricultural areas in Oman and the UAE, twenty farms from each country, revealed that all the vegetable farms used pesticides for crop protection. Among the major insect-pests, white flies (Bemisia tabaci), leafminers (Liriomyza trifolii), melon fruit flies (Bactrocera ciliatus), aphids (Aphis spp.) and tobacco leafworm (Spodoptera litteralis) were recorded in Omani farms. In the UAE, white flies, leafminers, cutworms (Agrotis ypsilan), tomato fruitworms (Helicoverpa armigera) and eggplant fruitworms (Leucinodes orbonalis) were the 5 top insect-pests. Among the plant diseases, powdery mildew (Erysiphe spp.), blight (Alternaria spp.), damping off (Pythium spp.), leafspot (Alternaria spp.) and mosaic (CMV) Were major cause of vegetable diseases in Omani farms; whereas, damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum), downy mildew (Pseudoperonspora cubensis), early blight (Alternaria solani), septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici) and anthracnose rip rot (colletotrichum spp.) were the most predominant diseases encountered in most UAE farms. Among the most commonly used pesticides, 29 insecticides, 16 fungicides and 3 herbicides were used by the vegetable farmers. Around 55% of Omani farms used routine application of pesticides, irrespective of the pest presence. Whereas, in the UAE, most farmers started to spray pesticides at 6-20% pest (insect, disease and weeds) infection. Over 65 of the farms, in both the countries, received chemical pest management information from the sales representatives. (author)

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  13. Studies on the injuries of crops by harmful gases under covering. I. Injuries of vegetables by gaseous nitrogen dioxide and the conditions affecting crop susceptibility. [Eggplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T; Tachibana, S; Inden, T

    1974-09-01

    The effects of environmental conditions such as soil-moisture humidity, and light on injuries to crops such as kidney bean, cucumber, tomato, and egg plant as well as the relationships between injury occurrence and plant nutrition, age of seedlings, and leaf position were investigated when the crops were exposed to gaseous nitrogen dioxide under a covering. The injury was severer when the soil moisture was richer and the humidity was higher. Injury was greater under dark conditions as opposed to light conditions before, during, and after NO/sub 2/ exposure. The first leaves of kidney bean plants were more susceptible to the gas when they were younger. Leaves with active metabolism (in the middle position) were the most susceptible to NO/sub 2/. Vegetables grown in fields or cultures poor in nitrogen were apparently susceptible to the gas, and those grown in ammonia-nitrogen rich cultures were more severely injured than those grown on nitrate-nitrogen rich cultures. Those grown in iron-deficient cultures were more susceptible to NO/sub 2/ than controls.

  14. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    Higher plants, as one of the essential biological components of CELSS, can supply food, oxygen and water for human crews during future long-duration space missions and Lunar/Mars habitats. In order to select suitable leaf vegetable varieties for our CELSS Experimental Facility (CEF), five varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng”, “Naichoutai”, “Dongfangkaixuan” and “Siji”), two of spinach (“Daye” and “Quanneng”), one of rape (“Jingyou No. 1”) and one of common sowthistle were grown and compared on the basis of edible biomass, and nutrient content. In addition, two series of experiments were conducted to study single leaf photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates at 30 days after planting, one which used various concentrations of CO2 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol mol-1) and another which used various light intensities (100, 300, 500 and 700 μmol m-2 s-1). Results showed that lettuce cvs. “Nenlvnaiyou”, “Siji” and “Dasusheng” produced higher yields of edible biomass; common sowthisle would be a good source of β-carotene for the diet. Based on the collective findings, we selected three varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng” and “Siji”) and one of common sowthistle as the candidate crops for further research in our CEF. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration increased the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and elevated light intensity increased the rate of photosynthesis for these varieties. These results can be useful for determining optimal conditions for controlling CO2 and water fluxes between the crops and the overall CELSS.

  15. Influence of seasoning on vegetable selection, liking and intent to purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Joanna; Phillips, Carter; Ellison, Brenna; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2017-09-01

    Low vegetable intake continues to be a health concern, and strategies to increase vegetable intake have resulted in only small increases. One strategy that has received less attention is the use of seasonings. This study's objective was to determine the impact of seasoning on vegetable selection, liking, and intent to purchase. We conducted a 3-week study in a public café on a university campus. Customers buying a main dish could select a vegetable side (seasoned [SS] or steamed [ST]) at no cost. Based on café data and power analysis (alpha 0.05, 80% power), 2 days per vegetable pair were conducted with carrot, broccoli, and green bean pairs randomized 3 days/week 1 and 3, with normal service week 2. Selection was greater for SS vs ST, n = 335 vs. 143 for all 3 vegetables combined; n = 97 vs 47 for carrots; n = 114 vs. 55 for broccoli; n = 124 vs. 41 for green beans (p purchase the vegetable that they selected. More customers chose the 'somewhat likely' and 'very likely' (n = 353) than the 'not likely' and 'definitely would not' (n = 121) purchase responses. Regression showed that people who did not often consume a vegetable with lunch while dining out were 1.59 times more likely to select the SS vegetables over the ST (p = 0.007). Given a choice, consumers were more likely to select a seasoned vegetable. With low vegetable consumption as a predictor of seasoned vegetable choice, offering seasoned vegetables may increase intake in those with poor vegetable intake in a café setting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Constraints to obtaining consistent annual yields in perennial tree crops. I: Heavy fruit load dominates over vegetative growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harley M; Samach, Alon

    2013-06-01

    Farmers lack effective methods to achieve and maintain stable production from year to year in many commercial fruit crops. Annual fruit yield within a region often alternates between high and low fruit load and is termed alternate bearing. The underlying cause of alternate bearing is the negative impact of high fruit load on vegetative growth and next year's flowering. In this review, we emphasize common responses of diverse perennials to heavy crop load. We present botanical, ecological and horticultural perspectives on irregular bearing. The later part of this review focuses on understanding how high fruit load dominates over vegetative growth. We discuss sink strengths and putative mobile signals (hormones), perhaps seed-derived. We highlight gaps in current understanding of alternate bearing, and discuss new approaches to better understand fruit load dominance. Assuming the effect of high fruit load may be related to other mechanisms of sink partitioning, other forms of dominance are presented such as apical, first fruit and king fruit dominance. Dominance seems to be enforced, in independent cases through the establishment of a polar auxin transport system from the stronger sink. Once established this somehow perturbs the transport of auxin out of weaker sinks. Possibly, fruit derived auxin may alter the polar auxin transport system of the shoot to inhibit shoot growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple algorithm to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation biomass using passive microwave measurements over crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigneron, J.P.; Chanzy, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Bruguier, N.

    1995-01-01

    A simple algorithm to retrieve sail moisture and vegetation water content from passive microwave measurements is analyzed in this study. The approach is based on a zeroth-order solution of the radiative transfer equations in a vegetation layer. In this study, the single scattering albedo accounts for scattering effects and two parameters account for the dependence of the optical thickness on polarization, incidence angle, and frequency. The algorithm requires only ancillary information about crop type and surface temperature. Retrievals of the surface parameters from two radiometric data sets acquired over a soybean and a wheat crop have been attempted. The model parameters have been fitted in order to achieve best match between measured and retrieved surface data. The results of the inversion are analyzed for different configurations of the radiometric observations: one or several look angles, L-band, C-band or (L-band and C-band). Sensitivity of the retrievals to the best fit values of the model parameters has also been investigated. The best configurations, requiring simultaneous measurements at L- and C-band, produce retrievals of soil moisture and biomass with a 15% estimated precision (about 0.06 m 3 /m 3 for soil moisture and 0.3 kg/m 2 for biomass) and exhibit a limited sensitivity to the best fit parameters. (author)

  18. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H

    2005-01-01

    After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing.

  19. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; Wiel, van de, C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tienderen, van, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop?wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selectiv...

  20. Selectivity of pesticides used in rice crop on Telenomus podisi and Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    Pazini,Juliano de Bastos; Grützmacher,Anderson Dionei; Martins,José Francisco da Silva; Pasini,Rafael Antônio; Rakes,Matheus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Telenomus and Trichogramma species stand out as agents for the biological control in rice crops, and the main strategy for preserving them is the use of selective pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of pesticides used in irrigated rice crop on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Adults of these parasitoids were exposed to dry residues of pesticides, in a completely randomized exp...

  1. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on Historically Contaminated Orchard Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. McBride

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of Pb and As into vegetables grown on orchard soils historically contaminated by Pb arsenate pesticides was measured in the greenhouse. Lettuce, carrots, green beans, and tomatoes were grown on soils containing a range of total Pb (16.5–915 mg/kg and As (6.9–211 mg/kg concentrations. The vegetables were acid-digested and analyzed for total Pb and As using ICP-mass spectrometry. Vegetable contamination was dependent on soil total Pb and As concentrations, pH, and vegetable species. Arsenic concentrations were the highest in lettuce and green beans, lower in carrots, and much lower in tomato fruit. Transfer of Pb into lettuce and beans was generally lower than that of As, and Pb and As were strongly excluded from tomato fruit. Soil metal concentrations as high as 400 mg/kg Pb and 100 mg/kg As produced vegetables with concentrations of Pb and As below the limits of international health standards.

  2. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The

  3. Analysis of Selected Environmental Indicators in the Cultivation System of Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltysová Božena Š

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of selected chemical parameters were observed in Gleyic Fluvisols. The field experiment was established as a twofactor experiment with four energy crops (Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus, Elymus elongatus Gaertner, Sida hermafrodita and two variants of fertilization (nitrogen fertilization in rate 60 kg ha-1, without nitrogen fertilization. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 0.3 m at the beginning of the experiment in the autumn 2012 and at the end of reference period in the autumn 2015. Land management conversion from market crops to perennial energy crops cultivation has influenced changes of selected soil chemical parameters. The contents of soil organic carbon were affected by cultivated energy crops differently. It was found out that Arundo increased the organic carbon content and Miscanthus, Elymus and Sida decreased its content. At the same time, the same impact of the crops on content of available phosphorus and potassium and soil reaction was found. It was recorded that each cultivated crop decreased the soil reaction and available phosphorus content and increased the content of available potassium.

  4. Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran populations from selected crops of district faisalabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalik, S.; Rana, S.A.; Khan, H.A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopterans are represented by one of the most diverse group of insects. They are phytophagous as well as pollinators at the same time. During present study four crops i.e Wheat, Fodder, Brassica and Vegetables were sampled to assess the diversity and abundance of Lepidopteran populations. A total of 2811 specimens belonging to 14 species and 6 families were recorded. Pieris brassicae (29.46%) was the dominant species followed by Trichoplusia ni (19.28%), Helicoverpa Zea (11.78%), Helicoverpa armigera (11.60%), Spodoptera exigua (6.65%), Psedoplusia includes (5.09%), Spodoptera litura (3.81%), Agrotis ipsilon (4.87%), Plutella xylostella (2.92%), Lymatria dispar (2.24%), Pieris rapae (0.92%), Galleria mellonella (0.71%), Evergestris rimosalis (0.53%) and Menduca sexta (0.14%). Significant differences were observed among different crops by applying Shannon Diversity Index and T- test. CA (Cluster analysis) represented the species association with different crops. Majority of the species showed association with Vegetables and Fodder and least association was observed with Wheat. Such types of studies are necessary to design integrated pest management programs to control these pests. (author)

  5. An improved UHPLC-UV method for separation and quantification of carotenoids in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Megan M; Mein, Jonathan R; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Constant, Howard L

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoid identification and quantitation is critical for the development of improved nutrition plant varieties. Industrial analysis of carotenoids is typically carried out on multiple crops with potentially thousands of samples per crop, placing critical needs on speed and broad utility of the analytical methods. Current chromatographic methods for carotenoid analysis have had limited industrial application due to their low throughput, requiring up to 60 min for complete separation of all compounds. We have developed an improved UHPLC-UV method that resolves all major carotenoids found in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The chromatographic method is completed in 13.5 min allowing for the resolution of the 11 carotenoids of interest, including the structural isomers lutein/zeaxanthin and α-/β-carotene. Additional minor carotenoids have also been separated and identified with this method, demonstrating the utility of this method across major commercial food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloud decision model for selecting sustainable energy crop based on linguistic intuitionistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Gang; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, sustainable energy crop has become an important energy development strategy topic in many countries. Selecting the most sustainable energy crop is a significant problem that must be addressed during any biofuel production process. The focus of this study is the development of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method to handle sustainable energy crop selection problems. Given that various uncertain data are encountered in the evaluation of sustainable energy crops, linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (LIFNs) are introduced to present the information necessary to the evaluation process. Processing qualitative concepts requires the effective support of reliable tools; then, a cloud model can be used to deal with linguistic intuitionistic information. First, LIFNs are converted and a novel concept of linguistic intuitionistic cloud (LIC) is proposed. The operations, score function and similarity measurement of the LICs are defined. Subsequently, the linguistic intuitionistic cloud density-prioritised weighted Heronian mean operator is developed, which served as the basis for the construction of an applicable MCDM model for sustainable energy crop selection. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the proposed method, and its feasibility and validity are further verified by comparing it with other existing methods.

  7. Response of nutrients, minerals, antioxidant leaf pigments, vitamins, polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity in selected vegetable amaranth under four soil water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Umakanta; Oba, Shinya

    2018-06-30

    Four selected vegetable amaranths were grown under four soil water content to evaluate their response in nutrients, minerals, antioxidant leaf pigments, vitamins, polyphenol, flavonoid and total antioxidant activity (TAC). Vegetable amaranth was significantly affected by variety, soil water content and variety × soil water content interactions for all the traits studied. Increase in water stress, resulted in significant changes in proximate compositions, minerals (macro and micro), leaf pigments, vitamin, total polyphenol content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of vegetable amaranth. Accessions VA14 and VA16 performed better for all the traits studied. Correlation study revealed a strong antioxidant scavenging activity of leaf pigments, ascorbic acid, TPC and TFC. Vegetable amaranth can tolerate soil water stress without compromising the high quality of the final product in terms of nutrients and antioxidant profiles. Therefore, it could be a promising alternative crop in semi-arid and dry areas and also during dry seasons. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Pest and disease management of soilless culture [vegetable and ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilfried Schnitzler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Any soilless cropping system requires a continuous supply of water and nutrient solution in open or closed circulation. Technical set-up of open systems is simple and spread of root infesting pathogens is limited, but excessive nutrient solution run-off causes environmental hazards. Recirculating nutrient solution has ecological benefits but asks for exact crop management. Under certain conditions, pathogens can spread to endanger the crop. Nevertheless, today only closed systems should be considered. There are quite a number of different technologies available with more or less risks of plant root system damage due to pathogens. The choice of substrates for soilless cultivation is extensive, but they have always to be free of pathogens when applied first. When reused, they must be disinfected. Most destructive are phytopathogenic fungi, such as Pythium, Phytophthora and Olpidium, followed by viruses, bacteria and nematodes. Early on, the grower should take care to transplant healthy seedlings to avoid problems from the start. Also greenhouse structures can serve as infection sources as well as surface water for irrigation. Soilless cultivation has the huge advantage to optimize growing factors like temperature, water, pH and nutrients according to the plant need to reduce stress. Large operations with monocrops may choose sterilization of irrigation water. A number of practical options is available, chemicals (ozone, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, iodine), UV irradiation, heating, membrane and slow- or bio-filtration. Biological control of root infesting pathogens offers very interesting new approaches, e.g. Bacillus subtilis strains, Streptomyces, Trichoderma, non-pathogenic Fusarium and V-micorrhiza strains besides fluorescent pseudomonads [it

  9. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  10. TO 135TH ANNIVERSARY FROM THE DATE OF BIRTH OF ZHEGALOV S.I. – AN ESTABLISHER OF NATIONAL SCHOOL FOR BREEDING AND SEED INDUSTRY OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Pivovarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the second of October, in 1881, Sergey Ivanovich Zhegalov, an establisher of national breeding and seed production of vegetable crops was born in a little village Vasilkovo of Vyazemskogo uezda. He was a founder and a first director of Gribovskaya Vegetable Breeding Station. This year marked by 135th anniversary from the date of birth of the outstanding scientist. All the time at All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Breeding and Seed Production (VNIISSOK, its scientific leader and mastermind is honored and remembered for his heritage that is still preserved andaugmented. This scientist was at the beginning of plant breeding science and became the first who brought scientifically proved methods into agricultural plant science. The process of newplant- form-producing and development of new more qualified breeding forms through distant crossing, hybridization, heterosis effect, are the problems which interested the mind of Zhegalov and always were the sense of his life. These problems still remain in these days, where his ideas are embodied in scientific program of the institute covering theoretical researches for development of innovation method needed for creation of new highly qualified breeding plant material regarded as a source for nearest breeding practice and seed production. At VNIISSOK the richest plant collection with important genes and donor genotypes of productivity, fast ripening, high quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses is created in Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae,Alliaceae, Fabaceae, root vegetables, Brassicas, leafy crops, aromatic and medicinal crops and ornamental crops. Core plant collection is substantially extending by means of introduction of new crops and non-traditional ones as well. The specialist-breeders of VNIISSOK have developed over 800 cultivars and hybrids F1 of vegetables, melons and gourds, aromatic plants, ornamental plants, non-traditional. 546 accessions out of 118 crops have been included

  11. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alvin M; Shaaban, Abd-Rabou

    2011-08-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Vegetation Cover Changes in Selected Pastoral Villages in Mkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arid and semi-arid savannah ecosystems of Tanzania are subjected to increasing pressure from pastoral land-use systems. A spatial temporal study involving analysis of satellite imageries and range surveys was carried out to determine the effects of high stocking levels on savannah vegetation cover types in Mkata plains.

  13. The development of (new) in vivo and in vitro techniques of significance for mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1975-01-01

    Mutation breeding in vegetatively propagated plants is of great potential value 1) to improve the leading results of cross-breeding by altering one or a few important characters, without the rest of the genotype, 2) to induce variability where none is existing or difficult to be introduced in highly developed species and 3) to induce variability in sterile crops or in apomicts. One of the main stumbling-blocks is the chimera formation following the irradiation of the multicellular apices in buds and the subsequent prolonged time and increased labour needed before a mutation can be detected, recovered and compared with the existing cultivars. This problem can be solved by producing plants, ultimately originating from one mutated cell, resulting in solid mutants. The in vivo adventitious bud technique, using detached leaves, has proven its value for mutation breeding. It has been demonstrated in several species that commercial results can be obtained in a relatively short time. Experiments are underway to study the factors which control the process of adventitious bud formation and to make more crops accessible to this method. So far, however, with little success. Many and increasingly more crops can be propagated clonally by in vitro methods, using plant parts (explants of leaves, flowers, flower stalk), callus or other plant material. In some cases it is expected that adventitious plantlets also will originate from one cell. In other cases it is to be investigated which method is of potential value for being used in a mutation breeding programme. In a cooperative project (C. Broertjes, S. Roest and Miss G.S. Bokelmann) it is under investigation which plant part (young flowerheads, flower stalks and leaves) is to be preferred in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Preliminary results will be presented at the meeting. (author)

  14. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop-wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop-wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar-wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability.

  15. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL)

  16. Catch the Best: Novel Screening Strategy to Select Stress Protecting Agents for Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Zachow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change increases stress levels for crops and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. The application of stress tolerance-mediating microorganisms is an auspicious strategy for improving crop protection, and as such, we developed a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from promising bioresources using the bait plants, maize, oilseed rape, sorghum and sugar beet. Alpine mosses, lichens and primrose were selected as bioresources, as each is adapted to adverse environmental conditions. A 10% crop-specific selection was found for bait plant rhizosphere communities using cultivation-independent fingerprints, and their potential role as stress protecting agents (SPA was evaluated following the cultivation of captured bacteria. In addition to assays identifying phytopathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion capacities, our evaluation included those that test the ability to allocate nutrients. Moreover, we developed new assays to measure tolerance in diverse stress conditions. A score scheme was applied to select SPAs with desired properties, and three Pseudomonas species with pronounced antagonistic activity that showed elevated tolerance to desiccation and an improved seed germination rate were subsequently chosen. Screening for environmentally-conditioned and host-adapted microorganisms provides a novel tool for target-oriented exploitation of microbial bioresources for the management of ecofriendly crops facing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  17. A GIS TOOL TO EVALUATE THE SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF HYDRO-THERMIC FEATURES DURING GROWING SEASON OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN ELBE RIVER LOWLAND (POLABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA POTOP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A GIS tool to evaluate the spatial evolution of hydro-thermic features during growing season of vegetable crops in Elbe River lowland (Polabi. This article presents the results of the first study on combined mezoclimatological, microclimatological and topographical tools for evaluating precision farming in the growth of vegetable crops in the Elbe River lowland (Polabi region from the Czech Republic. We assess the variability of basically climatological characteristics in relation to topographic characteristics at the regional (Polabi and local (agricultural farm scales. At regional scale, interpolation approach is based on local linear regression and universal kriging interpolation. At local scale, two conventional interpolation methods, spline and local ordinary kriging with a Gaussian model variance across the fields, were applied. The local spline interpolators have been used in developing digital elevation models (DEMs and to determine the slope angle inclination of vegetable fields. The DEMs of the vegetable crops fields was developed at a 10 m x 10 m resolution based on elevation data collected in the field by a hand-held RTK- Global Positioning System receiver. This tool allowed the distinction of microclimatic conditions that produce altitude-slope-related patterns of the spatial-temporal distribution of the basic meteorological elements during growing season of vegetable crops. The effect of slope on diurnal extreme temperatures in the vegetable cropped field conditions was more pronounced than that of elevation. Accordingly to developed maps, the warmest and longest duration of sunshine, and the least precipitation totals during growing season occurred in the middle part of Polabi.

  18. Trace elements analysis of crops and vegetables grown around industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala cities using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Subhan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial effluents pollution is a source of risk to the health of people living in industrial cities of Pakistan. Most of the untreated effluents are discharged to the nearby agricultural fields that pollutes the vegetation grown in such soil. A majority of the industries are not equipped with suitable recycling and effluent treatment plants. Consequently, toxic metals enter our food chain and results in significant health risks and serious diseases. In order to evaluate the concentration of toxic metals (namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se), in crops and vegetable samples collected from the irrigated areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) techniques have been used. All the observed metal concentrations were higher than the reported literature values. Moreover, the highest values of toxic metals of As (0.44 +- .03 mu g/g) and Co (0.5 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Mn (45.3 +- 2.0 mu g/g) and Sb (0.1 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Se (1.28 +- 0.06 mug/g) and Pb (3.84 +- 0.27 mu g/g) were found in tomato, bitter gourd and rice samples respectively. (author)

  19. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  20. Some fungal endophytes from vegetable crops and their anti-oomycete activities against tomato late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-Y; Choi, G J; Lee, H B; Lee, S-W; Lim, H K; Jang, K S; Son, S W; Lee, S O; Cho, K Y; Sung, N D; Kim, J-C

    2007-03-01

    To isolate endophytic fungi from vegetable plants and examine their in vivo anti-oomycete activity against Phytophthora infestans in tomato plants. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues and anti-oomycete activity was measured by in vivo assay using tomato seedlings. Endophytic fungi showing potent anti-oomycete activity were identified by morphological characteristics and nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence analysis. A total of 152 isolates were obtained from 66 healthy tissue samples of cucumber, red pepper, tomato, pumpkin and Chinese cabbage and the fermentation broths of 23 isolates showed potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight with control values over 90%. The Fusarium oxysporum strain EF119, which was isolated from roots of red pepper, showed the most potent disease control efficacy against tomato late blight. In dual-culture tests, it inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, P. infestans and Phytophthora capsici. Among endophytic fungi isolated from healthy tissues of vegetable plants, F. oxysporum EF119 showed the most potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight and in vitro anti-oomycete activity against several oomycete pathogens. Endophytic fungi showing anti-oomycete activity in vitro and in vivo may be used as biocontrol agents particularly of tomato late blight.

  1. Incorporation of transuranics into vegetable and field crops grown at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Leavitt, V.D.; Beckert, W.F.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Radish, lettuce, barley, and alfalfa plants were grown from seeds in undisturbed soil in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site to determine the uptake of transuranics under field conditions. The plants were grown in small greenhouses erected over the soil to preclude aerial deposition of resuspended transuranics on the growing plants. The crops were irrigated during the growing season with either distilled water, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in distilled water, fertilizer in distilled water, or a combination of DTPA and fertilizer in distilled water. The plutonium and americium contents of the harvested plants showed differences which are mostly attributable to the effects of the treatments and the resulting changes in soil pH during the experiment

  2. New poleroviruses associated with yellowing symptoms in different vegetable crops in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotos, L; Maliogka, V I; Katis, N I

    2016-02-01

    Four poleroviral isolates from Greece, two from lettuce, one from spinach and one from watermelon showing yellowing symptoms, were molecularly characterized by analyzing the sequence of a large part of the genome spanning from the 3'-terminal part of the RdRp to the end of the CP gene. The sequences were analyzed for their similarity and phylogenetic relationships to other members of the genus Polerovirus as well as for evidence of recombination events. The results revealed the existence of two putatively new viruses: one from lettuce and one from spinach, provisionally named "lettuce yellows virus" and "spinach yellows virus", respectively. Also, a new recombinant virus infecting lettuce, herein named "lettuce mild yellows virus", and a watermelon isolate of pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) were identified. Our study highlights the existence of high genetic diversity within the genus Polerovirus, which could be associated with the emergence of new viral diseases in various crops worldwide.

  3. Chinantec shifting cultivation : InTERAcTIVE landuse : a case-study in the Chinantla, Mexico, on secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance under indigenous shifting cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.

    1999-01-01

    The development of secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance was studied in local variants of shifting cultivation in two villages in the Chinantla, Mexico. In Chapter 1, the institutional, social and political context of the research are presented and the reader is advertised that

  4. Evidence for the role of an invasive weed in widespread occurrence of phytoplasmal diseases in diverse vegetable crops: implications from lineage-specific molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the period from 2011 to 2013, several plant diseases repeatedly occurred in vegetable crops grown in Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province, China. Affected plants included cowpea, sword bean, string bean, tomato, lettuce, and water spinach. The diseased plants exhibited symptoms of witches’-broom...

  5. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization for Root-Knot Nematode Control in Vegetable and Ornamental Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions...

  6. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. The 2005 and 2012 major drought events in Iberia: monitoring vegetation dynamics and crop yields using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    large sectors of Iberia for up to seven months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. While in the case of the drought episode of 2005 the impact on vegetation covered roughly 2/3 of the Iberian Peninsula (Gouveia et al., 2012), whereas in the recent episode of 2012 the deficit in greenness affected a more restrictive area located in central Iberia. The vegetation response to water stress was also analysed and compared for different land cover types. Results revealed a stronger vulnerability to drought events for arable land with severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat), for Portugal and Spain in both years, however slightly less severe for 2012. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor vegetation stress and droughts in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Gouveia C., Trigo R. M., and DaCamara C. C., 2009: Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 185-195, doi:10.5194/nhess-9-185- 2009. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., 2012: Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-3123-2012. Hoerling M., Eischeid J., Perlwitz J., Quan X., Zhang T., Pegion P., 2012: On the Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought. J. Climate, 25, 2146-2161. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00296.1 Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen

  8. Goals and hurdles for a successful implementation of genomic selection in breeding programme for selected annual and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk Jan

    Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed. Efforts to find solutions for a better prediction and integration of environmental influences need to continue within applied breeding schemes. Goals of the implementation of genomic selection into crop breeding should be carefully defined and crop breeders in the private sector will play a substantial part in the decision-making process. However, the lack of published results from studies within, or in collaboration with, private companies diminishes the knowledge on the status of genomic selection within applied breeding programmes. Studies on the implementation of genomic selection in plant breeding need to evaluate models and methods with an enhanced emphasis on population-specific requirements and production environments. Adaptation of methods to breeding schemes or changes to breeding programmes for a better integration of genomic selection strategies are needed across species. More openness with a continuous exchange will contribute to successes.

  9. Island-Model Genomic Selection for Long-Term Genetic Improvement of Autogamous Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Yamasaki, Masanori; Ebana, Kaworu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acceleration of genetic improvement of autogamous crops such as wheat and rice is necessary to increase cereal production in response to the global food crisis. Population and pedigree methods of breeding, which are based on inbred line selection, are used commonly in the genetic improvement of autogamous crops. These methods, however, produce a few novel combinations of genes in a breeding population. Recurrent selection promotes recombination among genes and produces novel combinations of genes in a breeding population, but it requires inaccurate single-plant evaluation for selection. Genomic selection (GS), which can predict genetic potential of individuals based on their marker genotype, might have high reliability of single-plant evaluation and might be effective in recurrent selection. To evaluate the efficiency of recurrent selection with GS, we conducted simulations using real marker genotype data of rice cultivars. Additionally, we introduced the concept of an "island model" inspired by evolutionary algorithms that might be useful to maintain genetic variation through the breeding process. We conducted GS simulations using real marker genotype data of rice cultivars to evaluate the efficiency of recurrent selection and the island model in an autogamous species. Results demonstrated the importance of producing novel combinations of genes through recurrent selection. An initial population derived from admixture of multiple bi-parental crosses showed larger genetic gains than a population derived from a single bi-parental cross in whole cycles, suggesting the importance of genetic variation in an initial population. The island-model GS better maintained genetic improvement in later generations than the other GS methods, suggesting that the island-model GS can utilize genetic variation in breeding and can retain alleles with small effects in the breeding population. The island-model GS will become a new breeding method that enhances the potential of genomic

  10. Island-Model Genomic Selection for Long-Term Genetic Improvement of Autogamous Crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    Full Text Available Acceleration of genetic improvement of autogamous crops such as wheat and rice is necessary to increase cereal production in response to the global food crisis. Population and pedigree methods of breeding, which are based on inbred line selection, are used commonly in the genetic improvement of autogamous crops. These methods, however, produce a few novel combinations of genes in a breeding population. Recurrent selection promotes recombination among genes and produces novel combinations of genes in a breeding population, but it requires inaccurate single-plant evaluation for selection. Genomic selection (GS, which can predict genetic potential of individuals based on their marker genotype, might have high reliability of single-plant evaluation and might be effective in recurrent selection. To evaluate the efficiency of recurrent selection with GS, we conducted simulations using real marker genotype data of rice cultivars. Additionally, we introduced the concept of an "island model" inspired by evolutionary algorithms that might be useful to maintain genetic variation through the breeding process. We conducted GS simulations using real marker genotype data of rice cultivars to evaluate the efficiency of recurrent selection and the island model in an autogamous species. Results demonstrated the importance of producing novel combinations of genes through recurrent selection. An initial population derived from admixture of multiple bi-parental crosses showed larger genetic gains than a population derived from a single bi-parental cross in whole cycles, suggesting the importance of genetic variation in an initial population. The island-model GS better maintained genetic improvement in later generations than the other GS methods, suggesting that the island-model GS can utilize genetic variation in breeding and can retain alleles with small effects in the breeding population. The island-model GS will become a new breeding method that enhances the

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Feifei; Jiang Rongfeng; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo; Su Fang

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used. N 2 O emissions occurred intermittently in the growing season, strongly correlating with N fertilization and irrigation. No peak emissions were observed after fertilization in the late Autumn season due to low soil temperature. 57-94% of the seasonal N 2 O emissions came from the initial growth stage, corresponding to the rewetting process in the soil. The annual N 2 O emissions ranged from 2.6 to 8.8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , accounting for 0.27-0.30% of the annual nitrogen input. Compared with conventional N management, site-specific N management reduced N fertilization rate by 69% in 2004 and by 76% in 2005, and consequently reduced N 2 O emissions by 51% in 2004 and 27% in 2005, respectively. - High N 2 O emissions coming from the initial growth stage can be attributed to the rewetting process in the greenhouse soil.

  12. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. High-throughput phenotyping and genomic selection: the frontiers of crop breeding converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Crossa, José; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the partheno-genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency.

  15. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. L.; Yi, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the parthenogenetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Detecting and monitoring agricultural vegetative water stress over large areas using LANDSAT digital data. [Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Green Number Index technique which uses LANDSAT digital data from 5X6 nautical mile sampling frames was expanded to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and monitoring vegetative water stress over the Great Plains. At known growth stages for wheat, segments were classified as drought or non drought. Good agreement was found between the 18 day remotely sensed data and a weekly ground-based crop moisture index. Operational monitoring of the 1977 U.S.S.R. and Australian wheat crops indicated drought conditions. Drought isoline maps produced by the Green Number Index technique were in good agreement with conventional sources.

  17. Fertilizer use efficiency under enhanced crop intensity of vegetables due to inter-cropping using 15N and 32P labelled fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.; Anjaneyulu, K.; Ramesh, P.R.; Ramachandran, V.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency of all the crop combinations: capsicum (onion) - watermelon (radish) - okra (French bean) was drastically reduced to 6.44-19.21% from 10.85-37.16% compared to the either of the solo (main) crops. In the case of P also similar trend was seen but the utilization of P by crop combination was intermediate (6.18-9.31%) between those of the respective solo crops (in the range of 4.89% for watermelon and 11.90% for capsicum). A higher reduction of fertilizer use efficiency of N fertilizer than of P fertilizer under crop combinations appeared to be related to the differential mobility of these nutrients in the soil. (author)

  18. Marker-assisted selection for improving quantitative traits of forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolstra, O.; Denneboom, C.; Vos, Ab L.F. de; Loo, E.N. van

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an example of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) for breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), a pasture species. A mapping study had shown the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seven component traits of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The NUE-related QTL clustered in five chromosomal regions. These QTL were validated through divergent marker selection in an F 2 population. The criterion used for plant selection was a summation index based on the number of positive QTL alleles. The evaluation studies showed a strong indirect response of marker selection on NUE. Marker selection using a summation index such as applied here proved to be very effective for difficult and complex quantitative traits such as NUE. The strategy is easily applicable in outbreeding crops to raise the frequency of several desirable alleles simultaneously. (author)

  19. Critical silvics of selected crop and competitor species in northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buse, L.J.

    1992-12-31

    This guide contains information on 25 plant species which may compete with conifer crop species and on six commercially important conifer species. The guide summarizes information on the autoecology of each species in the context of the Northwestern Ontario Forest Ecosystem Classification. In addition, it evaluates each of the potential competitors with respect to their competitive effects and mechanisms, their response to disturbance and silvicultural treatments (including their adaptation to forest canopy removal, cutting, mechanical site preparation, fire, and herbicides), and their potential value for wildlife. The guide similarly evaluates the six conifer species with respect to their response to competition and ability to respond to release. Summary tables enable quick comparison between species. This guide will assist forest resource managers in developing site-specific vegetation management strategies.

  20. Advantage of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion over multispectral IKONOS, GeoEye-1, WorldView-2, Landsat ETM+, and MODIS vegetation indices in crop biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Michael T.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.

    2015-01-01

    Crop biomass is increasingly being measured with surface reflectance data derived from multispectral broadband (MSBB) and hyperspectral narrowband (HNB) space-borne remotely sensed data to increase the accuracy and efficiency of crop yield models used in a wide array of agricultural applications. However, few studies compare the ability of MSBBs versus HNBs to capture crop biomass variability. Therefore, we used standard data mining techniques to identify a set of MSBB data from the IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, WorldView-2 sensors and compared their performance with HNB data from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor in explaining crop biomass variability of four important field crops (rice, alfalfa, cotton, maize). The analysis employed two-band (ratio) vegetation indices (TBVIs) and multiband (additive) vegetation indices (MBVIs) derived from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and stepwise regression. Results demonstrated that HNB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs performed better than MSBB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs on a per crop basis and for the pooled data: overall, HNB TBVIs explained 5–31% greater variability when compared with various MSBB TBVIs; and HNB MBVIs explained 3–33% greater variability when compared with various MSBB MBVIs. The performance of MSBB MBVIs and TBVIs improved mildly, by combining spectral information across multiple sensors involving IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, and WorldView-2. A number of HNBs that advance crop biomass modeling were determined. Based on the highest factor loadings on the first component of the SVD, the “red-edge” spectral range (700–740 nm) centered at 722 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) stood out prominently, while five additional and distinct portions of the recorded spectral range (400–2500 nm) centered at 539 nm, 758 nm, 914 nm, 1130 nm, 1320 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) were also important. The best HNB vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation involved 549 and 752 nm for rice (R2 = 0.91); 925 and 1104 nm for

  1. Selective weed suppression by cover crop residues: effects of seed mass and timing of species’sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Gallandt, E.R.; Haramoto, E.R.; Bastiaans, L.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays have shown that large-seeded species better tolerate cover crop residue–mediated stress than small-seeded species. This provides the potential for selective suppression of small-seeded weeds in large-seeded crops. We conducted two field experiments in which seedling emergence of

  2. Locus-dependent selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce under field conditions and its implication for GM crop development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooftman, Danny A P; Flavell, Andrew J; Jansen, Hans; den Nijs, Hans C M; Syed, Naeem H; Sørensen, Anker P; Orozco-ter Wengel, Pablo; van de Wiel, Clemens C M

    2011-01-01

    Gene escape from crops has gained much attention in the last two decades, as transgenes introgressing into wild populations could affect the latter's ecological characteristics. However, different genes have different likelihoods of introgression. The mixture of selective forces provided by natural conditions creates an adaptive mosaic of alleles from both parental species. We investigated segregation patterns after hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative, L. serriola. Three generations of hybrids (S1, BC1, and BC1S1) were grown in habitats mimicking the wild parent's habitat. As control, we harvested S1 seedlings grown under controlled conditions, providing very limited possibility for selection. We used 89 AFLP loci, as well as more recently developed dominant markers, 115 retrotransposon markers (SSAP), and 28 NBS loci linked to resistance genes. For many loci, allele frequencies were biased in plants exposed to natural field conditions, including over-representation of crop alleles for various loci. Furthermore, Linkage disequilibrium was locally changed, allegedly by selection caused by the natural field conditions, providing ample opportunity for genetic hitchhiking. Our study indicates that when developing genetically modified crops, a judicious selection of insertion sites, based on knowledge of selective (dis)advantages of the surrounding crop genome under field conditions, could diminish transgene persistence. PMID:25568012

  3. Locus-dependent selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce under field conditions and its implication for GM crop development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooftman, Danny A P; Flavell, Andrew J; Jansen, Hans; den Nijs, Hans C M; Syed, Naeem H; Sørensen, Anker P; Orozco-Ter Wengel, Pablo; van de Wiel, Clemens C M

    2011-09-01

    Gene escape from crops has gained much attention in the last two decades, as transgenes introgressing into wild populations could affect the latter's ecological characteristics. However, different genes have different likelihoods of introgression. The mixture of selective forces provided by natural conditions creates an adaptive mosaic of alleles from both parental species. We investigated segregation patterns after hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative, L. serriola. Three generations of hybrids (S1, BC1, and BC1S1) were grown in habitats mimicking the wild parent's habitat. As control, we harvested S1 seedlings grown under controlled conditions, providing very limited possibility for selection. We used 89 AFLP loci, as well as more recently developed dominant markers, 115 retrotransposon markers (SSAP), and 28 NBS loci linked to resistance genes. For many loci, allele frequencies were biased in plants exposed to natural field conditions, including over-representation of crop alleles for various loci. Furthermore, Linkage disequilibrium was locally changed, allegedly by selection caused by the natural field conditions, providing ample opportunity for genetic hitchhiking. Our study indicates that when developing genetically modified crops, a judicious selection of insertion sites, based on knowledge of selective (dis)advantages of the surrounding crop genome under field conditions, could diminish transgene persistence.

  4. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  5. Leaf-air transfer of organochlorine pesticides from three selected vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xinglun; Jiang Xin; Yu Guifen; Yao Fenxia; Bian Yongrong; Wang Fang

    2007-01-01

    The leaf-air transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three kinds of vegetables, namely lettuce, romaine and garlic leaves was investigated. It was found that although the uptake of OCPs by the three selected vegetables was similar under controlled conditions, the depuration varied significantly among chemicals and plant species in terms of elimination rate, final residue of each OCPs, as well as the effect of temperature on the residue of OCPs in the vegetables. The results indicated that neither QCB nor HCB could be trapped tightly by any of the three selected vegetables, in contrast, p,p'-DDT could be retained effectively by all of them; the retainment of α-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, was dependent on the vegetable species, of which the garlic leaf had the biggest ability to trap them. Our work provided insight into the behavior of OCPs in the agroecosystem. - The leaf-air transfer of OCPs varied significantly among chemicals and the three selected vegetables

  6. Leaf-air transfer of organochlorine pesticides from three selected vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xinglun [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Jiang Xin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)]. E-mail: jiangxin@issas.ac.cn; Yu Guifen [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yao Fenxia [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Bian Yongrong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang Fang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-07-15

    The leaf-air transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three kinds of vegetables, namely lettuce, romaine and garlic leaves was investigated. It was found that although the uptake of OCPs by the three selected vegetables was similar under controlled conditions, the depuration varied significantly among chemicals and plant species in terms of elimination rate, final residue of each OCPs, as well as the effect of temperature on the residue of OCPs in the vegetables. The results indicated that neither QCB nor HCB could be trapped tightly by any of the three selected vegetables, in contrast, p,p'-DDT could be retained effectively by all of them; the retainment of {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, p,p'-DDE, was dependent on the vegetable species, of which the garlic leaf had the biggest ability to trap them. Our work provided insight into the behavior of OCPs in the agroecosystem. - The leaf-air transfer of OCPs varied significantly among chemicals and the three selected vegetables.

  7. Selection of Almond Vegetative Rootstocks for Water Stress Tolerance Based on the Morphological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Shokouhian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  8. Effect of chemicals (benzimidazole, methyl thiophanate and potassium) in reducing ozone injury to vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibukawa, S; Ota, Y

    1973-01-01

    Following the previous report on the effect of methyl thiophanate for reducing the damages of photochemical oxidants on agricultural produce, effective concentrations and time factors were studied, and the results were compared with that of benzimidazole. Spinach and radishes were grown in pots, and 21, 11, 6, and 3 days prior to ozone exposure tests, 6.25-100 micrograms of benzimidazole and 77.5-310 micrograms of methyl thiophanate solutions were injected into the various pot soils. Exposure to 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/ was given for four hours to spinach and for 2.5 hours to radishes. In all cases, benzimidazole showed a remarkable effect on reducing the damages of O/sub 3/, especially when injected 5-11 days prior to the exposure. Methyl thiophanate was very effective for radishes but had no effect on spinach. Whether this was due to an insufficient amount of chemicals or due to its selectivity is not clear at this stage of the experiments.

  9. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  10. Quantitative proteomics by 2DE and MALDI MS/MS uncover the effects of organic and conventional cropping methods on vegetable products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    overexpressed in conventionally grown cabbage. Proteins involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, polypeptides and secondary metabolites were affected by different cropping regimes in carrots. The proteomes of conventionally grown vegetables varied from organically grown vegetables to a larger extent than...... of slurry, in accordance to regulations of organic farming and O2, in which nutrient supply was based mainly on autumn green manures. Proteins were extracted from lyophilized plant tissues into a buffer containing high concentrations of urea/thiourea, two detergents and reducing agent. This approach allowed...... short handling times of fresh plant materials. In the case of cabbage samples, the abundance levels of 58 out of more than 1300 quantified protein spots varied significantly between conventional farming and any of the organic cropping systems. Proteome profiles were also very similar between carrot root...

  11. Selectivity of pesticides used in rice crop on Telenomus podisi and Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Bastos Pazini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telenomus and Trichogramma species stand out as agents for the biological control in rice crops, and the main strategy for preserving them is the use of selective pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of pesticides used in irrigated rice crop on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Adults of these parasitoids were exposed to dry residues of pesticides, in a completely randomized experiment, with 25 treatments (24 pesticides + control and four replications. The insecticides clorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and diflubenzuron and the biological insecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were harmless to T. podisi and T. pretiosum. The harmless herbicides were: 2.4-D amine, profoxydim, quinclorac, ethoxysulfuron and saflufenacil. The fungicide epoxiconazole + kresoxim-methyl was also harmless to these two biological control agents. Therefore, these pesticides are indicated for the integrated pest management, in flooded rice areas.

  12. Allelopathic relations of selected cereal and vegetable species during seed germination and seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is the direct or indirect harmful effect which one plant produces on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. In the presence paper allelopathic relationships were determined in three cereals - wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oat (Avena sativa L. and vegetable crops - spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., pepper (Capsicum annum L.. In addition to the percentage of germination, allelopathic potential was tested measuring root and stem length of tested plant species germinated either alone or in combination with others. The obtained results showed that seed germination and plant growth of cereals and vegetables are depended on the presence of other plants in all tested combinations. In this study has proven largely inhibitory allelopathic effect on germination and plant growth.

  13. Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Vigouroux

    Full Text Available Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation.

  14. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS UNDER SEMI-ARID REGION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Atif Y. Mahadeen

    2014-01-01

    Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, ...

  15. Locus-dependent selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce under field conditions and its implication for GM crop development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, D.A.P.; Flavell, A.J.; Jansen, H.; den Nijs, H.C.M.; Syed, N.H.; Sørensen, A.P.; Orozco-ter Wengel, P.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Gene escape from crops has gained much attention in the last two decades, as transgenes introgressing into wild populations could affect the latter’s ecological characteristics. However, different genes have different likelihoods of introgression. The mixture of selective forces provided by natural

  16. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014–January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015–April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan’s wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However, the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy. PMID:28228914

  17. Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Nouy, Bruno; Omoré, Alphonse; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Suryana, Edyana; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Genomic selection empirically appeared valuable for reciprocal recurrent selection in oil palm as it could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms, despite small populations and low marker density. Genomic selection (GS) can increase the genetic gain in plants. In perennial crops, this is expected mainly through shortened breeding cycles and increased selection intensity, which requires sufficient GS accuracy in selection candidates, despite often small training populations. Our objective was to obtain the first empirical estimate of GS accuracy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the major world oil crop. We used two parental populations involved in conventional reciprocal recurrent selection (Deli and Group B) with 131 individuals each, genotyped with 265 SSR. We estimated within-population GS accuracies when predicting breeding values of non-progeny-tested individuals for eight yield traits. We used three methods to sample training sets and five statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values. The results showed that GS could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms in Group B but only for family effects in Deli. Presumably, this difference between populations originated from their contrasting breeding history. The GS accuracy ranged from -0.41 to 0.94 and was positively correlated with the relationship between training and test sets. Training sets optimized with the so-called CDmean criterion gave the highest accuracies, ranging from 0.49 (pulp to fruit ratio in Group B) to 0.94 (fruit weight in Group B). The statistical methods did not affect the accuracy. Finally, Group B could be preselected for progeny tests by applying GS to key yield traits, therefore increasing the selection intensity. Our results should be valuable for breeding programs with small populations, long breeding cycles, or reduced effective size.

  18. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël

    2007-10-17

    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage.

  20. The Strength and Drivers of Bird-Mediated Selection on Fruit Crop Size: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo X. Palacio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In seed-dispersal mutualisms, the number of fruit a plant displays is a key trait, as it acts as a signal for seed dispersers that entails fruit removal and exportation of reproductive units (fruit crop size hypothesis. Although this hypothesis has gained general acceptance, forces driving the shape and strength of natural selection exerted by birds on fruit crop size remains an unresolved matter. Here, we propose that ecological filters promoting high functional equivalence of interacting partners (similar functional roles translate into similar selection pressures on fruit crop size, enhancing selection strength on this trait. We performed a meta-analysis on 50 seed-dispersal systems to test the hypothesis that frugivorous birds exert positive selection pressure on fruit crop size, and to assess whether different factors expected to act as filters (fruit diameter, fruit type, fruiting season length, bird functional groups, and latitude influence phenotypic selection regimes on this trait. Birds promote larger fruit crop sizes as a general pattern in nature. Short fruiting seasons and a high proportion of species belonging to the same functional group showed higher selection strength on fruit crop size. Also, selection strength on fruit crop size increased for large-fruited species and toward the tropics. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit crop size represents a conspicuous signal advertising the amount of reward to visually driven interacting partners, and that both plant and bird traits, as well as environmental factors, drive selection strength on fruit display traits. Furthermore, our results suggest that the relationship among forces impinged by phenology and frugivore functional roles may be key to understand their evolutionary stability.

  1. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, William C; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Barsanti, Kelley; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O 3 increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM 2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m −3 . We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value. (letter)

  2. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  4. Marker-assisted selection. Current status and future perspectives in crops, livestock, forestry and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.; Ruane, J.; Scherf, B.D.; Sonnino, A.; Dargie, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the use of marker-assisted selection for increasing the rate of genetic gain in crops, livestock, forestry and farmed fish, including the related policy, organizational and resource considerations. It continues FAO's tradition of dealing with issues of importance to agricultural and economic development in a multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral manner. As such it is hoped that the information and options presented and the suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists and breeders in both the public and private sectors, as well as to government and institutional policy and decision-makers

  5. Characterizing the dependence of vegetation model parameters on crop structure, incidence angle, and polarization at L-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneron, J-P.; Pardé, M.; Waldteufel, P.

    2004-01-01

    To retrieve soil moisture over vegetation-covered areas from microwave radiometry, it is necessary to account for vegetation effects. At L-band, many retrieval approaches are based on a simple model that relies on two vegetation parameters: the optical depth (tau) and the single-scattering albedo......, wheat, grass, and alfalfa) based on L-band experimental datasets. The results should be useful for developing more accurate forward modeling and retrieval methods over mixed pixels including a variety of vegetation types....

  6. Early-season movement dynamics of phytophagous pest and natural enemies across a native vegetation-crop ecotone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macfadyen, S.; Hopkinson, J.; Parry, H.; Neave, M.J.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Zalucki, M.P.; Schellhorn, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding about how insect movement patterns are influenced by landscape features, and how landscapes can be managed to suppress pest phytophage populations in crops. Theory suggests that the relative timing of pest and natural enemy arrival in crops may influence pest

  7. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  8. Assessment of toxic metals in wheat crops grown on selected soils, irrigated by different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid A. Al-Othman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a comparative study of the concentration of different metals (e.g., Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cr in various parts of wheat plants (e.g., roots, stem, leaves and seeds collected at several locations in Khyber Pukhtoon Khaw, Pakistan. The wheat crop in these areas was irrigated using different irrigation sources, including rain, tube well, river, and canal. In wheat samples, the concentration of metals was analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant, the roots had the highest levels of heavy metals, followed by the vegetative parts. By comparison, the seeds and grains had the lowest levels of heavy metals. The levels of heavy metals in all of the studied areas were not significantly localized to any particular area. The general order for the accumulation of studied metals in wheat was found to be Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Pb > Cd.

  9. Locus-dependent selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce under field conditions and its implication for GM crop development

    OpenAIRE

    Hooftman, D.A.P.; Flavell, A.J.; Jansen, J.; Nijs, den, J.C.M.; Syed, N.H.; Sorensen, A.P.; Wengel, ter, P.O.; Wiel, van de, C.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Gene escape from crops has gained much attention in the last two decades, as transgenes introgressing into wild populations could affect the latter's ecological characteristics. However, different genes have different likelihoods of introgression. The mixture of selective forces provided by natural conditions creates an adaptive mosaic of alleles from both parental species. We investigated segregation patterns after hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative, L. serr...

  10. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  11. Optimization of multi-environment trials for genomic selection based on crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincent, R; Kuhn, E; Monod, H; Oury, F-X; Rousset, M; Allard, V; Le Gouis, J

    2017-08-01

    We propose a statistical criterion to optimize multi-environment trials to predict genotype × environment interactions more efficiently, by combining crop growth models and genomic selection models. Genotype × environment interactions (GEI) are common in plant multi-environment trials (METs). In this context, models developed for genomic selection (GS) that refers to the use of genome-wide information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates need to be adapted. One promising way to increase prediction accuracy in various environments is to combine ecophysiological and genetic modelling thanks to crop growth models (CGM) incorporating genetic parameters. The efficiency of this approach relies on the quality of the parameter estimates, which depends on the environments composing this MET used for calibration. The objective of this study was to determine a method to optimize the set of environments composing the MET for estimating genetic parameters in this context. A criterion called OptiMET was defined to this aim, and was evaluated on simulated and real data, with the example of wheat phenology. The MET defined with OptiMET allowed estimating the genetic parameters with lower error, leading to higher QTL detection power and higher prediction accuracies. MET defined with OptiMET was on average more efficient than random MET composed of twice as many environments, in terms of quality of the parameter estimates. OptiMET is thus a valuable tool to determine optimal experimental conditions to best exploit MET and the phenotyping tools that are currently developed.

  12. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG and in the field (FG. An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH and cellular antioxidant (CAA assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil.

  13. Mobile Robot Based on the Selection of Fuzzy Behaviours for following Trajectories in Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Urrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of trajectory tracking in crops by a weed sprayer mobile robot (WSMR. This problem arises because to fumigate, the robot must follow a predefined path and avoid any obstacles it may encounter. To achieve both trajectory tracking and obstacle avoidance, a control scheme based on different behaviours is proposed, which consists essentially of an adaptive controller with a reference model for trajectory tracking and a fuzzy reactive for obstacle avoidance. Each of these controllers is executed according to the selection of the fuzzy behaviour controller, which uses information delivered by anti-collision sensors located on the robot. As a result of the implementation of this behaviour-based architecture and by means of computer simulations and experimental laboratory tests, the WSMR demonstrates the capability of autonomously following a desired trajectory between the rows of a crop in the presence of obstacles. The results are evaluated by taking into account trajectory tracking curves and the operating requirements of each controller, as well as the application of different errors indices for quantitatively evaluating the proposed control scheme.

  14. Using the Animal Model to Accelerate Response to Selection in a Self-Pollinating Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Wallace A.; Stefanova, Katia T.; Beeck, Cameron P.; Nelson, Matthew N.; Hargreaves, Bonnie L. W.; Sass, Olaf; Gilmour, Arthur R.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the animal model in S0 (F1) recurrent selection in a self-pollinating crop including, for the first time, phenotypic and relationship records from self progeny, in addition to cross progeny, in the pedigree. We tested the model in Pisum sativum, the autogamous annual species used by Mendel to demonstrate the particulate nature of inheritance. Resistance to ascochyta blight (Didymella pinodes complex) in segregating S0 cross progeny was assessed by best linear unbiased prediction over two cycles of selection. Genotypic concurrence across cycles was provided by pure-line ancestors. From cycle 1, 102/959 S0 plants were selected, and their S1 self progeny were intercrossed and selfed to produce 430 S0 and 575 S2 individuals that were evaluated in cycle 2. The analysis was improved by including all genetic relationships (with crossing and selfing in the pedigree), additive and nonadditive genetic covariances between cycles, fixed effects (cycles and spatial linear trends), and other random effects. Narrow-sense heritability for ascochyta blight resistance was 0.305 and 0.352 in cycles 1 and 2, respectively, calculated from variance components in the full model. The fitted correlation of predicted breeding values across cycles was 0.82. Average accuracy of predicted breeding values was 0.851 for S2 progeny of S1 parent plants and 0.805 for S0 progeny tested in cycle 2, and 0.878 for S1 parent plants for which no records were available. The forecasted response to selection was 11.2% in the next cycle with 20% S0 selection proportion. This is the first application of the animal model to cyclic selection in heterozygous populations of selfing plants. The method can be used in genomic selection, and for traits measured on S0-derived bulks such as grain yield. PMID:25943522

  15. Selection of antibiotics in detection procedure of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hoang A.; Nhung, Nguyen T. T.

    2017-09-01

    Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is important since this bacteria is considered as one of the most important pathogens in relation to public health. However, it could be a big challenge for detection of initial low concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 in the samples. In this study, selection of antibiotics that suppress growth of background bacteria to enable detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables was investigated. Firstly, different combinations of two antibiotics, i.e. novobiocin (N) and vancomycin (V), in BHI broth were conducted. The three antibiotic combinations were preliminary examined their effect on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and Bacillus spp. in broth based on OD600nm measurement. The combination of both the antibiotics was selected to examine their possibility to support detection of E. coli O157:H7 in vegetables. It was successful when two antibiotics showed their support in detection of E. coli O157:H7 at very low concentration of 2 CFU per one gram of lettuce. Usage of these antibiotics is simple and cheap in the detection procedure and could be applied to other types of ready-to-eat fresh vegetables popular in Vietnam.

  16. Identification of some Fusarium species from selected crop seeds using traditional method and BIO-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kulik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We identified a species level of the fungal cultures isolated from selected crop seeds using traditional method and BIO-PCR. The use of BIO-PCR did not correspond completely to the morphological analyses. Both methods showed increased infection with F. poae in winter wheat seed sample originated from north Poland. Fungal culture No 40 (isolated from faba bean and identified with traditional method as mixed culture with F. culmorum and F. graminearum did not produce expected product after PCR reaction with species specific primers OPT18F470, OPT18R470. However, the use of additional primers Fc01F, Fc01R allowed for reliable identification of F. culmorum in the culture.

  17. Trade Performance of Fruit and Vegetable Industry in Selected ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Emmy, F.A.; Mohd Mansor, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the trade performance for thirteen commodities in the fruit and vegetable industry in relation to that of selected ASEAN countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand), based on Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) indicator. The analysis shows that Singapore has comparative advantage in 5 commodities (ground-nuts, hazelnuts, plums, apricots and walnuts), Philippines has comparative advantage in 3 commodities (tomatoes nes prepared or preserved, tomatoes whole ...

  18. Nitrates and nitrites in selected vegetables purchased at supermarkets in Siedlce, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Wadas, Wanda; Głozak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables constitute a vital part of the human diet, being the main source of minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre and phytochemicals. They however, also contain nitrates and nitrites, which adversely affect human health. To determine nitrate and nitrite content in selected vegetables purchased at supermarket chains in Siedlce and to assess their impact on consumer health. Vegetable samples were purchased from local supermarkets in Siedlce, town situated in the Mazovian province (Voivodeship) of Poland. These consisted of 116 samples of nine vegetables types including butterhead and iceberg lettuce, beetroot, white cabbage, carrot, cucumber, radish, tomato and potato collected between April and September 2011. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were determined by standard colorimetric methods used in Poland, with results expressed as mg per kg fresh weight of vegetables. Nitrate concentrations varied between 10 mg x kg(-1) to 4800 mg x kg(-1). The highest mean nitrate concentrations were found in radishes (2132 mgkg(-1)), butterhead lettuce (1725 mg x kg(-1)), beetroots (1306 mg x kg(-1)) and iceberg lettuce (890 mg x kg(-1)), whereas the lowest were found in cucumber (32 mg x kg(-1)) and tomato (35 mg x kg(-1)). Nitrite levels were also variable; the highest concentrations measured were in beetroot (mean 9.19 mg x kg(-1)) whilst much smaller amounts were present in carrot, cucumbers, iceberg lettuce, white cabbage, tomatoes and potatoes. The daily adult consumption of 100 g amounts of the studied vegetables were found not exceed the ADI for both nitrates and nitrites. Findings indicated the need for monitoring nitrate and nitrite content in radishes, butterhead lettuce and beetroot due to consumer health concerns.

  19. The Influence of Selected Companion Crops on Diamond Black Moth (Plutella Xylostella): Development and Investation on Cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raini, R.K

    2002-01-01

    Diamond black moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most serious pest of brassica in Kenya. Resistance to chemicals has been reported from various parts of the country. This research investigated brassica and non-brassica crops potential in 'push-pull' strategy toward developing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for DBM in Kenya. The study focused on evaluating the potential influence of selected crops on DBM oviposition, development and infestation on cabbage. Results indicate that DBM preferred to oviposition on brassica crops. No significant differences were observed on DBM development on host plants that supported full development. Minimum development was recorded on non-brassica crop Cleome gynandra, L. In field trials, the mustard, cloeme and coriander intercrops recorded significantly low infestation compared to other intercrops and demonstrated qulities which could be utilized in the development of IPM-option for the DBM

  20. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Grega, Tadeusz; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different flavours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added to the cow's milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w). The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no significant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter significantly decreased after storage. The red sweet pepper additive was the most beneficial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  1. The selective uptake of uranium and thorium from the environment by some vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, A.M.; Ghazali, Z.; Abdul-Rahman, S.; Sharif, J.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish baseline information on environmental pollution in locally-grown vegetables by uranium and thorium. Lowland and highland species together with soil and fertilizer samples were collected and analyzed using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry and delayed neutron counting techniques. All leafy vegetables observed showed high uranium and thorium uptake especially those grown in the lowlands. Those grown in the highlands reflected no direct relationship in uranium and thorium contents. Several species common in both sampling areas exhibited direct relationship between these two elements making them as potential bio-indicators. Figures calculated for fruit-type and leafy vegetables were not only comparatively low but bore no direct correlation between the two elements. The use of phosphate-based fertilizers on some of the leafy species in the lowlands did not enhance the uptake of these elements in spite of the higher uranium and thorium contents in soil samples from the lowlands, between 20-85 μg/g for uranium and 43-226 μg/g thorium compared to about 13-20 μg/g and 35-55 μg/g respectively for soil samples in the highlands. Statistical analysis was done to substantiate these findings. Climatic conditions were also taken into account as one of the factors affecting selective uptake of these elements in the vegetables

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  3. Using a dynamic vegetation model for future projections of crop yields: application to Belgium in the framework of the VOTES and MASC projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Ingrid; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Beckers, Veronique; Debusscher, Bos; Tychon, Bernard; Hambuckers, Alain; François, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVM) were initially designed to describe the dynamics of natural ecosystems as a function of climate and soil, to study the role of the vegetation in the carbon cycle. These models are now directly coupled with climate models in order to evaluate feedbacks between vegetation and climate. But DVM characteristics allow numerous other applications, leading to amelioration of some of their modules (e.g., evaluating sensitivity of the hydrological module to land surface changes) and developments (e.g., coupling with other models like agent-based models), to be used in ecosystem management and land use planning studies. It is in this dynamic context about DVMs that we have adapted the CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) model. One of the main improvements is the implementation of a crop module, allowing the assessment of climate change impacts on crop yields. We try to validate this module at different scales: - from the plot level, with the use of eddy-covariance data from agricultural sites in the FLUXNET network, such as Lonzée (Belgium) or other Western European sites (Grignon, Dijkgraaf,…), - to the country level, for which we compare the crop yield calculated by CARAIB to the crop yield statistics for Belgium and for different agricultural regions of the country. Another challenge for the CARAIB DVM was to deal with the landscape dynamics, which is not directly possible due to the lack of consideration of anthropogenic factors in the system. In the framework of the VOTES and the MASC projects, CARAIB is coupled with an agent-based model (ABM), representing the societal component of the system. This coupled module allows the use of climate and socio-economic scenarios, particularly interesting for studies which aim at ensuring a sustainable approach. This module has particularly been exploited in the VOTES project, where the objective was to provide a social, biophysical and economic assessment of the ecosystem services in

  4. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasinghe, K S; Kirda, C; Bowen, G D [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section; Zapata, F; Awonaike, K O; Holmgren, E; Arslan, A; De Bisbal, E C; Mohamed, A R.A.G.; Montenegro, A [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit

    1996-07-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of {Delta} with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of {Delta} with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that {Delta} values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N{sub 2} derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use {Delta} values for screening of leguminous crops for high N{sub 2} fixation potential. {sup 13}C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of {Delta} with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of {Delta} with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. AUTOMATIC TRAINING SITE SELECTION FOR AGRICULTURAL CROP CLASSIFICATION: A CASE STUDY ON KARACABEY PLAIN, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozdarici Ok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study implements a traditional supervised classification method to an optical image composed of agricultural crops by means of a unique way, selecting the training samples automatically. Panchromatic (1m and multispectral (4m Kompsat-2 images (July 2008 of Karacabey Plain (~100km2, located in Marmara region, are used to evaluate the proposed approach. Due to the characteristic of rich, loamy soils combined with reasonable weather conditions, the Karacabey Plain is one of the most valuable agricultural regions of Turkey. Analyses start with applying an image fusion algorithm on the panchromatic and multispectral image. As a result of this process, 1m spatial resolution colour image is produced. In the next step, the four-band fused (1m image and multispectral (4m image are orthorectified. Next, the fused image (1m is segmented using a popular segmentation method, Mean- Shift. The Mean-Shift is originally a method based on kernel density estimation and it shifts each pixel to the mode of clusters. In the segmentation procedure, three parameters must be defined: (i spatial domain (hs, (ii range domain (hr, and (iii minimum region (MR. In this study, in total, 176 parameter combinations (hs, hr, and MR are tested on a small part of the area (~10km2 to find an optimum segmentation result, and a final parameter combination (hs=18, hr=20, and MR=1000 is determined after evaluating multiple goodness measures. The final segmentation output is then utilized to the classification framework. The classification operation is applied on the four-band multispectral image (4m to minimize the mixed pixel effect. Before the image classification, each segment is overlaid with the bands of the image fused, and several descriptive statistics of each segment are computed for each band. To select the potential homogeneous regions that are eligible for the selection of training samples, a user-defined threshold is applied. After finding those potential regions, the

  6. TEMPERATURE STRESS AND THERMO DORMANCY OF VEGETABLE SEEDS OF UMBELLIFERAE CROPS. FEATURES OF INDUCTION; MANIR FESTATION AND OVERCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Buharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The high6temperature stress  during 5620 days has a negative impact on activity of growth of embryo and inhibits the seeds germination of the Umbelliferae crops. The germination of the studied seeds  of different species at low temperature contributes to the recovery of the embryo growth; however; growth is less intensive in comparison  with the control. All studied Umbelliferae crops showed the differences in seed germination and development of embryos at various temperatures and duration of heat treatment.

  7. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  8. Regional hybrid broccoli trials provide a means to further breeding efforts of this increasingly important vegetable crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry” is funded under the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), and a primary component of the project is a system of regional hybrid broccoli trials conducted along the eastern seaboard. Hybrids currently ...

  9. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  11. Determining Regional Actual Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Crops and Natural Vegetation in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil Using Remote Sensing and Penman-Monteith Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainable development and to ensure water availability in hydrological basins, water managers need tools to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET on a large scale. Field energy balances from irrigated and natural ecosystems together with a net of agro-meteorological stations were used to develop two models for ET quantification at basin scale, based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The first model (PM1 uses the resistances to the latent heat fluxes estimated from satellite measurements, while the second one (PM2 is based on the ratio of ET to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and its relation to remote sensing parameters. The models were applied in the Low-Middle São Francisco river basin in Brazil and, after comparison against field results, showed good agreements with PM1 and PM2 explaining, respectively, 79% and 89% of the variances and mean square errors (RMSE of 0.44 and 0.34 mm d−1. Even though the PM1 model was not chosen for ET calculations, the equation for surface resistance (rs was applied to infer the soil moisture conditions in a simplified vegetation classification. The maximum values of rs were for natural vegetation—caatinga (average of 1,937 s m−1. Wine grape and mango orchard presented similar values around 130 s m−1, while table grape presented the lowest ones, averaging 74 s m−1. Petrolina and Juazeiro, in Pernambuco (PE and Bahia (BA states, respectively, were highlighted with the biggest irrigated areas. The highest increments are for vineyards and mango orchards. For the first crop the maximum increment was verified between 2003 and 2004 in Petrolina-PE, when the cultivated area increased 151%. In the case of mango orchards the most significant period was from 2005 to 2006 in Juazeiro-BA (129%. As the best performance was for PM2, it was selected and used to analyse the regional ET at daily and annual scales, making use of Landsat images and a geographic information system for different

  12. Composição mineral de diversas hortaliças Mineral composition of several vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. C. Furlani

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer, na época normal de colheita, as quantidades de matéria seca acumuladas, as concentrações dos elementos essenciais às plantas, mais as de cobalto, alumínio e sódio na matéria fresca e seca de 50 cultivares de hortaliças num total de 35 espécies. As amostras, normalmente constituídas de produtos da colheita, foram na sua maioria procedentes da região de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo e separadas em: melancia - em casca + polpa branca, polpa vermelha e semente; melão - em casca + polpa e semente; ervilha - em vagem e grão; berinjela - em fruto e pedúnculo; couve-flor - em folha e inflorescência; beterraba, cenoura, nabo e rabanete - em folha e raiz; alcachofra - em folha + caule e inflorescência. Das demais hortaliças foram utilizados o fruto todo, as folhas ou os bulbos sem separação. Verificou-se que as leguminosas extraíram maiores quantidades de N, P, K, Mg, Cu, Mo, Zn e Co; as tuberosas, de Cl, Fe e Mn; as amarilidáceas, de S, B e Al; as folhosas, de Ca e Na. As cucurbitáceas extraíram menores quantidades da maioria dos nutrientes.This work reports the dry matter accumulation, the nutrient, Co, Al and Na - concentrations, and the removal of nutrients and Co, Al and Na per metric ton of fresh material of 35 species of vegetables by the harvest. The samples mostly came from the region of Campinas, State of São Paulo and consisted of the products removed from the field, fractioned in their several parts: watermelon in epicarp + white pulp, red pulp and seeds; eggplant in fruit and stalk; melon in epicarp + pulp and seeds; pea in shell and seeds; cauliflower in leaf and inflorescence; sugar beet, carrot, turnip and radish in leaf and root; artichoke in leaf + stalk and inflorescence. The whole fruit was utilized in the case of edible fruit bearing vegetables; the leaves in the case of the leafy vegetables; and the bulbous root in the case of the iffy-like vegetables. In general, the leguminous

  13. Preservation of food of the vegetable origin in the way of the radiation The selected technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The review of the selected applications of the radiation of the food of vegetable origin and targets which may be achieved dependently on the amount of energy absorbed by the radiated product. (author)

  14. Isolation and propagation of mutations by in vitro culture. Part of a coordinated programme on improvement of vegetatively propagated crops and tree crops through radiation induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahira, T.

    1974-01-01

    Tuberous roots of two Dahlia cultivars were irradiated with 1000 - 2000 R of x-rays. Chlorophyll and flower colour mutations were scored on M 1 plants and the subsequent vegetatively propagated generations. The project aimed at the development of experimental methods suitable for easy isolation of mutated tissue chimeras deriving from mutagen treatment. In comparing in vivo methods such as leaf bud cutting and root propagation with in vitro methods using explants from leaves and florets, the problems encountered by in vitro culture were so manifold, that this method is not considered to be at present of much promise. These experimental results should not discourage from developing and using in vitro culture methods for mutant isolation in other plant species, particularly those were in vivo adventitious bud techniques are not available. Besides the main result obtained, the following valuable observations were made: a) The genotype used for mutation induction is not only relevant for the number and the spectrum of mutations, but also size of chimerical sectors. b) Flower colour changes, which were investigated in some detail, revealed that pigments were lost as groups e.g. all buteins in one case and all cyanins plus pelargonins in another case. c) When using the leaf bud cutting method the greatest frequency of mutations was recovered from the axillary bud of the leaf, that is at the youngest primordial stage at the time of mutagen treatment

  15. Calibration and testing of AquaCrop for selected sorghum genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... sorghum production highly susceptible to rainfall amount and distribution. Examining yield .... explained in the materials and methods section. MATERIALS AND ... crop and soil characteristics, and management practices that define the ...... Reference Manual, Annex I – AquaCrop, Version 4.0. FAO, Rome.

  16. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trifone D'Addabbo; Sebastiano Laquale; Stella Lovelli; Vincenzo Candido; Pinarosa Avato

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally...

  17. Impact of vegetable crop agriculture on anopheline agressivity and malaria transmission in urban and less urbanized settings of the South region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono, Patrick Ntonga; Mbida, Jean Arthur Mbida; Tonga, Calvin; Belong, Philippe; Ngo Hondt, Odette Etoile; Magne, Gaëlle Tamdem; Peka, Marie Florence; Lehman, Leopold Gustave

    2015-05-28

    The use of inland valley swamps for vegetable crop agriculture contributes to food security in urban and less urbanized settings in Africa. The impact of this agriculture on aggressive mosquitoes' diversity and malaria transmission in central Africa is poorly documented. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of vegetable crop agriculture on these entomological parameters in urban and less urbanized settings of the forest area, south of Cameroon. The human bait technique was used for the capture of aggressive mosquitoes from January to December 2012. For three consecutive days each month, captures were performed on volunteers in hydro-agricultural and river bank sites of Akonolinga and Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding sites were recorded. Molecular alongside morpho-taxonomic techniques were used for the identification of mosquito species; ELISA test was used to reveal Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes through the detection of CSP. Mosquito diversity, aggressivity and malaria transmission in sites and settings were determined and compared. Biting rates were higher in hydro-agricultural sites of less urbanized and urban settings (31.8 b/p/n and 28.6 b/p/n respectively) than in river banks sites (6.83 b/p/n and 3.64 b/p/n respectively; p agricultural sites 2 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 in the less urbanized setting, meanwhile in river bank sites, 3 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 species in the less urbanized setting. An. nili s.s. was found in river banks only. An. hancocki was not found to insure Plasmodium falciparum Welch transmission. EIR in hydro-agricultural sites varied from 1.86 ib/p/n (urban area) to 2.13 ib/p/n (less urbanized area) with higher rates in April/May and August. Overall, EIR was higher in less urbanized areas (p agriculture (p = 0.2). These results highlight the need for specific preventive measures that take into account the ecological peculiarities

  18. Multicriteria analysis for the selection of the most appropriate energy crops: the case of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylili, Angeliki; Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A.; Polycarpou, Polycarpos

    2016-01-01

    Energy crops are considered key actors in meeting the international and European carbon reduction targets, increasing the national energy security through renewable energy production, mitigating climate change impacts, and promoting sustainability. Multicriteria analysis is a suitable decision-making tool for the energy sector, where the final decisions have to consider for a range of aspects, and can be utilised as well for deciding on appropriate energy crops. In this paper, a popular multicriteria method, PROMETHEE, is employed for the identification of the most optimal energy crops for their exploitation in Cyprus. The criteria and the weights of each are defined, and accordingly five different scenarios are developed and examined. The obtained results indicated that the promotion of second-generation energy crops is more ideal in terms of the set objectives, as well as more sustainable than the exploitation of any first-generation energy crop.

  19. Comunidades de malezas en cultivos hortícolas en la Provincia de Neuquén (Argentina Weed's communities in vegetable crops in Neuquen Province, (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Cerazo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La gran mayoría de los cultivos hortícolas son muy sensibles a la competencia de malezas, las cuales inciden en los rendimientos y calidad de los mismos y en ocasiones determinan la pérdida total del cultivo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo conocer la composición florística de las comunidades de malezas y su análisis sintaxonómico, ya que ambos constituyen un buen parámetro para medir el estado de los cultivos. La vegetación fue muestreada siguiendo la metodología de Braun Blanquet, en explotaciones de seis localidades de la provincia. A partir de esta información se determinaron ocho asociaciones, de las cuales seis están comprendidas en la clase Stellarietea mediae (Br. Bl. 1931 Tx., Prsg. et Lohm, 1950 y las dos restantes en Artemisietea vulgaris Lohm, Prsg et Tüxen 1950. El deficiente estado del cultivo está señalado por el desarrollo de malezas perennes de difícil control, incluidas en su mayoría en la clase Artemisietea vulgaris. Se inventariaron ochenta y nueve especies, para los periodos otoño- invierno y primavera - verano. Existe un claro predominio de Dicotiledóneas (79 % sobre Monocotiledóneas y de malezas anuales (66 % sobre perennes.Most vegetable crops are very sensitive to the weed competition, which affects the yields and quality and sometimes the total lost of the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the floristic composition of the weed communities and to analyse its sintaxonomy, because both are effective parameters for measuring the state of the crop. The vegetation was sampled following the Braun-Blanquet methodology on farms in six localities in the province. We determined eight associations from this information: six are included in the class Stellarietea mediae (Br. Bl. 1931 Tx., Prsg. et Lohm, 1950 and the other two in Artemisietea vulgaris Lohm, Prsg and Tüxen 1950. The deficient state of the crop resulted from the development of perennial and difficult to control weeds, most of

  20. Analyzing production potential of selected food and legume crops for food security in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Hassan, S.; Bashir, A.; Mehmood, I.; Mahmood, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess growth rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legume crops. The estimated co-efficient for all growth models (area, production and yield) of selected commodities were statistically highly significant at 1 percentage level except yield of gram which was significant at 10 percentage level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9 percentage, 2.1 percentage and 0.8 percentage, respectively with the production growth of 3.0 percentage, 3.8 percentage and 2.2 percentage, respectively and yield growth of 2.1 percentage, 1.6 percentage and 1.5 percentage, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contribution for expansion in production for rice and sugarcane was area while it was yield for wheat. In this scenario the wheat production can be enhanced by increasing its area than that of rice and sugarcane. The annual growth rate for gram and mung area was estimated about 1.0 v and 4.9 percentage, respectively, with the production growth rate of 2.3 percentage and 6.4 percentage while yield growth rate of 2.9 percentage and 1.4 percentage, respectively. Keeping in view the higher growth of gram yield the increase in its area may enhance its production more than that of mung. The proportionate higher increase in the area of wheat and gram may enhance the welfare of producers in particular and provide food security to masses in general. (author)

  1. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  2. Pesticide contamination of fruits and vegetables - A market basket survey from selected regions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiedu, Eric

    2013-07-01

    A market - basket survey was carried out with the aim of determining the concentration levels of pesticides, in lettuce, garden eggs, pineapple and mango from some selected regions in Ghana and to assess the potential health risk associated with exposure to the pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables consumption. A total of 192 fresh samples of fruits and vegetables were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 12 major towns and cities in the three regions of Ghana. The samples were extracted and analyzed for organophosphates, synthetic pyrethroids and organo chlorine pesticides. The percentage of samples of fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues in Lettuce, Garden eggs, Pineapple and Mango were 52%, 40%, 45%, 48% respectively and concentrations of pesticides did not vary significantly in samples as well as the sampling areas (p>0.05) even though there were differences in residual concentrations of pesticides . The differences in residual concentrations of pesticides could be due to different agricultural practices adopted by farmers and also accessibility of the pesticides. The average residue concentrations range from 0.01-0.45 mg/kg, 0.01-0.30 mg/kg and 0.01-1.27 mg/kg for organophosphates, synthetic pyrethroids and organo chlorine pesticides respectively. Lindane, chloropyrifos and cypermethrin were the most frequent organo chlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides respectively while lettuce was the most frequently contaminated sample. Comparing the concentration levels of organo chlorine pesticides residue with the maximum residue limits (MRLs) adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarious Commission shows that some of the fruits and vegetables sold on Ghanaian markets are contaminated even though the levels are generally low. Health risk analysis indicates that heptachlor in particular may be of public concern since its concentration levels exceeded the reference dose in all the four different types of samples

  3. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Liu, J.; Pinter, L.

    2013-09-01

    China has dramatically increased its virtual water import unconsciously for recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina are the most significant. As crop yield and crop water productivity in North and South America are generally higher than those in Asia and Africa, the effect of China's crop-related virtual water trade positively contributes to optimizing crop water use efficiency at the global scale. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should be actively incorporated into national water management strategies. From the national perspective, China should reduce the export and increase the import of water-intensive crops. But the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  4. Researching Seeds: Films, Sanitation Methods, Microbiological Growth, Viability, and Selection for New Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Niki; Smith, Trent

    2018-01-01

    A major factor in long-term human exploration of the solar system is crop growth in microgravity. Space crops can provide fresh, nutritious food to supplement diets for astronauts. Important factors impacting space plant growth and consumption are water delivery to root zone in microgravity, sanitation methods for microbiological safety, plant responses to light quality/spectrum, and identifying optimal edible plants suitable for growth on the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts growing their own food on the ISS provides necessary data for crop production for long duration deep space missions. The seed film project can be used in Advanced Plant Habitat and Veggies that are currently being utilized on the ISS.

  5. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study. PMID:26858563

  6. An improved micropropagation system, ex vitro rooting and validation of genetic homogeneity in wild female Momordica dioica: an underutilized nutraceutical vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumitra Kumari; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Harish; Shekhawat, Smita; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2017-07-01

    Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd., is a perennial and dioecious (2n = 28) plant of family Cucurbitaceae. Conventional methods of propagation through seeds, stem cuttings and rhizomatous/tuberous roots are inadequate for its mass cultivation as a vegetable crop. This paper reports an improved and efficient micropropagation method for wild female M. dioica using nodal explants. Shoot amplification was achieved using subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum number of shoots (45.30 ± 3.83) with an average length 6.52 ± 0.89 cm were differentiated on MS medium containing 0.5 mg L -1 BAP, 0.1 mg L -1 IAA and additives (50 mg L -1 ascorbic acid, 25 mg L -1 each of adenine sulphate, citric acid and l-arginine). The cloned shoots were rooted ex vitro. Each shoot treated with 250 mg L -1 IBA for 5 min produced 12.3 ± 1.33 with a mean length 5.4 ± 0.73 cm. More than 85% (46 plants) of ex vitro rooted plantlets were successfully hardened in a greenhouse with normal growth characteristics. In order to evaluate the genetic stability of micropropagated plants, the two PCR-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were used. The amplification patterns of the micropropagated and mother plant were monomorphic thus depicting genetic stability of the micropropagation system. This protocol could be effectively employed for the mass multiplication of wild female M. dioica , a popular summer vegetable crop.

  7. Globally Increased Crop Growth and Cropping Intensity from the Long-Term Satellite-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p impact on the crop growth trend.

  8. GLOBALLY INCREASED CROP GROWTH AND CROPPING INTENSITY FROM THE LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.

  9. Fibre and polyphenols of selected fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables used in Serbian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodevska Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as good sources of numerous bioactive compounds among which polyphenols and dietary fibre are considered essential because of their protective health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality of selected plant foods of our region regarding amount of total phenols, fibres and ratio of certain fractions of fibre. Fifteen samples of plant foods (green leafy vegetables, fruits and nuts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total, soluble and insoluble fibre and fractions of fibre: beta-glucans, arabinoxylan, cellulose and resistant starch. Generally nuts were the richest sources of fibre and total phenols. However, when serving size was taken into consideration, it appeared that raspberry and blackberry were the richest in total, soluble fibre and cellulose. At the same time, almonds and hazelnuts were particulary rich in insoluble fibre, while walnuts had the highest polyphenol content. Analyzed plant foods were poor sources of arabinoxylan and beta-glucan. Data on resistant starch presence in cashew nut is the first confirmation that resistant starch can be found in significant amount in some nuts. The results give rare insight into the quality of selected plant foods regarding dietary fibre and polyphenols from the nutritive point of view. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  10. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and

  11. Fruit and vegetable availability and selection: federal food package revisions, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel; Krauss, Ramona C; Strode, Steven; Armbruster, James

    2012-10-01

    With nearly 49,000 authorized retailers nationwide, a policy change that added fruits and vegetables (FV) to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages in 2009 had the potential to expand neighborhood FV availability. This study examined changes in availability and selection of commonly consumed and culturally specific FV at authorized retailers (WIC vendors) before and after implementation of the revised WIC food packages. Quasi-experimental, one-group design with two pre-policy observations and one post-policy observation. Trained observers assessed a list of fresh, frozen, and canned FV at each vendor in seven northern Illinois counties. Eight indices of FV availability and selection were derived. Multiple regression estimated relationships. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Overall, availability and selection of commonly consumed fresh FV and availability of African-American culturally specific fresh FV improved after implementation of the new policy. Modest improvements in the overall availability of canned low-sodium vegetables and frozen FV were observed. Changes differed by vendor type (large vendor, small vendor, and pharmacy). Changes in availability or selection did not differ by neighborhood characteristics (population density, median household income, racial/ethnic composition). Expansion of WIC foods was associated with small positive externalities on the food environment. Larger subsidies to create more demand and more-substantial stocking requirements for retailers may yield significantly larger improvements and thus warrant further investigation. Approaches targeting rural, low-income, and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods also may be needed. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CROP SPECIES RECOGNITION AND DISCRIMINATION PADDY-RICE-GROWINGFIELDS FROM REAPED-FIELDS BY THE RADAR VEGETATION INDEX (RVI OF ALOS-2/PALSAR2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yamada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese ALOS-2 satellite was launched on May 24th, 2014. It has the L-band SAR, PALSAR-2. Kim,Y. and van Zyl, J.J. proposed a kind of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI as RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv + 2* σ0hv by L-band full-polarimetric radar data. Kim, Y. and Jackson, T.J., et al. applied the equation into rice and soybean by multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer above 4.16 meters from the ground. Their report showed the L-band was the most promising wave length for estimating LAI and NDVI from RVI. The author tried to apply the analysis to the actual paddy field areas, both Inashiki region and Miyagi region in the eastern main island, “Honshu”, areas of Japan by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data in the summer season, the main crop growing time, of 2015. Judging from conventional methods, it will be possible to discriminate paddy rice growing fields from reaped fields or the other crops growing fields by the PALSAR-2 data. But the RVI value is vaguely related to such land use or biomass at the present preliminary experiment. The continuous research by the additional PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data should be desired.

  13. How much is a bee worth? Economic aspects of pollination of selected crops in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zych

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies state that a considerable part of the economic value of crop plant production should be attributed to the free services of pollinating insects. Such calculations are available for several EU and North American countries, and the present paper evaluates the value of pollination services to 19 important Polish crop plants. It is estimated that the market value of 19 entomogamous crops reaches the sum of approx. 7.5 billion PLN (thousand million (approx. 1.8 billion EUR, 39% of this may be attributed to the insect activities, the most important being bees (the service value of approx. 2.5 billion PLN/0.6 billion EUR and dipterans (almost 0.3 billion PLN/ 74 billion EUR. The paper discusses also the challenges and pitfalls of similar estimations and the need for conservation actions directed on crop plant pollinators.

  14. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  15. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  16. Control of enteric pathogens in ready-to-eat vegetable crops in organic and 'low input' production systems: a HACCP-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, C; Ball, K; Volakakis, N; Cooper, J M

    2008-10-01

    Risks from pathogens such as Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157 have been identified as a particular concern for organic and 'low input' food production systems that rely on livestock manure as a nutrient source. Current data do not allow any solid conclusions to be drawn about the level of this risk, relative to conventional production systems. This review describes six Risk Reduction Points (RRPs) where risks from enteric pathogens can be reduced in ready-to-eat vegetables. Changes can be made to animal husbandry practices (RRP1) to reduce inoculum levels in manure. Outdoor livestock management (RRP2) can be optimized to eliminate the risk of faecal material entering irrigation water. Manure storage and processing (RRP3), soil management practices (RRP4) and timing of manure application (RRP5), can be adjusted to reduce the survival of pathogens originating from manure. During irrigation (RRP6), pathogen risks can be reduced by choosing a clean water source and minimizing the chances of faecal material splashing on to the crop. Although preventive measures at these RRPs can minimize enteric pathogen risk, zero risk can never be obtained for raw ready-to-eat vegetables. Good food hygiene practices at home are essential to reduce the incidence of food-borne illnesses.

  17. Impact of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole on formation of the leaf system and functioning of donor – acceptor plant system of solanaceae vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Kuryata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the comparable effect of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole on morphogenesis, mesostructure formation and redistribution of flows in sweet peppers and tomatoes. It has been found that the use of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole retardant during budding leads to increased plant productivity due to optimization of the structure and operation of the plants’ leaf apparatus. It was established that both gibberelic and antigibberelic tebuconazole drug stimulated the formation and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of peppers and tomatoes, but the mechanisms of this regulation were different. Increased photosynthetic activity of plants under the influence of gibberellin was determined primarily by the formation of more leaves and total leaf surface. When using tebuconazole retardant there was a significant restructuring of the organization of leaf mezostructure: the leaves were thickened by chlorenchyma proliferation, there was an increase in the volume of columnar parenchyma cells and linear dimensions of spongy parenchyma leaf cells. The surface density of leaves significantly increased, the chlorophyll content and nitrogen content (especially protein also increased, compared with control variants and variants using gibberelin. Such a profound restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants under the actions of tebuconazole led to a significant increase in donor leaves function of peppers and tomatoes, which is an indicator of the growth of net productivity of photosynthesis – the highest among all the variants of the experiment. The results also show that increasing the chlorophyll phytocenotic index was more significant than the increase of leaf index: the tomatoes under the action of tebuconazole had a lower leaf index than in control options, but due to a higher chlorophyll index the crop productivity increased.Since during the fruiting period the costs of assimilates to the growth of vegetative organs are greatly

  18. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    influencing parameter on the simulation of evapotranspiration over the crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24 % over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated, which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The use of field capacity values retrieved from laboratory methods leads to inaccurate simulation of ET due to the lack of representativeness of the soil structure variability at the field scale. The most accurate simulation is achieved with the average values of the soil properties derived from the analysis of field measurements of soil moisture vertical profiles over each crop cycle. The representation of the variations in time of the wilting point and the maximum rooting depth over the crop succession has little impact on the simulation performances. Finally, we show that the uncertainties in the soil parameters can generate substantial uncertainties in ET simulated over 12 years (the 95 % confidence interval represents 23 % of cumulative ET over 12 years). Uncertainties in the mesophyll conductance have lower impact on ET. Measurement random errors explain a large part of the scattering between simulations and measurements at half-hourly timescale. The deficits in simulated ET reported in this work are probably larger due to likely underestimation of ET by eddy-covariance measurements. Other possible model shortcomings include the lack of representation of soil vertical heterogeneity and root profile along with inaccurate energy balance partitioning between the soil and the vegetation at low leaf area index.

  19. LEGISLATIVE ENSURING FOR SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION (BASED ON PARLIAMENTARY SESSION ON 11 JULY IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the national seed market state really showed the high dependence of Russian food security on imported seeds. The government means for supporting the national seed production program undertaken in 2015 by Ministry of Agriculture of RF were very effective and took action as showed the data from ‘Roselkhozcentre’. Thus, the total land area used for seed production in vegetables, melons and gourds was increased by 48% that amounted to 2104.3 ha in 2016, and that was more than in 2015. Moreover, the vegetable and melon seed producers and breeders are worried about the facts of falsification and low quality. The main reason of occurrence of such seeds that are not meeting the variety requirements in the market is an insufficient legislative system and its lack of correspondence to the current seed production, conditions and up-to-date requirements. It is necessary to take urgent measures to revise the current state of legislative system in national seed production program. 

  20. The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko; Małgorzata Tabaszewska; Tadeusz Grega

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetabl...

  1. CONVEYOR OF VARIETIES OF PUMPKIN OF FEDERAL RESEARCH VEGETABLE CENTER (VNIISSOK SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Khimich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several early ripening pumpkin varieties adn hybrids with high yield and resistance to cold and diseases and high organoleptic properties were developed in Federal Scientific Vegetable Cencer. They are early, cold-resistant, yielding and resistant to a diseases and they have high taste and technological qualities of fruits. Most varieties of pumpkin need to fruit ripening to improve their taste. Lateripening varieties with long-term storage of fruits, until the end of November – early December, accumulate up to 10% of the amount of sugars. The timing of pumpering and storage of pumpkin fruits without loss of quality and taste indicators are individual for each variety and can vary greatly between each other. Gourds of a pumpkin of a dining room are shown as practically not requiring, and requiring in fruit ripening – from two weeks to two months. To a large extent, all varieties differ in terms of the shelf life of the fruit. Using these characteristics of varieties, even in the conditions of the Moscow region, you can create a continuous conveyor of consumption of pumpkin fruits. Recommendations are given on the timing of dosage and use of fruits of different varieties of pumpkin selection Federal Scientific Vegetable Center. 

  2. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  3. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  4. Phenology of spotted wing drosophila in the San Joaquin Valley varies by season, crop and nearby vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Haviland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila, first detected in California in 2008, has become a major insect pest in caneberries and sweet cherries, causing commercial crop losses. Managing it is challenging because it has many other hosts, including riparian and backyard fruit plantings, and it increases rapidly, with generations overlapping one another. In our study we monitored trap captures in two parts of the San Joaquin Valley, within sweet cherry orchards and in nearby locations. Captures of adult flies showed two main periods of activity — spring and fall — and low captures in the winter (except for citrus and evergreen riparian areas and summer. On many occasions during the year, trap captures were higher outside of the cherry orchards than within them. Additionally, early in the season, when decisions about control programs are being made, the sex ratio of captured flies in cherries was strongly female-biased. The results suggest that during the weeks leading up to harvest growers should experiment by placing traps in different environments surrounding their orchards to determine SWD activity and potential pest pressure locally, and monitor for both male and female flies.

  5. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS, a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598–50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  6. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  7. Recent evolution of China's virtual water trade: analysis of selected crops and considerations for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Liu, J.; Pinter, L.

    2014-04-01

    China has dramatically increased its virtual water import over recent years. Many studies have focused on the quantity of traded virtual water, but very few go into analysing geographic distribution and the properties of China's virtual water trade network. This paper provides a calculation and analysis of the crop-related virtual water trade network of China based on 27 major primary crops between 1986 and 2009. The results show that China is a net importer of virtual water from water-abundant areas of North America and South America, and a net virtual water exporter to water-stressed areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Virtual water import is far larger than virtual water export, and in both import and export a small number of trade partners control the supply chain. Grain crops are the major contributors to virtual water trade, and among grain crops, soybeans, mostly imported from the US, Brazil and Argentina, are the most significant. In order to mitigate water scarcity and secure the food supply, virtual water should actively be incorporated into national water management strategies. And the sources of virtual water import need to be further diversified to reduce supply chain risks and increase resilience.

  8. Recruitment and attrition of associated plants under a shading crop canopy: Model selection and calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stilma, E.S.C.; Keesman, K.J.; Werf, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    Associated plant and animal diversity provides ecosystem services within crop production systems. The importance of the maintenance or restoration of diversity is therefore increasingly acknowledged. Here we study the population dynamics of associated annual plants (`weeds¿) during the growth of a

  9. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  10. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  11. The effect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and flavour profile properties of yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata; Grega, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fibre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, flavour profile etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and flavour profile parameters of yoghurts. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added (10% w/w) to the processed cow's milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profile analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive flavour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper flavours were dominating in the fermented milks fortified with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin flavours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not influenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable flavour.

  12. Macrofauna invertebrada edáfica em cultivo de mandioca sob sistemas de cobertura do solo Edaphic invertebrate macrofauna in cassava cultivation under vegetable cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do cultivo da mandioca em diferentes sistemas de cobertura do solo na densidade e diversidade da comunidade da macrofauna de invertebrados edáfica. O trabalho foi conduzido no Município de Glória de Dourados, MS, num Argissolo Vermelho, sob sistema convencional (SC, plantio direto sobre palhada de mucuna (PDMu, sorgo (PDSo e milheto (PDMi, além de sistema com vegetação nativa (VN, como referencial para comparação. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro épocas distintas: abril/2003 (antes do plantio, novembro/2003 (6 meses após o plantio, abril/2004 (11 meses após o plantio e novembro/2004 (18 meses após o plantio. Houve efeito da interação entre os sistemas avaliados e as épocas de amostragens sobre a densidade, riqueza e diversidade da macrofauna invertebrada do solo. Entre os grupos da macrofauna invertebrada do solo, cupins, formigas e coleópteros (imaturo e adulto foram predominantes no ambiente estudado. O uso de plantas de cobertura no pré-cultivo de mandioca no sistema plantio direto proporcionou condições para a recomposição da comunidade de macrofauna invertebrada do solo, o que indica que as espécies utilizadas, mucuna, sorgo e milheto, representam alternativas promissoras para melhor manejo dessa cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of cassava cultivation under different vegetable cover crops according to the density and diversity of soil invertebrate macrofauna. Field experiment was carried out at Glória de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, on an Oxisol, under conventional drilling (SC, no-tillage system under Stizolobium cinereum (PDMu, Sorghum bicolor (PDSo and Pennisetum glaucum (PDMi mulching, with comparison of native vegetation system (VN. Evaluations were performed in April/2003 (before sowing, November/2003 (6 months after sowing, April/2004 (11 months after sowing and November/2004 (18 months after sowing. Significant

  13. MULTI-TEMPORAL CROP SURFACE MODELS COMBINED WITH THE RGB VEGETATION INDEX FROM UAV-BASED IMAGES FOR FORAGE MONITORING IN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Possoch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition. Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass

  14. Multi-Temporal Crop Surface Models Combined with the RGB Vegetation Index from Uav-Based Images for Forage Monitoring in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoch, M.; Bieker, S.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bolten, A.; Schellberg, J.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs) were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition). Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI) was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based) and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs) were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon) with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass. There is a

  15. Using natural selection and optimization for smarter vegetation models - challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar; Han, Wang; Dieckmann, Ulf; Cramer, Wolfgang; Brännström, Åke; Pietsch, Stephan; Rovenskaya, Elena; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are now indispensable for understanding the biosphere and for estimating the capacity of ecosystems to provide services. The models are continuously developed to include an increasing number of processes and to utilize the growing amounts of observed data becoming available. However, while the versatility of the models is increasing as new processes and variables are added, their accuracy suffers from the accumulation of uncertainty, especially in the absence of overarching principles controlling their concerted behaviour. We have initiated a collaborative working group to address this problem based on a 'missing law' - adaptation and optimization principles rooted in natural selection. Even though this 'missing law' constrains relationships between traits, and therefore can vastly reduce the number of uncertain parameters in ecosystem models, it has rarely been applied to DGVMs. Our recent research have shown that optimization- and trait-based models of gross primary production can be both much simpler and more accurate than current models based on fixed functional types, and that observed plant carbon allocations and distributions of plant functional traits are predictable with eco-evolutionary models. While there are also many other examples of the usefulness of these and other theoretical principles, it is not always straight-forward to make them operational in predictive models. In particular on longer time scales, the representation of functional diversity and the dynamical interactions among individuals and species presents a formidable challenge. Here we will present recent ideas on the use of adaptation and optimization principles in vegetation models, including examples of promising developments, but also limitations of the principles and some key challenges.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses in Water Sources and Selected Raw Vegetables in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. B.; Page, N. A.; Grabow, W. O. K.; Steele, A. D.; Taylor, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the most important cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In this study raw and treated drinking water supplies at plants in two geographic areas, as well as selected irrigation water and corresponding raw vegetables in three regions of southern Africa, were screened for the presence of RVs using molecular techniques. Group A RVs were detected in 11.8% of partially treated and 1.7% of finally treated drinking water samples and in 14% of irrigation water samples and 1.7% of corresponding raw vegetable samples. Type-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of multiple types (G1, G2, G8, and G9) in irrigation water and single types (G1 or G3) in raw and treated drinking water. Group A RVs detected in all samples consisted of mixed P types (P[4], P[6], P[8], and P[9]), with P[6] predominating. The detection of types G8, G9, and P[6] reflects the emergence of these types in clinical infections. The similarity of environmental types to those in patients with clinical RV infections confirms the value of wastewater screening as a tool for assessing RVs circulating in communities, with the benefit of detecting types that cause both clinical and subclinical infections. The results provide new information on RV types in water and related environments and identify the potential risk of waterborne transmission. In addition, the presence of RVs in drinking water underlines shortcomings in quality specifications. These data provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of RVs in environmental sources, with important implications for vaccine development. PMID:16820443

  17. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifone D'Addabbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally occurring in plants as products of the secondary metabolism. Groups of plant secondary metabolites most promising for the development of pesticidal formulations are glucosinolates, saponins, and more generally terpenoid phytoconstituents, such as essential oil and their constituents. Glucosinolates are thioglucosidic secondary metabolites occurring mainly in the Brassicaceae and, at a less extent, in Capparidaceae families. The incorporation of glucosinolate- containing plant material into the soil results in degradation products highly toxic to soilborne pest, pathogens and weeds. This practice, known as biofumigation, may be considered as an ecological alternative to soil toxic fumigants. Plant-derived saponins are triterpene glycosides present in top and root tissues of plant species of the families Leguminosae, Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Polygalaceae and Agavaceae. Saponins and saponin-rich plant materials have been also reported for a biocidal activity on phytoparasites and soilborne plant pathogens. Essential oils are volatile, natural, heterogeneous mixtures of single substances, mainly terpenes and phenolics, formed as secondary metabolites by aromatic plants belonging to several botanical families. Among terpenes, limonoid triterpenes have been demonstrated to possess interesting insecticidal, nematicidal and antifungal properties. Occurrence of these compounds is mainly limited to Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Alkaloids, phenolics, cyanogenic glucosides

  18. The Rule of Organic Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Requirement Rate for Vegetable Crop on Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladiyani Retno Widowati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of organic fertilizer is an alternative to increase soil health and supply a small amount of plant nutrient. Meanwhile agricultural soil in Indonesia commonly have low organic carbon content (<2% therefore application of organic fertilizer is recommended. Based on that, the aim of the research is to measure the effectiveness of organic fertilizer on caisim (Brassica chinensis L. growth, to measure the release of N-NO3- and N-NH4+, to determine the recommendation of organic fertilizer for caisim on Incentisols Ciherang, Bogor. The research had been conducted at Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and green house of Soil Research Institute, Laladon – Bogor on April to July 2008 using soil sample of Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor. The treatments were: Control (no fertilizer, NPK, NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¾ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ½ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¼ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer 500kg, organic fertilizer 1000 kg, NPK + 750 kg organic fertilizer, and NPK + 250 kg organic fertilizer. The five replications research had been conducted with Completely Randomized Design. The result indicated thats: (1 NPK fertilizer increased with addition of organic fertilizer approved by the evidence of increasing of plant high 2-10%, leaves number 1-2%, and crop production 16-36%. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of treatment NPK+various rate of organic fertilizer were higher than NPK alone with value of 136-181%. (2 The release of NH4+-N and NO3--N from anorganic fertilizer (NPK treatment in four weeks incubation period showed balance proportion with N rate. Nitrogen released from organic fertilizer in the same incubation period are 5.39 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 12.39 mg NO3- -N kg-1. (3 The best organic fertilizer rate based on fertilizer curve for Inceptisols Cicadas-Bogor having low C and N-organic is 560 kg organic fertilizer + NPK (300 kg Urea ha-1; 50 kg SP-36 ha-1; 50 kg KCl ha-1 produce

  19. Effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-10-25

    The effect of the CO[sub 2] concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 [mu]mol mol[sup -1] was investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses. The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic CO[sub 2] assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO[sub 2]-rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional CO[sub 2] at a certain C. This CO[sub 2]-rule is: X = (1000/C)[sup 2] * 1.5 (X in % per 100 [mu]mol[sup -1], and C in [mu]mol mol[sup -1]). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed. The effects of C on leaf conductance (g) and on rate of crop transpiration (E) were investigated. An increase of 100 I[mu]mol mol[sup -1] ' in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11% in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E. C had only a relatively small effect on E, owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No time-dependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established. In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed; fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO[sub 2] was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation

  20. Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis; Rincón, Jesusa; Asencio, Isaac; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2007-01-01

    High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates. In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8.35 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1.51 to 5.13 microg g(-1) d.w. with lentil and lupine showing the highest values. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil (32.16 microg g(-1) d.w.) collected from a historical mining area (Almadén, Spain), the crop plants tested only reached shoot Hg concentration up to 1.13 microg g(-1) d.w. In the third experimental series, the Almadén soil was spiked with 1 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg; as a result, mercury concentrations in the plant shoots increased approximately 6 times for lupine, 5 times for chickpea, and 3.5 times for barley and lentil, with respect to those obtained with the original soil without Hg added. This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. The low mercury accumulation yields obtained for all plants do not make a successful decontamination of the Almadén soils possible byphytoremediation using crop plants. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.

  1. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  2. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Early prediction of 90Sr and 137Cs content in edible parts of crops and selection of plants with high uptake ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Shang Zhaorong

    1995-10-01

    The uptake characteristics to 90 Sr and 137 Cs of nine kinds of crops, including spring wheat, rice, soybean, vegetables etc., were studied from seedling to maturity. The change of 90 Sr content per unit of dry weight can be classified into two types--the 90 Sr content kept in the same level during the whole growing season and kept increasing with the growing period until it came to the maximum point at the time of maturity. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the aerial part of plants were mainly distributed in leaves, but the amounts in seeds and fruits were less. The content of 90 Sr decreased but the content of 137 Cs increased from young to old leaves. So it could be concluded that early prediction of the radioactive content of edible parts according to the content of young leaves was possible. Selection of 169 species in 18 families of plants with high uptake ability of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, which grow in Qinshan region near a nuclear power plant and in Beijing region, is also reported. (8 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.)

  4. 95 YEARS OF SERVICE OF THE NATIONAL VEGETABLE GROWING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Main achievements and progress of VNIISSOK’s scientists in field of vegetable breeding and seed production are presented in the article. More than 900 varieties of vegetable and flower crops were developed, among them 561 varieties were included into the State Register of selection inventions of Russia. The seed production of main vegetable and flower crops is carried out. Presales pretreatment of seeds and its sale are improved.

  5. Fluxo de poder no agronegócio: o caso das hortaliças Market power in agribusiness: the case of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlene J. Vilela

    2000-07-01

    to the entrepreneurial system, that congregates broad strategies aimed at profit maximization. In the last years, there has been a broad movement to reorganize agribusiness encouraged by advances in technology. On the one hand, the process of social persuasion has affected consumers and as a consequence has caused change of habits in relation to the consumption of new products. The information campaigns show the potential health risks caused by certain foods, since new products could affect economically all the productive chain. On the other hand, the diffusion of scientific research about the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables in relation to longevity and health hazards show the importance of consuming these products on a daily basis. The trends of the global market are to raise the standard of vegetable crops products to attend the consumer interest. The vegetable crops products market should be segmented into various components such as: frozen, organic, fresh cut and processed products. This means adding value in the marketing and processing stage, which could become ever more profitable and dynamic.

  6. Effect of vegetation structure on breeding territory selection by red-winged blackbirds in a floodplain forest restoration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria A. Furey; Dirk E. Burhans; Hong He; Michael A. Gold; Bruce E. Cutter

    2003-01-01

    Our research investigates the role of vegetation structure in the selection of breeding territories by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in two floodplain oak-restoration sites. Perches are used extensively by red-winged blackbirds in territorial display during the spring (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). We hypothesized that breeding territory...

  7. Using a descriptive social norm to increase vegetable selection in workplace restaurant settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason M; Ursell, Amanda; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Recent work has shown that exposure to social norm messages may enhance the consumption of vegetables. However, the majority of this work has been conducted in laboratories, often with student populations. Little is known about whether this approach can be successfully used in other contexts. In this study, a poster featuring a message based on social norms was tested to examine whether it could increase and maintain the purchase of meals with vegetables in workplace restaurants. A pretest-posttest design with 3 phases was used in 3 workplace restaurants in the United Kingdom. The first 2 weeks formed the preintervention phase, the second 2 weeks the intervention phase, and the last 2 weeks the postintervention phase. During the intervention phase only, posters containing a social norm message relaying information about vegetable purchases of other diners were placed in each restaurant. The main outcome measure was the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables, which was analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared test. Participants were judged to be male (57%), not overweight (75%), and under the age of 60 (98%). The intervention was positively associated with the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables: baseline versus intervention (60% vs. 64% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .01); intervention versus postintervention (64% vs. 67% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .01); and baseline versus postintervention (60% vs. 67% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .001). Social norm messages may increase the purchase of vegetables in workplace settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Selecting interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption: from policy to action, a planning framework case study in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Lewis, Janette M; Binns, Colin W

    2008-12-24

    The Department of Health in Western Australia identified access to, and daily consumption of recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, as priority health determinants. The numerous factors that influence supply and consumption of fruit and vegetables indicated that a comprehensive approach would be required.A government and non-government sector steering group was set up to select priority interventions using the National Public Health Partnership's Framework for Implementing Public Health Strategies. This structured framework was used for developing strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply, and to identify implementation priorities.After one year a desktop audit of progress on framework interventions was undertaken. The structured framework led to a plan for defined actions, partners, costs, and performance indicators for strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply. Lead agency custodians for management of the selected interventions were identified.After one year there was significant progress in the implementation of a number of the high-ranking interventions. The exception was interventions that provide the infrastructure support such as research and development capacity, information systems. A structured framework and stakeholder participation assisted in developing a fruit and vegetable implementation strategy. Engagement and commitment of influential and diverse stakeholders is needed, not just for program support, but particularly in the areas of food and nutrition policy development and providing the infrastructure support required. Further work is required to develop performance outcomes and cost effectiveness measures for many of the strategies that have been proposed to address portfolio objectives.

  9. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  10. Food bundling as a health nudge: Investigating consumer fruit and vegetable selection using behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathryn A; Samek, Anya; Zepeda, Lydia

    2018-02-01

    Displaying bundles of healthy foods at the grocery store is a health nudge that simplifies shopping and may have the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchasing. To evaluate the impact of food bundling, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with community participants in a laboratory set up as a grocery store. Dual-self theory suggests that food choices may differ depending on whether shoppers are under cognitive load - in our experiment, we exogenously vary whether bundles are displayed (with and without a price discount) and whether shoppers are under cognitive load. Our findings align with prior studies that suggest unhealthy options are more likely to be selected when cognitive resources are constrained. When bundles are displayed, we observe increased F&V purchasing. We also observe a significant interaction between cognitive load and price discounting. We find discounted bundles are more effective in the absence of cognitive load, but non-discounted bundles are more effective when shoppers are under cognitive load. Although more research is warranted, our findings suggest that when shopping under cognitive load, it is possible that discounts impose additional cognitive strain on the shopping experience. For retailers and policymakers, our results point to the potential power of bundling as a strategy for increasing healthy food purchasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection of anthropogenic features and vegetation characteristics by nesting Common Ravens in the sagebrush ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Common Raven (Corvus corax) numbers and distribution are increasing throughout the sagebrush steppe, influencing avian communities in complex ways. Anthropogenic structures are thought to increase raven populations by providing food and nesting subsidies, which is cause for concern because ravens are important nest predators of sensitive species, including Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). During 2007–2009, we located raven nests in southeastern Idaho and conducted a resource selection analysis. We measured variables at multiple spatial scales for 72 unique nest locations, including landscape-level vegetation characteristics and anthropogenic structures. Using generalized linear mixed models and an information-theoretic approach, we found a 31% decrease in the odds of nesting by ravens for every 1 km increase in distance away from a transmission line. Furthermore, a 100-m increase in distance away from the edge of two different land cover types decreased the odds of nesting by 20%, and an increase in the amount of edge by 1 km within an area of 102.1 ha centered on the nest increased the odds of nesting by 49%. A post hoc analysis revealed that ravens were most likely to nest near edges of adjoining big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and land cover types that were associated with direct human disturbance or fire. These findings contribute to our understanding of raven expansion into rural environments and could be used to make better-informed conservation decisions, especially in the face of increasing renewable energy development.

  12. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  13. Microbial antagonism as a potential solution for controlling selected root pathogens of crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Agnew, Linda; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Root pathogens of crops can cause large reduction in yield, however, there is a limited range of effective methods to control such pathogens. Soilborne pathogens that infect roots often need to survive in the rhizosphere, where there is high competition from other organisms. In such hot spots of microbial activity and growth, supported by root exudates, microbes have evolved antagonistic mechanisms that give them competitive advantages in winning the limited resources. Among these mechanisms is antibiosis, with production of some significant antifungal compounds including, antibiotics, volatile organic compounds, hydrogen cyanide and lytic enzymes. Some of these mechanisms may suppress disease through controlling the growth of root pathogens. In this project we isolated various fungi and bacteria that suppress the growth of cotton pathogens in vitro. The pathogen-suppressive microbes were isolated from cotton production soils that are under different management strategies, with and without the use of organic amendments. The potential of pathogen-suppressing microbes for controlling the black root rot disease, caused by the soilborne pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola, was confirmed using soil assays. We identified isolates with potential use as inoculant for cotton production in Australia. Having isolated a diverse group of antagonistic microbes enhances the probability that some would survive well in the soil and provide an alternative approach to address the problem of root disease affecting agricultural crops.

  14. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-11-10

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION OF WHEAT TO MODERN REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE III. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Vasileva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to conclude on adaptation of modern varieties to the requirements of sustainable agriculture and hence the effectiveness of their methods of selection with respect to these requirements. The comparison between genotypes in two directions - by the selection methods by which they were established and according to the time of their creation. Energy assessment shows that the gross energy yield of grain is higher ( in average 5% over standard for varieties produced by the methods of the Intervarietal hybridization and during the period 1995 to 1999. While absolute maximum values of the energy productivity of grain (at N18 and maximum average total gross energy productivity of crops (4% above standard were detected in genotypes generated by the methods of mutagenesis by irradiation with gamma rays. Absolute maximum value of the energy productivity of crops were reported in cultivar Zdravko (at N18, which was established by the method of plant biotechnology by combining and somaclonal variation.

  16. Preliminary investigations to assess the usefulness of Be-7 as a radiotracer in soil covered by vegetation [Activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Dercon, Gerd; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mabit, Lionel; Kis-Benedek, Gyula; Ceccatelli, Alessia; Tarjan, Sandor; Blake, William

    2014-01-01

    Different factors may affect the extent of radionuclides’ interception by plants and therewith their inventories in soil covered areas. In particular, there is interest in assessing the impact of the vegetation factor for different soil coverage conditions, when using 7 Be as radiotracer of soil redistribution in cropped farmland. Our results suggest that 7 Be foliar interception of bean plants is likely to affect the radionuclide inventories and their spatial uniformity in covered soil. Reliable results on short-term erosion using 7 Be can be obtained in cropped farmland with limited cover, but only when taking into account the interception factor. The impact of the interception factor is highly dependent on rainfall intensity and duration, crop species and the growing stage of the plants. Further investigations into these variables are required

  17. Preliminary investigations to assess the usefulness of Be-7 as a radiotracer in soil covered by vegetation [Activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Seibersdorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dercon, Gerd; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mabit, Lionel [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf (Austria); Kis-Benedek, Gyula; Ceccatelli, Alessia; Tarjan, Sandor [3Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, IAEA Environment Laboratories, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Blake, William [School of Geography, University of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom); others, and

    2014-07-15

    Different factors may affect the extent of radionuclides’ interception by plants and therewith their inventories in soil covered areas. In particular, there is interest in assessing the impact of the vegetation factor for different soil coverage conditions, when using {sup 7}Be as radiotracer of soil redistribution in cropped farmland. Our results suggest that {sup 7}Be foliar interception of bean plants is likely to affect the radionuclide inventories and their spatial uniformity in covered soil. Reliable results on short-term erosion using {sup 7}Be can be obtained in cropped farmland with limited cover, but only when taking into account the interception factor. The impact of the interception factor is highly dependent on rainfall intensity and duration, crop species and the growing stage of the plants. Further investigations into these variables are required.

  18. Heat-induced formation of mepiquat by decarboxylation of pipecolic acid and its betaine derivative. Part 2: Natural formation in cooked vegetables and selected food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpiperidinium) is a plant growth regulator registered for use as its chloride salt in many countries on cereals and other crops. Recent model system studies have shown that natural chemicals present in crop plants, such as pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, may furnish mepiquat through different chemical pathways, when subjected to temperatures in the range of 200°C. In this study, we cooked raw vegetables that did not contain mepiquat to a palatable state using different traditional cooking methods, and detected mepiquat in 9 out of 11 oven-cooked vegetables, reaching up to 189μg/kg dry wt in oven-cooked broccoli. Commercial oven potato fries generated mepiquat during cooking, typically in the range of 20-60μg/kg. Only traces of mepiquat (cooked vegetables, including potatoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cambios en la vegetacion de un campo abandonado despues de un cultivo de trigo Vegetation changes in a field abandoned after a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Irene Boccanelli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación prístina de los campos altos del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina son distintos tipos de flechillares caracterizados por la abundancia de varias especies del género Stipa. Cuando un campo agrícola se abandona suele revertir a las comunidades prístinas. El objeto de este trabajo es analizar los diez primeros años de la sucesión secundaria de un campo sometido a agricultura durante largo tiempo que se abandonó después de un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum. En el primer año aparece trigo acompañado de malezas anuales (Chenopodium album y Portulaca oleracea; después del primer año una parcela fue colonizada por Baccharis salicifolia y las otras por Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. Los últimos años constituyen una etapa en la que disminuye la diversidad y se establece una fuerte dominancia de Baccharis salicifolia o Carduus acanthoides. El Sorgo de Alepo (Sorghum halepense aparece en las etapas tempranas y perdura durante todo el período con valores altos de abundancia. Aún, prácticamente no han aparecido especies de los flechillares, por lo tanto se concluye que no ha transcurrido suficiente tiempo para que se regenere el flechillar, o porque sus especies no se encuentran en los bancos de semillas o en las proximidades.The natural vegetation of well drained fields of Southern Santa Fe (Argentina are a different kind of communities characterized by the abundance of several species of Stipa. When agricultural lands are abandoned, they are often recolonized by the original vegetation. The object of this paper is to analize the first ten years of secondary succession on a field under a long time of agriculture abandoned after a wheat crop. On the first year, wheat with annual weeds (Chenopodium album and Portulaca oleracea appeared. After the first year, one plot was colonized by Baccharis salicifolia and the others by Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. The last years

  20. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  1. Transfer factors of some selected radionuclides (radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn) from soil to leaf vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1995-01-01

    Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been studied by radiotracer experiments using Andosol as a representative of Japanese soils. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables (average of five vegetables) were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. These values should be used in safety assessment for Japanese agricultural environment. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. The distribution ratios of the elements between soil-solution and soil were in the order Sr>Mn>Cs>Co>Zn, whereas the distribution ratios of the elements between plant and soil-solution were in the order Zn>Cs>Mn>Co>Sr. These results indicate that the selectivity for Sr by plants from the soil-solution was low and that for Zn was very high. (author)

  2. Energy Crop-Based Biogas as Vehicle Fuel—The Impact of Crop Selection on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from six agricultural crops was analysed regarding energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG performance for vehicle fuel from a field-to-tank perspective, with focus on critical parameters and on calculation methods. The energy efficiency varied from 35% to 44%, expressed as primary energy input per energy unit vehicle gas produced. The GHG reduction varied from 70% to 120%, compared with fossil liquid fuels, when the GHG credit of the digestate produced was included through system expansion according to the calculation methodology in the ISO 14044 standard of life cycle assessment. Ley crop-based biogas systems led to the highest GHG reduction, due to the significant soil carbon accumulation, followed by maize, wheat, hemp, triticale and sugar beet. Critical parameters are biogenic nitrous oxide emissions from crop cultivation, for which specific emission factors for digestate are missing today, and methane leakage from biogas production. The GHG benefits were reduced and the interrelation between the crops changed, when the GHG calculations were instead based on the methodology stated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive, where crop contribution to soil carbon accumulation is disregarded. All systems could still reach a 60% GHG reduction, due to the improved agricultural management when digestate replaces mineral fertilisers.

  3. Effect of storage temperature and time on the vitamin C contents of selected fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.; Abdullah, N.; Alim-un-Nisa; Ejaz, N.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin C contents of 5 fruits and 7 vegetables, as a whole and in diced form, were determined by HPLC during cold storage. Results showed a decrease in vitamin C contents during 15 days refrigeration (7 deg. C) as well as freezing at -20 deg. C. It was found that fruits are more stable than vegetables since the rate of degradation of vitamin C was higher in vegetables as compared to fruits, either during freezing or refrigeration. During 15 days freezing, fruits showed a decrease of 41.05 - 51.44%, whereas, this loss augmented to 54.12 - 89.10% in vegetables. In addition to this, it was also observed that fruits and vegetables which have peels are less vulnerable to vitamin C degradation; the ratio of degradation of vitamin C in all the fruits studied and potato was not more than 51.44%. In fruits, apple was more susceptible and in vegetables, potato was more stable to vitamin C degradation. (author)

  4. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed. PMID:26504570

  5. Marker-assisted selection in crop and livestock improvement: how to strengthen national research capacity and international partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally recognized that marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a tool that breeders can use to accelerate the speed and precision of crop and livestock breeding in developing countries. However, its practical application has been more difficult than previously expected. Although advances in molecular marker technology have uncovered many possibilities for transferring genes into desired crops and livestock through MAS, more methodological development and better planning and implementation strategies will be needed for its successful and expeditious application to breeding programmes. Also, this technology should not be regarded as an end in itself, but as an interacting part of complex strategies and decision-making processes. An appropriate mix of technologies and capabilities together with effective approaches to networking must be viewed as key ingredients for its correct development and application to breeding programmes. This chapter describes some strategies to guide decisions about structures, methods and capacities that may contribute to enhancing the access and successful use of MAS in developing countries. (author)

  6. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  7. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  8. 蔬菜连作改为蓝莓种植后土壤细菌群落多样性变化的分析%Changes in Soil Bacterial Community Diversity Caused by Cropping System Alteration from Vegetable Continuous Cropping to Blueberry Planting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁石刚; 田畅; 却枫; 徐志胜; 王枫; 熊爱生

    2016-01-01

    基于第二代Illumina Miseq高通量测序平台,利用16S rDNA技术分析了江苏省宿迁市蔬菜连作改为蓝莓种植后土壤细菌多样性的分布和细菌群落多样性的变化。结果表明:Kaistobacter、假交替单胞菌属( Pseud oaltre omno as)、硫杆状菌属( Thiobacillus)、Rubritalea、浮霉菌属( Planctomyces)、Lysobacter、纤维弧菌属( Cellvibrio)、噬氢菌属( Hdy roeg nohp a-ga )、鞘脂单胞菌属( Sphingomona s)和热单胞菌属( Thermomonas)为蔬菜连作改为蓝莓种植后土壤细菌的主要类群; Spo-rosarcina、Alicyclobacillus、氨氧化古细菌( Candidatus nitrososphaera)和P ontibatc er是蔬菜连作土壤细菌的主要类群;蔬菜连作改为种植蓝莓后,土壤细菌多样性和丰度降低,优势菌群也出现了显著的变化。%Based on the second-generation high-throughput sequencing platform Illumina Miseq , using the 16S rDNA gene sequencing technology, the author analyzed the changes in soil bacterial community diversity caused by the cropping system altera-tion from vegetable continuous cropping to blueberry planting in Suqian city of Jiangsu province .The results showed that:Kaisto-bacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Thiobacillus, Rubrti alea, Planctomyces, Lysobacter, Cellvibrio, Hydrogenophaga, Sphingomonas and Thermomonas were the dominant bacterial populations in the soil after cropping system alteration from vegetable continuous crop-ping to blueberry planting;Sporosarcina, Alicyclobacillus, Cand idatus nitrososphaera and Pontbi acter were the dominant bacterial populations in the soil of continuous-cropping vegetable field;after the alteration from vegetable continuous cropping to blueberry planting, the diversity and abundance of soil bacteria were reduced , and the dominant bacterial community also changed obvious-ly.

  9. Quantification of inorganic arsenic exposure and cancer risk via consumption of vegetables in southern selected districts of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Qin, Kun; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Din, Islamud

    2016-01-01

    Human exposures to arsenic (As) through different pathways (dietary and non-dietary) are considered to be one of the primary worldwide environmental health risks to humans. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of As in soil and vegetable samples collected from agricultural lands located in selected southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, Pakistan. We examined the concentrations of total arsenic (TAs), organic species of As such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), and inorganic species including arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) in both soil and vegetable. The data were used to determine several parameters to evaluate human health risk, including bioconcentration factor (BCF) from soil to plant, average daily intake (ADI), health risk index (HRI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The total As concentration in soil samples of the five districts ranged from 3.0-3.9 mg kg−1, exhibiting minimal variations from site to site. The mean As concentration in edible portions of vegetable samples ranged from 0.03-1.38 mg kg−1. It was observed that As concentrations in 75% of the vegetable samples exceeded the safe maximum allowable limit (0.1 mg kg−1) set by WHO/FAO. The highest value of ADI for As was measured for M. charantia, while the lowest was for A. chinense. The results of this study revealed minimal health risk (HI vegetables for the local inhabitants. The ILTCR values for inorganic As indicated a minimal potential cancer risk through ingestion of vegetables. In addition, the HQ values for total As were <1, indicating minimal non-cancer risk. PMID:26820935

  10. Structure of Corrective Feedback for Selection of Ineffective Vegetable Parenting Practices for Use in a Simulation Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Beltran, Alicia; Chen, Tzu-An; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice

    2013-02-01

    A serious videogame is being developed to train parents of preschool children in selecting and using parenting practices that are likely to encourage their child to eat more vegetables. The structure of feedback to the parents on their selection may influence what they learn from the game. Feedback Intervention Theory provides some guidance on the design of such messages. The structure of preferred performance feedback statements has not been investigated within serious videogames. Two feedback formats were tested for a player's preferences within the context of this videogame. Based on Feedback Intervention Theory, which proposes that threat to self-concept impairs feedback response, three-statement (a nonaffirming comment sandwiched between two affirming comments, called "Oreo" feedback, which should minimize threat to self-concept) and two-statement (a nonaffirming comment followed by an affirming comment) performance feedbacks were tailored to respondents. Tailoring was based on participants' report of frequency of use of effective and ineffective vegetable parenting practices and the reasons for use of the ineffective practices. Participants selected their preference between the two forms of feedback for each of eight ineffective vegetable parenting practices. In general, mothers ( n =81) (no male respondents) slightly preferred the "Oreo" feedback, but the pattern of preferences varied by demographic characteristics. Stronger relationships by income suggest the feedback structure should be tailored to family income. Future research with larger and more diverse samples needs to test whether perceived threat to self-concept mediates the response to feedback and otherwise verify these findings.

  11. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  12. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Traits and selection strategies to improve root systems and water uptake in water-limited wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, A P; Richards, R A; Chatrath, R; Misra, S C; Prasad, S V Sai; Rebetzke, G J; Kirkegaard, J A; Christopher, J; Watt, M

    2012-05-01

    Wheat yields globally will depend increasingly on good management to conserve rainfall and new varieties that use water efficiently for grain production. Here we propose an approach for developing new varieties to make better use of deep stored water. We focus on water-limited wheat production in the summer-dominant rainfall regions of India and Australia, but the approach is generally applicable to other environments and root-based constraints. Use of stored deep water is valuable because it is more predictable than variable in-season rainfall and can be measured prior to sowing. Further, this moisture is converted into grain with twice the efficiently of in-season rainfall since it is taken up later in crop growth during the grain-filling period when the roots reach deeper layers. We propose that wheat varieties with a deeper root system, a redistribution of branch root density from the surface to depth, and with greater radial hydraulic conductivity at depth would have higher yields in rainfed systems where crops rely on deep water for grain fill. Developing selection systems for mature root system traits is challenging as there are limited high-throughput phenotyping methods for roots in the field, and there is a risk that traits selected in the lab on young plants will not translate into mature root system traits in the field. We give an example of a breeding programme that combines laboratory and field phenotyping with proof of concept evaluation of the trait at the beginning of the selection programme. This would greatly enhance confidence in a high-throughput laboratory or field screen, and avoid investment in screens without yield value. This approach requires careful selection of field sites and years that allow expression of deep roots and increased yield. It also requires careful selection and crossing of germplasm to allow comparison of root expression among genotypes that are similar for other traits, especially flowering time and disease and toxicity

  14. Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Butt, M.T.; Iqubal, K.; Shafiq, T.

    2010-01-01

    Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

  15. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  16. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  17. Nitrogen mineralization from selected 15N-labelled crop residues and humus as affected by inorganic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cover crops or crop residues as a source of N to succeeding crops has become a matter of increasing importance for economic and environmental reason. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the N contribution of four 15 N labelled crop residues, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium encarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa L.), to successive crops and to evaluate the effect of different organic (ON) and inorganic N (IN) combinations on mineralization of the above residues. Total 15 N recovery from the residues ranged from 51% to 85% and 4% to 74% for the greenhouse and field studies, respectively

  18. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M.; Maleki, A.

    2009-01-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  19. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M; Maleki, A

    2009-07-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  20. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes: An assessment of natural vegetation, environmental, and crop analogs. [Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateaus, Northern Great Valley (CA), and Louisiana Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, C. E.; Welch, R. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was performed to develop and test a procedure for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems in the semi-arid and wood regions of the Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateau areas, and for the estimating of rice crop production in the Northern Great Valley (Ca.) and the Louisiana Coastal Plain. ERTS-1 and high flight and low flight aerial photos were used in a visual photointerpretation scheme to identify vegetation complexes, map acreages, and evaluate crop vigor and stress. Results indicated that the vegetation analog concept is valid; that depending on the kind of vegetation and its density, analogs are interpretable at different levels in the hierarchical classification from second to the fourth level. The second level uses physiognomic growth form-structural criteria, and the fourth level uses floristic or taxonomic criteria, usually at generic level. It is recommended that analog comparisons should be made in relatively small test areas where large homogeneous examples can be found of each analog.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Selected Crops in Zanjan Urban and Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are types of elements naturally present in soil or enter into soil as a result of human activities. The most important route of exposure to heavy metals is daily intake of food. Crops grown in contaminated soil (due to mining activities, industrial operations and agriculture may contain high concentrations of heavy metals. Also closeness to cities and industrial centers can have a great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals to agricultural products grown in the region. The study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products around urban and industrial areas of Zanjan province (North West of Iran and consumption hazard probability. Materials and Methods: Soil (75 samples of soil from a depth of 0 to 10 cm and plant (101 samples samples, in the summer 2011, were randomly taken from industrial areas as follow: tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum M, wheat seed (Triticum vulgare, barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare, alfalfa shoots (Medicago sativa L., potato tubers (Solanumtuberosum L., apple fruit, vegetables and fruits such as Dill (Aniethum graveolens L., leek (Allium porrum L., Gardencress (Barbara verna L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Plant samples were then washed with distilled water, oven dried for48 hours at a temperature of 70 ´C until constant weight was attained and then they digested using 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl and nitric acid digestion in 5 M. Concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and crops were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. DTPA extraction of metals by Lindsay and Norvell (1978 method and sequential extraction method by Tessier et al. (1979 were performed. Statistical analysis was accomplished using the software SPSS 16.0 and the comparison of mean values was done using the Duncan test at the 5% level of significance. Results and Discussion: The magnitude of variations for total copper was from 11.5 to 352.5 (average 52.4, zinc was from 96

  2. Influence of High-Pressure Processing on the Profile of Polyglutamyl 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Selected Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native γ-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

  3. Crop yield, genetic parameter estimation and selection of sacha inchi in central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mágno Sávio Ferreira Valente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, sacha inchi oil is produced by hand from plant materials with no breeding or detailed information about the chemical composition of seeds. In addition, most of the current information on the agronomic traits of this species originates from research carried out in the Peruvian Amazon. In order to promote the research and cultivation of sacha inchi in the Brazilian territory, this study aimed to analyze, in the central Amazon region, different accessions of this oilseed for characteristics of production and quality of fruits and seeds, as well as to estimate genetic parameters, through mixed models, with identification of superior accessions, for breeding purposes. A total of 37 non-domesticated accessions were evaluated in a randomized block design, with five replications and two plants per plot. The average oil content in seeds was 29.07 % and unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 91.5 % of the total fat content. For the yield traits, the estimates of individual broad-sense heritability were moderate (~0.33, while the heritability based on the average of progenies resulted in a selective accuracy of approximately 0.85. The use of the selection index provided simultaneous gains for yield traits (> 40 % and oil yield. A high genetic variability was observed for the main traits of commercial interest for the species, as well as promising perspectives for the development of superior varieties for agro-industrial use.

  4. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  5. Toward integration of genomic selection with crop modelling: the development of an integrated approach to predicting rice heading dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Watanabe, Maya; Mochizuki, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    It is suggested that accuracy in predicting plant phenotypes can be improved by integrating genomic prediction with crop modelling in a single hierarchical model. Accurate prediction of phenotypes is important for plant breeding and management. Although genomic prediction/selection aims to predict phenotypes on the basis of whole-genome marker information, it is often difficult to predict phenotypes of complex traits in diverse environments, because plant phenotypes are often influenced by genotype-environment interaction. A possible remedy is to integrate genomic prediction with crop/ecophysiological modelling, which enables us to predict plant phenotypes using environmental and management information. To this end, in the present study, we developed a novel method for integrating genomic prediction with phenological modelling of Asian rice (Oryza sativa, L.), allowing the heading date of untested genotypes in untested environments to be predicted. The method simultaneously infers the phenological model parameters and whole-genome marker effects on the parameters in a Bayesian framework. By cultivating backcross inbred lines of Koshihikari × Kasalath in nine environments, we evaluated the potential of the proposed method in comparison with conventional genomic prediction, phenological modelling, and two-step methods that applied genomic prediction to phenological model parameters inferred from Nelder-Mead or Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In predicting heading dates of untested lines in untested environments, the proposed and two-step methods tended to provide more accurate predictions than the conventional genomic prediction methods, particularly in environments where phenotypes from environments similar to the target environment were unavailable for training genomic prediction. The proposed method showed greater accuracy in prediction than the two-step methods in all cross-validation schemes tested, suggesting the potential of the integrated approach in

  6. Using VEGETATION satellite data and the crop model STICS-Prairie to estimate pasture production at the national level in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, C.; Faivre, R.; Ruget, F.; Seguin, B.

    In France, pastures constitute an important land cover type, sustaining principally husbandry production. The absence of low-cost methods applicable to large regions has conducted to the use of simulation models, as in the ISOP system. Remote sensing data may be considered as a potential tool to improve a correct diagnosis in a real time framework. Thirteen forage regions (FR) of France, differing in their soil, climatic and productive characteristics were selected for this purpose. SPOT4-VEGETATION images have been used to provide, using subpixel estimation models, the spectral signature corresponding to pure pasture conditions. This information has been related with some growth variables estimated by STICS-Prairie model (inside ISOP system). Beyond the good general agreement between the two types of data, we found that the best relations were observed between NDVI middle infrared based index (SWVI) and leaf area index. The results confirm the capacities of the satellite data to provide complementary productive variables and help to identify the spatial and temporal differences between satellite and model information, mainly during the harvesting periods. This could contribute to improve the evaluations of the model on a regional scale.

  7. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  8. Proximate composition, minerals and vitamins content of selected vegetables grown in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, J.A.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, F.; Amin-ur-Rrahma; Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ten vegetables namely Pot purslane, Spinach, Turnip, Garlic, Mustard (Sarson), Radish, Bitter gourd, Lady finger, Bath sponge and Brinjal were analyzed for their proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents to evaluate their importance in human nutrition. The results showed that almost all vegetables contain appreciable amount of essential nutrients. The maximum content of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash recorded in these vegetables was (92.50 %, 26.88 %, 5.0%, 0.40%, 1.4% and 1.9%), respectively, with a minimum content (66.80 %, 3.91 %, 0.7%, 0.08%, 0.4% and 0.38%), respectively. Maximum concentration of macro minerals K, Ca, Mg, and Na, observed was (400, 210, 109, and 55) mg/100 g, respectively, with a minimum concentration (26, 15, 17, and 10) mg/100 g, respectively. Maximum concentration of micro minerals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr observed was (29, 0.33, 3.05, 1.70, and 0.36) mg/100 g with a minimum concentration (2, 0.05, 0.43, 0.21, and 0.06) mg/100 g, respectively. Maximum concentration of water soluble vitamins i.e. thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid recorded was (0.280, 0.190, 0.69, and 65) mg/100 g with a minimum concentration (0.011, 0.015, 0.23, and 4.00) mg/100 g, respectively. From this study it can be concluded that consumption of vegetables in different combinations could provide a reasonable daily recommended amount of essential nutrients for the maintenance of healthy life and normal body functioning. (author)

  9. Influence of Soil Based Growing Media on Vegetative Propagation of Selected Cultivars of Olea Europaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. I.; Ashraf, M. I.; Malik, S. U.; Husaain, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Pothwar region of Pakistan is a natural habitat of Olea spp. There is a high demand of certified olive plants to establish olive orchids in the region, because native wild species are non-fruit bearing. Plants of certified fruit bearing olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars are rarely available. Vegetative propagation of olive is highly responsive to texture of soil based growing media. This study examined the effect of growing media composition (soil texture and nutrients) on vegetative propagation of five cultivars of olive. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors factorial having 25 repeats of each four treatments. Plant growth and survival data were collected and analyzed for the influence of soil attributes. In sandy loam soil, cv. Bari-1 had 82 percent plant survival, highest number of roots per plant (3.5), and longest root length (13.01 cm). Highest number of shoots per plant (4.25) and maximum shoot length (15.64 cm) were also recorded for Bari-1 with sandy loam growing media. Silt loam soil is least suitable growing media for vegetative propagation of olive. In the silt loam soil, plants survival rate was 59 percent for cv. Gemlik, number of roots per plant was 1.5 for cv. Ottobrattica, minimum root length 5.65 cm, minimum number of shoots per plant one, and minimum shoot length 7.42 cm were recorded for cv. Pendolino with silt loam soil. Results suggested that sandy loam growing media is better than the others for vegetative propagation of olive. Cultivar Bari-1 performed better than the others examined in this study by indicating highest (1) survival percentage, (2) root and shoot length, and (3) number of roots and shoots produced within a specific period of time. (author)

  10. Team-up Crop Diversification and Weed Management: PRODIVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerowitt, B.; Melander, B.; Krawczyk, R.

    2015-01-01

    The research-network PRODIVA focuses on a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European arable cropping systems. The goal is to maintain diverse arable weed vegetation that is manageable in the long-term and could fulfil other necessary systemfunctions including...... support of beneficial organisms. The partners in PRODIVA will synthesize knowledge from terminated and running research projects and set-up selected new experiments on cover crops and variety resp. crop mixtures. Moreover, we will interact with partners from farming practice and extension services...... in organic agriculture. Regional fields will be surveyed for weeds to safeguard the relevance of the experimental research. Current cropping practices and their influence on weed pressure and weed diversity will be identified. The project will involve relevant stakeholders from the participating countries...

  11. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire M.; Mestrot, Adrien; Feldmann, Joerg; Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  12. Selected trace metal levels in common vegetables grown in NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, K.; Jaffar, M.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen vegetables procured from local markets of Peshawar and its suburbs were analyzed using wet digestion atomic absorption method for Fe, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Ni. The families investigated were: Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Umbelliferae and Zingiberaceae. The heavy metal data are reported at 99%(- + 2S) confidence level for triplicate measurements on sub samples of a given sample with an overall reproducibility of 2% compared with standard material samples. Comparison of averages through t-test indicates that each vegetable group is distinctly different from the other in terms of metal content. Maximum iron was present in garlic, at 4.585 mu g/g, dry weight (edible part-stem) of the Liliacease family. Arsenic was found to be below detection limit in all the vegetable groups. Lead levels were quite low, maximum concentration (0.0200 mu g/g, dry weight) was found in karaila (edible part-fruit). Mercury levels were relatively higher, with maximum concentration (2.590 mu g/g, dry weight) in gem (edible part-stem). The levels of nickel were moderately higher, being maximum (2.375 mu g/g dry weight) in karaila. The overall content of trace metals appeared to be within laid down internationally for safe human consumption, with only a few exceptions. (author)

  13. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  14. Land use changes and plantation crop development in selected provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Most institutions stated that biofuel will not qualify the standard of GHG emission reduction if it was produced in the plantation associated with the forest conversion. Therefore, knowing previous land use before the development of plantation is very important. In Indonesia, plantation development occurs mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. A number of studies had been published showing historical LUCC before plantation development. Objective of this study was to review various studies on LUCC carried out in four selected provinces, namely West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, and Riau. The analysis and comparison was based on the different source of historical data including online spatial data sources and various studies published in various journals. Each data source of LUCC shows significant variation on the amount of plantation developed directly from forest and other land use types. But, our review showed that the plantation areas associated with the forest cover changes far less than those claimed by several international journals. But, the debate concerning which plantation developments indirectly contributed to LUCC and which are directly will probably continue until the information on the land ownership and history of plantation development is available publicly.

  15. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  16. Structure of Corrective Feedback for Selection of Ineffective Vegetable Parenting Practices for Use in a Simulation Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; Chen, Tzu-An; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A serious videogame is being developed to train parents of preschool children in selecting and using parenting practices that are likely to encourage their child to eat more vegetables. The structure of feedback to the parents on their selection may influence what they learn from the game. Feedback Intervention Theory provides some guidance on the design of such messages. The structure of preferred performance feedback statements has not been investigated within serious videogames. Two feedback formats were tested for a player's preferences within the context of this videogame. Based on Feedback Intervention Theory, which proposes that threat to self-concept impairs feedback response, three-statement (a nonaffirming comment sandwiched between two affirming comments, called “Oreo” feedback, which should minimize threat to self-concept) and two-statement (a nonaffirming comment followed by an affirming comment) performance feedbacks were tailored to respondents. Tailoring was based on participants' report of frequency of use of effective and ineffective vegetable parenting practices and the reasons for use of the ineffective practices. Participants selected their preference between the two forms of feedback for each of eight ineffective vegetable parenting practices. In general, mothers (n=81) (no male respondents) slightly preferred the “Oreo” feedback, but the pattern of preferences varied by demographic characteristics. Stronger relationships by income suggest the feedback structure should be tailored to family income. Future research with larger and more diverse samples needs to test whether perceived threat to self-concept mediates the response to feedback and otherwise verify these findings. PMID:24761320

  17. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  18. Dissipation and distribution of chlorpyrifos in selected vegetables through foliage and root uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Lu, Mengxiao; Wang, Donglan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Xianjin; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    Dissipation, distribution and uptake pathways of chlorpyrifos were investigated in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with foliage treatments under a greenhouse trial and root treatments under a hydroponic experiment. The dissipation trends were similar for chlorpyrifos in pakchoi and lettuce with different treatments. More than 94% of chlorpyrifos was degraded in the samples for both of the vegetables 21 days after the foliage treatments. For the root treatment, the dissipation rate of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi and lettuce at the low concentration was greater than 93%, however, for the high concentrations, the dissipation rates were all under 90%. Both shoots and roots of the vegetables were able to absorb chlorpyrifos from the environment and distribute it inside the plants. Root concentration factor (RCF) values at different concentrations with the hydroponic experiment ranged from 5 to 39 for pakchoi, and from 14 to 35 for lettuce. The translocation factor (TF) representing the capability of the vegetables to translocate contaminants was significantly different for pakchoi and lettuce with foliage and root treatments. The values of TF with foliage treatments ranged from 0.003 to 0.22 for pakchoi, and from 0.032 to 1.63 for lettuce. The values of TF with root treatments ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 for pakchoi, and from 0.003 to 0.23 for lettuce. Significant difference of TF was found between pakchoi and lettuce with foliage treatments, and at high concentrations (10 and 50 mg L(-1)) with root treatments as well. However, there was no significant difference of TF between pakchoi and lettuce at 1 mg L(-1) with root treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SELECTED ISSUES OF COMPETITIVENESS POTENTIAL OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING COMPANIES LOCATED IN THE WIELKOPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smoluk-Sikorska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses results of the research concerning potential and strategy of competitiveness of companies of fruit and vegetable processing industry located in the Wielkopolskie voivodeship. Special attention was paid to the assessment of the companies’ financial situation, their production resources, management system and adopted development strategies. The investigated companies are characterised by strong domestic market position, which is mainly results of the assessment of their financial situation. They asses competitiveness potential very high, particularly human resources and related with them management skills. Furthermore, most of the companies assess the use of strategy of quality control and specialisation strategy as high or very high.

  20. High-Throughput Screening of Sensory and Nutritional Characteristics for Cultivar Selection in Commercial Hydroponic Greenhouse Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. K. Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic greenhouse-grown and store-bought cultivars of tomato (cherry and beefsteak, cucumbers, bibb lettuce, and arugula were investigated to see if they could be distinguished based on sensory qualities and phytonutrient composition. Only the more dominant sensory criteria were sufficiently robust to distinguish between cultivars and could form the core of a consolidated number of criteria in a more discriminating sensory evaluation test. Strong determinants for cultivar selection within each crop included the following: mineral analysis (particularly Cu, Fe, K, Mg, and P; total carotenoids (particularly β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein; total carbohydrate (except in arugula; organic acids; total phenolics and total anthocyanins (except in cucumber. Hydroponically grown and store-bought produce were of similar quality although individual cultivars varied in quality. Storage at 4°C for up to 6 days did not affect phytonutrient status. From this, we conclude that “freshness,” while important, has a longer duration than the 6 days used in our study. Overall, the effect of cultivar was more important than the effect of growing method or short-term storage at 4°C under ideal storage conditions.

  1. Selecting novel material of vegetable pea for mechanical harvesting and canning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaigorodova Irina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of novel pea cultivars is of significant interest in scope of increasing food shortages. The cultivars of new generation have to be highly technological and appropriate for mechanical treatment in all stages of planting. To provide higher outcome of plant products, pea is to be harvested for prolonged seasonal period, i.e. bred for conveyor usage. In this paper we presented the results of preliminary investigation of pea germplasm collection and studies on inheritance of flowering time in a series of crosses. We evaluated all hybrid progeny for duration of vegetation, lodging resistance and seed mass. Seven maturity groups were emphasized with most of obtained lines exhibiting an average duration of vegetation period measured as number of sterile nodes (11-15 for average fraction. As a result of this survey, the prospective genotypes for breeding new forms resistant to lodging and suitable for mechanical harvest were isolated. We propose a scheme of conveyor usage of new forms for sustainable delivery of stock for conversion industry. The obtained material is recommended for further improvement as the initial material for breeding.

  2. Concentrations of radionuclides and selected stable elements in fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two types of fruits and vegetables collected from two commercial supermarkets have been analyzed for their radionuclidic and stable-element composition. A specific gamma-emitting isotope analysis was performed on each sample for 40 K, 60 Co, 95 Zr-Nb, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 232 Th. The concentration of the stable elements in each sample were determined using multi-element neutron-activation analysis (Al, Ag, Au, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mn, Mo, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Zn, Zr) and atomic absorption (Cd, Ni, Pb). Information on the composition of a typical diet is used to estimate the radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fruits and vegetables. The stable-elemental compositions of the foodstuffs analyzed were compared with estimated values assuming foliar deposition and long-term buildup of effluents from a large modern coal-fired steam plant. It is tentatively concluded that for the general case of a precipitator-equipped, coal-fired steam plant, no toxic levels of trace elements in foodstuffs are expected as a result of the plant operation

  3. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The result of a two-stages cross intra and interspecific selection of sugar cane crop potential clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwati A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of strategic and important food commodities in Indonesia because it is the main source of sugar producers. Domestic sugar production in 2015 only reached 2.5 million tons, while its needs are 5.6 million tons which resulting in a shortage of 3.1 million tons to be met from import. The production in 2016 just reached 2.5 million tons causing the shortages that must be filled by import as much as 3.1 million tons. The Ministry of Agriculture has a program for sugar self-sufficiency that is expected to be achieved by 2014 with production is expected to reach 5.7 million tons. The discrepancy between production levels at this time with the target in 2014 still quite wide. The target accession can be reached by intensification and land extension or expansion. The availability of land development with the availability of adequate water has to face obstacles competing with rice plant as the main staple food. In 2007 more than 60% sugar cane crop was in dry land (Hadisaputro, et al., 2008. The expansion of dry land still has an opportunity to be developed in various ways such as the availability of sugar cane varieties with drought resistant. The research objectives are to accomplish the drought resistant selection in the field to the result of crossbreeding clones in 2014 (MLG-14. The activities implemented in KP. Karangploso, Malang, started on January until December 2016. The research materials are 51 crop clones of two stage selection which 7 varieties are PSDK, PSJT 941, PS 881, PSJK, VMC 76-16, GLAGAH, ERIANTHUS, CENING, BL, and PS 881 as a control. Using a randomized block design with three replication were planted in plots consisting of three arc along the 5 m. The PKP range (from center to center of arc are 100 cm length. The range between replications is 2.5 – 3 cm length. The seeds form is a one eye mule (bud set. Furthermore, after 1.5 month old, the seeds were selected based on its uniformly conditions and then planted in

  5. Radionuclide content of selected root vegetables as influenced by culinary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Doswell, A.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    A greenhouse study involving root vegetables (carrot, red beet, and turnips) was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of culinary processing (light washing, scrubbing, and peeling) on the radionuclide content of the edible portions. In terms of concentration ratio of the radionuclides left in roots after peeling, the trend follows: 90 Sr> 137 Cs>> 234 U congruent with 238 U≥ 238 Pu. The actinide contents in the roots were apparently due to surface adherence of the contaminated soil particulates as indicated by the diminution of the contents upon brushing the surface, which were further decreased by peeling the skin. Rigorous culinary processing of roots, such as scrubbing or peeling, could substantially diminish the contents of the actinides, but not of the more mobile 90 Sr and 137 Cs

  6. Radionuclide content of selected root vegetables as influenced by culinary preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriano, D.C.; Doswell, A.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study involving root vegetables (carrot, red beet, and turnips) was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of culinary processing (light washing, scrubbing, and peeling) on the radionuclide content of the edible portions. In terms of concentration ratio of the radionuclides left in roots after peeling, the trend follows: {sup 90}Sr>{sup 137}Cs>>{sup 234}U congruent with {sup 238}U{>=}{sup 238}Pu. The actinide contents in the roots were apparently due to surface adherence of the contaminated soil particulates as indicated by the diminution of the contents upon brushing the surface, which were further decreased by peeling the skin. Rigorous culinary processing of roots, such as scrubbing or peeling, could substantially diminish the contents of the actinides, but not of the more mobile {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs.

  7. Use of Plastic Mulch for Vegetable Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Tiffany; Drost, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic mulches are used commercially for both vegetables and small fruit crops. Vegetable crops well suited for production with plastic mulch are typically high value row crops. This fact sheet describes the advantages, disadvantages, installation, and planting considerations. It includes sources for plastic and equipment.

  8. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  9. Crop biometric maps: the key to prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-09-23

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular "identity." This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  10. TARGET MARKET SELECTION IN FRESH FRUIT-VEGETABLE SECTOR USING FUZZY VIKOR METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Tosun, Nedret

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Companieshave to open up to new markets in order to develop and increase theircompetitiveness in the face of globalization and technological revolution.Target market selection is an important issue that needs to be addressed withpriority in terms of efficient use of resources. Methodology- The problemof market selection is a multi-criteria decision-making problem due to itsnature which requires the evaluation of different and sometimes conflictingcriteria in the decision-making proce...

  11. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Kohl, Jurgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C.; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such

  12. Sublethal effects of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium on crops and wild plants: short-term effects compared to vegetative recovery and plant reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline

    2010-10-01

    Current guidelines for phytotoxicity testing rely heavily on short-term testing of primarily crop species to predict the sensitivity of non-target, wild plants to herbicides. However, little is known on how plants recover following initial growth inhibitions in standard 14-28 day greenhouse tests conducted for pesticide assessment and registration. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability of plant species to recover (biomass and reproduction) when tested at the juvenile stage (routine regulatory testing), comparing crop and wild species and using the herbicide glufosinate ammonium. Ten crops and 10 wild species were tested with a one-time exposure to glufosinate ammonium in a greenhouse. Half the plants of each species (9 doses × 6 replicates) were harvested 3 weeks after being sprayed (short-term). The remaining plants were harvested several weeks later, coinciding with seed set or natural senescence (long-term). Total aboveground biomass and several endpoints related to crop production and plant reproduction were measured. Calculated IC50 values (dosage that results in a 50% decrease in the biomass of a plant as compared to the untreated controls) based solely on aboveground biomass, for species harvested in the long-term were generally higher than those obtained in the short-term (with two exceptions), indicating recovery over time. Crop species did not differ from wild species in terms of sensitivity. However, in seven out of 12 cases where reproduction was measurable, reproductive endpoints were more sensitive than either short or long-term biomass endpoints, indicating the importance of examining these parameters in phytotoxicity testing. Glufosinate ammonium was found to be phytotoxic at low doses (2.64-7.74% g ai/ha of the label rate).

  13. Transfer factors of radionuclides from Andosols to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of some selected radionuclides from Andosols, a typical soil type in Japan, to several crops (leaf vegetables and root vegetables) have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Cabbages, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce were used as leaf vegetables and radish, carrot and turnip were used as root vegetables. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 125 I for edible parts of leaf vegetables were 0.11, 0.24, 0.046, 0.60, 0.51 and 0.0054, respectively. Respective values for edible parts of root vegetables were 0.02, 0.14, 0.004. 0.09, 0.13 and 0.0022. The obtained TFs were, in most cases in the order Mn, Zn, Sr>Cs>Co>I. The TFs of 125 I were much lower than the other nuclides. The transfer factors obtained for the edible part of root vegetables were markedly lower than those for leaf vegetables. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn for leaf vegetables were generally higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In the root vegetables, TFs for leaf parts were typically higher than those for tubers. (author)

  14. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanouar, Sara; Combès, Audrey; Mezzache, Sakina; Pichon, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    The increasing use of pesticides in agriculture causes environmental issues and possible serious health risks to humans and animals. Their determination at trace concentrations in vegetable oils constitutes a significant analytical challenge. Therefore, their analysis often requires both an extraction and a purification step prior to separation with liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. This work aimed at developing sorbents that are able to selectively extract from vegetable oil samples several organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides presenting a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Therefore, different conditions were screened to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by a non-covalent approach. The selectivity of the resulting polymers was evaluated by studying the OPs retention in pure media on both MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIP) used as control. The most promising MIP sorbent was obtained using monocrotophos (MCP) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker with a molar ratio of 1/4/20 respectively. The repeatability of the extraction procedure and of the synthesis procedure was demonstrated in pure media. The capacity of this MIP was 1mg/g for malathion. This MIP was also able to selectively extract three OPs from almond oil by applying the optimized SPE procedure. Recoveries were between 73 and 99% with SD values between 4 and 6% in this oil sample. The calculated LOQs (between 0.3 and 2μg/kg) in almond seeds with a SD between 0.1 and 0.4μg/kg were lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established for the corresponding compounds in almond seed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selected Chemical Properties of Soybean Rhizosphere Soil as Influenced by Cropping Systems, Rhizobium Inoculation, and the Supply of Phosphorus and Potassium after Two Consecutive Cropping Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nyoki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in northern Tanzania to assess the effects of intercropping systems, Rhizobium inoculation, and fertilization with P and K on chemical properties of soybean rhizosphere soil. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with 2 × 4 × 7 factorial arrangement replicated thrice. The main plots had two inoculation treatments and the subplots were comprised of four cropping systems which were sole maize, sole soybean, and two intercropping at different soybean spacing (75 × 20 and 75 × 40 cm. The fertilizer levels (kg/ha control (0 kg/ha; 20 K; 40 K; 26 P; 52 P; 26 P + 20 K; and 52 P + 40 K were assigned to sub-subplots. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Least Significant Difference was used to compare treatment means at p=0.05 significance level. The results indicated that rhizosphere soil chemical properties such as pH, organic carbon (OC, and macro- and micronutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, and Na and Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, resp. were significantly increased in the Rhizobium inoculated soybean over the control. The supply of P and K fertilizers significantly increased the rhizosphere content of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, and Mg and also they altered the pH and EC of the rhizosphere soil relative to control.

  16. Effect of greenhouse micro-climate on the selected summer vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.P.; Lal, T.; Gupta, Y.P.; Hans, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The study deals with creating suitable environment for the germination and subsequent growth of plants in the greenhouse of size 7 m x 3 m x 2 m for raising early summer vegetable nursery. It was observed that the average air temperature inside the greenhouse was 10–12°C higher than the ambient air temperature. Inside average soil temperature was also 5–7°C higher than the corresponding temperature outside the greenhouse. Greenhouse night micro-climate was modified by covering its roof with a polyester sheet to cut down the effect of night sky radiation thereby raising the inside minimum temperature. The effect of elevated temperature was monitored on the germination and subsequent growth of “muskmelon” seedlings up to two true leaf stage. It was observed that the germination of seeds, sown inside the greenhouse occurred one week earlier as compared to the seeds sown in the open field. The rate of growth of the seedlings inside the greenhouse took only three weeks to attain two-leaf stage, whereas seedlings sown in the open field took five weeks to reach up to two-leaf stage. Thus, there was a clear saving of 15 days in raising the nursery under the greenhouse. (author)

  17. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi,Sangam; Sahrawat,Kanwar; Puppala,Naveen; Ortiz,Rodomiro

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates 19 that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of 20 Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the pre...

  18. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g -1 , respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  19. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  20. Modelling crop land use change derived from influencing factors selected and ranked by farmers in North temperate agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Bano; Lehner, Bernhard; Ludwig, Ralf

    2018-08-01

    To develop meaningful land use scenarios, drivers that affect changes in the landscape are required. In this study, driving factors that influence farmers to change crops on their farm were determined. A questionnaire was administered to four independent groups of farmers who identified and ranked influencing factors pertaining to their choices of crops. The farmers were located in two mid-latitude agricultural watersheds (in Germany and Canada). The ranked influencing factors were used to develop a "farmer driven" scenario to 2040 in both watersheds. Results showed that the most important influencing factors for farmers to change crops were the "economic return of the crop" and "market factors". Yet, when the drivers of crop land use change were grouped into two categories of "financial" and "indirectly-related financial" factors, the "financial" factors made up approximately half of the influencing factors. For some responses, the "indirectly-related financial" factors (i.e. "access to farm equipment", the "farm experience", and "climate") ranked higher than or just as high as the financial factors. Overall, in the four farmer groups the differences between the rankings of the influencing factors were minor, indicating that drivers may be transferable between farms if the farmers are full-time and the farming regions have comparable growing seasons, access to markets, similar technology, and government programs for farm income. In addition to the "farmer driven" scenario, a "policy driven" scenario was derived for each watershed based only on available information on the financial incentives provided to farmers (i.e. agricultural subsidies, income support, crop insurance). The influencing factors ranked by the farmers provided in-depth information that was not captured by the "policy driven" scenario and contributed to improving predictions for crop land use development. This straight-forward method to rank qualitative data provided by farmers can easily be

  1. Potential Sources for Lipid Soluble Food Colorants from Selected Malaysian Traditional Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi Othman; Fatimah Azzahra Mohd Zaifuddin; Norazian Mohd Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Colour is one important characteristic to food products as it dictates consumers first perception on the foods flavour and quality. In the current food industry, most of the colorants used were derived from synthetic sources. However, due to negative health impacts of the synthetic colorants, the urgency to find natural colorants and impose it to food products is of great importance. In this study, a group of plant pigments which are potentially introduced as natural food colorants were quantified from 24 species of local traditional vegetables (ulam), characterized as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthine, α-carotene and β-carotene by using HPLC. It was shown that Sauropus androgynous contained the highest amount of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthine at 142.40±3.57, 28.06±0.65 and 0.07±0.00 mg/ g dry weight (DW), respectively. In contrast, highest content of lutein and α-carotene were observed in Centella asiatica at 16.53±0.97 and 2.14±0.12 mg/ g DW, accordingly. Meanwhile, Piper sarmentosum contained the highest zeaxanthin level (123.45±12.3 mg/ g DW) and Oenanthe javanica has the largest amount of β-carotene (3.09±0.06 mg/ g DW). The extracted yellow-to-red lipid soluble pigments can be further developed into commercial food colorant to replace the synthetic colorants in the market thus improving social awareness towards natural products as well as strengthening the national economy. (author)

  2. Systematic design and evaluation of crop rotations enhancing soil conservation, soil fertility and farm income: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid changes in the social and economic environment in which agriculture is developing, together with the deterioration of the natural resource base threatens sustainability of farm systems in many areas of the world. For vegetable farms in South Uruguay, survival in the long term depends upon the

  3. EFEITO DA COBERTURA VEGETAL DO SOLO SOBRE A ABUNDÂNCIA E DIVERSIDADE DE INIMIGOS NATURAIS DE PRAGAS EM VINHEDOS EFFECTS OF COVER CROPS ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF NATURAL ENEMIES OF GRAPEVINE PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ANTÔNIO MATIELLO FADINI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle de pragas da videira no Brasil restringe-se basicamente ao uso de inseticidas, devido à inexistência de trabalhos que visem a complementar o manejo de pragas através de controle biológico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito de diferentes coberturas vegetais nas entrelinhas de plantio de videira sobre a abundância e diversidade de potenciais inimigos naturais de pragas da videira no município de Caldas, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram testadas sete diferentes coberturas de solo (aveia-preta, aveia-preta e ervilhaca, ervilhaca, cobertura morta, uso de herbicida, capina mecânica e mato roçado. A cobertura vegetal do solo influenciou tanto a diversidade quanto a abundância de inimigos naturais, sendo o consórcio de aveia-preta e ervilhaca, cultivadas simultaneamente, o tratamento que proporcionou maior diversidade e abundância de inimigos naturais. Assim, a cobertura vegetal do solo pode, potencialmente, ser um componente importante em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura da videira.The control of grapevine pests in Brazil is only based in the use of chemical products. It is due to the whole absence of experimental works developed to test and evaluate alternative control systems, like the biological control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different types of cover crops, placed between the cultivation lines of grapevine, in the abundance and diversity of natural control arthropods of grapevine pests. The experiment was conduced in the EPAMIG, Caldas Research Farm, located in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. They Were tested seven different systems of soil covering. The presence of vegetal covering was beneficial to improve the diversity as well as the abundance of biological control agents present on the grapevine crop. The cultivation of black oat and pea together, was the treatment that showed the better result to diversity and abundance. Therefore, the cover

  4. Hyper-spectral frequency selection for the classification of vegetation diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Klaas; van de Loosdrecht, Jaap; Schomaker, Lambert; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the use of pesticides by early visual detection of diseases in precision agriculture is important. Because of the color similarity between potato-plant diseases, narrow band hyper-spectral imaging is required. Payload constraints on unmanned aerial vehicles require reduc- tion of spectral bands. Therefore, we present a methodology for per-patch classification combined with hyper-spectral band selection. In controlled experiments performed on a set of individual leaves, we measure the...

  5. A plant to plate pilot: a cold-climate high school garden increased vegetable selection but also waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R

    2015-08-01

    Can high school gardens in cold climates influence vegetable intake in the absence of nutrition education? This study followed a before/after design where student tray-waste data were collected using the quarter-waste method. The study took place March-April 2012 in a high school in upstate New York. The subjects were 370 enrolled high school students that purchased lunch from the school cafeteria. Prior to the introduction of garden greens in the salad, salads were served as usual. On April 24, harvested greens were included in the salad, and changes in selection and plate waste were measured. When the salad bar contained garden produce, the percentage of students selecting salad rose from 2% to 10% (p school gardens increased selection and intake of school-raised produce. Although a third was not eaten, it is promising to see that still more produce was consumed compared to the past. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changes in the structure of bacterial complexes of vegetable crops in the course of their growth on a cultivated soddy-podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Khusnetdinova, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of population density and taxonomic structure of epiphytic bacterial communities on the leaves and roots of potatoes, carrots, and beets have been studied. Significant changes take place in the ontogenesis of these vegetables with substitution of hydrolytic bacteria for eccrisotrophic bacteria feeding on products of plant exosmosis. The frequency of domination of representatives of different taxa of epiphytic bacteria on the studied plants has been determined for the entire period of their growth. Bacteria of different genera have been isolated from the aboveground and underground organs of vegetables; their functions are discussed. It is shown that the taxonomic structure of bacterial communities in the soil under studied plants is not subjected to considerable changes and is characterized by the domination of typical soil bacteria— Arthrobacter and bacilli—with the appearance of Rhodococcus as a codominant at the end of the season (before harvesting).

  7. Selection of vegetation indices for mapping the sugarcane condition around the oil and gas field of North West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saepuloh, Asep; Handoyo Harsolumakso, Agus

    2018-05-01

    Selection of vegetation indices in plant mapping is needed to provide the best information of plant conditions. The methods used in this research are the standard deviation and the linear regression. This research tried to determine the vegetation indices used for mapping the sugarcane conditions around oil and gas fields. The data used in this study is Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The standard deviation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 27 samples has resulted in the six highest standard deviations of vegetation indices, termed as GRVI, SR, NLI, SIPI, GEMI and LAI. The standard deviation values are 0.47; 0.43; 0.30; 0.17; 0.16 and 0.13. Regression correlation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 280 samples has resulted in the six vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, VARI, LAI and SIPI. This was performed based on regression correlation with the lowest value R2 than 0,8. The combined analysis of the standard deviation and the regression correlation has obtained the five vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, LAI and SIPI. The results of the analysis of both methods show that a combination of two methods needs to be done to produce a good analysis of sugarcane conditions. It has been clarified through field surveys and showed good results for the prediction of microseepages.

  8. Effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage on intake, chewing activity, diet selection and faecal particle size of dairy steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustas, B.-O.; Nørgaard, Peder; Jalali, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, diet selection and faecal particle size in dairy steers. Whole-crop barley was harvested and ensiled in round bales. Eight dairy ste...

  9. Resource investments in reproductive growth proportionately limit investments in whole-tree vegetative growth in young olive trees with varying crop loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Morelli, Alessio; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-21

    It has long been debated whether tree growth is source limited, or whether photosynthesis is adjusted to the actual sink demand, directly regulated by internal and environmental factors. Many studies support both possibilities, but no studies have provided quantitative data at the whole-tree level, across different cultivars and fruit load treatments. This study investigated the effect of different levels of reproductive growth on whole-tree biomass growth across two olive cultivars with different growth rates (i.e., Arbequina, slow-growing and Frantoio, fast-growing), over 2 years. Young trees of both cultivars were completely deflowered either in 2014, 2015, both years or never, providing a range of levels of cumulated reproductive growth over the 2 years. Total vegetative dry matter growth over the 2 years was assessed by destructive sampling (whole tree). Vegetative growth increased significantly less in fruiting trees, however, the total of vegetative and reproductive growth did not differ significantly for any treatment or cultivar. Vegetative growth over the 2 years was closely (R2 = 0.89) and inversely related to reproductive growth across all treatments and cultivars. When using data from 2015 only, the regression improved further (i.e., R2 = 0.99). When biomass was converted into grams of glucose equivalents, based on the chemical composition of the different parts, the results indicated that for every gram of glucose equivalent invested in reproductive growth, vegetative growth was reduced by 0.73-0.78 g of glucose equivalent. This indicates that competition for resources played a major role in determining tree growth, but also that photosynthesis was probably also enhanced at increasing fruit load (or downregulated at decreasing fruit load). The leaf area per unit of trunk cross sectional area increased with deflowering (i.e., decreased with reproductive growth), suggesting that water relations might have limited photosynthesis in deflowered plants

  10. Disaggregating and mapping crop statistics using hypertemporal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. R.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; van Keulen, H.; Smaling, E. M. A.; Real, R.

    2010-02-01

    Governments compile their agricultural statistics in tabular form by administrative area, which gives no clue to the exact locations where specific crops are actually grown. Such data are poorly suited for early warning and assessment of crop production. 10-Daily satellite image time series of Andalucia, Spain, acquired since 1998 by the SPOT Vegetation Instrument in combination with reported crop area statistics were used to produce the required crop maps. Firstly, the 10-daily (1998-2006) 1-km resolution SPOT-Vegetation NDVI-images were used to stratify the study area in 45 map units through an iterative unsupervised classification process. Each unit represents an NDVI-profile showing changes in vegetation greenness over time which is assumed to relate to the types of land cover and land use present. Secondly, the areas of NDVI-units and the reported cropped areas by municipality were used to disaggregate the crop statistics. Adjusted R-squares were 98.8% for rainfed wheat, 97.5% for rainfed sunflower, and 76.5% for barley. Relating statistical data on areas cropped by municipality with the NDVI-based unit map showed that the selected crops were significantly related to specific NDVI-based map units. Other NDVI-profiles did not relate to the studied crops and represented other types of land use or land cover. The results were validated by using primary field data. These data were collected by the Spanish government from 2001 to 2005 through grid sampling within agricultural areas; each grid (block) contains three 700 m × 700 m segments. The validation showed 68%, 31% and 23% variability explained (adjusted R-squares) between the three produced maps and the thousands of segment data. Mainly variability within the delineated NDVI-units caused relatively low values; the units are internally heterogeneous. Variability between units is properly captured. The maps must accordingly be considered "small scale maps". These maps can be used to monitor crop performance of

  11. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  12. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carpenter

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L. DC., Panicum virgatum L. and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L. in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50 causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18 fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12 falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that

  13. Emergency Response Proficiency Test for Japanese Laboratories: Determination of Selected Radionuclides in Water, Soil, Vegetation and Aerosol Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary for compliance with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness in this regard by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, rapid and consistent worldwide response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. In addition, the IAEA coordinates the worldwide network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA). After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, Japan requested the IAEA to organize an emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories with the aim of assessing their capacity to rapidly and accurately measure radionuclides in environmental samples. The IAEA responded to the request by assembling a special sample set covering the main environmental samples and radionuclides of interest in the case of a nuclear emergency situation. Water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filter samples were made available to Japanese laboratories for analysis by gamma ray spectrometry. This report presents the results of the IAEA-TEL-2011-08 emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories on the determination of selected radionuclides in water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filters. The report includes descriptions of the methodologies and data evaluation approach used, as well as summary evaluations of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports of each laboratory. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in their efforts to improve the quality of

  14. Technical, economic and policy considerations on marker-assisted selection in crops: lessons from the experience at an international agricultural research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William, H.M.; Warburton, M.; Morris, M.; Hoisington, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular markers and related technologies have been used extensively in genetic characterization and identification of loci controlling traits of economic importance in many crop species. However, the application of such tools for crop improvement has not been extensive, at least in the public sector. Although there are clear advantages in using molecular markers as tools for indirect selection of traits of importance, available examples indicate that their use is restricted to traits with monogenic inheritance or when the inheritance is conditioned by a few genes with large effects. Another important limitation of large-scale marker applications is the cost involved in marker assays, which may be beyond the capacities of many public plant breeding enterprises. For an effective marker-assisted selection (MAS) activity to facilitate ongoing crop improvement programmes, especially in the context of the developing countries, laboratories with adequate capacity and adequately trained scientific personnel as well as operational resources are required. Although recent technological advances such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated assay protocols are likely to reduce assay costs significantly, for many of these operations, assay platforms with significant capital investments including computational capacity are required. Coupled with these limitations, private sector domination of biotechnology research with proprietary rights to important products and processes with immediate benefits to developing countries may further constrain the benefits these technologies may offer to resource-poor farmers. Policy-makers in different national programmes and international development and research agencies have a responsibility to sustain and augment the capacity of national public agricultural research organizations to ensure that biotechnology tools and processes are infused appropriately into national research efforts. They must also ensure that any

  15. Effects of air pollution on crops. I. Effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide and ozone on the occurrence of symptoms of injuries on vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahara, O; Mega, K

    1974-06-01

    In order to obtain information on plant injuries due to air pollution to utilize susceptible plants as biological indicators of air pollution, potted plants such as chard, spinach, Chinese cabbage, and Japanese radish or cut plants such as Welsh onion were exposed in a glass house to sulfur dioxide at 0.4 ppM continuously for a week or to ozone for 6 hr at 0.13, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ppM. The symptoms due to sulfur dioxide appeared first as peripheral and interveinal necrosis, followed by dehydration. The period of exposure required for the appearance of injuries depended mainly on the vegetable species and ranged from 1 day for potted herb mustard to more than a week for maize. A variety of cabbage did not show any injury after 1 week of continuous exposure to sulfur dioxide. The symptoms due to ozone appeared on the veinal or interveinal parts of leaves and were white to light brown in color on cruciferous vegetables and onions. Brown spots appeared on cucumber, and brown, reddish-purple, or dark purple lesions appeared on burdock, rice, and kidney bean. Damage was most severe on cucumbers occurring even at 0.13 ppM. The environmental conditions before and after the exposure to these gases affected the appearance of the symptoms.

  16. Selection of surfactants for using in invert emulsion based on vegetable oil; Selecao de surfactantes para uso em emulsoes inversas a base de oleo vegetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Giliane V.; Lacerda, Vanessa M.; Garcia, Rosangela B.; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET); Girao, Joaquim Helder S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the superficial properties of a vegetable oil of degree nutritious front the several biodegradable surfactants, seeking to stabilize emulsions of the type water-in-oil, presents in formulations of fluids of perforation of oleofilic base. Mentioned them fluids they are suitable to the perforation of located oil wells in leases of high environmental sensibility and with inferior temperature to 250 deg F. The use of a fluid of that nature can make possible the discard of the solids perforated directly in the sea, sparing the application of previous treatments, or the transport of the same ones for dike-mother, operations that you/they can elevate the total cost of the perforation. The values of the superficial tension and of the concentration critical micellar, they were measured in the solutions oil vegetal/tensoactive, through the method of the ring (DuNouy), using a tensiometer DCA 315 (Thermo Cahn). The effects of the variation of the concentration and of the temperature in the superficial properties of the oil were certain. (author)

  17. Influence of food acidulants and antioxidant spices on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2008-09-24

    Four common food acidulants--amchur, lime, tamarind, and kokum--and two antioxidant spices--turmeric and onion--were examined for their influence on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from two fleshy and two leafy vegetables. Amchur and lime generally enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these test vegetables in many instances. Such an improved bioaccessibility was evident in both raw and heat-processed vegetables. The effect of lime juice was generally more pronounced than that of amchur. Turmeric significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from all of the vegetables tested, especially when heat-processed. Onion enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from pressure-cooked carrot and amaranth leaf and from open-pan-boiled pumpkin and fenugreek leaf. Lime juice and the antioxidant spices turmeric and onion minimized the loss of beta-carotene during heat processing of the vegetables. In the case of antioxidant spices, improved bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from heat-processed vegetables is attributable to their role in minimizing the loss of this provitamin. Lime juice, which enhanced the bioaccessibility of this provitamin from both raw and heat-processed vegetables, probably exerted this effect by some other mechanism in addition to minimizing the loss of beta-carotene. Thus, the presence of food acidulants (lime juice/amchur) and antioxidant spices (turmeric/onion) proved to be advantageous in the context of deriving maximum beta-carotene from the vegetable sources.

  18. Quantifying effects of oxidant air pollutants on agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, W H; Moskowitz, P D

    1983-01-01

    Estimating risks of air pollution damage to agricultural crops requires identifying crop location and size, likely doses, models for translating dose to response, and measures of response appropriate for economic analysis. Assessment of risk requires compatible data sets for each of these variables. Analysis of air pollution mixtures suggests that oxidant crop damage is caused by three compounds: ozone, nitrogen oxides, and peroxyacetylnitrates. The phytotoxicity of ozone, the most prevalent photochemical oxidant, has been studied more extensively than the other two oxidants, and its effects on vegetation are best understood. Response of vegetation to air pollutants was first characterized by foliar or visible injury. Subsequent research indicated that foliar injury did not translate directly into reduced plant growth or yield, which can be measured. Response to air pollutants may be influenced by physical, biological, and environmental factors. Inherent genetic resistance is probably the most important single factor affecting plant response, although environmental factors influencing stomatal aperture may also be important. For several crops open-top chamber studies and cross sectional analyses of field data provide adequate information to develop dose-response functions. All of these studies have both strengths and weaknesses. Although a number of different models exist for selected crops, there is no single biological or statistical criterion which identifies the best or most accurate model.

  19. Vegetable Grafting: The Implications of a Growing Agronomic Imperative for Vegetable Fruit Quality and Nutritive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios C. Kyriacou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock–scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops. As the main drives behind the expansion of vegetable grafting have been the resistance to soilborne pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and increase in yields, rootstock selection and breeding have accordingly conformed to the prevailing demand for improving productivity, arguably at the expense of fruit quality. It is, however, compelling to assess the qualitative implications of this growing agronomic practice for human nutrition. Problems of impaired vegetable fruit quality have not infrequently been associated with the practice of grafting. Accordingly, the aim of the current review is to reassess how the practice of grafting and the prevalence of particular types of commercial rootstocks influence vegetable fruit quality and, partly, storability. Physical, sensorial and bioactive aspects of quality are examined with respect to grafting for watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. The physiological mechanisms at play which mediate rootstock effects on scion performance are discussed in interpreting the

  20. Space Data for Crop Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  1. Use of crop selection and cattle manure to bioremediate a heavy-oil polluted loamy sand for grain production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederbeck, V. O.; Selles, F.; Hanson, K. G.; Geissler, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    As as initially unintended part of a study to assess the feasibility of utilizing heavy oil production waste to improve erodible sandy cropland by stabilizing soil aggregation and by microbial conversion of hydrocarbon into humus, it was discovered that by amending the highly polluted soil in one of the plots with an application of 63 tonnes /hectare of old cattle manure, it was possible to assess the restorative ability of manure for soil properties critical to plant growth as well as to measure manuring benefits for grain production for more oil-tolerant crops. Oat was identified by greenhouse and field tests as the least sensitive toward oily residues in soil, followed by wheat as a distant second, with barley and rye following a long way back. Marked improvements in soil properties were observed in unfertilized plots within four months, although the effectiveness of manure to improve soil conditions declined with increasing rates of previous fertilization. Two years after the addition of manure all plots were seeded to oats; manuring resulted in a 55 per cent increase in plant density, 70 per cent increase in crop biomass and an 82 per cent increase in grain yield. Manuring was also found to improve grain quality by maintaining protein levels and a marked increase in kernel size and test weight. The study demonstrated the restorative properties of old manure in improving soil properties, and its ability to restoring oil-polluted topsoil to full productivity within a relatively short time (one to two years). 10 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  3. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  4. Induction and identification of somatic mutations with particular reference to perennial plants. Part of a coordinated programme on improvement of vegetatively propagated crops and tree crops through radiation-induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrzycki, H.M.

    1980-06-01

    An attempt was made to obtain resistance of oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) to Tristeza virus by induced mutation breeding. Two methods were used. In one, buds were treated with X or gamma radiation. The detached sprouts were subsequently grafted. In the other, a number of chemical mutagens were used: diethyl sulfate or propylenoxide on buds; diethyl sulfate or nitrosemethylurethane on seeds (2400). The selection and isolation of mutants from treated buds and seeds, respectively, are described. Intermediate results only are given and discussed

  5. Insights on the criteria of selection of vegetable and mineral dielectric fluids used in power transformers on the basis of their biodegradability and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Sanderson, Karina; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Schuelter, Adilson Ricken; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Neves, Camila Vargas; Zanão Junior, Luiz Antônio; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2018-05-01

    Leakage of transformer dielectric fluids is a concern because it may pose a risk of environmental contamination. In this study, the deleterious effects of vegetable and mineral dielectric fluids in water bodies were investigated using biodegradability and acute toxicity tests with Danio rerio and Artemia salina. Regarding biodegradability, all four tested vegetable oils (soy, canola, sunflower and crambe) were considered as easily biodegradable, presenting degradation rates significantly higher than the Lubrax-type mineral fluid. Acute toxicity tests were performed in two separate experiments without solution renewal. In the first experiment, the organisms were exposed in direct contact to different concentrations of vegetable (soy) and mineral (Lubrax) oils. Total soy-type vegetable oil has a higher toxic effect than Lubrax-type mineral oil. In the second experiment, the organisms were exposed to increasing percentages of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of both types of tested oils. The LC 50 values for the water-soluble fraction of the Lubrax-type mineral oil were about 5 and 8% for the Danio rerio and Artemia salina bioindicators, respectively, whereas the vegetable oil did not present toxic effect, regardless of its WSF. These results have shown that a strict selection of dielectric fluids and monitoring the leakage from power transformers is a serious duty of environmental protection agencies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility for improving phytonutrient content in vegetable crops using conventional breeding strategies: case study with carotenoids and tocopherols in sweet corn and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khalid E; Juvik, John A

    2009-06-10

    Among vegetables, sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) are important sources of dietary carotenoids and tocopherols. Because medical evidence suggests that carotenoid and tocopherol health-promoting activity acts in a dose-dependent manner, conventional breeding to develop elite sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced levels of these phytochemicals will potentially promote health among the consuming public. This investigation includes the quantitative analysis of carotenoid and tocopherol contents of 41 corn and 24 broccoli genotypes grown in multiple environments (years and seasons in one location) to partition the variation into genetic, environment, and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) components and measure the phenotypic stability of genotypes for these phytochemicals. The primary carotenoids and tocopherols in corn were lutein and gamma-tocopherol (65 and 73% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively), whereas beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were dominant in broccoli (65 and 79% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively). Partitioning of the variance indicated that genetic differences among the genotypes averaged for the primary compounds in corn (lutein, zeaxanthin, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and broccoli (beta-carotene, lutein, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) accounted for the largest proportion of the variation (67 and 55% of total phenotypic variation averaged across the phytochemicals in sweet corn and broccoli, respectively). Stability analysis identified several corn (IL451b sh2 and IL2027-8 sh2) and broccoli ('Pirate' and 'Baccus') genotypes with relatively high mean concentrations for the various carotenoids and tocopherols that were comparatively stable across seasons and years. The results of this investigation suggest that sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols can be developed using conventional breeding protocols.

  7. HUMIC SUBSTANCES AND PHOSPHORUS FRACTIONS IN AREAS WITH CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION, PASTURE AND NATURAL CERRADO VEGETATION IN GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Julio Beutler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop-livestock integration (CLI coupled with a no-till planting system (NTS has proven to be an important alternative farming system, promoting efficient land use and soil conservation by maintaining soil organic matter (SOM. The present study quantified the humic fractions of SOM and soil P fractions and analyzed their relationship in CLI, pasture and natural Cerrado areas in Goiás, Brazil. The samples were obtained from a pasture area (covered with Urochloa decumbens grass for 15 years; a CLI area (planted in annual rotation with Urochloa ruziziensis for 13 years; and a native Cerrado area, sampled for comparison purposes. Total organic carbon (TOC and carbon in the fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF, humic acid fraction (C-HAF and humin (C-HUM were evaluated at a depth of 0‑5; 5‑10; 10‑20 and 20‑40 cm; and inorganic (IP and organic (OP P fractions at a depth of 0‑5 and 5‑10 cm. The highest TOC values, humic fractions and OP were found in the Cerrado area. Similarities in relation to the humic fractions and TOC were found between CLI and pasture areas in all the layers between 0 and 40cm. The area currently managed with CLI, but originally covered by Cerrado, had already developed chemical stability (C-FAF, C-HAF, C-HUM and TOC that was similar to that found in the Cerrado area at a depth of 20-40 cm and with higher C-FAF and C-HUM accumulation compared to the pasture area. Compared to pasture and Cerrado, the CLI system favored the increase in labile, moderately labile and moderately resistant P, both for total P (TP and IP. IP fractions were found in areas treated with high doses of phosphate fertilizer, whereas OP fractions corresponded to those under low or null anthropogenic influence. Organic P fractions were directly related to the humic SOM fractions.

  8. Atributos biológicos do solo sob influência da cobertura vegetal e do sistema de manejo Soil biological attributes influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozaniel Batista da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de culturas de cobertura e dos sistemas plantio direto (PD e convencional (PC sobre indicadores biológicos do solo, cultivado com feijoeiro-comum, no inverno, sob irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico textura argilosa. Culturas de cobertura foram implantadas anualmente no verão, desde 2001, sendo utilizadas a braquiária, guandu, milheto, capim-mombaça, sorgo, estilosantes, braquiária consorciada com milho, e mata nativa, como tratamento referência. Em 2005, 60 dias após o corte das culturas de cobertura foi implantada a cultura do feijoeiro, cultivar BRS Valente, sob irrigação, com semeadura realizada em 16/6/2005 e colheita efetuada em 19/9/2005. Coletaram-se amostras de solo, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, em três épocas: novembro de 2004 (pré-plantio das culturas de coberturas, junho (pré-plantio do feijoeiro e julho (florescimento do feijoeiro de 2005. Avaliaram-se a respiração basal, o carbono e o nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana, a razão carbono da biomassa microbiana/carbono orgânico, a razão nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana/nitrogênio total e o quociente metabólico do solo. Esses atributos biológicos do solo são influenciados pelas culturas de cobertura, manejo do solo e épocas de amostragem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops and direct and conventional tillage systems on soil biological attributes when cultivated with dry bean in winter under sprinkle irrigation. The experiment was conducted in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a clayey Rhodic Haplustox. Cover crops were cultivated annually in the summer since 2001, using Brachiaria brizantha, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Panicum maximum, sorghum, Stylosanthes guianensis, brachiaria in association with corn, and native vegetation as reference. In 2005, 60 days after cutting the cover crops, BRS

  9. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine changes during the growing season in the ecosystem profile in wheat fields subjected to wheat monoculture or wheat in annual rotation with medic/clover pasture. Statistical analyses showed that soil moisture had an over-riding effect on seasonal fluctuations in soil physicochemical and microbial populations. While within season soil microbial activity could be differentiated between wheat fields under rotational and monoculture management, these differences were not significant.

  10. Influence of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on the functional diversity of microbial communities in the vegetable cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Mallappa; Kumar, Upendra; Yadava, Raj Bahadur; Rai, Awadhesh Bahadur; Singh, Bijendra

    2018-05-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under a vegetable production system. The Biolog ® Eco-plate technique and indices, such as average well-colour development (AWCD), McIntosh and Shannon diversity were employed to study the diversity of soil microorganisms. The AWCD, i.e. overall utilization of carbon sources, suggested that different organic treatments had a significant impact on the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. After 120h, the highest AWCD values were observed in poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) (0.63) and farm yard manure (FYM) (10 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) (0.61). After 72h, the highest value of the McIntosh diversity index was recorded in poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) (3.87), followed by poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 )+biofertilizers (Azotobacter 500 g·ha -1 applied as seed treatment) (3.12). In the case of the Shannon diversity index, the highest values were noticed in organic treatments; however, there was no significant differences between organic and inorganic treatments. Biplot analysis showed a clear differentiation of organic treatments from the inorganic control. The amino acids, phenolics and polymer utilizing microorganisms were dominant in organic treatments. Inorganic control recorded the lowest values of the microbial diversity indices. Through this study, we have identified the best combination of organic nutrients, i.e. poultry manure (2.5 t·ha -1 )+vermicompost (3.5 t·ha -1 ) for the stimulation of metabolically active soil microbial communities. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    to the existing Integrated Disease Management strategy for ZYMV in vegetable cucurbits in WA, but necessitated modification of its recommendations over deployment of cultivars with resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES TÉCNICAS DE CULTIVO SOBRE O POTENCIAL ANTIOXIDANTE DE CRUCÍFERAS INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL CROPS UPON THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. ARBOS

    2008-08-01

    the vitamin C as the reference value, and the flavonoid rutin for comparison. All Cruciferae extracts evaluated have shown high and significant antioxidant capacity, which varied according to the agricultural technique by which the vegetables were grown, and also to the vegetable part assayed within the same crop type. Although the antioxidant results herein presented and discussed must be interpreted with caution as a list of factors can influence the vegetables’ quality, they favor the beneficial effects of consuming Cruciferae vegetables, particularly those obtained from organic culture.

  13. Survey of crop losses in response to phytoparasitic nematodes in the United States for 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Overstreet, C; Noling, J W; Donald, P A; Becker, J O; Fortnum, B A

    1999-12-01

    Previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. Reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the University of Georgia, the Beltwide Cotton Conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. The Society of Nematologists Extension Committee contacted extension personnel in 49 U.S. states for information on estimated crop losses caused by plant-parasitic nematodes in major crops for the year 1994. Included in this paper are survey results from 35 states on various crops including corn, cotton, soybean, peanut, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, tobacco, numerous vegetable crops, fruit and nut crops, and golf greens. The data are reported systematically by state and include the estimated loss, hectarage of production, source of information, nematode species or taxon when available, and crop value. The major genera of phytoparasitic nematodes reported to cause crop losses were Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, and Xiphinema.

  14. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  15. Lead concentration and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery residues Teores e alocação de chumbo em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de S Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a very stable metal in soil and is highly toxic to humans and animals. Exposure to Pb occurs via inhalation of particles from industry and soil, as well as household dust, water, and contaminated food. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate Pb contents and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery recycling wastes. Eight plant species were studied: tomato, sweet pepper, beet, carrot, cabbage, green collards, eggplant, and okra. The experiment was set up in blocks at random with four replicates. The results showed that carrot, green collards, beet, and okra were the most Pb tolerant species, while the others were very Pb-sensitive, since they did not complete their cycle. The decreasing order for Pb accumulation in the vegetables crops was: carrot > okra > tomato > eggplant > sweet pepper > green collards > cabbage > beet. Taking into account the Pb allocation in plants, the order was: root > stems > leaves > edible parts. Although carrot translocated the lowest Pb amount into the edible part, such level exceeded the legal limit.O chumbo (Pb é um elemento extremamente estável no solo e altamente tóxico para seres humanos e animais. A contaminação com chumbo geralmente ocorre pela exposição decorrente da inalação de partículas oriundas de indústrias ou do solo, ou ainda, pela ingestão de poeira doméstica, água e alimentos de origem animal e vegetal contaminados. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os teores e a alocação de Pb em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado com resíduos de reciclagem de baterias. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam a oito hortaliças: tomate, pimentão, beterraba, cenoura, repolho, couve manteiga, berinjela e quiabo. Os resultados mostraram que as espécies mais tolerantes ao Pb foram cenoura, couve-manteiga, beterraba e

  16. The Effectiveness Of National Root Crop Research Institute Nrcri Selected Technologies In Poverty Alleviation Among Rural Households In Abia State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKRINGBO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of National Root Crop Research Institute NRCRI selected technologies in poverty alleviation among rural households in Abia state Nigeria. Purposive and multi-stage sampling techniques were used in selection of Umuahia agricultural zone which is the host zone to NRCRI and sixty 60 rural farmers from the study area were selected. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics poverty gap analysis and one sample Z-test and ANOVA. The result shows that farmers identified yam of mini sett 2.07 as an improved yam technology provision of improved technology of cocoyam 4.23 provision of improved technology of sweet potatoes 6.52 advisory services on other improved technologies 8.32 agro-processing improvement services 10.77 and advisory service on stem cutting and planting pattern 0.62 were the various technologies provided by NRCRI. NRCRI technologies were effective in reducing the cost of purchasing root and tuber crops 3.2 producing disease resistance early maturing and large yield root and tuber crops 3.4 were effective means to alleviate poverty by NRCRI. The study further shows that improved cassava varieties TMS 2.7 and NR 2.6 were adopted by farmers and improved varieties yam Dioscorea rotundata 3.0 was adopted. The results of the one sample z-test showed that there were significant difference between the mean scores response of the respondents on the various questions raised on the NRCRI technologies effectiveness in alleviating poverty were significant at 1 respectively . The result showed that the mean score on the level of adoption of improved variety TMS in the study were 1.00.000b and 1.30.070b was at the same level of adoption while mean scores NR were 1.15.154a 2.11.048a and 3.00.000a respectively and the Duncan multiple range test used as mean separation technique show that there is a significant difference F-ratio 3.295 among the level of adoption. The

  17. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Fitsum; Tefera, Tamirat; Biresaw, Gelila; Yohannes, Tsegaye

    2017-03-07

    One way that people get infected with intestinal parasites is through the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from four local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 21 September 2014 to determine the level of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables sold in Arba Minch town. A total of 360 samples of different types of fruits and vegetables were soaked in physiological saline, followed by vigorous shaking with the aid of a mechanical shaker for 15 minutes and then examined using the sedimentation concentration technique. Out of the 360 samples examined, 196 (54.4%) were contaminated with at least one type of parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides (20.83%) was the most frequently detected parasite and Isospora belli (3.06%) was the least frequently detected one. It was also observed that decreased parasitic contamination was significantly associated with washing the products before displaying it for selling (P parasitic infections from the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. The authors believe that an effort should be made by the relevant bodies to reduce the rate of contamination of products with medically important parasites by educating the vendors and the community.

  18. Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

    2012-03-01

    Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency.

  19. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  20. Crop improvement by using radiation mutation breeding in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young IL

    1998-01-01

    For crop improvement by the application of radiation technology, induction of mutants by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis were developed in various crop plants in Korea. Several mutants have been released as recommended cultivars to farmers in rice, soybean, sesame and barley since 1970. Induced mutations were widely used for the introduction of genetic transformation and extending plant genetic resources. High yield, short plant, earliness, resistance to diseases, high protein and oil contents were obtained in the advanced generation of mutation by radiation application to several crops of in vivo and in vitro cultured materials. For induction and selection of promising mutants by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis, various crops were successively irradiated with radiation to investigate the radiosensitivities, the mutation spectrum and mutation rate for selection of useful mutants. Plant tissue culture methods were developed for in vitro mutagenesis in the seed and the vegetatively propagating crops. Embryogenic callus was obtained from shoot tip culture of sweet potato, and micro propagation was developed from nodal stem culture of potato. The radiosensitivities were investigated in cell, callus, and in vitro plant lets. About 800 lines of mutants were evaluated for the agro-genetic resources. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Marker-assisted selection as a tool for genetic improvement of crops, livestock, forestry and fish in developing countries: an overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruane, R.; Sonnino, A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the techniques, current status and issues involved in using marker-assisted selection (MAS) for genetic improvement in developing countries. Molecular marker maps, the necessary framework for any MAS programme, have been constructed for the majority of agriculturally important species, although the density of the maps varies considerably among species. Despite the considerable resources that have been invested in this field and despite the enormous potential it still represents, with few exceptions, MAS has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding programmes for crops, livestock, forest trees or farmed fish in the developed world. When evaluating the potential merits of applying MAS as a tool for genetic improvement in developing countries, some of the issues that should be considered are its economic costs and benefits, its potential benefits compared with conventional breeding or with application of other biotechnologies, and the potential impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on the development and application of MAS. (author)

  2. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt. Final report Part 1: Agronomic aspects, March 1, 1988--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The relative high cost of energy derived from biomass is a major deterrent to greater use of biomass for energy production One of the most important methods of lowering the cost of dedicated biomass production is to increase the yield per unit of land area so that fixed costs can be applied to more tons of forage. For this study, the authors selected grass and legume crops with potential for high biomass yields and those that offer protection from soil erosion. The research reported here was conducted to identify those species and cultural practices that would result in high biomass yields for various land capabilities with acceptable and soil erosion potential. They also conducted research to determine if intercropping sorghum into alfalfa or reed canarygrass could increase biomass yields over alfalfa or reed canarygrass grown alone and still have the advantage for limiting soil erosion.

  3. Sixteenth to eightteenth century depictions of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.), turnip (B. rapa L. cultivar group Vegetable turnip) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in Flandres and the present-day Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cole and neep crops are old crops in the Low Countries. The first archival records date from the 14th century. The crops have been described in herbals of the 16th and 17th century. During the 16th to 18th century they have also been depicted on paintings. In a herbal of 1554 by Dodonaeus white, red

  4. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ann Gunn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50 of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months. Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet, with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL. Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01 in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01 in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation.

  5. Cover crop with Teramnus labialis in a citrus orchard: effects on some physical properties of the soil / Cubierta vegetal con Teramnus labialis en plantaciones citrícolas: efectos sobre algunas propiedades físicas del suelo Cubierta vegetal con Teramnus labialis en plantaciones citrícolas: efectos sobre algunas propiedades físicas del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydis Castellano Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of leguminous cover crops in citrus orchards constitutes a viable alternative for the improvement of soil properties, whenever they are appropriately managed. In Ciego de Avila University, Cuba, it was evaluated the effect of a leguminous cover crop on some properties of an orchard soil. The work was carried out during four years in an orange plantation of Valencia late (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck in a 22 years-old orchard, with a plantation frame of 8 X 4 m, planted on a typical red Ferralitic soil, belonging to the CPA ¨José Martí¨, in Ciego de Avila. It was used a random block design with three treatments: one with covering of Teramnus labialis (T1, one with expontaneous vegetation (T2 and the third with no vegetation (T3. The functional structure properties of the soil were determined, and also the composition of macroaggregates expressed in the structure coefficient and the percentage of stable added in water, soil density, humidity and porosity. The increments in the humidity of the soil, the specific volume of pores and air, the structure coefficient, as well as the percentage of stable added in water, in the soil where the covering of Teramnus labialis was stablished, show the efficiency of cover crops in these citrus orchards.El uso de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en plantaciones citrícolas constituye una alternativa viable para el mejoramiento de las propiedades de los suelos, siempre que ellas se manejan adecuadamente en estas áreas. En la universidad de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba se viene trabajando en la evaluación del efecto de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en plantaciones citrícolas en producción, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto que ejerce la cobertura de leguminosa sobre algunas propiedades del suelo. El trabajo se realizó durante cuatro años (2001-2005 en una plantación de naranja Valencia Late ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck en producción de 22 años, con marco de plantación de 8 X 4 m, plantada sobre un

  6. The effect of fire on habitat selection of mammalian herbivores: the role of body size and vegetation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Stephanie L; Anderson, T Michael; Mayemba, Emilian P; Ritchie, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Given the role of fire in shaping ecosystems, especially grasslands and savannas, it is important to understand its broader impact on these systems. Post-fire stimulation of plant nutrients is thought to benefit grazing mammals and explain their preference for burned areas. However, fire also reduces vegetation height and increases visibility, thereby potentially reducing predation risk. Consequently, fire may be more beneficial to smaller herbivores, with higher nutritional needs and greater risks of predation. We tested the impacts of burning on different sized herbivores' habitat preference in Serengeti National Park, as mediated by burning's effects on vegetation height, live : dead biomass ratio and leaf nutrients. Burning caused a less than 4 month increase in leaf nitrogen (N), and leaf non-N nutrients [copper (Cu), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg)] and a decrease in vegetation height and live : dead biomass. During this period, total herbivore counts were higher on burned areas. Generally, smaller herbivores preferred burned areas more strongly than larger herbivores. Unfortunately, it was not possible to determine the vegetation characteristics that explained burned area preference for each of the herbivore species observed. However, total herbivore abundance and impala (Aepyceros melampus) preference for burned areas was due to the increases in non-N nutrients caused by burning. These findings suggest that burned area attractiveness to herbivores is mainly driven by changes to forage quality and not potential decreases in predation risk caused by reductions in vegetation height. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  7. Levels of selected heavy metals in varieties of vegetable oils consumed in kingdom of saudi arabia and health risk assessment of local population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 meug/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population. (author)

  8. The Amount of Time to Eat Lunch is Associated with Children’s Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetable, and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently no national standards for school lunch period lengths and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Objectives To examine plate waste measurements from students in the control arm from the MEALS study (2011-2012 school year) for the association of the amount of time to eat with school meal selection and consumption. Design Prospective study using up to six repeated measures among students over the school year. Participants/Setting 1001 students in grades 3-8 attending 6 participating elementary/middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20-30 minutes. Main Outcome Measures School food selection and consumption were collected using plate waste methodology. Statistical Analyses Performed Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA was used to examine food selection and consumption. Results Compared with meal component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs. 57%; p=0.0001) compared with when students had fewer than 20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selection. Among those who selected a meal component, students with fewer than 20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (peat. Conclusions Over the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time may reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. PMID:26372337

  9. Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; Peat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (Peat. During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variabilidade espacial da textura de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo sob cultivo de pastagem e vegetação nativa Spatial variability of the texture in a Red-Yellow Ultisol under pasture and nature vegetation crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julião Soares de Souza Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da variabilidade espacial dos atributos de um solo sob diferentes coberturas auxilia o estudo das alterações ocorridas em razão do manejo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, com uso da estatística clássica e geoestatística, a variabilidade espacial das frações texturais de um solo cultivado com pastagem e vegetação nativa. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-0,20m, nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10m, totalizando 64 pontos em cada área. Na área de pastagem, as frações areia grossa e total apresentaram valores médios maiores em relação à vegetação nativa e correlações negativas com as altitudes dos pontos amostrais nas duas áreas. Todas as frações texturais apresentaram dependência espacial de moderada a alta nas duas áreas e com o patamar definido, com exceção da areia fina e do silte na pastagem. Grande parte dessa variabilidade ocorre em função da erosão hídrica.The study of the spatial variability of soil attributes under different crop helps the study of changes due the management. This research was carried out to determine spatial variability the particle-size distribution, using of the classic statistic and geostatistics, of a soil cultivated with pasture and native vegetation. Soil samples were collected in the layer 0-0.20m, at the crossing points of a regular grid with 10m-intervals, summing up 64 samples points in each area. In the pasture area the fractions of coarse and total sand presented larger mean values in relation to the native vegetation, and negative correlation with the altitude of the points samples in the two areas. All of the fractions presented moderate to high spatial dependence in the two areas and with the defined still, with exception of the fine sand and the silt in the pasture. Much of this variability occurs as a function of water erosion.

  11. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  12. Deriving crop calendar using NDVI time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J. H.; Oza, M. P.

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is defined in terms as cropping intensity, which is the numbers of crops (single, double and triple) per year in a unit cropland area. Information about crop calendar (i.e. number of crops in a parcel of land and their planting & harvesting dates and date of peak vegetative stage) is essential for proper management of agriculture. Remote sensing sensors provide a regular, consistent and reliable measurement of vegetation response at various growth stages of crop. Therefore it is ideally suited for monitoring purpose. The spectral response of vegetation, as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and its profiles, can provide a new dimension for describing vegetation growth cycle. The analysis based on values of NDVI at regular time interval provides useful information about various crop growth stages and performance of crop in a season. However, the NDVI data series has considerable amount of local fluctuation in time domain and needs to be smoothed so that dominant seasonal behavior is enhanced. Based on temporal analysis of smoothed NDVI series, it is possible to extract number of crop cycles per year and their crop calendar. In the present study, a methodology is developed to extract key elements of crop growth cycle (i.e. number of crops per year and their planting - peak - harvesting dates). This is illustrated by analysing MODIS-NDVI data series of one agricultural year (from June 2012 to May 2013) over Gujarat. Such an analysis is very useful for analysing dynamics of kharif and rabi crops.

  13. Toxicity of chemicals commonly used in Indonesian vegetable crops to Liriomyza huidobrensis populations and the Indonesian parasitoids Hemiptarsenus varicornis, Opius sp., and Gronotoma micromorpha, as well as the Australian parasitoids Hemiptarsenus varicornis and Diglyphus isaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijono, Djoko; Robinson, Michelle; Rauf, Aunu; Bjorksten, Tracey; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-08-01

    Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) are important pests of vegetable crops in Indonesia and are likely to spread to neighboring countries. Three pesticides (dimehypo, abamectin, and cyromazine) are currently used to control these pests, but there is little information on their effectiveness against field populations and on their impact on parasitoids controlling Liriomyza species. The toxicity of these chemicals to L. huidobrensis and three common parasitoids (Hemiptarsenus varicornis Gerault, Opius sp., and Gronotoma micromorpha Perkins) was therefore evaluated in Indonesia with mortality laboratory assays. All three chemicals were effective against larvae of three populations of L. huidobrensis with different histories of chemical exposure. Dimehypo caused mortality in adult Opius sp., G. micromorpha, and H. varicornis, whereas abamectin was toxic only at concentrations substantially higher than the field rate. Cyromazine did not influence survival of the parasitoids. A commonly used fungicide, mancozeb, had no impact on parasitoid mortality. Trials were repeated with a strain of H. varicornis from Australia and a different parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea) recently found in Australia. Neither parasitoid was influenced by mancozeb or cyromazine. Abamectin applied at field rates caused some mortality among the adults of both species, but was less toxic than chlorpyrifos. Abamectin produced lower LC50s against Australian H. varicornis than against Indonesian H. varicornis. These results suggest that cyromazine can be incorporated into Liriomyza control programs in Indonesia that conserve parasitoids, whereas dimehypo and abamectin need to be used cautiously. Local Australian parasitoids should help control L. huidobrensis as long as only cyromazine and nontoxic fungicides are applied.

  14. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Feeding ecology of Rhabdosargus holubi (family Sparidae) in multiple vegetated refugia of selected warm temperate estuaries in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, L.; Strydom, N. A.; Perissinotto, R.; Adams, J. B.; Lemley, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Estuarine marine-dependent species, such as Rhabdosargus holubi, depend greatly on structured sheltered environments and important feeding areas provided by estuaries. In this study, we investigate the ecological feeding niches of the estuarine marine-dependent sparid, R. holubi, by using conventional stomach contents and stable isotope methods (δ13C and δ15N signatures). The study has been carried out in five temperate estuaries in order to understand how fish feed in multiple intertidal vegetated habitats. These habitats included the submerged seagrass, Zostera capensis, and both previously unexplored small intertidal cord grass, Spartina maritima, and the common reed, Phragmites australis. The diet varied amongst habitats, estuaries and fish sizes and data consistently confirmed their omnivorous diet relating to ontogenetic niche shifts. Stomach contents revealed the importance of benthic prey within both the S. maritima and P. australis habitats in the absence of large intertidal vegetation, available during low tides. Similarly, isotopic mixing models showed that R. holubi from these habitats have a greater isotopic niche compared to the Z. capensis habitat, due to their limited availability during the falling tide, suggesting migration between available habitats. Stable isotopes confirmed that R. holubi actively feeds on the epiphytic algae (especially diatoms) covering the leaves and stalks of plant matter, as supported by Bayesian mixing models. These findings add to the current knowledge regarding habitat partitioning in multiple aquatic vegetation types critical to fish ecology and the effective management and conservation of estuaries.

  16. Influence of Boiling, Steaming and Frying of Selected Leafy Vegetables on the In Vitro Anti-inflammation Associated Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica, Cassia auriculata, Gymnema lactiferum, Olax zeylanica, Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results revealed that the frying of all the tested leafy vegetables had reduced the inhibition abilities of protein denaturation, hemolysis, proteinase, and lipoxygenase activities when compared with other food preparation methods. Steaming significantly increased the protein denaturation and hemolysis inhibition in O. zeylanica and P. edulis. Steaming of leaves increased inhibition activity of protein denaturation in G. lactiferum (by 44.8% and P. edulis (by 44%; hemolysis in C. asiatica, C. auriculata, and S. grandiflora; lipoxygenase inhibition ability in P. edulis (by 50%, C. asiatica (by 400%, and C. auriculata leaves (by 250%; proteinase inhibition in C. auriculata (100% when compared with that of raw leaves. In general, steaming and boiling in contrast to frying protect the health-promoting properties of the leafy vegetables.

  17. Selection of a Vegetable Water-Retaining Material and Its Effects on the Growth and Quality of Cucumber under Drought Stress Part 1 : Selection of a Vegetable Water-Retaining Material

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shang-Dong; Wang, Rui; Li, Gang; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Water-retention capacities of moss, common water hyacinth and Late Juncellus were compared with that of SAP (super absorbent polymers), a presently used chemical water-retaining material. Moss was highest in the amount of water retained per unit weight among the three vegetable materials and showed a somewhat higher water-retention capacity than did SAP. However, it is difficult to collect moss enough for use as a water-retaining material, and collection of a large amount of moss easily lea...

  18. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  19. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  20. A simple and selective method for determination of phthalate biomarkers in vegetable samples by high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Li, Shoucong; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, solid-phase extraction cartridges including silica reversed-phase Isolute C18, polymeric reversed-phase Oasis HLB and mixed-mode anion-exchange Oasis MAX, and liquid-liquid extractions with ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and its mixtures were compared for clean-up of phthalate monoesters from vegetable samples. Best recoveries and minimised matrix effects were achieved using ethyl acetate/n-hexane liquid-liquid extraction for these target compounds. A simple and selective method, based on sample preparation by ultrasonic extraction and liquid-liquid extraction clean-up, for the determination of phthalate monoesters in vegetable samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method detection limits for phthalate monoesters ranged from 0.013 to 0.120 ng g(-1). Good linearity (r(2)>0.991) between MQLs and 1000× MQLs was achieved. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation values were less than 11.8%. The method was successfully used to determine phthalate monoester metabolites in the vegetable samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura do algodão Selectivity of herbicides applied to pre-emergent cotton crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do algodão tem grande importância econômica e social, visto que é a fibra mais utilizada no setor têxtil. Contudo é uma cultura que apresenta alta sensibilidade a plantas daninhas e há poucos herbicidas seletivos à cultura. Neste contexto o trabalho objetivou avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura do algodão. Os herbicidas alachlor, S-metolachlor, diuron, prometryne, trifluralin e oxyfluorfen foram aplicados isoladamente e em misturas sobre a variedade FMT-701, nas localidades de Diamantino-MT e Campos de Júlio-MT. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Para avaliar a seletividade foram realizadas avaliações de altura aos 36; 66 e 150 dias após a aplicação (DAA, fitointoxicação aos 14; 21; 29 e 36 DAA, estande aos 21 e 49 DAA, número de maçãs aos 141 DAA e produtividade do algodão em caroço aos 193 DAA. Os dados foram submetidos à análise conjunta e ao teste de agrupamento Scott-Knott (p>0,05. Os resultados indicaram que alguns tratamentos proporcionaram menor altura de plantas em determinadas avaliações e grande parte dos tratamentos causou injúrias na fase inicial da cultura. Verificou-se que os tratamentos não proporcionaram diferença significativa para as características de estande de plantas, número de maçãs e produtividade de algodão em caroço, comprovando que todos os tratamentos avaliados podem ser utilizados no manejo de plantas daninhas.The cultivation of cotton has great economic and social importance as it is the most widely used fibre in the textile sector. It is however a crop that is highly sensitive tweeds, and there are few selective herbicides for the crop. With this in mind, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides applied to pre-emergent cotton crops. The herbicides, alachlor, S-metolachlor, diuron, prometryne, trifluralin and oxyfluorfen were applied both

  2. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  3. Selection and cultivation of final vegetative cover for closed waste sites at the Savannah River Site, SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as a vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on wastes sites that is quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap. The results of the study are described in this report and suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and P. rubromarainata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites. These large species of bamboo will also reduce the probability of intrusion by humans, animals and deeply rooted plant species

  4. The feasibility of crop diversification in rice based cropping systems in haor ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Shopan, J.; Bhuiya, M.S.U.; Kader, M.A.; Hasan, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in five farmers’ field in Dingaputa haor of Purba Tetulia village, Mohangonj Upazila in Netrakona district during the period from 20 July 2010 to 15 May 2011. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of growing short duration vegetable and oil crops in seasonal fallow of Boro rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping patterns in terms of both combined yields and economic performance. Six short duration vegetables such as potato, red amaranth, stem amaranth, sp...

  5. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  6. Automatic crop row detection from UAV images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Rasmussen, Jesper

    are considered weeds. We have used a Sugar beet field as a case for evaluating the proposed crop detection method. The suggested image processing consists of: 1) locating vegetation regions in the image by thresholding the excess green image derived from the orig- inal image, 2) calculate the Hough transform......Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles can provide information about the weed distribution in fields. A direct way is to quantify the amount of vegetation present in different areas of the field. The limitation of this approach is that it includes both crops and weeds in the reported num- bers. To get...... of the segmented image 3) determine the dominating crop row direction by analysing output from the Hough transform and 4) use the found crop row direction to locate crop rows....

  7. A selecção dos pesticidas na luta contra os inimigos da Macieira The pesticide selection to control Apple Crop pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amaro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para proceder à comunicação do risco dos pesticidas, relativa a novos conhecimentos toxicológicos, ecotoxicológicos e ambientais decorrentes das exigências da Directiva 91/414/CEE, é indispensável assegurar a sua divulgação nos Guias de Pesticidas da DGPC e das empresas dos pesticidas, ultrapassando o actual SILÊNCIO, quase generalizado, dessas entidades sobre estas matérias. Com esta comunicação procura-se proporcionar essa informação relativamente aos pesticidas homologados, em Portugal, para a cultura da macieira, para permitir a tão importante selecção dos pesticidas.To perform pesticide risk communication, namely concerning new toxicological, ecotoxicological and environmental knowledge, consequence of the Directive 91/414/ CEE, it is indispensable to secure the convenient divulgation, in the Pesticide Guides of DGPC and of Pesticide Companies, overtaking their actual SILENCE, almost generalized about these problems. With this paper we seek to give that information concerning the authorized pesticides, in Portugal, in apple crop, in order to allow pesticide selection.

  8. Remote-Sensing Time Series Analysis, a Vegetation Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellip, Rodney; Prados, Donald; Ryan, Robert; Ross, Kenton; Spruce, Joseph; Gasser, Gerald; Greer, Randall

    2008-01-01

    The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) is software, developed in MATLAB , which creates and displays high signal-to- noise Vegetation Indices imagery and other higher-level products derived from remotely sensed data. This tool enables automated, rapid, large-scale regional surveillance of crops, forests, and other vegetation. TSPT temporally processes high-revisit-rate satellite imagery produced by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and by other remote-sensing systems. Although MODIS imagery is acquired daily, cloudiness and other sources of noise can greatly reduce the effective temporal resolution. To improve cloud statistics, the TSPT combines MODIS data from multiple satellites (Aqua and Terra). The TSPT produces MODIS products as single time-frame and multitemporal change images, as time-series plots at a selected location, or as temporally processed image videos. Using the TSPT program, MODIS metadata is used to remove and/or correct bad and suspect data. Bad pixel removal, multiple satellite data fusion, and temporal processing techniques create high-quality plots and animated image video sequences that depict changes in vegetation greenness. This tool provides several temporal processing options not found in other comparable imaging software tools. Because the framework to generate and use other algorithms is established, small modifications to this tool will enable the use of a large range of remotely sensed data types. An effective remote-sensing crop monitoring system must be able to detect subtle changes in plant health in the earliest stages, before the effects of a disease outbreak or other adverse environmental conditions can become widespread and devastating. The integration of the time series analysis tool with ground-based information, soil types, crop types, meteorological data, and crop growth models in a Geographic Information System, could provide the foundation for a large-area crop-surveillance system that could identify

  9. Seletividade de inseticidas utilizados em cultura cafeeira para larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant Selectivity of insecticides used in the coffee crop to larvae of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2011-06-01

    association of selective compounds and natural enemies, composes an important tool for the integrated pest management (IPM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of some pesticides used in coffee crops on larvae of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1853 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae under controlled laboratory conditions (climatic chamber at 25±2°C, RH of 70±10% with a 12 h-photophase. The randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments and ten repetitions, being each composed for two larvae. For the comparisons of the averages of treatments, a factorial scheme was used with the products x number of instars for the different instars subsequent the application. The pesticides and doses in g of a.i. L-1 were: thiamethoxan (0.5, imidacloprid (0.7, mineral oil (13.3, endosulfan (2.63 and dimethoate (0.48. Distilled water was used as control. The sprayings of the pesticides were accomplished using a Potter's tower. The parameters evaluated were: specimens survival after the application of the compounds, and the compounds effects over the reproductive parameters of the predator. Thiamethoxan (0.5, imidacloprid (0.7 and endosulfan (2.63 were the most harmful to the treated individuals and for the first two compounds it was observed 100% of larvae mortality of the first and second instars soon at 1 day after the application and reduction in the survival of the larvae of third and fourth instars. Dimethoate (0.48 was harmful for the larvae of the first instar and slightly harmful for larvae of fourth instar. As a function of the selectivity presented by mineral oil (13.3, it can be recommended aiming its compatibilization with the C. montrouzieri natural enemy in programs of IPM in coffee crop.

  10. Method for predicting water demand for crop uses in New Jersey in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, and for estimating water use for livestock and selected sectors of the food-processing industry in New Jersey in 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawges, R.M.; Titus, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed to predict water demand for crop uses in New Jersey. A separate method was developed to estimate water use for livestock and selected sectors of the food-processing industry in 1987. Predictions of water demand for field- grown crops in New Jersey were made for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 under three climatological scenarios: (1) wet year, (2) average year, and (3) drought year. These estimates ranged from 4.10 times 10 to the 9th power to 16.82 times 10 to the 9th power gal (gallons). Irrigation amounts calculated for the three climatological scenarios by using a daily water-balance model were multiplied by predicted numbers of irrigated acreage. Irrigated acreage was predicted from historical crop-irrigation data and from predictions of harvested acreage produced by using a statistical model relating population to harvested acreage. Predictions of water demand for cranberries and container-grown nursery crops also were made for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. Predictions of water demand under the three climatological scenarios were made for container- grown nursery crops, but not for cranberries, because water demand for cranberries varies little in response to climatological factors. Water demand for cranberries was predicted to remain constant at 4.43 times 10 to the 9th power gal through the year 2020. Predictions of water demand for container-grown nursery crops ranged from 1.89 times 10 to the 9th power to 3.63 times 10 to the 9th power gal. Water-use for livestock in 1987 was estimated to be 0.78 times 10 to the 9th power gal, and water use for selected sectors of the food-processing industry was estimated to be 3.75 times 10 to the 9th power gal.

  11. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam Dwivedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.

  12. Nitrogen use efficiency in organic and conventional vegetable rotations.: Measured and model simulated results

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable cropping systems are prone to high nitrogen (N) leaching losses. Optimizing the management of each crop can reduce this problem, but not solve it. Important improvements in cropping system N efficiency can be obtained by improving the rotation, to make sure that N left by some crops are to a large extent used by the succeeding crops. However, this includes rotation and fertilization planning based on a complex set of information on many crop species, on catch crops and green manure ...

  13. Global Crop Monitoring: A Satellite-Based Hierarchical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, the CropWatch system has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global, regional, national (thirty-one key countries including China and “sub-countries” (for the nine largest countries. The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both production and exports of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales. The global patterns of crop environmental growing conditions are first analyzed with indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR as well as potential biomass. At the regional scale, the indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation Health Index (VHI, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF as well as Cropping Intensity (CI. Together, they characterize crop situation, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, cropped areas and crop conditions are integrated to derive food production estimates. For the nine largest countries, CropWatch zooms into the sub-national units to acquire detailed information on crop condition and production by including new indicators (e.g., Crop type proportion. Based on trend analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. The hierarchical approach adopted by CropWatch is the basis of the analyses of climatic and crop conditions assessments published in the quarterly “CropWatch bulletin” which

  14. A simple and selective method for the measurement of azadirachtin and related azadirachtoid levels in fruits and vegetables using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarritzu, Erika; Russo, Mariateresa; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-05-14

    Neem-based insecticides containing azadirachtin and related azadirachtoids are widely used in agriculture. Here, we report an analytical method for the rapid and accurate quantification of the insecticide azadirachtin A and B and other azadirachtoids such as salannin, nimbin, and their deacetylated analogues on tomatoes and peaches. Azadirachtoids were extracted from fruits and vegetables with acetonitrile. Using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer, azadirachtoids were selectively detected monitoring the multiple reaction transitions of sodium adduct precursor ions. For azadirachtin A, calibration was linear over a working range of 1-1000 microg/L with r > 0.996. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for azadirachtin A were 0.4 and 0.8 microg/kg, respectively. The presence of interfering compounds in the peach and tomato extracts was evaluated and found to be minimal. Because of the linear behavior, it was concluded that the multiple reaction transitions of sodium adduct ions can be used for analytical purposes, that is, for the identification and quantification of azadirachtin A and B and related azadirachtoids in fruit and vegetable extracts at trace levels.

  15. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Niu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE, actin (ACT and phospholipase A22 (PLA were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, cyclophilin (CYC and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  17. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  18. Application and optimisation of air-steam cooking on selected vegetables: impact on physical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Pugliese, Alessandro; Chiavaro, Emma

    2018-04-01

    Several studies investigated the impact of different cooking techniques on the quality of vegetables. However, the use of the combined air-steam cooking is still scarcely debated, despite the advantages informally referred by professional catering workers. In this study, its optimisation was studied on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin cubes to obtain the best physical (texture, colour) and antioxidant (FRAP, total phenols) response, in comparison to a conventional steaming treatment. Increasing the strength of the air-steam treatment, Brussels sprouts resulted to be softer, less green (higher a* value), richer in phenols and exhibited lower FRAP values than the steamed ones. The air-steamed pumpkin cubes exhibited an equivalent softening degree to that of steamed ones and, under the strongest cooking conditions, a higher antioxidant quality and a yellow darkening (lower b* value). Varying the cooking time and/or temperature, a linear change of force/compression hardness and a* (negative a*: greenness) for Brussels sprouts, b* (yellowness) and total phenol content for pumpkin cubes was observed. A predictive model for these variables was obtained by response surface methodology. The best process conditions to achieve the optimal desirability were also identified. The application of air-steam cooking under suitable time/temperature conditions could be proposed as an alternative method to a traditional steam cooking on Brussels sprouts and pumpkin cubes, being able to preserve or improve their quality. The best air-steam cooking conditions were 25 min at 90 °C for Brussels sprouts and 10 min at 110 °C for pumpkin. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  20. Use of mutagenous factors in the breeding of vegetatively propagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryagina, I.V.; Fomenko, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    Given is a review of the literature and authors data on using mutagenous factors with different nature to breed some new and useful forms of plants reproduced vegetatively. The problem history and prospects of the practical application of the method are stated. In particular the data on ionizing radiation use in fruit crop selection to breed mutation forms (effect on buds, pollen, seeds etc.) are presented

  1. Índice de cobertura vegetal pela cultura do milho no período de chuvas intensas no sul de Minas Gerais Plant cover index in the period of intensive rainfall for corn crop at south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Silva de Souza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura vegetal é a defesa natural do solo contra a erosão hídrica. Nos modelos de estimativas de perdas de solo, o efeito da cobertura vegetal na interceptação da energia cinética da chuva é a variável chave na modelagem do processo erosivo. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da cobertura vegetal, proporcionada pela cultura do milho, e suas relações com os atributos fitotécnicos desta cultura para alguns híbridos. O estudo foi realizado no campo demonstrativo de híbridos de milho da Universidade Federal de Lavras, localizada no município de Lavras, MG. Para determinação da cobertura vegetal utilizou-se um aparato que consiste em uma estrutura horizontal, contendo orifícios para visualização dos pontos com cobertura e sem cobertura vegetal, sendo as leituras feitas de forma aleatória e transversalmente às linhas da cultura. Os atributos fitotécnicos avaliados foram altura da planta, estande, matéria seca e produção de grãos. Diante dos resultados pode-se concluir que o maior índice de cobertura vegetal foi observado para os híbridos de milho P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, DKB 440, evidenciando boa qualidade como planta protetora do solo. No período de maior ocorrência de chuvas, na região sul de Minas Gerais, a cultura do milho pode minimizar o efeito do processo erosivo. A produção de matéria seca relacionou-se bem com o índice de cobertura vegetal, podendo ser um indicativo quanto à proteção do solo.The plant cover is a natural protection of soil against water erosion. In estimative models of soil loss, the effect of plant cover in the interception of rainfall kinetic energy is the key variable in the modeling of the erosive process. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of the plant cover provided by the corn crop and their relations with the phytotechnical attributes of this crop for its respective

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  3. etermination of Nitrate, Potassium, and Calcium using Ion-Selective Sensors in Soilless Plant Growth Media of Some Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda ALTIKATOĞLU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since it is important to transfer the minerals desired by plants for a long time in a controlled manner, simple and economical new micro and macro scale agricultural production systems are needed. In this study, the nutrients in the plant nutrient solutionwere kept at the required level according to the needs of the plant, using computer controlled potentiometric micro-sized chemical sensor systems. Polyvinylchloride (PVC -based ion-selective sensors have been used to sensitively and selectively measure the concentration of macro nutrient NO3−, K+, and Ca2+ions in the hydroponic solution. It has been found that the nitrate, potassium and calcium ion levels required for the green pepper and eggplants grown in the greenhouse are different. The results showed that in the first two months of growth, the pepper consumed nitrate in a lesser amount than the eggplant. In addition, it was determined that the amount of potassium consumed by plants was higher than that of other nutrients.

  4. Effect of different form of mineral nitrogen fertilizer and organic fertilization with compost on yield and quality of various field-grown vegetable crops (radish, carrot, spinach and tubers celery). Quality investigation through electrochemical method and the determination of p-value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, M.

    1998-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen form (calcium-nitrate, nitramoncal, ammonsulfate and urea) and the compost fertilization on yield and quality of different vegetable crops, which were grown under field condition at the same nitrogen fertilizer levels. In addition to evaluate the yield, the nitrate contents and p-value have been tested to determine the quality. Following results have been found: yield: the mineral nitrogen form had no significant effect on yield by radish, carrot, and celery. Spinach is positive responded by a different form of nitrogen fertilizer. The same yield results were nearly obtained by the use of compost, compared to another nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrate content: the nitrate content is investigated in edible plant parts. The nitrogen forms have been effected nitrate contents on researched vegetable crops. Generally, the minimum nitrate content is found in control variant and by use of compost, and too by ammonsulfate or urea fertilizer. The maximum nitrate content is reached by use of calcium-nitrate and nitramoncal fertilizer. Spinach leaves had less nitrate contents than stalks. P-value: results of examination shows a major relation between nitrogen fertilizer form and p-value. With the exception of carrot, had compost and control variants of radish, spinach and celery the highest significant p-value in comparison with another nitrogen fertilizer. The lowest p-value is obtained by application of calcium-nitrate and nitramoncal fertilizer, also for a better quality. (author)

  5. Validation of crop weather models for crop assessment arid yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...

  6. Fire-mediated disruptive selection can explain the reseeder-resprouter dichotomy in Mediterranean-type vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; De Klerk, Helen M; Midgley, Guy F

    2015-02-01

    Crown fire is a key selective pressure in Mediterranean-type plant communities. Adaptive responses to fire regimes involve trade-offs between investment for persistence (fire survival and resprouting) and reproduction (fire mortality, fast growth to reproductive maturity, and reseeding) as investments that enhance adult survival lower growth and reproductive rates. Southern hemisphere Mediterranean-type ecosystems are dominated by species with either endogenous regeneration from adult resprouting or fire-triggered seedling recruitment. Specifically, on nutrient-poor soils, these are either resprouting or reseeding life histories, with few intermediate forms, despite the fact that the transition between strategies is evolutionarily labile. How did this strong dichotomy evolve? We address this question by developing a stochastic demographic model to assess determinants of relative fitness of reseeders, resprouters and hypothetical intermediate forms. The model was parameterised using published demographic data from South African protea species and run over various relevant fire regime parameters facets. At intermediate fire return intervals, trade-offs between investment in growth versus fire resilience can cause fitness to peak at either of the extremes of the reseeder-resprouter continuum, especially when assuming realistic non-linear shapes for these trade-offs. Under these circumstances, the fitness landscape exhibits a saddle which could lead to disruptive selection. The fitness gradient between the peaks was shallow, which may explain why this life-history trait is phylogenetically labile. Resprouters had maximum fitness at shorter fire-return intervals than reseeders. The model suggests that a strong dichotomy in fire survival strategy depends on a non-linear trade-off between growth and fire persistence traits.

  7. Potential of irradiation technology in horticultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are living tissues which are subject to continuous change after harvest leading to senescence, cellular break-down and death. Post harvest losses in quality and quantity of horticultural crops result from physiological, pathological and physical processes, acting separately or in combination. Temperature management, maintenance of proper relative humidity of air, manipulation of storage temperature and exposing to ionizing radiation such as gamma rays enhance the shelf-life of horticultural crops

  8. A database for coconut crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2005-12-08

    Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. http://www.bioinfcpcri.org.

  9. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values connected to integrated crop protection. The role of integrated crop protection in prototyping new systems is discussed. The results of twenty years working with this prototyping methodology are pre...