WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected soviet medical

  1. Soviet medical ethics (1917-1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterman, Boleslav L

    2005-01-01

    Russian medical ethics bears a heavy mark of seven decades of the communist regime. In 1918 the Health Care Commissariat (ministry) was formed. It was headed by Nikolai Semashko (1874-1949) who claimed that "the ethics of the Soviet physician is an ethics of our socialist motherland, an ethics of a builder of communist society; it is equal to communist moral". "Medical ethics" had been avoided until the late 1930s when it was replaced by "medical (or surgical) deontology". This "deontological" period started with "Problems of surgical deontology" written by N. Petrov, a surgeon, and lasted for almost half a century until "medical deontology" was abandoned in favor of "bioethics" in post-communist Russia. There have been five All-Union conferences on medical deontology since 1969. The story of the emergence of "The Oath of a Soviet Physician" is briefly described. The text of this Oath was approved by a special decree of the Soviet Parliament in 1971. Each graduate of medical school in USSR was obliged to take this Oath when receiving his or her medical diploma. It is concluded that such ideas of zemstvo medicine as universal access to health care and condemnation of private practice were put into practice under the communist regime.

  2. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  3. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  4. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  5. Radiation accidents in the former Soviet Union: Medical consequences and experience in the application of radiation protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Federation is a scientific center which has extensive archives containing scientific studies and information on radiation safety problems and occurrences since the early days of nuclear science and research and nuclear weapons tests in the Soviet Union. Some of this classified, top secret material has recently been published by Prof. L.A. Iljin in a renowned Russian scientific journal in the form of a review of radiation accidents in the Soviet Union, general medical reports, case reports, and the effects of nuclear weapons tests. He also added his own expert view of the accidents and their effects, and his conclusions relating to public health effects and required radiation protection policy. The article in this issue of Strahlenschutz Praxis is a German translation of excerpts from the original journal article. (orig./CB) [de

  6. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  7. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    140 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  8. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    139 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  9. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    136 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  10. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    136 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  11. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-07-01

    158 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  12. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    135 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  13. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    133 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  14. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    136 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  15. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    141 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  16. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    135 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  17. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    137 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  18. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-07-01

    142 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  19. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1977-09-01

    161 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are availabl on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  20. Film selection in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, Dogan

    1988-01-01

    Importing of medical imaging films is the responsibility of Turkish Red Croscend, but some institutions have currently started to import their own films. Because of the different resources in individual departments throughout Turkey, a general purpose medical film is imported by Turkish Red Croscend. This kind of film has the advantage to tolerate some technical faults related to the exposure, dark room and processing conditions and still reveals the necessary image quality. In addition to general purpose film, many companies produce special used films which improve some film characteristics in order to have a better image. The initial results of a project already started by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority showed that some other technical reasons prevent obtaining films with optimum quality. The film is the last step of diagnostic procedure and not only gives necessary clinical information, but also visualizes all the problems related to the lock of the calibration of X-ray system and dark room processing conditions. Because of these reasons, many people hold the film responsible for every technical problem. During the selection of the best film among the different companies, institutions have to fulfill some prerequisites at the beginning and than evaluate the quantitative results obtained from measurements according to their clinical purposes. It is the subject of this paper to show how to use film parameter as a comparison to different types of films measured with light sensitometry method. The dark room and processing problems which adversely effect the results are also given. The requirements for the best film selection both for general and special purposes are also evaluated. The extent of this paper is limited only to films using radiology and does not cover the types used in other imaging areas

  1. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  2. From 'beastly philosophy' to medical genetics: eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics.

  3. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  4. UK medical selection: lottery or meritocracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Benjamin H L; Walsh, Jason L; Lammy, Simon

    2015-02-01

    From senior school through to consultancy, a plethora of assessments shape medical careers. Multiple methods of assessment are used to discriminate between applicants. Medical selection in the UK appears to be moving increasingly towards non-knowledge-based testing at all career stages. We review the evidence for non-knowledge-based tests and discuss their perceived benefits. We raise the question: is the current use of non-knowledge-based tests within the UK at risk of undermining more robust measures of medical school and postgraduate performance? © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  5. Medical and sanitation activity of the Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomic after the Chernobyl' accident within the Soviet-French cooperation frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.; Pauli, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection intends to help in surveillance of the population subjected to radiation effects, environmental monitoring around the Chernobyl' NPP, organization of works and observations dealing with radioecology. The program of two-side French-Soviet actions including assistance for physicians in professional patient treatments, medical assistant for children and families evacuated to Kiev

  6. Otolaryngology residency selection process. Medical student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, S P; Cassisi, N J; Slattery, W H

    1992-04-01

    In an effort to improve the otolaryngology matching process at the University of Florida, Gainesville, we sought to obtain the medical student's perspective of the current system. All students who interviewed here over a 3-year period were surveyed regarding the application, interview, and ranking process. In addition, suggestions for improving the system were sought from the students. The application and interviewing patterns of the students surveyed were found to be similar to those of the entire otolaryngology residency applicant pool. We were unable to identify any factors that influence a student's rank list that could be prospectively used to help select applicants for interview. A variety of suggestions for improvements in the match were received, several of which could easily be instituted. A uniform interview invitation date as requested by the students could be rapidly implemented and would provide benefits for both the students and the residency programs.

  7. Selected physical characteristics of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lajos Ángyán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1 recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2 basketball and (3 handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4 and women (5 students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one’s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.

  8. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  9. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  10. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote ... groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future ... In keeping = with international practices, a variety of academic and ...

  11. Selection of medical treatment in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardissino, D; Savonitto, S; Egstrup, K

    1995-01-01

    pectoris. BACKGROUND: The characteristics of anginal symptoms and the results of exercise testing are considered of great importance for selecting medical treatment in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. However, little information is available on how this first evaluation may be used to select....... CONCLUSIONS: The results of a baseline exercise test, but not the characteristics of anginal symptoms, may offer useful information for selecting medical treatment in stable angina pectoris....

  12. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  13. Which Female Medical Students Select a Career in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Cynthia S.; Burkett, Gary L.

    A study examined characteristics of female medical students who indicated an intention to specialize in surgery, traditionally a male-dominated field. Family backgrounds, career motivations, and career orientations from this group were compared with the same characteristics of female medical students selecting other fields of specialization. Data…

  14. Medical Tourist's Perception in Selecting their Destination: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Abdullah Am; Manaf, Noorhazilah A; Omar, Azura

    2012-01-01

    The need for better healthcare has grown significantly in recent years. In addition, the rising healthcare costs in the U.S. and in many European countries have forced many patients to seek medical treatment abroad, which has created the demand for medical tourism. With little yet known as to the perception of a medical tourist's destination selection, this study aims to explore medical tourist's perception in selecting their destination while going for medical treatment. Realizing the current need to examine closely the perception of medical tourists, this study had conducted a secondary study to collect data for assessing and identification of the key factors on patient's perception and destination selection criteria. The result confirms the existence of a very strong relationship between cost, service quality, treatment types and availability and marketing impact on the perception of the medical tourists' in selecting their medical tourism destination. This study offers support for the proposed conceptual model and an empirical basis for comparison in future research.

  15. Computer Use of a Medical Dictionary to Select Search Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John

    1986-01-01

    Explains an experiment in text-searching retrieval for cancer questions which developed and used computer procedures (via human simulation) to select search words from medical dictionaries. This study is based on an earlier one in which search words were humanly selected, and the recall results of the two studies are compared. (Author/LRW)

  16. Shaping the future medical workforce: take care with selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Phillippa; Shulruf, Boaz

    2013-12-01

    Medical school selection is a first step in developing a general practice workforce. To determine the relationship between medical school selection scores and intention to pursue a career in general practice. A longitudinal cohort study of students selected in 2006 and 2007 for The University of Auckland medical programme, who completed an exit survey on career intentions. Students are ranked for selection into year 2 of a six-year programme by combining grade point average from prior university achievement (60%), interview (25%) and Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) scores (15%). The main outcome measure was level of interest in general practice at exit. Logistic regression assessed whether any demographic variables or admission scores predicted a 'strong' interest in general practice. None of interview scores, grade point average, age, gender, or entry pathway predicted a 'strong' interest in general practice. Only UMAT scores differentiated between those with a 'strong' interest versus those with 'some' or 'no' interest, but in an inverse fashion. The best predictor of a 'strong' interest in general practice was a low UMAT score of between 45 and 55 on all three UMAT sections (OR 3.37, p=0.020). Yet, the academic scores at entry of students with these UMAT scores were not lower than those of their classmates. Setting inappropriately high cut-points for medical school selection may exclude applicants with a propensity for general practice. These findings support the use of a wider lens through which to view medical school selection tools.

  17. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  18. Soviet Development of Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Relationship Type of Device Remarks V, - Vc, anomalous Doppler Capable of 100 percent efficiency, CRM but more cumbersome than Cheren- kov devices V...authors; and discusses inlividual Soviet reseaLc- groups, the basic organizational units responAiLle for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The...maintained a cCnEistEnt iecord of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systenic yeaxness of the Soviet R&C systeg in teimg atle to

  19. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  20. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and medical students' demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, L J; van Zyl, G J; St Clair Gibson, A; Viljoen, M; Iputo, J E; Mammen, M; Chitha, W; Perez, A M; Hartman, N; Fonn, S; Green-Thompson, L; Ayo-Ysuf, O A; Botha, G C; Manning, D; Botha, S J; Hift, R; Retief, P; van Heerden, B B; Volmink, J

    2015-12-16

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote equitable and fair access to students from all population groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future healthcare practitioners who will fulfil the needs of the local society. In keeping with international practices, a variety of academic and non-academic measures are used to select applicants for medical training programmes in SA medical schools. To provide an overview of the selection procedures used by all eight medical schools in SA, and the student demographics (race and gender) at these medical schools, and to determine to what extent collective practices are achieving the goals of student diversity and inclusivity. A retrospective, quantitative, descriptive study design was used. All eight medical schools in SA provided information regarding selection criteria, selection procedures, and student demographics (race and gender). Descriptive analysis of data was done by calculating frequencies and percentages of the variables measured. Medical schools in SA make use of academic and non-academic criteria in their selection processes. The latter include indices of socioeconomic disadvantage. Most undergraduate medical students in SA are black (38.7%), followed by white (33.0%), coloured (13.4%) and Indian/Asian (13.6%). The majority of students are female (62.2%). The number of black students is still proportionately lower than in the general population, while other groups are overrepresented. Selection policies for undergraduate medical programmes aimed at redress should be continued and further refined, along with the provision of support to ensure student success.

  1. Risk and Soviet Security Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    .... There are several exceptions to general Soviet risk aversion in using military power. But in each instance, the Soviet Union has fared rather badly when it chanced large risks in pursuit of correspondingly high potential gains...

  2. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  3. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Selection and Management of Medical Official during the Yuan Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Gi KIM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the healthcare system of the Yuan Dynasty followed that of the Song Dynasty, there are certain differences between these two dynasties in terms of practices. Including appointing ‘Yihus’ in ‘Zhusehuji’ and setting up ‘Guanyitijusi’ to oversee Yihus, the Yuan Dynasty developed an effective management system for their physicians and, soon after the coronation of Khubilai, built ‘Yixue (Medical school’ all over its territories in order to establish an organized and substantial medical training system. Moreover, the Yuan Dynasty not only revived the civil service examination system system between 1314 and 1320 as well as the medical examination system, but also increased the quota for qualification to twice that of Confucian examination in Song. These changes resulted in producing many brilliant people at the time. In the second half of the reign of Emperor Chengzong it was decided that the incompetence of the government healthcare organizations and the abundance of charlatans could not be neglected any longer. Existing policies and systems was limited in educating and training proper physicians, and this problem was not restricted to the field of medicine. The need for new systems that could reform the social order led to the restoration of the civil service examination system. The civil service examination system for Confucianism and for medicine began in 1314 and 1316, respectively. The purpose of the medical examination system was to select medical officials. The medical examination system which started in 1316 had a significant impact on the medicine of the Yuan dynasty for many reasons. Firstly, the qualification to apply to the medical examination did not remain constricted to ‘Yixue’ but opened to all ‘Zhusehuji’; and secondly, the examination system did not have a restriction on the number of applicants was not restricted. The most important aspect of the examination system was that the number of test takers

  5. Selection and Management of Medical Official during the Yuan Dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Gi

    2017-12-01

    Although the healthcare system of the Yuan Dynasty followed that of the Song Dynasty, there are certain differences between these two dynasties in terms of practices. Including appointing 'Yihus' in 'Zhusehuji' and setting up 'Guanyitijusi' to oversee Yihus, the Yuan Dynasty developed an effective management system for their physicians and, soon after the coronation of Khubilai, built 'Yixue (Medical school)' all over its territories in order to establish an organized and substantial medical training system. Moreover, the Yuan Dynasty not only revived the civil service examination system system between 1314 and 1320 as well as the medical examination system, but also increased the quota for qualification to twice that of Confucian examination in Song. These changes resulted in producing many brilliant people at the time. In the second half of the reign of Emperor Chengzong it was decided that the incompetence of the government healthcare organizations and the abundance of charlatans could not be neglected any longer. Existing policies and systems was limited in educating and training proper physicians, and this problem was not restricted to the field of medicine. The need for new systems that could reform the social order led to the restoration of the civil service examination system. The civil service examination system for Confucianism and for medicine began in 1314 and 1316, respectively. The purpose of the medical examination system was to select medical officials. The medical examination system which started in 1316 had a significant impact on the medicine of the Yuan dynasty for many reasons. Firstly, the qualification to apply to the medical examination did not remain constricted to 'Yixue' but opened to all 'Zhusehuji'; and secondly, the examination system did not have a restriction on the number of applicants was not restricted. The most important aspect of the examination system was that the number of test takers that passed the first test was one hundred

  6. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  7. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  8. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  9. Excited delirium: Consideration of selected medical and psychiatric issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Edith Samuel1, Robert B Williams1, Richard B Ferrell21Department of Psychology, Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton, New Brunswick Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USAAbstract: Excited delirium, sometimes referred to as agitated or excited delirium, is the label assigned to the state of acute behavioral disinhibition manifested in a cluster of behaviors that may include bizarreness, aggressiveness, agitation, ranting, hyperactivity, paranoia, panic, violence, public disturbance, surprising physical strength, profuse sweating due to hyperthermia, respiratory arrest, and death. Excited delirium is reported to result from substance intoxication, psychiatric illness, alcohol withdrawal, head trauma, or a combination of these. This communication reviews the history of the origins of excited delirium, selected research related to its causes, symptoms, management, and the links noted between it and selected medical and psychiatric conditions. Excited delirium involves behavioral and physical symptoms that are also observed in medical and psychiatric conditions such as rhabdomyolysis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and catatonia. A useful contribution of this communication is that it links the state of excited delirium to conditions for which there are known and effective medical and psychiatric interventions.Keywords: excited delirium, excited states, cocaine misuse, restraint or in custody deaths

  10. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  11. The use of medication in selective mutism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Oerbeck, Beate; Overgaard, Kristin Romvig

    2016-06-01

    Despite limited evidence, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used to reduce symptoms of selective mutism (SM) in children unresponsive to psychosocial interventions. We review existing evidence for the efficacy of these medications, limitations of the literature, and resulting treatment considerations. Bibliographic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Cochrane up to June 2015. Two reviewers independently sought studies of children with SM as primary psychiatric diagnosis, which reported response to medication treatment. Abstracts were limited to those reporting original data. Two reviewers independently assessed the ten papers reporting on >2 subjects regarding study design, key results, and limitations. Heterogeneity of designs mandated a descriptive summary. Symptomatic improvement was found for 66/79 children treated with SSRIs and 4/4 children treated with phenelzine. Only 3/10 studies had unmedicated comparison groups and only two were double-blinded. This review may be affected by publication bias, missed studies, and variability of outcome measures in included studies. Although there is some evidence for symptomatic improvement in SM with medication, especially SSRIs, it is limited by small numbers, lack of comparative trials, lack of consistent measures, and lack of consistent reporting on tolerability. The clinician must weigh this paucity of evidence against the highly debilitating nature of SM, and its adverse effects on the development of those children whose progress with psychosocial interventions is limited or very slow. Studies of optimal dosage and timing of medications in relation to psychosocial treatments are also needed.

  12. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  13. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    some 27,000 meters of bridging equipment, 13 1 ."¾. million metric tons of arms and ammunition, "J -- and 60 million metric tons of petrol (fuel...rhis ammuitnition. lDuring aI warn sýuppjlis fromn stratev!1( s4tuck- a1lomg with ove-(r 9 m-illion metric tons o )f petrol 10 ~iilt- In thi. Stlviit...been a target for new Soviet overtures Deputy Foreign Minister Vladimir Petrovskiy through political influence operations and ex- went to Tunisia , Iraq

  14. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  15. Understanding Soviet Naval Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    submarine noise reduction technology. A single-unit experimental, deep diving SSN. SSBN in a process that converted the unit to dubbed the MIKE class, was...is second only to that of Ja- ties. When the Soviet MIKE SSN suffered a pan in total catch tonnage each year. fire in the Norwegian Sea in April of... sharpl \\ tapered nose providing better o~er-the-nose visibil- ity: this change ’. as miade possible by the absence of’ the MIiG-23’s air intercept radar

  16. Esthetic Education in Soviet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This issue of Soviet Education examines esthetic education in Soviet schools, including ways of raising the level of esthetic education, the factor of labor, research on the relationship between the atheistic and esthetic education, ways of amplifying interrelationship between theory and practice in teacher education and psychological principles…

  17. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  18. What motivates medical students to select medical studies: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, Federica; Dhirar, Nonita; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2018-01-17

    There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational factors that underpin students' selection of medical study in recent years. The literature search was carried out by two researchers independently in PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley and IndMED databases for articles published from year 2006 till 2016. A total of 38 combinations of MeSH words were used for search purpose. Studies related to medical students and interns have been included. The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic review led to the final selection of 24 articles. The majority of the studies (n = 16; 66.6%) were from high-income countries followed by an equal number from upper-middle and lower-middle income countries (n = 4,16.7%). None of the studies were from low-income countries. All of the studies were cross-sectional in nature. The main motivating factors that emerged were scientific (interest in science / medicine, social interest and academia, flexible work hours and work independence), societal (prestige, job security, financial security) and humanitarian (serving the poor and under priviledged) in high-, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries, respectively. The findings were comparable to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory of motivation. This systematic review identifies the motivational factors influencing students to join medical studies in different parts of the globe. These factors vary per country depending on the level of income. This study offers cues to policy makers and educators to formulate policy in order to tackle the shortage of health workers, i.e. medical doctors. However, more research is needed to translate health policy into concrete and effective measures.

  19. Permeation of cytotoxic formulations through swatches from selected medical gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Lambov, Nikolai; Samev, Nikola; Carstens, Gerhard

    2003-05-15

    The permeability of selected medical glove materials to various cytotoxic agents is described. Fifteen cytotoxic agents were prepared at the highest concentrations normally encountered by hospital personnel. Four single-layer and two double-layer glove systems made of two materials--latex and neoprene--were exposed to the drugs for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. Circular sections of the glove material were cut from the cuff and evaluated without any pretreatment. Permeability tests were conducted in an apparatus consisting of a donor chamber containing the cytotoxic solution and a collection chamber filled with water (the acceptor medium). The two sections were separated by the glove material. Permeating portions, collected in water as the acceptor medium, were analyzed by either ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometry or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Permeation rates were calculated on the basis of the concentration of the cytotoxic agent in the acceptor medium. Spectrophotometric measurements were taken every 30 minutes, and HPLC analysis was performed at the end of the three-hour period. Average permeation rates for 14 drugs were low (materials. All glove materials tested were impermeable to most of the cytotoxic agents over a period of three hours. Carmustine was the only agent that substantially permeated single-layer latex glove materials. Permeation of most tested cytotoxic formulations was low through swatches of material from various medical gloves.

  20. A Soviet view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, the international situation has changed greatly. Efforts to maintain strategic stability have replaced the desire for strategic superiority. Equally important, new thinking in the Soviet Union has greatly accelerated the political warming between the superpowers. As a result of thee developments, the Soviet Union and the United States have come to the conclusion that a nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought. These events have drastically reduced the probability of the deliberate use of nuclear or conventional weapons. However, the risk of a military crisis and its consequences still exist. Indeed, the risk of a nuclear exchange is still possible. What has changed, however, is that in the current international climate, a crisis or war may result unintentionally because of misperceptions, misunderstanding, accident, or technical fault. While the probability of this is admittedly small, it remains far greater than that of deliberate conflict. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is twofold. First, it identifies potential sources of unintended crises and conflicts and recommends appropriate confidence-building measures. Second, it addresses CBMs and their potential roles in nuclear crisis de-escalation

  1. Kant’s Studies in Ukrainian Philosophy of Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Tytarenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing is devoted to the brief review of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy studies and receptions of his philosophical concepts within the Ukrainian philosophy of Soviet period. Such attempt is actually pertinent because nowadays we definitely need to reconsider the soviet philosophical heritage for better understanding the real value of any philosophical conclusions and worldview-concerning statements which were made in the times of soviet ideology hegemony. Additionally, mentioned reconsidering is presently urgent because Ukrainian intellectual culture is now looking for its identity and is trying to identify the stillremaining ideological totalitarian elements which spoil the originality and objectiveness of its products. The present review attempts to identify which totalitarian intentions and prejudices were used to interpret and evaluate the Immanuel Kant’s heritage in the texts written by several selected Ukrainian philosophers of the Soviet period. Nevertheless, it’s obvious that absolutely impossible to avoid talking about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophical position interpretation by the same authors. Kant’s and Hegel’s soviet-Ukrainian interpretations were often connected, because there was a general trend of soviet Marxist history of philosophy to interpret Kant as the “worse” version of Hegel. To fulfill the general image of Kant’s philosophy interpretation in Ukrainian philosophy and its future perspectives, this paper also delivers some common information about the whole historical path of Kant’s interpretations and receptions

  2. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  3. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  4. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  5. A selective review of medical cannabis in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Alexia; Wan, Bo Angela; Malek, Leila; DeAngelis, Carlo; Diaz, Patrick; Lao, Nicholas; Chow, Edward; O'Hearn, Shannon

    2017-12-01

    Insufficient management of cancer-associated chronic and neuropathic pain adversely affects patient quality of life. Patients who do not respond well to opioid analgesics, or have severe side effects from the use of traditional analgesics are in need of alternative therapeutic op-tions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that medical cannabis has potential to effectively manage pain in this patient population. This review presents a selection of representative clinical studies, from small pilot studies conducted in 1975, to double-blind placebo-controlled trials conducted in 2014 that evaluated the efficacy of cannabinoid-based therapies containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for reducing cancer-associated pain. A review of literature published on Medline between 1975 and 2017 identified five clinical studies that evaluated the effect of THC or CBD on controlling cancer pain, which have been reviewed and summarised. Five studies that evaluated THC oil capsules, THC:CBD oromucosal spray (nabiximols), or THC oromucosal sprays found some evidence of cancer pain reduction associated with these therapies. A variety of doses ranging from 2.7-43.2 mg/day THC and 0-40 mg/day CBD were administered. Higher doses of THC were correlated with increased pain relief in some studies. One study found that significant pain relief was achieved in doses as low as 2.7-10.8 mg THC in combination with 2.5-10.0 mg CBD, but there was conflicting evidence on whether higher doses provide superior pain relief. Some reported side effects include drowsiness, hypotension, mental clouding, and nausea and vomiting. There is evidence suggesting that medical cannabis reduces chronic or neu-ropathic pain in advanced cancer patients. However, the results of many studies lacked statistical power, in some cases due to limited number of study subjects. Therefore, there is a need for the conduct of further double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample sizes in order to

  6. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  7. Readmissions for Selected Infections Due to Medical Care: Expanding the Definition of a Patient Safety Indicator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Brian; Cen, Liyi; Hannan, Edward L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicator that identifies patients with selected infections that result from medical care during hospital inpatient treatment...

  8. Mineral production statistics of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four tables show, for each of the years 1980 to 1991 Soviet oil production, Soviet gas production, Soviet coal production and Soviet steel production. Total figures are given along with a regional breakdown. 4 refs

  9. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  10. Effectively incorporating selected multimedia content into medical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Mietchen, Daniel; Faber, Cornelius; von Hausen, Wolfram; Schöbel, Christoph; Sellerer, Markus; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-02-17

    Until fairly recently, medical publications have been handicapped by being restricted to non-electronic formats, effectively preventing the dissemination of complex audiovisual and three-dimensional data. However, authors and readers could significantly profit from advances in electronic publishing that permit the inclusion of multimedia content directly into an article. For the first time, the de facto gold standard for scientific publishing, the portable document format (PDF), is used here as a platform to embed a video and an audio sequence of patient data into a publication. Fully interactive three-dimensional models of a face and a schematic representation of a human brain are also part of this publication. We discuss the potential of this approach and its impact on the communication of scientific medical data, particularly with regard to electronic and open access publications. Finally, we emphasise how medical teaching can benefit from this new tool and comment on the future of medical publishing.

  11. Soviet Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  12. Lessons learned from 15 years of non-grades-based selection for medical school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractContext: Thirty years ago, it was suggested in the Edinburgh Declaration that medical school applicants should be selected not only on academic, but also on non-academic, attributes. The main rationale behind extending medical school selection procedures with the evaluation of

  13. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  14. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  15. Soviet New Thinking: Perspectives and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-29

    and leading military theorist, as quoted in Steven P. Adragna , "A New Soviet Military? Doctrine and Strategy", Orbis, Spring, 1989, p. 166. 22... Adragna , pp. 166-68. 22. Soviet Battlefield Development Plan. Vol I: Soviet General Doctrine for War, p.1-8. 24. Goure, pp. 36-37. 25. William E. Odom

  16. Selected medical management of the older rehabilitative patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John L; Armour, Doris

    2004-07-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights present practices of geriatric medicine that are commonly seen in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. It is a part of the study guide on geriatric rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. In particular, attention is given to update physiatrists in the geriatric medical advances in pharmacotherapeutic considerations, the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infections, and sleep disorders. To update the common present-day medical practices for older persons seen in a rehabilitation setting.

  17. An Integrated DEMATEL-QFD Model for Medical Supplier Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtap Dursun; Zeynep Şener

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection is considered as one of the most critical issues encountered by operations and purchasing managers to sharpen the company’s competitive advantage. In this paper, a novel fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making approach integrating quality function deployment (QFD) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method is proposed for supplier selection. The proposed methodology enables to consider the impacts of inner dependence among supplier assessment cr...

  18. Selected determinants may account for dropout risks among medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The dropout level from the Danish medical schools is high, but we have only little insight into this problem. The purpose of this study was to qualify the ongoing discussions concerning dropout. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, relevant variables were...... extracted from the established database of Aarhus University for the 639 students initiating medicine studies between 1 January 1999 and 31December 2000. A multivariate pre-admission and post-admission model was examined. RESULTS: Of the 639 medical students, 20% dropped out. Most students dropped out...... during their first year. The type of admission exam was a strong predictor of dropout in the pre-admission model, whereas previous higher education protected against dropout. Obtaining leave was a very strong predictor of dropout in the post-admission model, whereas high grades protected against dropout...

  19. Medical student selection and society: Lessons we learned from sociological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei, Minoo; Yazdani, Shahram; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the interaction between the society, applicants and medical schools in terms of medical student selection. In this study, the trends to implement social factors in the selection process were highlighted. These social factors were explored through functionalism and conflict theories, each focusing on different categories of social factors. While functionalist theorists pay attention to diversity in the selection process, conflict theorists highlight the importance of socio-economic class. Although both theories believe in sorting, their different views are reflected in their sorting strategies. Both theories emphasize the importance of the person-society relationship in motivation to enter university. Furthermore, the impacts of social goals on the selection policies are derived from both theories. Theories in the sociology of education offer an approach to student selection that acknowledges and supports complexity, plurality of approaches and innovative means of selection. Medical student selection does not solely focus on the individual assessment and qualification, but it focuses on a social and collective process, which includes all the influences and interactions between the medical schools and the society. Sociological perspective of medical student selection proposes a model that envelops the individual and the society. In this model, the selection methods should meet the criteria of merit at the individual level, while the selection policies should aim at the society goals at the institutional level.

  20. Selected determinants may account for dropout risks among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads; Eika, Berit

    2012-09-01

    The dropout level from the Danish medical schools is high, but we have only little insight into this problem. The purpose of this study was to qualify the ongoing discussions concerning dropout. In this retrospective cohort study, relevant variables were extracted from the established database of Aarhus University for the 639 students initiating medicine studies between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2000. A multivariate pre-admission and post-admission model was examined. Of the 639 medical students, 20% dropped out. Most students dropped out during their first year. The type of admission exam was a strong predictor of dropout in the pre-admission model, whereas previous higher education protected against dropout. Obtaining leave was a very strong predictor of dropout in the post-admission model, whereas high grades protected against dropout. The dropout rate has been decreasing during the past decade. Young people considering studying medicine could be advised to choose natural science subjects in high school, and a number of research questions concerning preparedness for medical school are worth pursuing. Leave or very low grades during the first and second study years might serve as red flags to supervisors. Study research was funded by Aarhus University. Not relevant, register-based research with no biological human material cannot be notified to the Danish Committee System. The Danish Data Protection Agency allows schools to conduct anonymized, non-sensitive, educational analyses without notification.

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    create the most favorable conditions for a new upsurge in Soviet cinema and theater. It is only the healthy, competitive and creative atmo- sphere, in...Communist Party), Vox (Colombian Communist Party), Unidad ( Peruvian Communist Party), Hora and Popular (Uruguayan Communist Party), and Pueblo (Ecuadorian

  2. The Soviet Crisis Relocation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    tie text dealing with relo ’ation is oil one page long (out of a total of 47 pags), and in tile 1981 edition it is L(1I .,4 i about a page and a...departures of foot columns will also reflect the Soviet value system. In other words, priority will be giver to elements of the essencial work force

  3. Preconception sex selection for non-medical and intermediate reasons: ethical reflections

    OpenAIRE

    de Wert, G.; Dondorp, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sex selection for non-medical reasons is forbidden in many countries. Focusing on preconception sex selection, the authors first observe that it is unclear what should count as a ‘medical reason’ in this context and argue for the existence of ‘intermediate reasons’ that do not fit well within the rigid distinction between ‘medical’and ‘non-medical’. The article further provides a critical review of the arguments for the prohibition of sex selection for non-medical reasons and finds that none ...

  4. Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.-F.; Wu, C.-R.; Li, Y.-T.

    2008-01-01

    While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy

  5. Effects of medical school selection on student motivation: a PhD thesis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk

    2018-02-01

    High stakes are involved in student selection, for both medical schools and applicants. This thesis investigated the effects of selection on the medical student population and applicant pool in the Dutch setting. This thesis consists of six papers: two quantitative studies, one qualitative study, two mixed methods studies and one perspective paper based on a review of the literature. (1) Compared with a lottery, selection does not result in a student population with better motivation, engagement and performance, both in the clinical and pre-clinical phases of the study. (2) Selection seems to have a temporary stimulating effect on student motivation through enhancing perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness. (3) Applicants adopt a strategic approach, based on the selection procedure, in their choice of medical school. (4) The description of an applicant's motivation is not a reliable and valid tool to assess motivation during selection. (5) Gaining healthcare experience is crucial for applicants' motivation, but inequalities in access to such experiences can demotivate certain student groups from applying to medical school. (6) The gains yielded from selection compared with a lottery seem to be small. Unintentionally induced self-selection among certain groups of students and biased selection procedures may compromise student diversity. The added value of selection procedures compared with a weighted lottery for admitting students to medical school is questionable. Students are generally motivated and perform well, irrespective of how they enrolled in medical school. Selection yields only small gains, while student diversity may be hampered.

  6. A Selective Group Authentication Scheme for IoT-Based Medical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2017-04-01

    The technology of IoT combined with medical systems is expected to support advanced medical services. However, unsolved security problems, such as misuse of medical devices, illegal access to the medical server and so on, make IoT-based medical systems not be applied widely. In addition, users have a high burden of computation to access Things for the explosive growth of IoT devices. Because medical information is critical and important, but users have a restricted computing power, IoT-based medical systems are required to provide secure and efficient authentication for users. In this paper, we propose a selective group authentication scheme using Shamir's threshold technique. The property of selectivity gives the right of choice to users to form a group which consists of things users select and access. And users can get an access authority for those Things at a time. Thus, our scheme provides an efficient user authentication for multiple Things and conditional access authority for safe IoT-based medical information system. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first in which selectivity is combined with group authentication in IoT environments.

  7. Selecting, training and assessing new general practice community teachers in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydes, Ciaran; Ajjawi, Rola

    2015-09-01

    Standards for undergraduate medical education in the UK, published in Tomorrow's Doctors, include the criterion 'everyone involved in educating medical students will be appropriately selected, trained, supported and appraised'. To establish how new general practice (GP) community teachers of medical students are selected, initially trained and assessed by UK medical schools and establish the extent to which Tomorrow's Doctors standards are being met. A mixed-methods study with questionnaire data collected from 24 lead GPs at UK medical schools, 23 new GP teachers from two medical schools plus a semi-structured telephone interview with two GP leads. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed informed by framework analysis. GP teachers' selection is non-standardised. One hundred per cent of GP leads provide initial training courses for new GP teachers; 50% are mandatory. The content and length of courses varies. All GP leads use student feedback to assess teaching, but other required methods (peer review and patient feedback) are not universally used. To meet General Medical Council standards, medical schools need to include equality and diversity in initial training and use more than one method to assess new GP teachers. Wider debate about the selection, training and assessment of new GP teachers is needed to agree minimum standards.

  8. Medical Tourist’s Perception in Selecting their Destination: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Abdullah AM; Manaf, Noorhazilah A; Omar, Azura

    2012-01-01

    Background: The need for better healthcare has grown significantly in recent years. In addition, the rising healthcare costs in the U.S. and in many European countries have forced many patients to seek medical treatment abroad, which has created the demand for medical tourism. With little yet known as to the perception of a medical tourist’s destination selection, this study aims to explore medical tourist’s perception in selecting their destination while going for medical treatment. Methods: Realizing the current need to examine closely the perception of medical tourists, this study had conducted a secondary study to collect data for assessing and identification of the key factors on patient’s perception and destination selection criteria. Results: The result confirms the existence of a very strong relationship between cost, service quality, treatment types and availability and marketing impact on the perception of the medical tourists’ in selecting their medical tourism destination. Conclusion: This study offers support for the proposed conceptual model and an empirical basis for comparison in future research. PMID:23113218

  9. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  10. Development and Validation of the Motivations for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS Questionnaire in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    Full Text Available Understanding medical students' motivation to select medical studies is particularly salient to inform practice and policymaking in countries-such as India-where shortage of medical personnel poses crucial and chronical challenges to healthcare systems. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the motivation of medical students to select medical studies.A Motivation for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS questionnaire was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique. The scale consisted of 12 items, 5 measuring intrinsic dimensions of motivations and 7 measuring extrinsic dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, validity, reliability and data quality checks were conducted on a sample of 636 medical students from six medical colleges of three North Indian states.The MSMS questionnaire consisted of 3 factors (subscales and 8 items. The three principal factors that emerged after EFA were the scientific factor (e.g. research opportunities and the ability to use new cutting edge technologies, the societal factor (e.g. job security and the humanitarian factor (e.g. desire to help others. The CFA conducted showed goodness-of-fit indices supporting the 3-factor model.The three extracted factors cut across the traditional dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and uncover a novel three-faceted motivation construct based on scientific factors, societal expectations and humanitarian needs. This validated instrument can be used to evaluate the motivational factors of medical students to choose medical study in India and similar settings and constitutes a powerful tool for policymakers to design measures able to increase selection of medical curricula.

  11. Selected medical conditions and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H

    2012-01-01

    We review the current evidence for associations of several medical conditions with risk of pancreatic cancer, including allergies, pancreatitis, gall bladder disease, cholecystectomy, ulcers, gastrectomy, appendectomy, and tonsillectomy. There are consistent findings of reduced risk associated with presence of self-reported allergies, particularly hay fever but not asthma; data on other allergies are limited and inconclusive. Several studies provide evidence that patients with pancreatic cancer are more likely than comparison groups to report pancreatitis. Those studies that investigated the time between onset of pancreatitis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer found that risk estimates declined with longer periods of time; however, increased risks were noted for long-term pancreatitis, indicating that this condition is both a risk factor and a sign of early disease. Increased risk was reported in association with cholelithiasis, but the few studies that considered time before diagnosis of cancer did not find increased risk for cholelithiasis diagnosed in the more distant past. There is weak evidence that cholecystectomy 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis is related to risk, but this is based on only a few studies. There is no consistent association between ulcers and risk, while gastrectomy may increase risk. Overall, study of these conditions, particularly those that are rare, presents methodologic challenges. Time between diagnoses is likely to be important but is not considered in most studies. Lack of adequate control in several studies for risk factors such as smoking and heavy alcohol use also makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about these results. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The outlook for Soviet gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic collapse of the Soviet Union has seen the decline of its oil and gas industry through a lack of capital investment, idle wells, shortages of equipment and spare parts, worker apathy, and a leaky pipeline network. Natural gas reserves controlled by the Soviet Union total some 50 trillion m 3 , over 70% of which are in western Siberia. A total of just 19 gas deposits hold 70% of the total reserves and account for over 75% of national output. Natural gas production in 1990 was 815 billion m 3 or 38% of world output; exports reached 109 billion m 3 , divided roughly equally between eastern and western Europe, and all transported by pipeline. The Soviet Union is also a major gas consumer, at around 709 billion m 3 /y, and uses about half this amount for generating electricity. In the early 1980s, a crash program to expand the gas industry raised production from 435 billion m 3 in 1980 to 643 billion m 3 in 1985, but at the cost of hastily built pipelines and facilities, and a premature exhaustion of major gas fields. A prohibition on import of western-made compressors, due to the Afghanistan invasion, forced the installation of unreliable domestic compressors. Slow growth in gas ouput and unreliability of the current gas supply and transmission system has threatened the stability of supply to domestic and export customers, and gas delivery shortfalls of 50-60 billion m 3 were thought possible. The industry's future depends on development of additional fields, and a revived interest in Soviet natural gas is being shown by foreign investors. Since many of these fields are in remote or geologically unfavorable areas, large investments and lead times will be needed

  13. What motivates medical students to select medical studies : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, F.; Dhirar, Nonita; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational

  14. Medical specialty selection criteria of Israeli medical students early in their clinical experience: subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Weissman, Charles; Elchalal, Uriel; Tandeter, Howard; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Yaffa

    2018-04-18

    Israeli medical school classes include a number of student subgroups. Therefore, interventions aimed at recruiting medical students to the various specialties should to be tailored to each subgroup. Questionnaires, distributed to 6 consecutive 5th-year classes of the Hebrew University - Hadassah School of Medicine, elicited information on criteria for choosing a career specialty, criteria for choosing a residency program and the importance of finding a specialty interesting and challenging when choosing a residency. Completed questionnaires were returned by 540 of 769 (70%) students. The decision processes for choosing a medical specialty and choosing a residency program were different. Family and colleagues had minimal influence on choosing a specialty, while family and their residential locality had much influence on choosing a residency, especially among women. Older age, marriage, and spousal influence were positively associated with choice of a specialty. Two-thirds of the students had completed military service, 20% were attending medical school prior to military service, 5% had completed national service and 9% had entered medical school without serving. Despite the pre-military subgroup being younger and having another 7 years of medical school, internship and military service before residency, they had begun thinking about which specialty to choose, just like the post-military students. When choosing a residency program, post-military women were more influenced by their families and family residential locality than their pre-military counterparts; differences ascribed to the older and often married post-military women having or wanting to begin families. This difference was reinforced by fewer post- than pre-military women willing to wait 2-3 years for a residency in the specialty that interested them most and were willing to begin residency immediately after internship in a specialty that interested them less. Medical school classes are composed of

  15. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship

  16. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.; Croiset, G.; Schripsema, N. R.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Spaai, G. W. G.; Hulsman, R. L.; Kusurkar, R. A.

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a

  17. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    Soviets? The absurdity of a classified dissertation in pedagogy is intensified by the additional fact that given the truly impoverished posi- tion in...Khakass. These are our Soviet kids , the graduates of our Soviet schools. Together, they listen to the same lectures as the people their own age who...4,267. They are in training at 12 VUZs, 8 technical schools, and one professional- technical college. Four boarding schools have admitted Afghan kids

  18. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  20. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Patient Access Modes at Wilford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center and Selected Civilian Medical Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    In A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENT ACCESS MODES AT WILFORD HALL UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER N AND SELECTED CIVILIAN MEDICAL CENTERS0 N...current patient access modes at WHMC and several civilian medical centers of comparable size. This project has pursued the subject of patient access in...selected civilian medical centers which are comparable to WHMC in size, specialty mix, workload, and mission, providing responsive and efficient patient

  2. Factors considered by undergraduate medical students when selecting specialty of their future careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Awad Ali Mohamed Ahmed; Khan, Waleed Shabeer; Abdelrazig, Yousif Mohammed; Elzain, Yamin Ibrahim; Khalil, Hassan Osman; Ahmed, Omer Bakri Elsayed; Adam, Omeralfaroug Ahmed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how medical students select their areas of specialization is the key to achieve a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The objective is to identify the number of medical students who have decided their postgraduate specialty career, their career specialties preference, and factors that may influence their decision to select a particular specialty. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 at Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire comprising demographic data and questions about future specialties preferences and factors influencing those preferences was distributed to 887 male and female students, (from first to fifth academic years) recruited in the study. Response rate was 73% with 647 questionnaires collected, out of 887 eligible medical students. Of the returned questionnaires, 604 were valid. The majority of students (541, 89.6%) have chosen a specialty. Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. The least selected specialty was anaesthesiology. A significant association was found between gender and specialty choice using Chi-square test (p = 0.00). There was no association between undergraduate level and specialty choice (p = 0.633). The most common reason for choosing a specific specialty was "Personal Interest" (215, 39.7%) followed by being "Helpful to the community" (144, 26.6%). Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties.

  3. Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Norman A; Vidaillet, Humberto J

    2010-01-25

    Available evidence suggests that international medical graduates have improved the availability of U.S. health care while maintaining academic standards. We wondered whether studies had been conducted to address how international graduates were treated in the post-graduate selection process compared to U.S. graduates. We conducted a Medline search for research on the selection process. Two studies provide strong evidence that psychiatry and family practice programs respond to identical requests for applications at least 80% more often for U.S. medical graduates than for international graduates. In a third study, a survey of surgical program directors, over 70% perceived that there was discrimination against international graduates in the selection process. There is sufficient evidence to support action against discrimination in the selection process. Medical organizations should publish explicit proscriptions of discrimination against international medical graduates (as the American Psychiatric Association has done) and promote them in diversity statements. They should develop uniform and transparent policies for program directors to use to select applicants that minimize the possibility of non-academic discrimination, and the accreditation organization should monitor whether it is occurring. Whether there should be protectionism for U.S. graduates or whether post-graduate medical education should be an unfettered meritocracy needs to be openly discussed by medicine and society.

  4. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student's previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant's undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  5. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jamie, E-mail: jabaker@mdanderson.org [Medical Dosimetry Program, School of Health Professions, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center School of Health Professions, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Debra [Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Raynes, Edilberto [University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Aitken, Florence [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student's previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant's undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  6. The BioMedical Admissions Test for medical student selection: issues of fairness and bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Joanne L; Bell, John F; Vidal Rodeiro, Carmen L

    2011-01-01

    The BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT) forms part of the undergraduate medical admission process at the University of Cambridge. The fairness of admissions tests is an important issue. Aims were to investigate the relationships between applicants' background variables and BMAT scores, whether they were offered a place or rejected and, for those admitted, performance on the first year course examinations. Multilevel regression models were employed with data from three combined applicant cohorts. Admission rates for different groups were investigated with and without controlling for BMAT performance. The fairness of the BMAT was investigated by determining, for those admitted, whether scores predicted examination performance equitably. Despite some differences in applicants' BMAT performance (e.g. by school type and gender), BMAT scores predicted mean examination marks equitably for all background variables considered. The probability of achieving a 1st class examination result, however, was slightly under-predicted for those admitted from schools and colleges entering relatively few applicants. Not all differences in admission rates were accounted for by BMAT performance. However, the test constitutes only one part of a compensatory admission system in which other factors, such as interview performance, are important considerations. Results are in support of the equity of the BMAT.

  7. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  8. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  9. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  10. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  11. How we created a peer-designed specialty-specific selective for medical student career exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth M; O'Donnell, Erin P; Starr, Stephanie R

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical students have recognized and advocated for opportunities to explore various specialties earlier in their medical education. A brief literature review, however, reveals little consensus on the best approach to introduce students to different fields during their preclinical years. We present one of the first reports of a student-led effort to design and implement a preclinical specialty-specific elective. At Mayo Medical School, for two consecutive years the student president of the Pediatric Interest Group has created a peer-designed weeklong group elective ("selective") experience consisting of workshops, faculty and resident panel discussions, and clinical shadowing experiences based on a student needs assessment. Each year, more than 25% of the first- and second-year medical student body participated. The majority of students who completed the selective agreed that this experience heightened their interests and expanded their knowledge about pediatrics. The pediatric group selective has provided students with important resources for their medical education and future careers. Students found the group selective beneficial to their learning experience and recommend continuing to offer it in the future.

  12. Preconception sex selection for non-medical and intermediate reasons: ethical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, G; Dondorp, W

    2010-01-01

    Sex selection for non-medical reasons is forbidden in many countries. Focusing on preconception sex selection, the authors first observe that it is unclear what should count as a 'medical reason' in this context and argue for the existence of 'intermediate reasons' that do not fit well within the rigid distinction between 'medical'and 'non-medical'. The article further provides a critical review of the arguments for the prohibition of sex selection for non-medical reasons and finds that none of these are conclusive. The authors conclude that the ban should be reconsidered, but also that existing-- societal concerns about possible harmful effects should be taken seriously. Measures to this effect may include limiting the practice to couples who already have at least one child of the sex opposite to that which they now want to select ('family balancing'). Finally, a difficult set of questions is raised by concerns about the reliability and unproven (long-term) safety of the only technology (flow cytometry) proven to work.

  13. Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2013-01-01

    selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference...... to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was not a useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general...

  14. Removing the interview for medical school selection is associated with gender bias among enrolled students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Casey, Mavourneen G; Eley, Diann S

    2014-02-03

    To report, and determine reasons for, a change in the gender ratio observed among enrolled medical students after removal of the interview from the selection process. Cross-sectional study of 4051 students admitted to the medical program at the University of Queensland between 2004 and 2012. Students are enrolled either directly as graduates or via a school-leaver pathway. Change in proportions of male and female students over time, and gender-specific scores in the three sections of the GAMSAT (Graduate Medical School Admissions Test). Between 2004 and 2008 (when an interview was part of the selection process), 891 enrolled students (51.4%) were male, whereas between 2009 and 2012 (no interview), 1134 (57.7%; P interview was removed to 64.0% (514 students; P interview (reaching 73.8% in 2012). Between 2004 and 2012, male students consistently performed better than female students on GAMSAT section III (mean score, 71.5 v 68.5; P interview from the selection process. This change is limited to domestic direct graduate-entry students, and seems to be due to higher scores by male students in section III of the GAMSAT. The interview may play an important role in ensuring gender equity in selection, and medical schools should carefully monitor the consequences of changes to selection policy.

  15. The Soviet center of astronomical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the current French-Soviet cooperation in science and technology, the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the Strasbourg Center signed in 1977 an agreement on setting up the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data as its filial branch. The Soviet Center was created on the basis of a computation center at the Zvenigorod station of the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, which had already had considerable experience of working with stellar catalogues. In 1979 the Center was equipped with a EC-1033 computer. In 1978-1979 the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data (C.A.D.) received from Strasbourg 96 of the most important catalogues. By September 1981 the list of catalogues available at the Soviet Center has reached 140 catalogues some of which are described. (Auth.)

  16. Seeking inclusion in an exclusive process: discourses of medical school student selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Hodges, Brian; Steinert, Yvonne; Maguire, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Calls to increase medical class representativeness to better reflect the diversity of society represent a growing international trend. There is an inherent tension between these calls and competitive student selection processes driven by academic achievement. How is this tension manifested? Our three-phase interdisciplinary research programme focused on the discourses of excellence, equity and diversity in the medical school selection process, as conveyed by key stakeholders: (i) institutions and regulatory bodies (the websites of 17 medical schools and 15 policy documents from national regulatory bodies); (ii) admissions committee members (ACMs) (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 9]), and (iii) successful applicants (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 14]). The work is theoretically situated within the works of Foucault, Bourdieu and Bakhtin. The conceptual framework is supplemented by critical hermeneutics and the performance theories of Goffman. Academic excellence discourses consistently predominate over discourses calling for greater representativeness in medical classes. Policy addressing demographic representativeness in medicine may unwittingly contribute to the reproduction of historical patterns of exclusion of under-represented groups. In ACM selection practices, another discursive tension is exposed as the inherent privilege in the process is marked, challenging the ideal of medicine as a meritocracy. Applicants' representations of self in the 'performance' of interviewing demonstrate implicit recognition of the power inherent in the act of selection and are manifested in the use of explicit strategies to 'fit in'. How can this critical discourse analysis inform improved inclusiveness in student selection? Policymakers addressing diversity and equity issues in medical school admissions should explicitly recognise the power dynamics at play between the profession and marginalised groups. For greater inclusion and to avoid one

  17. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A; Croiset, G; Schripsema, N R; Cohen-Schotanus, J; Spaai, G W G; Hulsman, R L; Kusurkar, R A

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a weighted lottery procedure, which includes direct admission based on top pre-university grade point averages (≥8 out of 10; top-pu-GPA). We also considered whether students had participated in selection, prior to being admitted through weighted lottery. Year-1 (pre-clinical) and Year-4 (clinical) students completed standard validated questionnaires measuring quality of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire), strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student). Performance data comprised GPA and course credits in Year-1 and clerkship performance in Year-4. Regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 35% (387 Year-1 and 273 Year-4 students). Top-pu-GPA students outperformed selected students. Selected Year-1 students reported higher strength of motivation than top-pu-GPA students. Selected students did not outperform or show better quality of motivation and engagement than lottery-admitted students. Participation in selection was associated with higher engagement and better clerkship performance in Year-4. GPA, course credits and strength of motivation in Year-1 differed between students admitted through different selection procedures. Top-pu-GPA students perform best in the medical study. The few and small differences found raise questions about the added value of an extensive selection procedure compared to a weighted lottery procedure. Findings have to be interpreted with caution because of a low response rate and small group sizes.

  18. Using marketing research concepts to investigate specialty selection by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Charles; Schroeder, Josh; Elchalal, Uriel; Weiss, Yoram; Tandeter, Howard; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was intended to examine whether a marketing research approach improves understanding of medical specialty selection by medical students. This approach likens students to consumers who are deciding whether or not to purchase a product (specialty). This approach proposes that when consumers' criteria match their perceptions of a product's features, the likelihood that they will purchase it (select the specialty) increases. This study examines whether exploring students' selection criteria and perceptions of various specialties provides additional insights into the selection process. Using a consumer behaviour model as a framework, a questionnaire was designed and administered to Year 6 (final-year) students in 2008 and 2009 to elicit information on their knowledge about and interests in various specialties, the criteria they used in specialty selection, and their perceptions of six specialties. A total of 132 (67%) questionnaires were returned. In many instances, consistency between selection criteria and perceptions of a specialty was accompanied by interest in pursuing the specialty. Exceptions were noted and pointed to areas requiring additional research. For example, although > 70% of female students replied that the affordance of a controllable lifestyle was an important selection criterion, many were interested in obstetrics and gynaecology despite the fact that it was not perceived as providing a controllable lifestyle. Minimal overlap among students reporting interest in primary specialties that possess similar characteristics (e.g. paediatrics and family medicine) demonstrated the need to target marketing (recruitment) efforts for each specialty individually. Using marketing research concepts to examine medical specialty selection may precipitate a conceptual shift among health care leaders which acknowledges that, to attract students, specialties must meet students' selection criteria. Moreover, if consumers (students) deem a product (specialty

  19. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    2012-01-01

    This list of 358 books and 123 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. PMID:23509428

  20. A hybrid approach to select features and classify diseases based on medical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelLatif, Hisham; Luo, Jiawei

    2018-03-01

    Feature selection is popular problem in the classification of diseases in clinical medicine. Here, we developing a hybrid methodology to classify diseases, based on three medical datasets, Arrhythmia, Breast cancer, and Hepatitis datasets. This methodology called k-means ANOVA Support Vector Machine (K-ANOVA-SVM) uses K-means cluster with ANOVA statistical to preprocessing data and selection the significant features, and Support Vector Machines in the classification process. To compare and evaluate the performance, we choice three classification algorithms, decision tree Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machines and applied the medical datasets direct to these algorithms. Our methodology was a much better classification accuracy is given of 98% in Arrhythmia datasets, 92% in Breast cancer datasets and 88% in Hepatitis datasets, Compare to use the medical data directly with decision tree Naïve Bayes, and Support Vector Machines. Also, the ROC curve and precision with (K-ANOVA-SVM) Achieved best results than other algorithms

  1. Selective Medical Library on Microfiche. An international experiment supported by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracevic, T

    1988-01-01

    The Selective Medical Library on Microfiche (SMLM) project is designed to improve access to the world's significant biomedical literature in developing countries' medical school libraries through the provision of a first-rate, low-cost core collection of journals. One hundred and five journals representing thirty-six biomedical specialties were selected using a method designed specifically for SMLM. The journals are provided on microfiche because of its relative low cost, durability, easy reproduction, and rapid delivery by air mail. SMLMs have been established at test and demonstration sites in four medical schools in Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, and Colombia. SMLMs are delivered as turnkey systems consisting of the microfiche collection, a reader-printer, four fiche readers, necessary furniture, and promotional and training materials. The project involves extensive evaluation. PMID:3370375

  2. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  3. The lasting Soviet nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the unsafe conditions of the nuclear power industry in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Because of lack of efficient power generation, the old first generation Chernobyl-type reactors are being upgraded or new ones are being constructed. The operators themselves are also unsafe, with lack of training and poor working conditions. Improving energy efficiency would be more cost effective than constructing new nuclear plants. This could be achieved by such measures as installing boiler controls, thermostats, and meters; by retrofitting factories; by raising the price of electricity to encourage conservation; by repairing leaking natural gas pipelines; and by building gas-fired power plants. These changes are not likely to come about soon however

  4. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  5. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  6. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  7. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  8. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  9. Growing Soviet market is worth the hassles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Tremendous opportunity is offered by the potential market in the Soviet republics for a diverse oil and gas equipment company, such as Baker Hughes. Until recently, however, the many risks and problems limited efforts to direct, hard currency sales by three or four individual divisions (out of a total of 23) that chose to pursue markets for their products by working through independent agents. This article discusses some aspects of dealing with the Soviet market

  10. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  11. Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces’ Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    survivability) of those staffs. 18 Receit Soviet accounts of the "revolution in military affairs" stress the growing operational role of the General Staff...e.g., 29 economic) means and (ii) the West is preparing to take military advantage of its growing relative strength. The other factor is China. It seems...simple model of Soviet theater nuclear doctrine, might as well go hunting unicorns . He will not find it because, in any meaningful sense, it does not

  12. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    officials responsible for financial matters; and the financial press . All of these sources are cited as appropriate in this repoet. Considerable additional...creditors back to 1984. 2See, for example, Judy Shelton, The Coming Soviet Crash, The Free Press , New York, 1989, p. xv. 14 end of 1988, net Soviet...eighth over LIBOR. As recently as September 1989, VEB was able to arrange a five-year, $100 million syndicated credit managed by Banca Commerciale Italiana

  14. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been

  15. The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-25

    of diverse echnic the highest origin could rise to AleveLs of power in all branches of the state. Plainly that is not the case in today’s Soviet...and psychological reasons, the new primacy given to external aggrandizement intensifies ethnic tensions inside Soviet society. The failure to fulfill...or perhaps because our own means are simply too small, we come to terms psychologically with its increasing power by persuading ourselves that it

  16. Off the Charts: Medical documentation and selective redaction in the age of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew William; de Asua, Diego Real; Gabbay, Ezra; Fins, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    A growing demand for transparency in medicine has the potential to strain the doctor-patient relationship. While information can empower patients, unrestricted patient access to the electronic medical record may have unintended consequences. Medical documentation is often written in language that is inaccessible to people without medical training, and without guidance, patients have no way to interpret the constellation of acronyms, diagnoses, treatments, impressions, and arguments that appear throughout their own chart. Additionally, full transparency may not allow physicians the intellectual or clinical freedom they need to authentically express questions, problematic impressions, and concerns about the patient's clinical and psychosocial issues. This article examines the ethical challenges of transparency in the digital era and suggests that selective redaction may serve as a means to maintain transparency, affirm physician's discretion, and uphold the core values of the doctor-patient relationship amidst disruptive technological change.

  17. Medical student selection criteria as predictors of intended rural practice following graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette; Playford, Denese E; Pougnault, Sue; Riley, Geoffrey J

    2014-10-14

    Recruiting medical students from a rural background, together with offering them opportunities for prolonged immersion in rural clinical training environments, both lead to increased participation in the rural workforce after graduation. We have now assessed the extent to which medical students' intentions to practice rurally may also be predicted by either medical school selection criteria and/or student socio-demographic profiles. The study cohort included 538 secondary school-leaver entrants to The University of Western Australia Medical School from 2006 to 2011. On entry they completed a questionnaire indicating intention for either urban or rural practice following graduation. Selection factors (standardised interview score, percentile score from the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) and prior academic performance (Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank), together with socio-demographic factors (age, gender, decile for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and an index of rurality) were examined in relation to intended rural or urban destination of practice. In multivariate logistic regression, students from a rural background had a nearly 8-fold increase in the odds of intention to practice rurally after graduation compared to those from urban backgrounds (OR 7.84, 95% CI 4.10, 14.99, P practice rurally (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.69, 11.22, P medical school entry may have the unintended consequence of selecting fewer graduates interested in a rural practice destination. Increased efforts to recruit students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may be beneficial in terms of an ultimate intended rural practice destination.

  18. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  19. Collection-based analysis of selected medical libraries in the Philippines using Doody's Core Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Efren

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the book collection of five selected medical libraries in the Philippines, based on Doodys' Essential Purchase List for basic sciences and clinical medicine, to compare the match and non-match titles among libraries, to determine the strong and weak disciplines of each library, and to explore the factors that contributed to the percentage of match and non-match titles. List checking was employed as the method of research. Among the medical libraries, De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had the highest percentage of match titles, whereas Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health had the lowest percentage of match titles. University of the Philippines Manila had the highest percentage of near-match titles. De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had sound medical collections based on Doody's Core Titles. Collectively, the medical libraries shared common collection development priorities, as evidenced by similarities in strong areas. Library budget and the role of the library director in book selection were among the factors that could contribute to a high percentage of match titles.

  20. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  1. Ecologies of socialism: Soviet Gradostroitel'stvo and late soviet socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Nunan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The most lasting legacy of the Soviet experience, more so than institutions that persist in the Russian Federation today or the mentalities of citizens of post-Soviet states, was its transformation of Eurasia from a rural continent into an urban one. Particularly after the Great Patriotic War, the landscape of Soviet urban spaces changed as countless rows of low-quality apartment housing sprung up and a uniform socialist urban culture appeared to be forming. However, how and why this urban revolution happened, and what effect it had on the psychological makeup of Soviet citizens, remains lesser known. Meanwhile, while scholars of urban history such as Jane Jacobs, Reyner Banham, Lewis Mumford, and Mike Davis have produced fascinating tracts and monographs on the “ecologies” of American urban spaces – how, in other words, human beings in various political systems have interacted with the built urban landscape around them – limited work has been done on similar processes and histories in the Soviet world beyond the technical literature of the Cold War era. In this paper, I attempt to provide the outlines of such a history with such an approach by analyzing how changes in the Soviet urban fabric from approximately 1932 to 1980s affected social life in Soviet cities and among Soviet families. Basing my argument on close readings of Soviet books on gradostroitel'stvo (urban construction, urban studies as well as literature, and guided by the insights of the above-listed urbanist thinkers, I argue that changes in urban planning so altered the relationship between citizens, the Party, and History that the Soviet system lost key strengths that had emboldened it during the 1930s and 1940s. In particular, while new Soviet housing projects obviously raised the standard of living of a great portion of the population, in resolving the housing problem, they also dismantled the “stranger's gaze” – the everyday urban clashes that, enabled by

  2. Predictive validity of the personal qualities assessment for selection of medical students in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Jon; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Powis, David; Munro, Don; Bore, Miles; Makubate, Boikanyo; Kumwenda, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA) was developed to enhance medical student selection by measuring a range of non-cognitive attributes in the applicants to medical school. Applicants to the five Scottish medical schools were invited to pilot the test in 2001 and 2002. To evaluate the predictive validity of PQA for selecting medical students. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in which PQA scores were compared with senior year medical school performance. Consent to access performance markers was obtained from 626 students (61.6% of 1017 entrants in 2002-2003). Linkable Foundation Year (4th) rankings were available for 411 (66%) students and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) rankings for 335 (54%) of those consenting. Both samples were representative of the original cohort. No significant correlations were detected between separate elements of the PQA assessment and student performance. However, using the algorithm advocated by Powis et al. those defined as 'non-extreme' (libertarian-communitarian moral orientation scales were ranked higher in OSCEs (average of 7.5% or 25 out of 335, p = 0.049). This study was limited by high attrition and basic outcome markers which are insensitive to relevant non-cognitive characteristics. However, it is the largest currently available study of predictive validity for the PQA assessment. There was one finding of significance: that those students who were identified by PQA as 'not extreme' on the two personal characteristics scales performed better in an OSCE measure of professionalism. Futures studies are required since psychometric testing for both cognitive and non-cognitive attributes are increasingly used in admission process and these should include more and better measures of professionalism against which to correlate non-cognitive traits.

  3. Comparing Non-Medical Sex Selection and Saviour Sibling Selection in the Case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel: Beyond the Welfare of the Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia. This paper analyses the reasoning in that decision, focusing specifically on how the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal applied the statutory framework relevant to ART and its comparison to other uses of embryo selection technologies. The Tribunal relied heavily upon the welfare-of-the-child principle under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 (Vic). The Tribunal also compared non-medical sex selection with saviour sibling selection (that is, where a child is purposely conceived as a matched tissue donor for an existing child of the family). Our analysis leads us to conclude that the Tribunal's reasoning fails to adequately justify the denial of the applicants' request to utilize ART services to select the sex of their prospective child.

  4. Comparison of Iranian National Medical Library with digital libraries of selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Najafi, Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade; Atashpour, Bahare

    2014-01-01

    The important role of information and communication technologies and their influence on methods of storing, retrieving information in digital libraries, has not only changed the meanings behind classic library activates but has also created great changes in their services. However, it seems that not all digital libraries provide their users with similar services and only some of them are successful in fulfilling their role in digital environment. The Iranian National Medical library is among those that appear to come short compared to other digital libraries around the world. By knowing the different services provided by digital libraries worldwide, one can evaluate the services provided by Iranian National Medical library. The goal of this study is a comparison between Iranian National Medical library and digital libraries of selected countries. This is an applied study and uses descriptive - survey method. The statistical population is the digital libraries around the world which were actively providing library services between October and December 2011 and were selected by using the key word "Digital Library" in Google search engine. The data-gathering tool was direct access to the websites of these digital libraries. The statistical study is descriptive and Excel software was used for data analysis and plotting of the charts. The findings showed that among the 33 digital libraries investigated worldwide, most of them provided Browse (87.87%), Search (84.84%), and Electronic information retrieval (57.57%) services. The "Help" in public services (48/48%) and "Interlibrary Loan" in traditional services (27/27%) had the highest frequency. The Iranian National Medical library provides more digital services compared to other libraries but has less classic and public services and has less than half of possible public services. Other than Iranian National Medical library, among the 33 libraries investigated, the leaders in providing different services are Library of

  5. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Abbiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods: Students applying for medical school (N=311 completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results: Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01. Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion: Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.

  6. Medical school dropout--testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-11-01

    Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  7. Health information security: a case study of three selected medical centers in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    Health Information System (HIS) is considered a unique factor in improving the quality of health care activities and cost reduction, but today with the development of information technology and use of internet and computer networks, patients' electronic records and health information systems have become a source for hackers. This study aims at checking health information security of three selected medical centers in Iran using AHP fuzzy and TOPSIS compound model. To achieve that security measures were identified, based on the research literature and decision making matrix using experts' points of view. Among the 27 indicators, seven indicators were selected as effective indicators and Fuzzy AHP technique was used to determine the importance of security indicators. Based on the comparisons made between the three selected medical centers to assess the security of health information, it is concluded that Chamran hospital has the most acceptable level of security and attention in three indicators of "verification and system design, user access management, access control system", Al Zahra Hospital in two indicators of "access management and network access control" and Amin Hospital in "equipment safety and system design". In terms of information security, Chamran Hospital ranked first, Al-Zahra Hospital ranked second and Al- Zahra hospital has the third place.

  8. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  9. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  10. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  11. The Value of Outsourcing Selected Cases in a Medical Examiner Population: A 10-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Brandi C; Reilly, Stephanie D; Atherton, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing caseloads and inadequate staffing, the burden on Coroner/Medical Examiner Offices to comply with recommended autopsy limits for forensic pathologists (FPs) has been difficult. Since 2006, pathologists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have performed select autopsies for the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences. Each case was reviewed by a state FP and scene investigator to determine appropriateness for referral. All referred cases received full postmortem examination including microscopic examination and collection of toxicological samples, and toxicology was ordered by the referring FP as appropriate. The final cause and manner of death were determined by the referring state FP after review of all findings. A majority of the 421 cases were ruled accidental deaths (233), most due to drug toxicity. Of the 178 natural deaths, 118 were attributed to cardiovascular disease. Outsourcing select forensic cases can be educational and an effective tool to manage workflow without compromising quality. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Evolution of Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkeson, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    Soviet theater nuclear forces were a major pillar of Soviet superpower strength, rising sharply under Krushchev in the latter 1950s to their zenith under Brezhnev twenty years later. Most recently they have begun their decline under Gorbachev, and while not yet facing extinction, may be headed for a much reduced role under the new thinking in the USSR. This paper deals with the Soviet TNF in six periods of their life: The Post-war Stalin Period (1945-1953), the Post-Stalin Period (1953-1955), The Transition Period (1955-1959), The Period of Nuclear Revolution (1960-1964), The Period of Modern TNF Planning (1965-1980), and The Period of Non-nuclear Planning (1980-1987)

  13. Selected medical students achieve better than lottery-admitted students during clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlings-Strop, Louise C; Themmen, Axel P N; Stijnen, Theo; Splinter, Ted A W

    2011-10-01

    A recent controlled study by our group showed that the dropout rate in the first 2 years of study of medical students selected for entry by the assessment of a combination of non-cognitive and cognitive abilities was 2.6 times lower than that of a control group of students admitted by lottery. The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of these two groups in the clinical phase. A prospective cohort study was performed to compare the performance of 389 medical students admitted by selection with that of 938 students admitted by weighted lottery between 2001 and 2004. Follow-up of these cohorts lasted 5.5-8.5 years. The main outcome measures were the mean grade obtained on the first five discipline-specific clerkships by all cohorts and the mean grade achieved on all 10 clerkships by the cohorts of 2001 and 2002. Selected students obtained a significantly higher mean grade during their first five clerkships than lottery-admitted students (mean ± standard error [SE] 7.95 ± 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.00 versus mean ± SE 7.84 ± 0.02, 95% CI 7.81-7.87; p students achieved a grade of ≥ 8.0 1.5 times more often than lottery-admitted students. An analysis of all mean grades awarded on 10 clerkships revealed the same results. Moreover, the longer follow-up period over the clerkships showed that the relative risk for dropout was twice as low in the selected student group as in the lottery-admitted student group. The selected group received significantly higher mean grades on their first five clerkships, which could not be attributed to factors other than the selection procedure. Although the risk for dropout before the clinical phase increased somewhat in both groups, the actual dropout rate proved to be twice as low in the selected group. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  14. [Targeted pharmacist-led medication order review in hospital: Assessment of a selection method for drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarre, C; Bouchet, J; Hellot-Guersing, M; Leromain, A-S; Derharoutunian, C; Gadot, A; Roubille, R

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a selection method for drug prescriptions developed at the hospital level that allows to target pharmacist-led medication order review for at-risk patients and drugs. A one-month study has been conducted on all targeted medication orders in 19 care units. Selection criteria have been identified: biological criteria, alert medications and drug interactions. Pharmacists' interventions proposed during medication order review were listed and the possible links to the selection criteria were determined. A total of 1612 prescriptions were analysed and 236 pharmacists' interventions were performed (14.6 interventions per 100 prescriptions). Physicians' acceptance rate was 60.6%. The percentage of pharmacists' interventions linked to the selection criteria was 35.6%. The relevance of the biological criteria was identified, particularly the one identifying patients with creatinine clearance below 30ml/min. Six alert medications were also relevant selection criteria: dabigatran, morphine, gentamicin, methotrexate, potassium chloride and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. Drug interactions criteria was irrelevant. This study allowed a first assessment of the selection criteria used. A largest study seems necessary to continue the analysis of this selection method for prescriptions, especially the assessment of the alert medications list, in order to refine the prescriptions targeting. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Soviet RBMK-1000 containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following the accident in April, 1986, considerable attention was focused on the failure of the containment at the Chernobyl RBMK-1000 nuclear power plant. Conflicting statements arose regarding the nature of the plant's containment system primarily because of terminology differences, translation difficulties and lack of reliable information. This article, based on reports and briefings by the Soviet delegation, during the post-accident review meetings in Vienna and prior publications is intended to clarify perceptions of the Soviet RMBK-1000 nuclear power plant containment system design, and its relevance to containment management concepts. (author)

  16. Soviet Archaeological Expedition as a Research Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sveshnikova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet archaeological expeditions are the main focus of my research. They provide us with very interesting examples of archaeological expeditions as a part of a society, and not only as a part of science. After the 1960s it was an especially popular leisure practice. Many people who were not professional archaeologists went on expeditions in their leisure time and worked there as diggers or shovelmen (excavators. A Soviet archaeologist described them as people who ‘prefer to spend their vacation in archaeological expeditions in various parts of our country instead of seaside resorts.

  17. Soviet exoatmospheric neutral particle beam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiss, J.E.; Abrams, R.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Farrell, J.A.; Gillespie, G.H.; Jameson, R.A.; Keefe, D.; Parker, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    This technical assessment was performed by a panel of eight U.S. scientists and engineers who are familiar with Soviet research through their own research experience, their knowledge of the published scientific literature and conference proceedings, and personal contacts with Soviet scientists and other foreign colleagues. Most of the technical components of a neutral particle beam generating system including the ion source, the accelerator, the accelerator radio frequency power supply, the beam conditioning and aiming system, and the beam neutralizer system are addressed. It does not address a number of other areas important to an exoatmospheric neutral beam system

  18. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.

  19. Defence against Black Hole and Selective Forwarding Attacks for Medical WSNs in the IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Avijit; Newe, Thomas; Rao, Muzaffar

    2016-01-19

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it allows remote data delivery and it facilitates network scalability in large hospitals. However, routing entails several problems, mainly due to the open nature of wireless networks, and these need to be addressed. This paper looks at two of the problems that arise due to wireless routing between the nodes and access points of a medical WSN (for IoT use): black hole and selective forwarding (SF) attacks. A solution to the former can readily be provided through the use of cryptographic hashes, while the latter makes use of a neighbourhood watch and threshold-based analysis to detect and correct SF attacks. The scheme proposed here is capable of detecting a selective forwarding attack with over 96% accuracy and successfully identifying the malicious node with 83% accuracy.

  20. Defence against Black Hole and Selective Forwarding Attacks for Medical WSNs in the IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Mathur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it allows remote data delivery and it facilitates network scalability in large hospitals. However, routing entails several problems, mainly due to the open nature of wireless networks, and these need to be addressed. This paper looks at two of the problems that arise due to wireless routing between the nodes and access points of a medical WSN (for IoT use: black hole and selective forwarding (SF attacks. A solution to the former can readily be provided through the use of cryptographic hashes, while the latter makes use of a neighbourhood watch and threshold-based analysis to detect and correct SF attacks. The scheme proposed here is capable of detecting a selective forwarding attack with over 96% accuracy and successfully identifying the malicious node with 83% accuracy.

  1. Reporting quality of multivariable logistic regression in selected Indian medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Indrayan, A; Chhabra, P

    2012-01-01

    Use of multivariable logistic regression (MLR) modeling has steeply increased in the medical literature over the past few years. Testing of model assumptions and adequate reporting of MLR allow the reader to interpret results more accurately. To review the fulfillment of assumptions and reporting quality of MLR in selected Indian medical journals using established criteria. Analysis of published literature. Medknow.com publishes 68 Indian medical journals with open access. Eight of these journals had at least five articles using MLR between the years 1994 to 2008. Articles from each of these journals were evaluated according to the previously established 10-point quality criteria for reporting and to test the MLR model assumptions. SPSS 17 software and non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann Whitney U, Spearman Correlation). One hundred and nine articles were finally found using MLR for analyzing the data in the selected eight journals. The number of such articles gradually increased after year 2003, but quality score remained almost similar over time. P value, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval for coefficients in MLR was reported in 75.2% and sufficient cases (>10) per covariate of limiting sample size were reported in the 58.7% of the articles. No article reported the test for conformity of linear gradient for continuous covariates. Total score was not significantly different across the journals. However, involvement of statistician or epidemiologist as a co-author improved the average quality score significantly (P=0.014). Reporting of MLR in many Indian journals is incomplete. Only one article managed to score 8 out of 10 among 109 articles under review. All others scored less. Appropriate guidelines in instructions to authors, and pre-publication review of articles using MLR by a qualified statistician may improve quality of reporting.

  2. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  3. [Selection of medical students : Measurement of cognitive abilities and psychosocial competencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwibbe, Anja; Lackamp, Janina; Knorr, Mirjana; Hissbach, Johanna; Kadmon, Martina; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    The German Constitutional Court is currently reviewing whether the actual study admission process in medicine is compatible with the constitutional right of freedom of profession, since applicants without an excellent GPA usually have to wait for seven years. If the admission system is changed, politicians would like to increase the influence of psychosocial criteria on selection as specified by the Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020.What experiences have been made with the actual selection procedures? How could Situational Judgement Tests contribute to the validity of future selection procedures to German medical schools?High school GPA is the best predictor of study performance, but is more and more under discussion due to the lack of comparability between states and schools and the growing number of applicants with top grades. Aptitude and knowledge tests, especially in the natural sciences, show incremental validity in predicting study performance. The measurement of psychosocial competencies with traditional interviews shows rather low reliability and validity. The more reliable multiple mini-interviews are superior in predicting practical study performance. Situational judgement tests (SJTs) used abroad are regarded as reliable and valid; the correlation of a German SJT piloted in Hamburg with the multiple mini-interview is cautiously encouraging.A model proposed by the Medizinischer Fakultätentag and the Bundesvertretung der Medizinstudierenden considers these results. Student selection is proposed to be based on a combination of high school GPA (40%) and a cognitive test (40%) as well as an SJT (10%) and job experience (10%). Furthermore, the faculties still have the option to carry out specific selection procedures.

  4. James Cook University's rurally orientated medical school selection process: quality graduates and positive workforce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robin A; Woolley, Torres; Sen Gupta, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The regionally based James Cook University (JCU) College of Medicine and Dentistry aims to meet its mission to address the health needs of the region by using a selection policy favouring rural origin applicants and providing students with early and repeated exposure to rural experiences during training. This study seeks to determine if the JCU medical school's policy of preferentially selecting rural and remote background students is associated with differing patterns of undergraduate performance or graduate practice location. Data at application to medical school and during the undergraduate years was retrieved from administrative databases held by the university and the medical school. Postgraduate location data were obtained either from personal contact via email, telephone or Facebook or electronically from the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority website. Practice location was described across Australian Standard Geographical Classification Remoteness Area (ASGC-RA) categories, with 1 being a major city and 5 being a very remote location. The 856 Australian-based students accepted into the JCU medical program between 2000 and 2008 came from all geographical regions across Australia: 20% metropolitan (ASGC-RA 1), 20% inner regional (ASGC-RA 2), 56% outer regional (ASGC-RA 3), and 5% from remote or very remote locations (ASGC-RA 4 and 5). Having a rural or remote hometown at application (ASGC-RA 3-5) was significantly associated with a lower tertiary entrance score (pacademic achievement across years 1 to 3 (p=0.002, p=0.005 and p=0.025, respectively). Graduates having either a rural or a remote home town at application were more likely to practise in rural (RA 3-5) towns than graduates from metropolitan/inner regional centre across all postgraduate years. For example, the prevalence odds ratios (POR) for graduates practising in a rural town at postgraduate year 1 (PGY 1) having either a rural or remote hometown were 2.6 and 1.8, respectively

  5. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics.

  6. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  7. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  8. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  9. Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

  10. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  11. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  12. The Soviet Air Force and Strategic Bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    to envision a British Air Force that could be totally divorced from some form of ground support role. Consequently, he saw an air campaign that would...CA: Presidio Press, 1986. Black, Steven K. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force. Monterrey , CA, 1986. Cockburn, Andrew

  13. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  14. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  16. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  17. Bayesian Analysis for Risk Assessment of Selected Medical Events in Support of the Integrated Medical Model Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Myers, Jerry G.; McRae, Michael P.; Griffin, Elise A.; Kallrui, Aditya S.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability project is creating a catalog of risk assessments using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software-based system intended to assist mission planners in preparing for spaceflight missions by helping them to make informed decisions about medical preparations and supplies needed for combating and treating various medical events using Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The objective is to use statistical analyses to inform the IMM decision tool with estimated probabilities of medical events occurring during an exploration mission. Because data regarding astronaut health are limited, Bayesian statistical analysis is used. Bayesian inference combines prior knowledge, such as data from the general U.S. population, the U.S. Submarine Force, or the analog astronaut population located at the NASA Johnson Space Center, with observed data for the medical condition of interest. The posterior results reflect the best evidence for specific medical events occurring in flight. Bayes theorem provides a formal mechanism for combining available observed data with data from similar studies to support the quantification process. The IMM team performed Bayesian updates on the following medical events: angina, appendicitis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, dental abscess, dental caries, dental periodontal disease, gallstone disease, herpes zoster, renal stones, seizure, and stroke.

  18. The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team Their Lives, Legacy, and Historical Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team will relate who these men were and offer far more extensive background stories, in addition to those of the more familiar names of early Soviet space explorers from that group. Many previously-unpublished photographs of these “missing” candidates will also be included for the first time in this book. It will be a detailed, but highly readable and balanced account of the history, training and experiences of the first group of twenty cosmonauts of the USSR. A covert recruitment and selection process was set in motion throughout the Soviet military in August 1959, just prior to the naming of America’s Mercury astronauts. Those selected were ordered to report for training at a special camp outside of Moscow in the spring of 1960. Just a year later, Senior Lieutenant Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Air Force (promoted in flight to the rank of major) was launched aboard a Vostok spacecraft and became the first person ever to achieve space flight and orbit the Earth.

  19. Factors that influence the selection and utilization of children’s medical insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The researchers analyzed how different regions in the USA, family structure, ethnicity, and family income levels influenced the selection and utilization of medical care programs and services by American children. To prevent any possible bias in the analysis and to produce reliable results, an endogenous switching model was utilized in the study. The researchers found no statistically significant differences in the number of doctor visits and hospital stays between children with insurance and children without insurance. However, significant differences were determined regarding family structure, family income, geographic regions, and ethnicity. Children from single-parent families with insurance coverage (private, Medicaid, or SCHIP had statistically higher rates of doctor visits and hospital stays than children from two-parent families with insurance coverage. Family income, region, and ethnicity variables all had significant impacts on the type of health insurance coverage that was reported for children.

  20. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  1. EUROmediCAT signal detection: an evaluation of selected congenital anomaly‐medication associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Joanne E.; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes M.; Morris, Joan K.; de Jong van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.; Garne, Ester; Addor, Marie‐Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; de Walle, Hermien; Gatt, Miriam; Klungsoyr, Kari; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos‐Bielenska, Anna; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary; Pierini, Anna; Tucker, David; Wiesel, Awi

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)‐medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. Methods Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995–2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level of Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification) and chemical subgroup (4th level) were analysed using a 50% false detection rate. After excluding antiepileptics, antidiabetics, antiasthmatics and SSRIs/psycholeptics already under investigation, 27 associations were evaluated. If evidence for a signal persisted after data validation, a literature review was conducted for prior evidence of human teratogenicity. Results Thirteen out of 27 CA‐medication exposure signals, based on 389 exposed cases, passed data validation. There was some prior evidence in the literature to support six signals (gastroschisis and levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.70–8.53; congenital heart disease/pulmonary valve stenosis and nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.99–14.20/OR 28.20, 95% CI 4.63–122.24); complete absence of a limb and pregnen (4) derivatives (OR 6.60, 95% CI 1.70–22.93); hypospadias and pregnadien derivatives (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10–1.76); hypospadias and synthetic ovulation stimulants (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.28–2.70). Antipropulsives produced a signal for syndactyly while the literature revealed a signal for hypospadias. There was no prior evidence to support the remaining six signals involving the ordinary salt combinations, propulsives, bulk‐forming laxatives, hydrazinophthalazine derivatives, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues and selective serotonin agonists. Conclusion Signals which strengthened prior evidence should be prioritized for further investigation, and independent evidence sought to confirm the remaining signals. Some chance associations are expected and confounding by indication is possible. PMID

  2. The multiple mini-interview for selecting medical residents: first experience in the Middle East region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf; Qayed, Khalil Ibrahim; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Tavares, Walter; Rosenfeld, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that multiple mini-interviews (MMI) provides a standard, fair, and more reliable method for assessing applicants. This article presents the first MMI experience for selection of medical residents in the Middle East culture and an Arab country. In 2012, we started using the MMI in interviewing applicants to the residency program of Dubai Health Authority. This interview process consisted of eight, eight-minute structured interview scenarios. Applicants rotated through the stations, each with its own interviewer and scenario. They read the scenario and were requested to discuss the issues with the interviewers. Sociodemographic and station assessment data provided for each applicant were analyzed to determine whether the MMI was a reliable assessment of the non-clinical attributes in the present setting of an Arab country. One hundred and eighty-seven candidates from 27 different countries were interviewed for Dubai Residency Training Program using MMI. They were graduates of 5 medical universities within United Arab Emirates (UAE) and 60 different universities outside UAE. With this applicant's pool, a MMI with eight stations, produced absolute and relative reliability of 0.8 and 0.81, respectively. The person × station interaction contributed 63% of the variance components, the person contributed 34% of the variance components, and the station contributed 2% of the variance components. The MMI has been used in numerous universities in English speaking countries. The MMI evaluates non-clinical attributes and this study provides further evidence for its reliability but in a different country and culture. The MMI offers a fair and more reliable assessment of applicants to medical residency programs. The present data show that this assessment technique applied in a non-western country and Arab culture still produced reliable results.

  3. Medical students, money, and career selection: students' perception of financial factors and remuneration in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2009-02-01

    Medical students have had a declining interest in family medicine as a career. Some studies have shown a small inverse relationship between debt levels and primary care, but it is unclear how students perceive remuneration in different specialties and how these perceptions might influence career choice. Medical students at one school were surveyed to understand their perceptions of physician remuneration and to gain insight into how these perceptions might affect career selection. Response rate was 72% (560/781 students). Students' estimates of physician income were accurate throughout training, with the overall estimate for family medicine being lower than the actual income by only $10,656. The vast majority of students agreed with the statement that family physicians get paid too little (85%-89% of each class). The importance of payment as a factor in career decision making increased with higher debt and with advancing training. Students are able to accurately predict income by specialty from an early stage of training and have a negative perception of income in family medicine. The perception that family physicians make too little money could be an important driver--or at least a modifier--in the lack of interest in family medicine.

  4. Selective dissemination of health information: Bulletins of the National Medical Library of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Santana Arroyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Medical Library of Cuba (BMN has the mission to ensure the provision of scientific and technology information to the community of professionals that make up the healthcare sector in the country, primarily the Ministry of Public Health, identified as prioritized user of BMN, in order to elevate the quality of care, research, management and teaching, as well as to encourage the finding of new solutions that enable to face health problems in Cuba and in the world. This article aims to describe the making process of the bulletins: Bibliomed, Bibliomed Supplemento, BiblioDir and Factográfico de Salud, which are offered by specialists from Selective Dissemination of Information Service that resides in the BMN area of Customer Service, in order to support the decision making of health managers of Cuba Ministry of Public Health. For this purpose, the paper details scope, content, sections, team responsibility, procedures for preparing and processing the bulletins. Most used sources of information and skills of staff are also presented. Such Informative scientific work strengthen BMN as a paradigm of the cuban medical libraries network, transforming the pattern of a traditional library into a modern library, characterized by an effective knowledge management and development processes in virtual environments.

  5. Radonclose - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III.

    1997-01-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities

  6. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs

  7. Visual selective attention is impaired in children prenatally exposed to opioid agonist medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to opioid agonist medication is associated with visual selective attention and general attention problems in early childhood. Twenty-two children (mean age = 52.17 months, SD = 1.81) prenatally exposed to methadone, 9 children (mean age = 52.41 months, SD = 1.42) prenatally exposed to buprenorphine and 25 nonexposed comparison children (mean age = 51.44 months, SD = 1.31) were tested. Visual selective attention was measured with a Tobii 1750 Eye Tracker using a spatial negative priming paradigm. Attention problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. The comparison group demonstrated a larger spatial negative priming effect (mean = 23.50, SD = 45.50) than the exposed group [mean = -6.84, SD = 86.39, F(1,50) = 5.91, p = 0.019, η(2) = 0.11]. No difference in reported attention problems was found [F(1,51) = 1.63, p = 0.21, η(2) = 0.03]. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and prenatal exposure to marijuana were found to predict slower saccade latencies in the exposed group (b = 54.55, SE = 23.56, p = 0.03 and b = 88.86, SE = 32.07, p = 0.01, respectively). Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The impact of HTA and procurement practices on the selection and prices of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callea, Giuditta; Armeni, Patrizio; Marsilio, Marta; Jommi, Claudio; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2017-02-01

    Technological innovation in healthcare yields better health outcomes but also drives healthcare expenditure, and governments are struggling to maintain an appropriate balance between patient access to modern care and the economic sustainability of healthcare systems. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and centralized procurement are increasingly used to govern the introduction and diffusion of new technologies in an effort to make access to innovation financially sustainable. However, little empirical evidence is available to determine how they affect the selection of new technologies and unit prices. This paper focuses on medical devices (MDs) and investigates the combined effect of various HTA governance models and procurement practices on the two steps of the MD purchasing process (i.e., selecting the product and setting the unit price). Our analyses are based on primary data collected through a national survey of Italian public hospitals. The Italian National Health Service is an ideal case study because it is highly decentralized and because regions have adopted different HTA governance models (i.e., regional, hospital-based, double-level or no HTA), often in combination with centralized regional procurement programs. Hence, the Italian case allows us to test the impact of different combinations of HTA models and procurement programs in the various regions. The results show that regional HTA increases the probability of purchasing the costliest devices, whereas hospital-based HTA functions more like a cost-containment unit. Centralized regional procurement does not significantly affect MD selection and is associated with a reduction in the MD unit price: on average, hospitals located in regions with centralized procurement pay 10.1% less for the same product. Hospitals located in regions with active regional HTA programs pay higher prices for the same device (+23.2% for inexpensive products), whereas hospitals that have developed internal HTA programs pay 8

  9. Enhancing Breast Cancer Recurrence Algorithms Through Selective Use of Medical Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Chubak, Jessica; Johnson, Lisa; Castillo, Adrienne; Weltzien, Erin; Caan, Bette J

    2016-03-01

    The utility of data-based algorithms in research has been questioned because of errors in identification of cancer recurrences. We adapted previously published breast cancer recurrence algorithms, selectively using medical record (MR) data to improve classification. We evaluated second breast cancer event (SBCE) and recurrence-specific algorithms previously published by Chubak and colleagues in 1535 women from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) and 225 women from the Women's Health Initiative cohorts and compared classification statistics to published values. We also sought to improve classification with minimal MR examination. We selected pairs of algorithms-one with high sensitivity/high positive predictive value (PPV) and another with high specificity/high PPV-using MR information to resolve discrepancies between algorithms, properly classifying events based on review; we called this "triangulation." Finally, in LACE, we compared associations between breast cancer survival risk factors and recurrence using MR data, single Chubak algorithms, and triangulation. The SBCE algorithms performed well in identifying SBCE and recurrences. Recurrence-specific algorithms performed more poorly than published except for the high-specificity/high-PPV algorithm, which performed well. The triangulation method (sensitivity = 81.3%, specificity = 99.7%, PPV = 98.1%, NPV = 96.5%) improved recurrence classification over two single algorithms (sensitivity = 57.1%, specificity = 95.5%, PPV = 71.3%, NPV = 91.9%; and sensitivity = 74.6%, specificity = 97.3%, PPV = 84.7%, NPV = 95.1%), with 10.6% MR review. Triangulation performed well in survival risk factor analyses vs analyses using MR-identified recurrences. Use of multiple recurrence algorithms in administrative data, in combination with selective examination of MR data, may improve recurrence data quality and reduce research costs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  10. JPRS Report. Soviet Union Foreign Military Review, No. 2, February 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    phenomena in ethnic relationships in the period of stagnation engen - dered problems retarding the development of Soviet society and degrading Armed Forces... civilized , good-neighbor relations among countries are the key to normalizing the situation in Asia and the Pacific basin, as is the case everywhere in the...divisions), 17 sepa- rate brigades (11 border, 3 fortress and 3 field fortification), 6 territorial zones (they include 13 medical, 12 rear and 11 civil

  11. Evaluating Varied Label Designs for Use with Medical Devices: Optimized Labels Outperform Existing Labels in the Correct Selection of Devices and Time to Select.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bix

    Full Text Available Effective standardization of medical device labels requires objective study of varied designs. Insufficient empirical evidence exists regarding how practitioners utilize and view labeling.Measure the effect of graphic elements (boxing information, grouping information, symbol use and color-coding to optimize a label for comparison with those typical of commercial medical devices.Participants viewed 54 trials on a computer screen. Trials were comprised of two labels that were identical with regard to graphics, but differed in one aspect of information (e.g., one had latex, the other did not. Participants were instructed to select the label along a given criteria (e.g., latex containing as quickly as possible. Dependent variables were binary (correct selection and continuous (time to correct selection.Eighty-nine healthcare professionals were recruited at Association of Surgical Technologists (AST conferences, and using a targeted e-mail of AST members.Symbol presence, color coding and grouping critical pieces of information all significantly improved selection rates and sped time to correct selection (α = 0.05. Conversely, when critical information was graphically boxed, probability of correct selection and time to selection were impaired (α = 0.05. Subsequently, responses from trials containing optimal treatments (color coded, critical information grouped with symbols were compared to two labels created based on a review of those commercially available. Optimal labels yielded a significant positive benefit regarding the probability of correct choice ((P<0.0001 LSM; UCL, LCL: 97.3%; 98.4%, 95.5%, as compared to the two labels we created based on commercial designs (92.0%; 94.7%, 87.9% and 89.8%; 93.0%, 85.3% and time to selection.Our study provides data regarding design factors, namely: color coding, symbol use and grouping of critical information that can be used to significantly enhance the performance of medical device labels.

  12. Collection-based analysis of selected medical libraries in the Philippines using Doody’s Core Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efren Torres Jr., MLIS

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: De La Salle Health Sciences Institute and University of Santo Tomas had sound medical collections based on Doody’s Core Titles. Collectively, the medical libraries shared common collection development priorities, as evidenced by similarities in strong areas. Library budget and the role of the library director in book selection were among the factors that could contributed to a high percentage of match titles.

  13. French-Soviet experiments ARAKS: main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergnat, J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the French-Soviet ARAKS experiments (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and the Soviet Union) was to study the injection of an electron beam in the ionospheric plasma. Two rockets were launched which were magnetically conjugated with a point on the ground, and many ground-based measurement facilities were set up in conjunction with these experiments, with emphasis on radar measurements in the Northern Hemisphere as well as on the VLH and VHF measurements in both hemispheres. One of the important results of the experiments is that they have demonstrated the possibility of detecting the ionization trails created by the beam penetrating the conjugate atmosphere by ground-based radar observations. The observations discussed include those related to neutralization of the electron gun and wave emission. 6 references

  14. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation

  15. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  16. Citizenship struggles in Soviet successor states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, W R

    1992-01-01

    "The breakup of the Soviet Union has transformed yesterday's internal migrants, secure in their Soviet citizenship, into today's international migrants of contested legitimacy and uncertain membership. This transformation has touched Russians in particular, of whom some 25 million live in non-Russian successor states. This article examines the politics of citizenship vis-a-vis Russian immigrants in the successor states, focusing on the Baltic states, where citizenship has been a matter of sustained and heated controversy." The author concludes that "formal citizenship cannot be divorced from broader questions of substantive belonging. Successor states' willingness to accept Russian immigrants as citizens, and immigrants' readiness to adopt a new state as their state, will depend on the terms of membership for national minorities and the organization of public life in the successor states." Data are from a variety of published sources. excerpt

  17. Illusions of Friendship? The Soviet Union and Russia in the Finnish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Luostarinen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Soviet Union and Russia has changed dramatically in the press in Finland after the World War II. This article is based on a frequency analysis in which mentions of certain countries, groups of states and international organizations were coded (like the Soviet Union/Russia, United States, NATO, UN etc.. To make the analysis more revealing and interesting, a distinction was made whether the mention was made in the context of (1 alliance, friendship and cooperation, or in the context of (2 distance, restriction and enemy image, or (3 both in a positive and in a negative context. The time frame was from 1945 till the end of the century, and the newspapers chosen for the study represented the whole political spectrum of the Finnish media. The selection criteria of the material emphasized national celebration days. The study proves clearly what has been the main object of Finnish foreign policy after the WW II: in all coded press material, the Soviet Union/Russia was mentioned 222 times which makes 37.5% of all mentions. Other important states or groups have been the United States (5.3 %, EC/EU/WEU/West-Europe (12.6 %, United Nations (9.0 % and Nordic council/Nordic co-operation (11.2 %. With very few exceptions, all mentions concerning the UN and Nordic co-operation are positive. The Soviet Union has also been described rather positively (77.5 %. The share of negative mentions is 8.1% and mixture of negative and positive mentions 14.4%. Images of the United States and the European alliances are most contradictory. In the case of USA, 54.8 % of the mentions are positive and 45.2% negative. Concerning EC/EU etc. 54.1 % of mentions are positive, 28.4 % negative and 17.6 % mixtures of positive and negative references. Changes in attitudes towards the Soviet Union in different time spots are remarkable. The share of negative mentions of the Soviet Union was very low, except in 1995 (30 % when Finland already was a member of the EU

  18. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    gentsia, specialists, authoritative workers and kolkhoz farmers in on their deliberations. A soviet of primary party organization secretaries...are in favor of disassembling the authoritarian , bureaucratic system and for focusing on humane, democratic socialism, the forming of a state under...Iolota’nskiy Rayon in Turkmenistan a boarding home for mentally retarded children. Some end up here directly from maternity homes, others are brought by

  19. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  20. The Soviet Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    inuary 1976 DDC - ’■’ rv > Canoron Station O T "> 1 ." Mexancria The caveat appearing on the title pi c.r. ol: Center for hib- avanced^earch...Soviets viewed the political developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968 with alarm bordering on paranoia, conditioned by the "dagger" phobia and by...published its Action Program entitled "The Czechoslovak Road to Socialism ," a program described by a Western authority as "a remarkable

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    balance. It is well known that V. I. Lenin considered inflation the worse type of taxation . If we talk about the possible methods of normalizing the...INDUSTRIYA in Russian 12 Aug 88 p 1 [Article by V. Shishkin, member, Soviet Association of Political Sciences and candidate of juridical sciences, under...achievements as the results of extravagant spending and double counting. The ruinous nature of the gross output criteria was exposed by using

  2. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    socialist soci- ety. Perestroyka is not a deviation, but a new step forward in the development of socialism. This means that the whole policy is in the...anniversary of the Great October, that the restructuring is moving forward . The Soviet people is interested in this process and actively supports it...WASHINGTON POST, 3 March 1986. 4. EL FINANCIERO , Mexico, 28 May 1986. 5. THE FINANCIAL TIMES, London, 11 June 1986. 6. See VISION, Mexico, Vol 67, No 5

  4. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    the right of immunity and can be removed from his post only by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet in case of a violation by him of the constitution...ities of judges and people’s assessors and their execution of justice is inadmissible and is punishable by law. The immunity of judges and people’s...ecologically clean water to be sold in bottles and cardboard containers- -like kefir . Understandably, this beverage will cost more than tap water, but is

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    Kherson ship builder, the conscientious and docile Poltava or Podillya grain and cattle farmer, the dweller of the coastline of the dying Black Sea...even for free. The best crops of fields, gardens and orchards, the largest herds of cattle not only fail to improve, but consistently worsen the...the Soviet people"—in fact, the spiritual castration of non- Russians. We do not consider that a Ukrainian who speaks Russian automatically loses

  6. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  7. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Soviet Area Specialist. Valuable assistance was provided by Mr. Gerald Sullivan and LTC Ray N. Franklin, USMC, of the Advanced Research Projects... Oldenburg 120.8 133.3 12.5 10 Osnabruck 133.6 164.0 30.4 23 Regensburg 123.0 133.5 10.5 9 Remacheid 123.0 135.5 12.5 10 Salzgitter 105.9 117.6 11.7

  8. New non-cognitive procedures for medical applicant selection: a qualitative analysis in one school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sara; Vinker, Shlomo

    2014-11-07

    Recent data have called into question the reliability and predictive validity of standard admission procedures to medical schools. Eliciting non-cognitive attributes of medical school applicants using qualitative tools and methods has thus become a major challenge. 299 applicants aged 18-25 formed the research group. A set of six research tools was developed in addition to the two existing ones. These included: a portfolio task, an intuitive task, a cognitive task, a personal task, an open self-efficacy questionnaire and field-notes. The criteria-based methodology design used constant comparative analysis and grounded theory techniques to produce a personal attributes profile per participant, scored on a 5-point scale holistic rubric. Qualitative validity of data gathering was checked by comparing the profiles elicited from the existing interview against the profiles elicited from the other tools, and by comparing two profiles of each of the applicants who handed in two portfolio tasks. Qualitative validity of data analysis was checked by comparing researcher results with those of an external rater (n =10). Differences between aggregated profile groups were checked by the Npar Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and by Spearman Rank Order Correlation Test. All subjects gave written informed consent to their participation. Privacy was protected by using code numbers. A concept map of 12 personal attributes emerged, the core constructs of which were motivation, sociability and cognition. A personal profile was elicited. Inter-rater agreement was 83.3%. Differences between groups by aggregated profiles were found significant (p < .05, p < .01, p < .001).A random sample of sixth year students (n = 12) underwent the same admission procedure as the research group. Rank order was different; and arrogance was a new construct elicited in the sixth year group. This study suggests a broadening of the methodology for selecting medical school applicants. This methodology

  9. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  10. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  11. The image of women in Soviet Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Orabona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the condition of women within the Bolshevik regime, focusing on the use of posters. Visual propaganda was a means to easily reach wide strata of the population. The official Party ideology, expressed through visual propaganda, contributed to the definition of new social identities, as well as to the creation of new ways of thinking and acting in Soviet society. It had its own internal dynamics and operated as an independent force in a continually evolving society in which the field of discourse was radically changing. Posters aticipated developments in Soviet society and provided a model for people to follow; they were not limited to reflecting past or current events. The posters under consideretion pertain to the representation of women in their various occupations (e.g, workers, peasants or simply happily engaged in everyday life. The images prescribed, for example, which clothes to wear or how hair should be styled, and were without doubt powerful and pervasive; yet they were destined to meet an inevitable decline following Stalin's death, when the Soviet Union reprised its international relations.

  12. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  13. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  14. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    All its activity is taking place in an atmosphere of responsible criticism and self-criticism and of observance of the principle of looking the truth...tremendous stability to the Soviet-Indian relationship. Moscow’s ties with New Dehli have lasted now well over thirty years. Moscow can be confident...itself a superpower with global interests and commitments. The costs of the Soviet empire may be onerous at the margin when Soviet economic managers

  16. Home blood pressure monitoring and self-titration of antihypertensive medications: Proposed patient selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), coupled with self-titration of medications is a viable intervention to control hypertension. There are currently no established criteria to evaluate patients for inclusion in such a program. The purpose of this discussion is to propose criteria for determining if a patient is appropriate to participate in a program of HBPM and self-titration. Inclusion criteria for two self-titration trials were examined, and additional factors in clinical practice were identified and discussed. Additional selection criteria were proposed to support the decision to enroll a patient in an antihypertensive self-titration program. Inclusion criteria from self-titration trials provide a reasonable starting point for choosing appropriate patients in clinical practice, but additional research is necessary. Adaptation of these criteria and consideration of the identified factors can be used to develop decision support instruments. Such instruments should be evaluated for effectiveness and reliability prior to use in clinical practice. HBPM combined with self-titration is an effective patient-centered approach for hypertension management. Decision support instruments to determine appropriate patients are necessary for safe and effective use in clinical practice. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  18. A framework for analyzing sex-selective abortion: the example of changing sex ratios in Southern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sophie A; Lefèvre, Cécile A; Garenne, Michel L

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a socioeconomic framework of supply, demand, and regulation to explain the development of sex-selective abortion in several parts of the world. The framework is then applied to three countries of southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) where sex-selective abortion has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors argue that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained simply by patriarchal social systems, sex discrimination, or son preference. The emphasis is put on the long-term acceptability of abortion in the region, on acceptability of sex-screening by both the medical establishment and by the population, on newly imported techniques of sex-screening, and on the changing demand for children associated with the major economic and social changes that followed the dismantlement of the Soviet Union. PMID:25349481

  19. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  20. Le realizzazioni dell'economia sovietica. (Soviet economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While in the 1950s Soviet output grew faster than most other industrial countries, the early 1960s has seen a noticeable slowing down in growth. The present paper puts these economic developments into perspective to judge the efficacy of Soviet policy in its attempt to achieve maximum growth and transform an underdeveloped into a developed country. The author first assesses Soviet performance and policy at different stages of development, before assessing the level attained. The purposes for which output is used and the major factors responsible for Soviet performance are then analysed. Finally, likely future developments are considered.JEL: P27, O40

  1. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  2. Medication Errors in Hospitals: A Study of Factors Affecting Nursing Reporting in a Selected Center Affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidReza Mirzaee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication errors are mentioned as the most common important challenges threatening healthcare system in all countries worldwide. This study is conducted to investigate the most significant factors in refusal to report medication errors among nursing staff.Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on all nursing staff of a selected Education& Treatment Center in 2013. Data was collected through a teacher made questionnaire. The questionnaires’ face and content validity was confirmed by experts and for measuring its reliability test-retest was used. Data was analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics. 16th  version of SPSS was also used for related statistics.Results: The most important factors in refusal to report medication errors respectively are: lack of reporting system in the hospital(3.3%, non-significance of reporting medication errors to hospital authorities and lack of appropriate feedback(3.1%, and lack of a clear definition for a medication error (3%. there was a significant relationship between the most important factors of refusal to report medication errors and work shift (p:0.002, age(p:0.003, gender(p:0.005, work experience(p<0.001 and employment type of nurses(p:0.002.Conclusion: Factors pertaining to management in hospitals as well as the fear of the consequences of reporting are two broad fields among the factors that make nurses not report their medication errors. In this regard, providing enough education to nurses, boosting the job security for nurses, management support and revising related processes and definitions are some factors that can help decreasing medication errors and increasing their report in case of occurrence.

  3. 3-D Soviet Style: A Presentation on Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    auteurs se penchent sur les aspects stratégiques, opérationnels et tactiques de l’action soviétique. L’étude se fonde sur de l’information actualisée...publiée en russe et en anglais. Les données statistiques sur le conflit ont également été prises en compte. Les auteurs , MM. Anton Minkov et...communication and to the efforts the Soviets made in building Afghan security forces. It includes information on the theory and practice of Soviet

  4. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree

  5. The performance of select universities of medical sciences based on the components affecting medical education [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tayebi Arasteh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every educational institution requires an evaluation system in order to find out about the quality and desirability of its activities, especially if it is a complex and dynamic environment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the educational performance of schools affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences to help improve their performance. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted in six schools affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences in April 2016-October 2016 and October 2016-April 2017. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: self-assessment by service executives across schools, and external assessment in person by the university’s expert staff. The study tools included the components, criteria and desirable standards of educational performance in ten categories. Data were analyzed in SPSS. Results: The results obtained showed that, in April-October 2016, the highest performance evaluation scores pertained to the "secure testing" and "rules and regulations" components and the lowest to the "packages for reform and innovation in education" and "the school action plan" components. In October 2016-April 2017, the highest scores pertained to "workforce empowerment" and "secure testing" and the lowest to "faculty affairs" and "electronic education management system". Conclusions: Offering a balanced portrayal of the actual performance of schools using the right performance indicators in two consecutive periods can help further motivate the superior schools and encourage the weaker schools to strive harder. Competition among schools to get a higher score in the components affecting medical education helps mobilize them to move toward reform and improvement.

  6. The Legacy of Ideology in Soviet Foreign Policy Toward the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    political socialization include family, school, church, peer groups, social class, ethnic group, the work life situation and the 57 mass media." Zbigniew...the Soviet Union will be considered, and then the selection and social- ization process of the Communist Party and its leadership. " Political ... socialization is the gradual learning of the norms, attitudes and behavior accepted and practiced by the ongoing political system. ř 6 "The agents of

  7. [Selection of medical graduates for residency posts. A comparative study of the methodologies used in different countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso; Villena, Victoria; García Seoane, Jorge; Jiménez-Roldán, Luis; Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Alén, José F

    2015-01-01

    The design of an appropriate method for the selection of medical graduates for residency posts is extremely important, not only for the efficiency of the method itself (accurate identification of most competent candidates), but also for its influence on the study and teaching methodologies operating in medical schools. Currently, there is a great variation in the criteria used in different countries and there is no definitively appropriate method. The use of isolated or combined criteria, such as the marks obtained by students in medical schools, their performance in tests of theoretical knowledge and evaluations of clinical competence, or personal interviews, have a limited value for identifying those candidates who will perform better during the residency and later on during independent practice. To analyse the variability in the methodologies used for the selection of residents employed in different countries, in particular those used in the United Kingdom and USA, where external agencies and medical schools make systematic analyses of curriculum development. The advantages and disadvantages of national or transnational licensing examinations on the process of convergence and harmonization of medical degrees and residency programmes through Europe are discussed. The present analysis is used to design a new and more efficient multi-criteria methodology for resident selection in Spain, which will be published in the next issue of this journal. Since the multi-criteria methods used in UK and USA appear to be most consistent, these have been employed for designing the new methodology that could be applied in Spain. Although many experts in medical education reject national examinations for awarding medical degrees or ranking candidates for residency posts, it seems that, when appropriately designed, they can be used to verify the level of competence of graduating students without necessarily distorting curriculum implementation or improvement. Copyright © 2014

  8. Factors that influence medical student selection of an emergency medicine residency program: implications for training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey N; Howell, John M; Hegarty, Cullen B; McLaughlin, Steven A; Coates, Wendy C; Hopson, Laura R; Hern, Gene H; Rosen, Carlo L; Fisher, Jonathan; Santen, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of student decision-making when selecting an emergency medicine (EM) training program is essential for program directors as they enter interview season. To build upon preexisting knowledge, a survey was created to identify and prioritize the factors influencing candidate decision-making of U.S. medical graduates. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study that anonymously surveyed U.S. allopathic applicants to EM training programs. It took place in the 3-week period between the 2011 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) rank list submission deadline and the announcement of match results. Of 1,525 invitations to participate, 870 candidates (57%) completed the survey. Overall, 96% of respondents stated that both geographic location and individual program characteristics were important to decision-making, with approximately equal numbers favoring location when compared to those who favored program characteristics. The most important factors in this regard were preference for a particular geographic location (74.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72% to 78%) and to be close to spouse, significant other, or family (59.7%, 95% CI = 56% to 63%). Factors pertaining to geographic location tend to be out of the control of the program leadership. The most important program factors include the interview experience (48.9%, 95% CI = 46% to 52%), personal experience with the residents (48.5%, 95% CI = 45% to 52%), and academic reputation (44.9%, 95% CI = 42% to 48%). Unlike location, individual program factors are often either directly or somewhat under the control of the program leadership. Several other factors were ranked as the most important factor a disproportionate number of times, including a rotation in that emergency department (ED), orientation (academic vs. community), and duration of training (3-year vs. 4-year programs). For a subset of applicants, these factors had particular importance in overall decision-making. The vast majority

  9. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher E. Van Zandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs, the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA Animal Rule 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified 6 strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  10. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S; Warren, Richard L; Gelhaus, H Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA "Animal Rule" 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  11. Comparison of in-hospital versus 30-day mortality assessments for selected medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzecki, Ann M; Christiansen, Cindy L; Chew, Priscilla; Loveland, Susan; Rosen, Amy K

    2010-12-01

    In-hospital mortality measures such as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQIs) are easily derived using hospital discharge abstracts and publicly available software. However, hospital assessments based on a 30-day postadmission interval might be more accurate given potential differences in facility discharge practices. To compare in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates for 6 medical conditions using the AHRQ IQI software. We used IQI software (v3.1) and 2004-2007 Veterans Health Administration (VA) discharge and Vital Status files to derive 4-year facility-level in-hospital and 30-day observed mortality rates and observed/expected ratios (O/Es) for admissions with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hip fracture, and pneumonia. We standardized software-calculated O/Es to the VA population and compared O/Es and outlier status across sites using correlation, observed agreement, and kappas. Of 119 facilities, in-hospital versus 30-day mortality O/E correlations were generally high (median: r = 0.78; range: 0.31-0.86). Examining outlier status, observed agreement was high (median: 84.7%, 80.7%-89.1%). Kappas showed at least moderate agreement (k > 0.40) for all indicators except stroke and hip fracture (k ≤ 0.22). Across indicators, few sites changed from a high to nonoutlier or low outlier, or vice versa (median: 10, range: 7-13). The AHRQ IQI software can be easily adapted to generate 30-day mortality rates. Although 30-day mortality has better face validity as a hospital performance measure than in-hospital mortality, site assessments were similar despite the definition used. Thus, the measure selected for internal benchmarking should primarily depend on the healthcare system's data linkage capabilities.

  12. Impact of automated dispensing cabinets on medication selection and preparation error rates in an emergency department: a prospective and direct observational before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Laura; Jones, Nick; Manias, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) in healthcare facilities appears to be increasing, in particular within Australian hospital emergency departments (EDs). While the investment in ADCs is on the increase, no studies have specifically investigated the impacts of ADCs on medication selection and preparation error rates in EDs. Our aim was to assess the impact of ADCs on medication selection and preparation error rates in an ED of a tertiary teaching hospital. Pre intervention and post intervention study involving direct observations of nurses completing medication selection and preparation activities before and after the implementation of ADCs in the original and new emergency departments within a 377-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Australia. Medication selection and preparation error rates were calculated and compared between these two periods. Secondary end points included the impact on medication error type and severity. A total of 2087 medication selection and preparations were observed among 808 patients pre and post intervention. Implementation of ADCs in the new ED resulted in a 64.7% (1.96% versus 0.69%, respectively, P = 0.017) reduction in medication selection and preparation errors. All medication error types were reduced in the post intervention study period. There was an insignificant impact on medication error severity as all errors detected were categorised as minor. The implementation of ADCs could reduce medication selection and preparation errors and improve medication safety in an ED setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  14. [Can Psychometric Tests Predict Success in the Selection Interview for Medical School? A Cross-Sectional Study at One German Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, T; Obst, K U; Brüheim, L; Eisemann, N; Voltmer, E; Katalinic, A

    2017-07-01

    Background The final exam grade is the main selection criterion for medical school application in Germany. For academic success, it seems to be a reliable predictor. Its use as the only selection criterion is, however, criticised. At some universities, personal interviews are part of the selection process. However, these are very time consuming and are of doubtful validity. The (additional) use of appropriate psychometric instruments could reduce the cost and increase the validity. This study investigates the extent to which psychometric instruments can predict the outcome of a personal selection interview. Methods This is a cross-sectional study on the correlation of the results of psychometric instruments with those of the personal selection interview as part of the application process. As the outcome, the score of the selection interview was used. The NEO - Five Factor Inventory, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the questionnaire to identify work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM) were used as psychometric interviews. Results There was a statistically significant correlation with the results of the personal selection interview for the sum score of the depression scale from the HADS and the sum score for the dimension of life satisfaction of the AVEM. In addition, those participants who did not previously complete an application training achieved a better result in the selection interview. Conclusion The instruments used measure different aspects than the interviews and cannot replace them. It remains to be seen whether the selected parameters are able to predict academic success. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. It's purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for intentional collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy flux. There are several international physics collaborations involving US and Soviet scientists at the large accelerator installations throughout the world. As the scale of research gets ever larger, requiring ever more resources and then larger collaborations. Much physics research lies solely in the realm of basic research so that governments feel easier about collaborations. Contacts between the US and USSR scientists interested in nuclear and particle physics goes back to the nineteen fifties and have continued with only minor interruptions since then. Over the past two decades the principal oversight of these activities has been through the Joint Coordinating Committee on the Fundamental Properties of Matter, supported by the DOE in the US and the State Committee for Atomic Energy in the USSR. The Academies of Science of both countries have been very helpful and supportive. Each venture has some distinguishing features; in the case of SAGE, the unique aspects are the collaboration between Soviet scientists and scientists at a DOE weapons laboratory and the fact that the experiment is carried out in a remote region of the USSR. The particular problems caused are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    jour- nals almost at the same time as A. Rybakov’s "Children of the Arbat," V. Dudintsev’s "White Clothes," D. Granin’s "Diehard," and the essays ... lyrical poet," Akh- matova is able to make "concise, vivid, and resounding statements regarding the salient or distinctive features of the spiritual...known poet M. Avi-Shaul; a photo essay on Soviet artists and cultural figures, who had visited Israel in recent years; on the Romen Theater, headed by

  18. Socialization of the Child in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanavicius, Mary

    1979-01-01

    The socialization process of the child in the Soviet Union is examined in terms of socialistic/communistic political philosophy and the general attitudes of the Soviets toward social sciences, child rearing, and educational practice. The family, school, and youth organizations are also discussed as socializing agents. (Author/KC)

  19. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    July 1982, reported that be- fore reaching the Kabul River his group passed three DRA outposts or forts. One of his guerrilla companions assured him...driver, chef , doctor, and six chief advisers, all were Soviets. At the palace where he resided and worked, the guard force was Soviet, except for a

  20. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    34- ° .. 78 - capital or a few countertrade agreements, will solve their problems for them. This is markedly different from the overall Soviet pattern...currency countertrade practice, the considerations of this Note would permit further refinement of predictions of Soviet economic decisionmaking that

  1. Social-historical memory about soviet the pas: empiric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Pozdnyakova­Kirbatyeva

    2014-06-01

    Also considered komomeratyvni properties attitude to the soviet past in the population of different regions of the country and the most general description of the memory of the soviet past, namely the degree of interest of the population of different regions to the past.

  2. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was

  3. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  4. Soviet Counterinsurgency Operations in Afghanistan (1979-1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    Soviet commitment in Afghanistan. was to be an "economy of force" mission, with the focus of Red Army combat power to remain in the European theatre ...critically for its operational and tactical resupply capability. ’’The Soviets in Afghanis4Ul,li1ce the Americansin Vietnam, discovered thai helicopters were

  5. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  6. The evolution of Soviet forces, strategy, and command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the evolution of Soviet forces, strategy and command. Soviet leaders have repeatedly emphasized that it would be tantamount to suicide to start a nuclear war. Mutual deterrence, however, does not make nuclear was impossible. The danger remains that a large-scale nuclear was could start inadvertently in an intense crisis, or by escalation out of a conventional war, or as an unforeseen combination of these. For these reasons crisis management has become a central issue in the United States, but the standard Soviet response to this Western interest has been to say that what is needed is crisis avoidance, not recipes for brinkmanship masquerading under another name. There is much sense in this view. Nevertheless, this demeanor does not mean that the Soviet Union has given no thought to the danger that a crisis might lead to nuclear war, only that Soviet categories for thinking about such matters differ from those employed in the United States

  7. Performance evaluation of medical records departments by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach in the selected hospitals in Isfahan : medical records dep. & AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2012-06-01

    Medical Records Department (MRD) is an important unit for evaluating and planning of care services. The goal of this study is evaluating the performance of the Medical Records Departments (MRDs) of the selected hospitals in Isfahan, Iran by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This was an analytic of cross-sectional study that was done in spring 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The statistical population consisted of MRDs of Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan. Data were collected by forms and through brainstorm technique. To analyze and perform AHP, Expert Choice software was used by researchers. Results were showed archiving unit has received the largest importance weight with respect to information management. However, on customer aspect admission unit has received the largest weight. Ordering weights of Medical Records Departments' Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan were with 0.394, 0.342 and 0.264 respectively. It is useful for managers to allocate and prioritize resources according to AHP technique for ranking at the Medical Records Departments.

  8. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  9. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostarev, V.; Schukin, A.; Berkovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  10. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostarev, V; Schukin, A; Berkovski, A [CKTI-Vibroseism Co. Ltd. (Cape Verde)

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  11. Using an evidence-based approach for system selection at a large academic medical center: lessons learned in selecting an ambulatory EMR at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannry, Joseph; Mukani, Sonia; Myers, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The experience of Mount Sinai Hospital is representative of the challenges and problems facing large academic medical centers in selecting an ambulatory EMR. The facility successfully revived a stalled process in a challenging financial climate, using a framework of science and rigorous investigation. The process incorporated several innovations: 1) There was a thorough review of medical informatics literature to develop a mission statement, determine practical objectives and guide the demonstration process; 2) The process involved rigorous investigation of vendor statements, industry statements and other institution's views of vendors; 3) The initiative focused on user-centric selection, and the survey instrument was scientifically and specifically designed to assess user feedback; 4) There was scientific analysis of validated findings and survey results at all steering meetings; 5) The process included an assessment of vendors' ability to support research by identifying funded and published research; 6) Selection involved meticulous total cost of ownership analysis to assess and compare real costs of implementing a vendor solution; and finally, 7) There were iterative meetings with stakeholders, executives and users to understand needs, address concerns and communicate the vision.

  12. Male or female, we will create them: the ethics of sex selection for non-medical reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd, David

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the arguments for and against the practice of sex selection for non-medical reasons (e.g. parental preferences, family balancing, religious reasons) in light of the new technology of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). It distinguishes between arguments about the risks to the future child, the mother and society, on the one hand, and the inherent wrongness of the practice as an illegitimate interference in the natural course of reproduction, on the other. The article tries to show that at least in the well defined context of sex selection by PGD, when IVF was performed for independent medical reasons, there is no danger to either the child or the mother and hence that the practice should be permitted. Furthermore, the alleged dangers to society are demonstrated to be mostly illusory. On the one hand, the demographic danger is usually overstated and lacks historical support. On the other hand, the feminist claim that sex selection is necessarily discriminatory is found to be both theoretically and empirically groundless. The article's conclusion is that despite widespread intuitive objection to the practice of sex selection, it can be justified in terms of parental autonomy and falls within the value of family planning. This liberal view does not, however, imply that having a child of the desired sex is the parents' right, nor does it apply to sex selection in later phases of gestation (abortions and obviously, infanticide).

  13. Measuring severe adverse events and medication selection using a “PEER Report” for nonpsychotic patients: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel A Hoffman,1 Charles DeBattista,2 Rob J Valuck,3 Dan V Iosifescu41Neuro-Therapy Clinic, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 2Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado, SKAGES School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: We previously reported on an objective new tool that uses quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG normative- and referenced-electroencephalography sampling databases (currently called Psychiatric EEG Evaluation Registry [PEER], which may assist physicians in determining medication selection for optimal efficacy to overcome trial-and-error prescribing. The PEER test compares drug-free QEEG features for individual patients to a database of patients with similar EEG patterns and known outcomes after pharmacological interventions. Based on specific EEG data elements and historical outcomes, the PEER Report may also serve as a marker of future severe adverse events (eg, agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, suicidality, homicidality, mania, hypomania with specific medications. We used a retrospective chart review to investigate the clinical utility of such a registry in a naturalistic environment.Results: This chart review demonstrated significant improvement on the global assessment scales Clinical Global Impression – Improvement and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction – Short Form as well as time to maximum medical improvement and decreased suicidality occurrences. The review also showed that 54.5% of previous medications causing a severe adverse event would have been raised as a caution had the PEER Report been available at the time the drug was prescribed. Finally, due to the significant amount of off-label prescribing of psychotropic medications, additional, objective, evidence-based data aided the prescriber toward better choices.Conclusion: The PEER Report may be

  14. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  15. Memorable Fiction. Evoking Emotions and Family Bonds in Post-Soviet Russian Women’s Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja RYTKÖNEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with women-centred prose texts of the 1990s and 2000s in Russia written by women, and focuses especially on generation narratives. By this term the author means fictional texts that explore generational relations within families, from the perspective of repressed experiences, feelings and attitudes in the Soviet period. The selected texts are interpreted as narrating and conceptualizing the consequences of patriarchal ideology for relations between mothers and daughters and for reconstructing connections between Soviet and post-Soviet by revisiting and remembering especially the gaps and discontinuities between (female generations. The cases discussed are Liudmila Petrushevskaia’s ‘povest’ Vremia noch [The Time: Night] (1991, Liudmila Ulitskaia’s novel Medeia i ee deti [Medea and her Children] (1996 and Elena Chizhova’s novel Vremia zhenshchin [The Time of Women] (2009. These novels reflect on the one hand the woman-centredness and novelty of representation in women’s prose writing in the post-Soviet period. On the other hand, the author suggests that they reflect the diverse methods of representing the Soviet era and experience through generation narratives. The texts reassess the past through intimate, tactile memories and perceptions, and their narration through generational plots draws attention to the process of working through, which needs to be done in contemporary Russia. The narratives touch upon the untold stories of those who suffered in silence or hid the family secrets from the officials, in order to save the family. The narration delves into the different layers of experience and memory, conceptualizing them in the form of multiple narrative perspectives constructing different generations and traditions. In this way they convey the ‘secrets’ hidden in the midst of everyday life routines and give voice to the often silent resistance of women towards patriarchal and repressive ideology. The new

  16. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  17. Paternity analysis based on NGM SElect system in the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Markiewicz-Knyziak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the NGM SElect multiplex kit for paternity testing in the population of central Poland, and compare it with the IDENTIFILER system. The study material consisted of buccal swabs taken from individuals who reported to the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory in Lodz. Samples from 450 trio cases of disputed paternity carried out in 2010–2014 were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs collected from 1,350 individuals using the Swab kit (A&A Biotechnology according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA amplification was performed using the AmpFℓSTR ® NGM Select TM PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies. PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis using HID 3500 Genetic Analyzer. In the analyzed cases with paternity confirmation in the NGM SElect system, the maximum value of PI was 3.9 × 10 12 , which corresponds to the probability of paternity W = 99.9999999999%. It was thus significantly higher than analogical parameters obtained in the IDENTIFILER system (PI = 6.0 × 10 10 , W = 99.99999999%. The NGM SElect kit was unable to resolve just one case out of 450, which represents only 0.2% of all analyzed disputed paternity cases. The study showed the SE33 (ACTBP2 locus to have the highest evidence value in paternity analysis out of all investigated autosomal STRs.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J.; Moon, F.C.; Shlesinger, M.F.

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  19. Soviet Advisors Group in South China and Soviet Union Financing of Gomindan War Planes in 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Геннадьевич Юркевич

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.

  20. The selected aspects of emotional labour and emotion regulation in medical jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Załuski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: the term of emotional labour describes the processes which occur at the medical staff while carrying out emotional expectations of patients. There are links between emotional labour, work strain and the exhaustion of physical and emotional strenght. Goal of dissertation: to discuss certain problems connected with the phenomenon of the emotional labour and the emotion regulation processes which occur to the medical staff during the contact with patients. Summary and conclusion: there are a lot of research which confirm the negative health effects of some kinds of emotional labour and emotion regulation. Discussed issues rarely appear in Polish medical magazines in spite of the increasing number of foreign publications. Key words: emotional intelligence, interpersonal relations, health personnel

  1. Sea, sun, sand and …. selecting surgery: an exploration of health, medical and wellness tourist's mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Bristow

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass tourism facilities depend on repeat visitors as well as attracting new first time tourists. As these traditional sun and sand holiday destinations mature, tourism promoters are bundling opportunities to attract a different kind of tourist. Since many of these resorts are all-inclusive facilities and include a Spa, one potential expansion may be to market to health, medical or wellness tourists. Geographic research in travel and tourism has found that individuals either repeat visits to the same destination or diversify their choices. This paper highlights the decision-making process of tourists and how it may be related to the niche market of health, wellness, and medical tourism. It uses data from a survey that gathered the travel patterns and motivations, and socio-demographics of medical tourists. Consumers who exhibit different travel behavior rank hospital accreditation and American hospital affiliation more important than those who repeat travel behavior

  2. Differences in selected medical care parameters in rheumatic disease ward patients of different ages of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pobrotyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Rheumatic diseases are becoming more and more common in Poland with the ageing of the population. Nearly 18% of the total hospital admissions in Poland result from rheumatic diseases, which was equivalent to 350 thousand cases in the year 2008. These diseases tend to last for many decades, decreasing both the quality of life and income of the patients as well as increasing the medical institutions’ workload and society’s financial burden. The aim of the study was to determine whether the medical care parameters in a rheumatic disease hospital ward show any significant differences among different patient age groups – especially such that would support taking them into account as a basis for adjusting the financial coverage level of medical services. Material and methods : Data on hospitalizations at the Rheumatic Diseases Ward of Wroclaw University Hospital in Wroclaw in the years 2009–2015 were analyzed, taking into account the age groups, number of hospital admissions, their duration and causes. Relevant statistical data analysis was performed. Discussion: The study revealed that the number of old patients hospitalized at the rheumatic diseases ward increased over the last 6 years and that such statistically significant differences do exist: on average the old patients not only tend to stay much longer at the hospital, but also suffer from a different and more diverse spectrum of diseases in comparison to their younger counterparts. Conclusions : The detected differences in medical care parameters support the need for more individualized medical care and increased cost of the hospital stay in the case of older patients. Consequently, those factors justify the necessity to increase the value of medical services in the case of old patients, possibly also taking into account the variation between age subgroups.

  3. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...... appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting....

  4. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  5. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  6. President Ford and both the Soviet and American ASTP crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    President Gerald R. Ford removes the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft model from a model set depicting the 1975 Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), an Earth orbital docking and rendezvous mission with crewmen from the U.S. and USSR. From left to right, Vladamir A. Shatalov, Chief, Cosmonaut training; Valeriy N. Kubasov, ASTP Soviet engineer; Aleksey A. Leonov, ASTP Soviet crew commander; Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Donald K. Slayton, American docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot for the American crew. Dr. George M Low, Deputy Administrator for NASA is partially obscured behind President Ford.

  7. Does students' exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical school affect specialty choice and residency program selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Terry D; McLaughlin, Margaret A; Witte, Florence M; Fosson, Sue E; Nora, Lois Margaret

    2005-04-01

    To examine the role of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medical students' choice of specialty and residency program. Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were distributed in 1997 to fourth-year students enrolled in 14 public and private U.S. medical schools. In addition to reporting the frequency of gender discrimination and sexual harassment encountered during preclinical coursework, core clerkships, elective clerkships, and residency selection, students assessed the impact of these exposures (none, a little, some, quite a bit, the deciding factor) on their specialty choices and rankings of residency programs. A total of 1,314 (69%) useable questionnaires were returned. Large percentages of men (83.2%) and women (92.8%) experienced, observed, or heard about at least one incident of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical school, although more women reported such behavior across all training contexts. Compared with men, significantly (p harassment influenced their specialty choices (45.3% versus 16.4%) and residency rankings (25.3% versus 10.9%). Across all specialties, more women than men experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection, with one exception: a larger percentage of men choosing obstetrics and gynecology experienced such behavior. Among women, those choosing general surgery were most likely to experience gender discrimination and sexual harassment during residency selection. Interestingly, correlations between exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment and self-assessed impact on career decisions tended to be larger for men, suggesting that although fewer men are generally affected, they may weigh such experiences more heavily in their choice of specialty and residency program. This study suggests that exposure to gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate education may influence some medical students' choice of specialty and, to a lesser

  8. Tokamak research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Important milestones on the way to the tokamak fusion reactor are recapitulated. Soviet tokamak research concentrated at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, the A.F. Ioffe Institute in Leningrad and the Physical-Technical Institute in Sukhumi successfully provides necessary scientific and technological data for reactor design. Achievments include, the successful operation of the first tokamak with superconducting windings (T-7) and the gyrotron set for microwave plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak. The following problems have intensively been studied: Various methods of additional plasma heating, heat and particle transport, and impurity control. The efficiency of electron-cyclotron resonance heating was demonstrated. In the Joule heating regime, both the heat conduction and diffusion rates are anomalously high, but the electron heat conduction rate decreases with increasing plasma density. Progress in impurity control makes it possible to obtain a plasma with effective charge approaching unity. (J.U.)

  9. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation

  10. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Andrejew, S.V.

    1991-08-01

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." excerpt

  12. Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrane, Diane; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

  13. Homicide in post-Soviet Belarus: urban-rural trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of homicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. All-age male and female homicide mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were recalculated into three age categories and directly standardised. To assess relative changes in rural-urban homicide rates across time Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios. Between 1990 and 1995 homicide rates rose sharply in urban and rural regions although the rise was greater in the former. Although there was little change in homicide rates in 2000, a notable divergence had occurred by 2005. While homicide rates rose slightly in rural areas, a large fall occurred in the rates of both men and women in urban areas. This resulted in significantly higher rural homicide rate ratios at the end of the study period. With some variations age-specific homicide rates followed this overall general pattern resulting in significantly higher homicide rate ratios in all rural groups aged 15 and above in 2005. It is probable that a combination of factors such as high levels of poverty, the effects of alcohol consumption, as well as the poor provision of emergency medical services underlie both the high levels of lethal violence and the growing rural-urban divergence in homicide rates in contemporary Belarus. Urgent action is now needed to address the deteriorating social and economic conditions underpinning violence, especially in rural regions.

  14. [Richard Koch's life in national socialism and in Soviet emigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltres, Daniela; Töpfer, Frank; Wiesing, Urban

    2006-01-01

    The Jewish historian and theorist of medicine, Richard Koch, teaching in Frankfurt/Main, fled in 1936 from National Socialist Germany to the USSR where he lived in the Caucasian spa Essentuki until his death in 1949. Here he worked as a doctor and continued his scientific work, especially on the foundations of medicine in natural philosophy. None of his works of this time were published. Koch was a scientific outsider in the USSR, and he was aware of this. However, he tried to make his views compatible with official doctrines. In 1947 he lost his employment at the medical clinic of Essentuki, and his material situation grew worse. It is still an open question whether this development was related to an increasingly anti-Jewish atmosphere in the USSR that was linked with the Stalinist "purges", as Koch himself appeared to believe. Before his flight from Germany Koch did not show any tendency towards communism or the political left at all. His attitude towards Soviet society and Stalin was mixed: cautious criticism was accompanied by strong expressions of commitment to Stalin and Koch's new Socialist home. The question to what extent Koch's comments showed his true convictions must remain without a definite answer. At least in part they can be understood as precautions in threatening circumstances. The opportunity of a remigration to Germany after 1945, however, was turned down by Koch.

  15. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  16. Can Medical School Performance Predict Residency Performance? Resident Selection and Predictors of Successful Performance in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Hindi E.; Hueppchen, Nancy A.; Bienstock, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Background During the evaluation process, Residency Admissions Committees typically gather data on objective and subjective measures of a medical student's performance through the Electronic Residency Application Service, including medical school grades, standardized test scores, research achievements, nonacademic accomplishments, letters of recommendation, the dean's letter, and personal statements. Using these data to identify which medical students are likely to become successful residents in an academic residency program in obstetrics and gynecology is difficult and to date, not well studied. Objective To determine whether objective information in medical students' applications can help predict resident success. Method We performed a retrospective cohort study of all residents who matched into the Johns Hopkins University residency program in obstetrics and gynecology between 1994 and 2004 and entered the program through the National Resident Matching Program as a postgraduate year-1 resident. Residents were independently evaluated by faculty and ranked in 4 groups according to perceived level of success. Applications from residents in the highest and lowest group were abstracted. Groups were compared using the Fisher exact test and the Student t test. Results Seventy-five residents met inclusion criteria and 29 residents were ranked in the highest and lowest quartiles (15 in highest, 14 in lowest). Univariate analysis identified no variables as consistent predictors of resident success. Conclusion In a program designed to train academic obstetrician-gynecologists, objective data from medical students' applications did not correlate with successful resident performance in our obstetrics-gynecology residency program. We need to continue our search for evaluation criteria that can accurately and reliably select the medical students that are best fit for our specialty. PMID:21976076

  17. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  18. An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rate...

  19. Sea, sun, sand and …. selecting surgery: an exploration of health, medical and wellness tourist's mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Bristow; Wen-Tsann Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mass tourism facilities depend on repeat visitors as well as attracting new first time tourists. As these traditional sun and sand holiday destinations mature, tourism promoters are bundling opportunities to attract a different kind of tourist. Since many of these resorts are all-inclusive facilities and include a Spa, one potential expansion may be to market to health, medical or wellness tourists. Geographic research in travel and tourism has found that individuals either repeat visits to t...

  20. Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students’ knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Różańska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand hygiene (HH is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Results: Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. Conclusions: The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5:623–633

  1. [Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students' knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5):623-633. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Feed resource selection of Criollo goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus: nutritional wisdom and prophylactic self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Cordero, J; González-Pech, P G; Jaimez-Rodriguez, P R; Ortiz-Ocampo, G I; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Torres-Acosta, J F J

    2018-06-01

    as highly selected during period 2. The Chesson index showed that both experimental groups (IG and NIG) selected the same plant species in both periods. Thus, a high H. contortus infection did not affect selection of goats fed with CT-rich plants. Apparently, goats balanced their nutrient intake with the plants selected, showing evidence of nutritional wisdom. This balance may have helped to prevent excess protein in the diet and also to maintain a low GIN infection, both considered as examples of prophylactic self-medication.

  3. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  4. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  5. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aslund, Anders

    1991-01-01

    .... It focuses on four central issues: the range of differences on agricultural policy, how to deal with the Soviet Union's financial crisis, what to do about pricing policy, and the overall goal of economic reform...

  6. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination

  7. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination.

  8. Halo and spillover effect illustrations for selected beneficial medical devices and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Kerger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative news media reports regarding potential health hazards of implanted medical devices and pharmaceuticals can lead to a ‘negative halo effect,’ a phenomenon whereby judgments about a product or product type can be unconsciously altered even though the scientific support is tenuous. To determine how a ‘negative halo effect’ may impact the rates of use and/or explantation of medical products, we analyzed the occurrence of such an effect on three implanted medical devices and one drug: 1 intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs; 2 silicone gel-filled breast implants (SGBI; 3 metal-on-metal hip implants (MoM; and 4 the drug Tysabri. Methods Data on IUD use from 1965 to 2008 were gathered from the Department of Health and Human Services Vital and Health Statistics and peer-reviewed publications. Data regarding SGBI implant and explantation rates from 1989 to 2012 were obtained from the Institute of Medicine and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. MoM implant and explantation data were extracted from the England and Wales National Joint Registry and peer-reviewed publications. Tysabri patient data were reported by Elan Corporation or Biogen Idec Inc. Data trends for all products were compared with historical recall or withdrawal events and discussed in the context of public perceptions following such events. Results We found that common factors altered public risk perceptions and patterns of continued use. First, a negative halo effect may be driven by continuing patient anxiety despite positive clinical outcomes. Second, negative reports about one product can spill over to affect the use of dissimilar products in the same category. Third, a negative halo effect on an entire category of medical devices can be sustained regardless of the scientific findings pertaining to safety. Fourth, recovery of a product’s safety reputation and prevalent use may take decades in the U.S., even while these products may

  9. Medication withdrawal may be an option for a select group of patients in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical and radiological evolution of a stable group of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that had their disease-modifying therapy (DMT withdrawn. Forty patients, which had made continuous use of one immunomodulator and had remained free of disease for at least 5 years, had their DMT withdrawn and were observed from 13 to 86 months. Out of the followed patients, 4 (10% patients presented with new attacks. In addition to these patients, 2 (5% patients had new lesions revealed by magnetic resonance imaging that did not correspond to clinical attacks. Despite these results, the difficult decision to withdraw medication requires careful analysis. Withdrawal, however, should not be viewed as simply the suspension of treatment because these patients should be evaluated periodically, and the immunomodulators should be readily reintroduced if new attacks occur. Nonetheless, medication withdrawal is an option for a select group of patients.

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, The Working Class & The Contemporary World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-15

    Beatles and Rolling Stones groups, the astronaut J. Glenn, Dzh. (sic) Eisenhower and J. Kennedy, M.L. King and the screen actor M. Brando. At the ...JPRS-UWC-87-002 15 October 1987 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Soviet Union THE WORKING CLASS & THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD...MmmKmoN STATEMENT A 19980714 146 mcWAUTtmBPBVmi Soviet Union The Working Class & The Contemporary World No 3, May-June 1987 JPRS-UWC-87-002

  11. Soviet civil defense plans make nuclear war winnable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goure, L.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his opinion that the U.S. is naive and suicidal in its lack of civil defense preparation for nuclear war. The Soviets' extensive civil defense planning is evidence that they plan to use their nuclear weapons and survive a counterattack by the U.S. The author compares the two systems and explains why the Soviets' system is superior

  12. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  13. Text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement issued on 10 December 1987 at the conclusion of the meeting between the President of the United States and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Washington, December 7-10, 1987). It refers to the arms control (including nuclear weapons), human rights and humanitarian concerns, regional issues, bilateral affairs and further meetings

  14. Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Hellenic Socialist Move- ment ( PASOK ) and the development of ties between its left wing and the Greek Communist party (KKE). Before PASOK won an...absolute majority in the June 1985 elections, the Soviets may have hoped for the formation of a PASOK -KKE coalition or, more likely, an arrange- ment...whereby a minority PASOK government would remain in power with tacit Communist support. Although these expectations were not fulfilled, the Soviets expect

  15. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  16. Toward a Profile of Soviet Behavior in International Financial Markets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    duv. priding a hedge against both economic and political uncertaintv. l’oitical developments could cut oft Soviet access t(I Western credit marktt...deposits than heyc were paying on their loans, and this simple arbitrage operatio)n would have been p~rofitable. Opportunities for this kind of...8217 arbitrage miay’ hake persisted into 1985. when interest rates on short -term deposits finally% t’ell below the rates that the Soviet U nion would have been

  17. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  18. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    she would stereotype Soviet women, she stated: " Overworked , unhappy with their lives-- standing in lines, taking care of the kids, alcoholism among men...Greece, The Netherlands, Turkey, Israel and Japan . There was no mention of the Soviet Union. Based upon a January 1991 query to the Women’s Research and...1986-1990 due to accidents, suicide and hazing. The group asked the military prosecutor to investigate the abuses within the armed forces, especially

  19. The Soviet Withdrawal from Eastern Europe: A Move in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    head." A roof indeed! These dwellings back in the Soviet Union have been referred to as " prefabricated huts." Dozens of accounts lament that servicemen... prefabricated hostels. The head of the Defense Ministry estimates that fifty percent of the homeless are thus quartered: thirty percent have returned to...for 220,000 tons of fuel, garages for motor vehicles, 149 barracks, and 66 canteens. Soviet officials estimate that these facilities are wort- abut

  20. Geopolitics: The Key to Understanding Soviet Regional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Soviet foreign policy. nertnngthis role, CO can begin to build a usable theoretical framwork for analyzing Soviet behavior in, utategiczlly inportant...the writings of the great geopolitical theorists, such as Mackinder, Spykman, and Gray, in developing a conceptual basis for understanding the la-tem...Histary,- British geographer Sir Halford J. mdcinder provided the conceptual framewrk for geopolitical theory by dividing the world into three vast regions

  1. Is Soviet society fit for the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The author argues that the Kremlin's handling of the Chernobyl crisis is a far greater indictment of Soviet ethos, society and ideology than their technology. The Soviet nuclear plan is seen to be to press on regardless of safety standards. Australia's government and society, through poor education, foreign disinformation and media orchestration, are unable to participate effectively in the responsibilities of a global nuclear society

  2. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  3. A Soft Computing Based Approach Using Modified Selection Strategy for Feature Reduction of Medical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursat Zuhtuogullari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The systems consisting high input spaces require high processing times and memory usage. Most of the attribute selection algorithms have the problems of input dimensions limits and information storage problems. These problems are eliminated by means of developed feature reduction software using new modified selection mechanism with middle region solution candidates adding. The hybrid system software is constructed for reducing the input attributes of the systems with large number of input variables. The designed software also supports the roulette wheel selection mechanism. Linear order crossover is used as the recombination operator. In the genetic algorithm based soft computing methods, locking to the local solutions is also a problem which is eliminated by using developed software. Faster and effective results are obtained in the test procedures. Twelve input variables of the urological system have been reduced to the reducts (reduced input attributes with seven, six, and five elements. It can be seen from the obtained results that the developed software with modified selection has the advantages in the fields of memory allocation, execution time, classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values when compared with the other reduction algorithms by using the urological test data.

  4. A soft computing based approach using modified selection strategy for feature reduction of medical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhtuogullari, Kursat; Allahverdi, Novruz; Arikan, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    The systems consisting high input spaces require high processing times and memory usage. Most of the attribute selection algorithms have the problems of input dimensions limits and information storage problems. These problems are eliminated by means of developed feature reduction software using new modified selection mechanism with middle region solution candidates adding. The hybrid system software is constructed for reducing the input attributes of the systems with large number of input variables. The designed software also supports the roulette wheel selection mechanism. Linear order crossover is used as the recombination operator. In the genetic algorithm based soft computing methods, locking to the local solutions is also a problem which is eliminated by using developed software. Faster and effective results are obtained in the test procedures. Twelve input variables of the urological system have been reduced to the reducts (reduced input attributes) with seven, six, and five elements. It can be seen from the obtained results that the developed software with modified selection has the advantages in the fields of memory allocation, execution time, classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values when compared with the other reduction algorithms by using the urological test data.

  5. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  6. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted

  7. DOSTOEVSKY'S RELIGIOSITY AS A METHODOLOGICAL PROBEM OF SOVIET LITERARY CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.

  8. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Shaikh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb. A. Juss. (Miliaceae, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers. (Menispermaceae, Lavandula bipinnata (L. O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae, and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21±0.24%, HL-60 (30.25±1.36%, HEP-3B (25.36±1.78%, and PN-15 (29.21±0.52%. Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 more than (COX-1, which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%. The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl (OH, and superoxide radical (SOR scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents.

  9. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents.

  10. Selection and construction of nuclear and radiation emergency medical center in a region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guojun; He Xu; Liao Li; Gao Dong

    2014-01-01

    Three level of first-class comprehensive hospital is an important force of nuclear and radiation accident rescue, has a very rich experience in response to nuclear and radiation accidents and deal with large quantities of the sick and wounded. With the foundation and the ability of the construction and operation of medical emergency rescue center. This paper according to the median model location theory of emergency center, combined with the specific situation of the nuclear and radiation accident in Hunan Province, reference location, rescue experience, emergency allocation of resources, teaching and research capacity, establish regional medical emergency center of nuclear and radiation accidents based on three level of first-class comprehensive hospital, break the traditional concept that the center must be provincial capital,form a multi-level, three-dimensional, network of emergency hospital rescue system. The main duties of the center are accident emergency response, on-site treatment and technical guidance of accident, psychological grooming. The author propose building measures according to the duties of the center: increase national and provincial financial investment, carry out training, drills and first aid knowledge missionaries regularly, innovative materials management, speed up the construction of information platform, establish and improve the hospital rescue system, improve organization institution and system of plans, reengineering rescue process. (authors)

  11. Population change in the former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1994-12-01

    Demographic trends in the former Soviet Republics and Russia are summarized and discussed in this publication. The former Soviet Republics in Europe as well as Georgia and Armenia had completed or almost completed their demographic transition before October 1991. Other Central Asian republics experienced reduced mortality, but, despite rapid declines, fertility is still above replacement level (at 3-4 children per woman). The economic and social dislocation of the breakup of the republics has hastened fertility decline. The annual population growth rate of the USSR in the mid-1980s was 0.9%; this rate declined to 0.4% in 1991, and the decline has continued. The 1991 population of the USSR was 289.1 million. Between 1989 and 1991, the crude birth rate was 18/1000 population, and the crude death rate was 10/1000. The net migration rate of -4/1000 helped to reduce growth. Total fertility in the USSR was 2.3 children in 1990. In Russia, fertility declined from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. The preferred family size in Russia was 1.9 in 1990 and 1.5 in 1993. This decline occurred due to lack of confidence in the economy and insufficient income. Only 19% of women used contraception in 1990. Marriages declined after 1990. Age pyramids were similar in the republics in that there was a narrowing in the proportion aged 45-49 years, and the male population aged over 65 years was diminished, due to the effect of World War II. The cohort of those aged 20-24 years in 1992 was very small due to the small parental birth cohort. The differences in the republics was characterized as broad-based in the younger ages because of high fertility. The number of childbearing women will remain large. Life expectancy has been 70 years since the 1950s and has declined in some republics due to substandard health care, lack of job safety measures, and alcoholism. Some republics experienced increased life expectancy, but, after 1991, mortality increased. Tajikistan had the highest infant mortality

  12. Feature Selection for Nonstationary Data: Application to Human Recognition Using Medical Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeili, Majid; Louis, Wael; Armanfard, Narges; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2018-05-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) are among the physiological signals that have attracted significant interest in biometric community due to their inherent robustness to replay and falsification attacks. However, they are time-dependent signals and this makes them hard to deal with in across-session human recognition scenario where only one session is available for enrollment. This paper presents a novel feature selection method to address this issue. It is based on an auxiliary dataset with multiple sessions where it selects a subset of features that are more persistent across different sessions. It uses local information in terms of sample margins while enforcing an across-session measure. This makes it a perfect fit for aforementioned biometric recognition problem. Comprehensive experiments on ECG and TEOAE variability due to time lapse and body posture are done. Performance of the proposed method is compared against seven state-of-the-art feature selection algorithms as well as another six approaches in the area of ECG and TEOAE biometric recognition. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs noticeably better than other algorithms.

  13. Using selected scenes from Brazilian films to teach about substance use disorders, within medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8. These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8 were defined as "quality scenes". RESULTS: Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. CONCLUSIONS: We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.

  14. Using selected scenes from Brazilian films to teach about substance use disorders, within medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Oliveira, Hercílio Pereira; Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008). Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8). These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8) were defined as "quality scenes". Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.

  15. Remote Minimally Invasive Surgery – Haptic Feedback and Selective Automation in Medical Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Staub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of recurrent tasks and force feedback are complex problems in medical robotics. We present a novel approach that extends human-machine skill-transfer by a scaffolding framework. It assumes a consolidated working environment for both, the trainee and the trainer. The trainer provides hints and cues in a basic structure which is already understood by the learner. In this work, the scaffolding is constituted by abstract patterns, which facilitate the structuring and segmentation of information during “Learning by Demonstration” (LbD. With this concept, the concrete example of knot-tying for suturing is exemplified and evaluated. During the evaluation, most problems and failures arose due to intrinsic system imprecisions of the medical robot system. These inaccuracies were then improved by the visual guidance of the surgical instruments. While the benefits of force feedback in telesurgery has already been demonstrated and measured forces are also used during task learning, the transmission of signals between the operator console and the robot system over long-distances or across-network remote connections is still a challenge due to time-delay. Especially during incision processes with a scalpel into tissue, a delayed force feedback yields to an unpredictable force perception at the operator-side and can harm the tissue which the robot is interacting with. We propose a XFEM-based incision force prediction algorithm that simulates the incision contact-forces in real-time and compensates the delayed force sensor readings. A realistic 4-arm system for minimally invasive robotic heart surgery is used as a platform for the research.

  16. Block selective redaction for minimizing loss during de-identification of burned in text in irreversibly compressed JPEG medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, David A; Gebow, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Deidentification of medical images requires attention to both header information as well as the pixel data itself, in which burned-in text may be present. If the pixel data to be deidentified is stored in a compressed form, traditionally it is decompressed, identifying text is redacted, and if necessary, pixel data are recompressed. Decompression without recompression may result in images of excessive or intractable size. Recompression with an irreversible scheme is undesirable because it may cause additional loss in the diagnostically relevant regions of the images. The irreversible (lossy) JPEG compression scheme works on small blocks of the image independently, hence, redaction can selectively be confined only to those blocks containing identifying text, leaving all other blocks unchanged. An open source implementation of selective redaction and a demonstration of its applicability to multiframe color ultrasound images is described. The process can be applied either to standalone JPEG images or JPEG bit streams encapsulated in other formats, which in the case of medical images, is usually DICOM.

  17. The relation between flexibility of human resources and performance indexes of selected hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Alibakhshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, flexibility has turned to one of important issues in management theories and policies and most current discussions about flexibility patterns focus on management policies, so that these patterns are one of important aspects of human resources strategic management. This study was performed with the aim of assessing the flexibility rate of human resources and performance indexes of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals and determining the possible relation between these variables. The present study is descriptive – analytical which was conducted in cross-sectional form in 2015. The statistical population was selected by stratifies random sampling method as 317 persons from nursing, administrative and financial personnel of 5 hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University. Data collecting toll was hospitals performance indexes form and Wright & Snell flexibility questionnaire of human resources. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software and with the aid of descriptive statistical indexes and linear regression analysis. The results showed that personnel ( human resources had high flexibility = 4.16.\tthere was a significant relation between total flexibility and the index of bed circulation so that by one unit increase in bed circulation space, normally, the average of total flexibility decreased 0.64 units ( p-value<0.05. The results showed that human resources of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals have high flexibility, so authorities and policy makers are suggested to adopt policies of human resources management for creating flexibility in human resources and improving hospitals performance and amending hospitals status.

  18. Experimental investigations at the Soviet tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskij, G.A.; Golant, V.E.; AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1978-01-01

    The review is devoted to the basic results obtained on the Soviet tokamaks during 1976-1977. Behaviour of impurities, tearing instability, additional methods of plasma heating, energy distribution function were investigated. A brief description of new T-7, TM-4, ''Tuman-3'' tokamaks is given. It is shown that despite inflow of impurities to the pinch periphery, no their appreciable accumulation is observed at least during the discharge time. It is shown that the helical perturbations with m=2 and 1 present the greatest danger. The suppression of the tearing instability is related with suppression of the mode with m=2. The helical perturbation prevents formation of skin configuration at the initial stage of the discharge. As a rule, the transition of an appreciable fraction of electrons to continuous acceleration does not take place, although a significant deformation of electron distribution function under the action of electric field occurs. Plasma compression by increasing magnetic field induces oscillations and improves thermal plasma isolation. It is shown experimentally that the considerable efficiency of energy contribution to the ion component at the central part of plasma may be obtained by means of HF heating under conditions of low-hybrid resonance. It is shown that the recombination has a considerable effect on concentration of neutral particles in the central region

  19. A plan for Soviet nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1992-01-01

    If environmentalist forces are successful, the Russian government may soon establish the country's first comprehensive program for dealing with nuclear waste. Later this month the Russian parliament, back from its summer recess, is expected to begin considering a bill on this topic. A draft copy indicates that Russia is starting with the basics: It orders the government to develop a means of insulting waste from the environment, to form a national waste processing program, and to create a registry for tracking where spent atomic fuel is stored or buried. The bill comes on the heels of a November 1991 decree by Russian President Boris Yeltsin to step up efforts to deal with nuclear waste issues and to create a government registry of nuclear waste disposal sites by 1 January 1993. The former Soviet Union has come under fire from environmentalists for dumping low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes in the Arctic Ocean and for improperly storing waste at sites in the southern Urals and Belarus. Adding to the bill's urgency is the fact that Russia is considering sites for underground repositories for high-level waste at Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chelyabinsk, and on the Kola Peninsula

  20. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  1. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  2. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ta.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-04-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  3. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Mann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is often poorer for a second language (L2. In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1 may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023. Standard multiple regression was

  4. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the

  5. An integrated model for developing research skills in an undergraduate medical curriculum: appraisal of an approach using student selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Simon C; Morton, Jeremy; Ray, David C; Swann, David G; Davidson, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Student selected components (SSCs), at that time termed special study modules, were arguably the most innovative element in Tomorrow's Doctors (1993), the document from the General Medical Council that initiated the modernization of medical curricula in the UK. SSCs were proposed to make up one-third of the medical curriculum and provide students with choice, whilst allowing individual schools autonomy in how SSCs were utilized. In response, at the University of Edinburgh the undergraduate medical curriculum provides an integrated and sequential development and assessment of research skill learning outcomes, for all students in the SSC programme. The curriculum contains SSCs which provide choice to students in all 5 years. There are four substantial timetabled SSCs where students develop research skills in a topic and speciality of their choice. These SSCs are fully integrated and mapped with core learning outcomes and assessment, particularly with the 'Evidence-Based Medicine and Research' programme theme. These research skills are developed incrementally and applied fully in a research project in the fourth year. One-third of students also perform an optional intercalated one-year honours programme between years 2 and 3, usually across a wide range of honours schools at the biomedical science interface. Student feedback is insightful and demonstrates perceived attainment of research competencies. The establishment of these competencies is discussed in the context of enabling junior graduate doctors to be effective and confident at utilizing their research skills to effectively practice evidence-based medicine. This includes examining their own practice through clinical audit, developing an insight into the complexity of the evidence base and uncertainty, and also gaining a view into a career as a clinical academic.

  6. Drop-out and admission cancel rate among the students in a selected medical college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahed, F; Latif, S A; Mahamud, M M; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Sultana, S Z; Hossain, M B

    2011-04-01

    A record based descriptive type of study was carried out among the under-graduate students of Mymensingh Medical College from the session 1966-67 to 2006-07. The academic years were divided into four decades and admission was followed into three categories such as retained, cancellation and drop-out. Total number of the students was 5892. Among them 3848(65.30%) were male and 2044(34.69%) were female. Out of 5892 students drop-out was 282(4.78%) and admission cancel was 304(5.15%). It was also found that drop-out in male was 232(6.02%) and in female was 50(2.44%) and admission cancel in male was 266(5.87%) and in female was 78(3.81%). The difference was found statistically significant (pcancel rate is decreasing from the very beginning to till now. It was also observed that all drop-out and admission cancellation were in first & second year students. There was no continuation of their class roll numbers in third year registration.

  7. Selective automation and skill transfer in medical robotics: a demonstration on surgical knot-tying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Alois; Mayer, Hermann; Staub, Christoph; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Transferring non-trivial human manipulation skills to robot systems is a challenging task. There have been a number of attempts to design research systems for skill transfer, but the level of the complexity of the actual skills transferable to the robot was rather limited, and delicate operations requiring a high dexterity and long action sequences with many sub-operations were impossible to transfer. A novel approach to human-machine skill transfer for multi-arm robot systems is presented. The methodology capitalizes on the metaphor of 'scaffolded learning', which has gained widespread acceptance in psychology. The main idea is to formalize the superior knowledge of a teacher in a certain way to generate support for a trainee. In our case, the scaffolding is constituted by abstract patterns, which facilitate the structuring and segmentation of information during 'learning by demonstration'. The actual skill generalization is then based on simulating fluid dynamics. The approach has been successfully evaluated in the medical domain for the delicate task of automated knot-tying for suturing with standard surgical instruments and a realistic minimally invasive robotic surgery system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Selection and Use of Online Learning Resources by First-Year Medical Students: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry; Elliott, Kristine

    2017-10-02

    Medical students have access to a wide range of learning resources, many of which have been specifically developed for or identified and recommended to them by curriculum developers or teaching staff. There is an expectation that students will access and use these resources to support their self-directed learning. However, medical educators lack detailed and reliable data about which of these resources students use to support their learning and how this use relates to key learning events or activities. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively document first-year medical student selection and use of online learning resources to support their bioscience learning within a case-based curriculum and assess these data in relation to our expectations of student learning resource requirements and use. Study data were drawn from 2 sources: a survey of student learning resource selection and use (2013 cohort; n=326) and access logs from the medical school learning platform (2012 cohort; n=337). The paper-based survey, which was distributed to all first-year students, was designed to assess the frequency and types of online learning resources accessed by students and included items about their perceptions of the usefulness, quality, and reliability of various resource types and sources. Of 237 surveys returned, 118 complete responses were analyzed (36.2% response rate). Usage logs from the learning platform for an entire semester were processed to provide estimates of first-year student resource use on an individual and cohort-wide basis according to method of access, resource type, and learning event. According to the survey data, students accessed learning resources via the learning platform several times per week on average, slightly more often than they did for resources from other online sources. Google and Wikipedia were the most frequently used nonuniversity sites, while scholarly information sites (eg, online journals and scholarly databases) were accessed

  9. Phenolic profile and antimicrobial activities to selected microorganisms of some wild medical plant from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of Tussilago farfara (T. farfara, Equisetum arvense, Sambucus nigra (S. nigra and Aesculus hippocastanum. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against Enterococcus raffinosus, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia rubidaea, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus epidermis were determined by the microbroth dilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, while the concentrations of main phenolic acids and flavonoids in the form of trimethylsilyl ethers were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The probit analysis was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 4 plant tested, all extracts showed a significant antimicrobial activity against one or more species of examined microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plant extract was gathered from T. farfara, followed by Aesculus hippocastanum and Equisetum arvense. The extract from S. nigra showed no antimicrobial effects. The flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, as well as several phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid were identified in all extracts. The highest concentrations of bioactive compounds were detected in the extracts of T. farfara (9 587.6 µg/mg quercetin and 4 875.3 µg/mg caffeic acid as well as S. nigra (4788.8 µg/mg kaempferol. Conclusions: We can state that the methanolic plant extract of T. farfara showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as other tested microorganisms. At the same time, a good antimicrobial activity was found in the other medical plant extracts as well. No antimicrobial effect of the S. nigra extract was found with respect to the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus raffinosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  10. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  11. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  12. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bielawska-Drózd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. Material and Methods: The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices – between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces, coagulase – negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces. Conclusions: The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup

  13. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Wlizło-Skowronek, Bożena; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Depczyńska, Daria; Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2017-06-19

    Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU)/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices - between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces), coagulase - negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces), Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces). The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):617-627. This work is available in Open Access

  14. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, Personnel Report: USSR Ministry of Defense, January 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This volume lists names, ranks and assignments of Soviet commanders serving in the USSR Ministry of Defense and in some related agencies, compiled from various, open Soviet sources through January of 1989...

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The articles are By the Course Indicated by Lenin, Outstanding Victory of Soviet Army, Strategic Soviet Troop Regroupings in Preparation of 1942-1943 Winter Campaign, Combat of 87th Rifle Division...

  17. Red orientalism: Mikhail Pavlovich and Marxist Oriental studies in early Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Marxist Oriental Studies in early Soviet Russia emerged in opposition to the 'bourgeois' Russian tradition of classical Oriental scholarship; rather than studying texts and history, Bolshevik Orientalists saw their task in providing the Soviet government with the necessary political and

  18. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig registered Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig registered Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high flow rates

  19. [Outstanding Soviet zoologist and parasitologist E. N. Pavlovsky--the creator of the theory of natural foci of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskyĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information on the outstanding Soviet Zoology and Parasitology, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lieutenant-General of the Medical Service E. N. Pavlovsky, the author of more than 1500 scientific papers, the founder of scientific school, one of the few scholars the twentieth century, approaching the level of scientists and encyclopedists. Considered its contribution to the study of natural foci of diseases has promoted the development of environmental trends in parasitology.

  20. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  1. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  2. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the 1957-1958 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an extensive environmental contamination zone in Chelibinsk Province of the Soviet Union, associated with an accident in the winter of 1957 to 1958 involving the atmospheric release of fission wastes, appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the Soviet radioecology literature. The contamination zone is estimated to contain 10(5) to 10(6) curies of strontium-90. A plausible explanation for the incident is the use of now-obsolete techniques for waste storage and cesium-137 isotope separation. Radioactive contamination appears to have resulted in resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100 to 1000 square kilometers). It therefore seems imperative to obtain a complete explanation of the cause (or causes) and consequences of the accident; Soviet experience gained in the application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the world nuclear community

  4. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  5. Reflections through a Soviet Window. Rural Governance and Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dekel-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes the crossroads between the realities of life and the ambitions of the early Soviet regime in one corner of its vast countryside. As a test case, I explore the meeting of organized agrarianization of Jews from the former Pale of Settlement with the mechanisms of Soviet power in the geographical and national peripheries of what was seen until recently as a monolithic, centralized state. Barring the last four years before Operation Barbarossa, a non-governmental, non-denominational American-Jewish philanthropy (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee [Joint or Agro-Joint] funded and administered much of this resettlement project in southern Ukraine and Crimea. As shall be seen, the arrival of an effective foreign organization not only shaped the lives of its client-colonists, but the very character of Soviet rural authority through the emergence of hybrid models of governance in the countryside.

  6. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  7. Proposed Chevron Tengiz venture stalls amid Soviet political squabble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of foreign investment in Soviet oil and gas joint ventures which has reached a critical juncture. Just as the U.S. is considering granting most favored nation trade status to the U.S.S.R., the joint venture petroleum deal seen as the litmus test for such deals-Chevron Corp.'s proposed addition of supergiant Tengiz oil field to its Caspian Sea joint venture-has stalled amid controversy. Unconfirmed reports from Soviet officials and other foreign joint venture participants in the U.S.S.R. have Chevron pulling out of the long negotiated, multibillion dollar project after the Soviets rejected the company's terms. Chevron, however, insists the project is still alive

  8. Soviets may halt production drop with outside funds, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In a long history of Soviet oil production, a normal development progression has occurred in which several prolific oil provinces have been discovered in sequence, become dominant producers, and then declined. The present drop in Soviet oil output is partly the result of the natural decline of many of its large older fields, but also it is due to reduced capital investments in the domestic oil industry and to the reliance on outdated and inefficient exploration and development technology. This paper reports that financial and technical problems can be remedied by joint ventures with foreign oil companies. Despite these limitations, the Soviet Union has led the world in oil production ever since 1974, often by a considerable margin

  9. Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, Gennady E

    1994-01-01

    Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...

  10. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  11. Targeting Medication Non-Adherence Behavior in Selected Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Approach to Digital Health Program Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor van Mierlo

    discovered. Over one third of articles identified the following risk factors as common contributors to medication non-adherence (percent of studies reporting: patients not understanding treatment (44%, side effects (41%, age (37%, dose regimen (33%, and perceived medication ineffectiveness (33%. An unanticipated finding that emerged was the need for risk stratification tools (81% with patient-centric approaches (67%.This study systematically identifies and categorizes medication non-adherence risk factors in select autoimmune diseases. Findings indicate that patients understanding of their disease and the role of medication are paramount. An unexpected finding was that the majority of research articles called for the creation of tailored, patient-centric interventions that dispel personal misconceptions about disease, pharmacotherapy, and how the body responds to treatment. To our knowledge, these interventions do not yet exist in digital format. Rather than adopting a systems level approach, digital health programs should focus on cohorts with heterogeneous needs, and develop tailored interventions based on individual non-adherence patterns.

  12. U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-06

    percent (2). The socialist states (the PRC, DPRK, Mongolia, Viet - nam , Cambodia and Laos) are the Soviet Union’s prin- cipal foreign trade partners: our...right is no longer attempting to maintain that the Soviet leader- ship’s new course amounts to cosmetic or purely propa- ganda measures. Soviet

  14. Historical experience of the Soviet period Russian school in the context of information society development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and basic tendencies of creating scientific information related to the development of the Russian comprehensive school during the Soviet period are considered in the paper. The conclusions and generalizations are based on the analysis of articles and dissertation papers published in Russia in Soviet and post-Soviet time

  15. Fragmenting pastoral mobility: Changing grazing patterns in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Kerven; Ilya Ilych Alimaev; Roy Behnke; Grant Davidson; Nurlan Malmakov; Aidos Smailov; Iain Wright

    2006-01-01

    Kazak nomads were seasonally mobile in the pre-Soviet period, in response to climate variability and landscape heterogeneity. The scale of these movements was interrupted during the Soviet period, but some degree of mobility remained. Mobility virtually ceased in the post-Soviet 1990s, but is reemerging as flock numbers rebound from the mid 1990s population crash.

  16. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  17. The Soviet Union prepares to roll up its sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first conference of the Soviet Nuclear Society (NESU-90) was held, from 26 to 29 June in Obninsk at the Moscow Region Scientific Centre, where the first nuclear power plant was commissioned. Around 600 specialists including several dozen distinguished foreigners were assembled there. The title of the conference - Nuclear energy in the USSR: problems and prospects (ecology, economics and law) - underlined its intention: to promote a dialogue with society on the broad question of satisfying the demand for energy. The 55 papers read and discussed at the conference, were largely concerned with the problems confronting nuclear power, and attention was directed to the surrounding social environment in the Soviet Union. (author)

  18. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as ...

  19. On the safety of nuclear installations in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The cooperation agreements between authorities and industries of the Soviet Union and West Germany now are gaining shape in practice. In this context, the framework conditions are of great interest that govern the realisation of the extensive nuclear energy programme of the Soviet Union. The chairman of the State Commission established in 1984 for supervision of nuclear installations and guidance on safety-engineering enhancement of nuclear power plant in the USSR has been interviewed by atw on topics of organisations, measures and regulatory activities in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection. The interview is given in full. (orig.) [de

  20. Annual non-compliance report drops charge on Soviet radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-01-01

    Last year's non-compliance report said a data link between Soviet early warming radars and the Moscow ABM system may be a significant violation of fundamental provisions of the ABM Treaty. This year's report, however, reverses last years position by saying: In light of the ambiguity of the Treaty language, and based on further review of the issue and on the probable Soviet practice - the US now judges that the support of ABM systems by early warning radars providing precise handover data will not constitute use of the radars as ABM radars in violation of the ABM Treaty

  1. Excavating the Psyche: A Social History of Soviet Psychiatry in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehirian, Julian

    2018-06-01

    This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness. I argue that the reproduction of a Soviet psychiatric model instigated a modernization process but failed to anticipate the idiosyncrasy of economic and social conditions within the country. Furthermore, that this model rejected a therapeutic focus on the individual but developed no effective alternative for identifying and treating subjective characteristics of mental illness. Bulgaria's history of psychiatry has received little scholarly attention beyond Bulgarian psychiatrists who documented the development of their field. This article presents archival, literary and oral history footholds towards the development of a social history of Bulgarian psychiatry-a perspective that is especially and problematically missing.

  2. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s). The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet powe...

  3. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    gouvernement afghan. Les auteurs de l’étude concluent que l’accent sur la sécurité en Afghanistan a été préjudiciable à un développement économique...Afghanistan (PDPA) regime were largely influenced by Soviet economic theory and experience. In addition to adopting economic planning based on the five...rural Afghans. On peasant in Leninist theory see Esther Kingston-Mann, “Proletarian Theory and Peasant Practice: Lenin 1901-1904,” in Soviet Studies

  4. YOUTH AND YOUTH POLICY IN THE POST-SOVIET STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Tsyunik

    2017-01-01

    occupy a rather significant place in the political process. Every year the number of new organizations is growing. Young people, this is quite an impulsive mass, which is easily influenced by the authority of the leader, which impresses them. Young people, through accession to a youth organization, have the right and the opportunity to influence the political process. Youth movements and organizations are in direct relationship with the political system. Politics is not possible without properly motivated youth, youth movements and organizations, as well as the youth movement is not possible without politics, there is an important role of political organizations in the political arena.This paper examines the problems of transformation of the youth policy of the ex-USSR countries in view of political developments in the post-Soviet region and in the world. It carried out a review of mechanisms of the implementation of the youth policy amid renewed values orientation structure of the younger generation of the post-Soviet countries. Historical account of formation of youth policy in certain select countries reviewed in this article. 

  5. Controlling the Image of the Teacher's Body under Authoritarianism: The Case of Soviet Latvia (1953-1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestere, Iveta; Kalke, Baiba

    2018-01-01

    The ideal of the Soviet teacher can be revealed in Soviet mass media, but historians are challenged by the question "what was the actual reality"? Therefore, we addressed the reality of the Soviet school using two research questions: (1) What teacher image was cultivated by Soviet propaganda, and what did the average teacher actually…

  6. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health

  7. Gas in the former Soviet Union. A special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This special report includes 13 papers on various aspects of the natural gas industry and its development in the republics of the former Soviet Union and a full listing of all the Russian oil and gas fields. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers. (UK)

  8. "No Truer Truth" : Sincerity Rhetoric in Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Dhooge, B.; De Dobbeleer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary discourse about human emotions, concerns about the sincerity of individuals, groups, and institutions thrive. This article thickens recent scholarship on sincerity rhetoric with an analysis of emotional regimes in Soviet Russia – a time and place where the notion of sincerity

  9. The Soviet collapse: Contradictions and neo-modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sakwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over two decades have passed since the dissolution of the communist system and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 yet there is still no consensus over the causes and consequences of these epochal (and distinct events. As for the causes, it is easy to assume that the fall was ‘over-determined’, with an endless array of factors. It behoves the scholar to try to establish a hierarchy of causality, which is itself a methodological exercise in heuristics. However, the arbitrary prioritisation of one factor over another is equally a hermeneutic trap that needs to be avoided. Following an examination of the various ‘why’ factors, we focus on ‘what’ exactly happened at the end of the Soviet period. We examine the issue through the prism of reformulated theories of modernisation. The Soviet system was a sui generis approach to modernisation, but the great paradox was that the system did not apply this ideology to itself. By attempting to stand outside the processes which it unleashed, both society and system entered a cycle of stagnation. The idea of neo-modernisation, above all the idea that societies are challenged to come to terms with the ‘civilisation of modernity’, each in their own way, provides a key to developments. In the end the Soviet approach to this challenge failed, and the reasons for this need to be examined, but the challenge overall remains for post-communist Russia.

  10. A Genealogy of (post-Soviet Dependency: Disabling Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Hartblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser and Linda Gordon's 1994 article “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the US Welfare State” explored the historical emergence of "dependency" as a moral category of post-industrial American state. In this article, I engage their framework to explore the genealogy of dependency in America's post-industrial sister, the post-Soviet Russian Federation. I also add disability as a core element of 'dependency' that was largely absent from Fraser and Gordon's original analysis. Considering cross-cultural translation, I ask how Russian deployments of three words that all relate to a concept of interdependence align with and depart from American notions of dependency, and trace historical configurations of the Soviet welfare state vis-a-vis disability. To do so, I draw on historical and cultural texts, linguistic comparisons, secondary sources, and ethnographic research. Given this analysis, I argue that rather than a Cold War interpretation of the Soviet Union and the US as oppositional superpowers in the 20th century, a liberatory disability studies framework suggests that in the postindustrial era the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as dual regimes of productivity. I suggest that reframing postsocialism as a global condition helps us to shift considerations of disability justice from a critique of capitalism to a critique of productivity.    Keywords: dependency, disability, citizenship, russia, productivity

  11. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  12. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  13. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  14. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. - Highlights: • Pollution in 8 former Soviet countries poses a health risk to 6.2 million residents. • The most commonly found key pollutants are pesticides, lead, arsenic, and cadmium. • The majority of sites can be traced to Soviet legacy pollution. - 424 sites were identified in the analysis. Pesticides, Pb, radioactive metals, As, Hg, Cr, and Cd were the most common key pollutants, collectively affecting 6.2 million people.

  15. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  16. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  17. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  18. The Soviet Central Asian Challenge: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    ecclesiastics ). Traditional intellectuals tend to function autonomously and are not organically linked to their class or group of origin. Nevertheless, the...Emperor Timur (Tamerlane). 56 AJ- ,. s; Russianness of Soviet society49- Russian language, Russian identity, and even Russian architecture . 50 Hence

  19. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  20. Soviet Union in the context of the Nobel prize

    CERN Document Server

    Blokh, Abram M

    2018-01-01

    The result of meticulous research by Professor Abram Blokh, this book presents facts, documents, thoughts and comments on the system of the Nobel Prize awards to Russian and Soviet scientists. It provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between the ideas expressed by the Nobel Foundation and those expressed by the autocratic and totalitarian regimes in Russia and the ex-Soviet Union during the 20th century who had the same attitude of revulsion toward the intellectual and humanistic values represented by the Nobel Prizes. To do his research, the author had access to the declassified documents in the archives of the Nobel Foundation for many years. Also included in the book are new materials obtained and developed by the author after the publication of the first two editions (in Russian). This additional information is from the archives of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Soviet Writers' Union et al. in Moscow and St Petersburg. These documents shed new...

  1. Marxism--Leninism and natural resources: the Soviet outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, D.S.

    1977-06-01

    Soviet leaders recognize that natural resources are finite, but they do not share the pessimism of many of their Western counterparts. They maintain that resource depletion is not a threat to be taken seriously on a worldwide basis, but rather is a manifestation of the capitalism. To understand both the continued Soviet optimism and the Soviet assessment of why the Western world is experiencing its current ''raw material crisis'', the author examines the role that natural resources play within Marxist-Leninist idealogy. Soviets believe, the author says, that the resource predicament is insoluble; that the condition will escalate until, along with several other factors, the situation will result in a worldwide socialist society. Western thought has advocated fine methods through which the industrialized world could evade the energy and raw materials shortages. These include new methods of mining, developing, and searching for natural resource deposits; setting up a non-socialist industrial nations' organization; appropriation of resource sites; zero growth rates; and genuine cooperation. The Kremlin discounts the West's ability to successfully carry out any of these solutions. (MCW)

  2. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  3. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  4. Financialised capitalism Soviet style? Varieties of state capture and crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Kalb, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for new ways to interpret the failings of the neo-liberal economy, this article argues that financialised capitalism at the eve of the 2008 financial crisis showed striking analogies with the characteristic combination of oligopoly and informality of the Soviet economy at the eve of its

  5. Trichoptera hydroptilidae (Insecta) from Soviet Union Far-Eastern territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Levanidova, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    This is a contribution to the study of the scarcely known Trichoptera Hydroptilidae from Soviet Far-East (Primorye, Amur River basin, Kuril Islands, Kamtschatka, Chukotka). The discovery of a new species of Stactobia McL. on Kunashir Island, very far from the known distribution area of the genus,

  6. Soviet supplies of enriched uranium to capitalist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The Soviet supplies of enriched uranium to the following capitalist countries are surveyed: Belgium, Finland, France, FRG, Austria, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The time period, total supplies, average annual supplies, estimated average price per separation work unit, and the date of the conclusion of the contract are reported. (J.B.)

  7. The Soviet School System during Nazi Occupation (1941-1944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinko, Evgeny Fedorovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explores Soviet schooling in the occupied territory of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers such issues as the reduction in the number of schools, changes in curricular content, and problems in the organization of schooling and the work of teachers. The article notes the effects of various factors on the…

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-06

    archaeology , ethnography, and others. During his lifetime Vavilov collected with his expedi- tions a truly unique wealth: 160,000 live samples of... Maya 1987 Goda. Dokumenty i Materialy" [Visit to the Soviet Union by Vietnamese Communist Party 9. Vityuk, V.V and Efirov, S.A. "’Levyy’ Terrorizm na

  9. The Soviet Objective of War Termination: Limits and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    results, even the best, must be regarded as a base, as a trampoline , for achieving still higher indicators. What is considered a success today may no...organizations. According to Boris Ponomarev, former head of the Soviet’s International Department, such contacts would establish "broad alliances covering the

  10. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  11. Problem behaviors of children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Pallansch, Leona

    2007-01-01

    Although current meta-analyses of problem behavior of internationally adopted children exist, few children adopted from the former Soviet Union have been included in these reports. A significant concern is that 13 children adopted from the former Soviet Union have died at the hands of their American adoptive parents since 1996. A cohort of 105 children adopted from the former Soviet Union has been assessed at two points in time by telephone and postal surveys to measure the impact of risk and protective factors on problem behavior. Pre-adoptive risk factors have declined in importance (except for birth weight) and protective factors (operationalized as aspects of family environment) have increased in influence over time. Problem behavior scores declined slightly at Time 2, despite the children having entered adolescence. Families play a significant role in the behavior of children adopted from the former Soviet Union. Nurses should counsel families to shape the child's environment during the transition from orphanage to homes in the United States, especially for children who are low birth weight.

  12. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  13. Gifted and Talented Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing on the Young Pioneer Palace system in Moscow, this brief article reviews the Soviet Union's educational approach to gifted and talented children. Noted is the elaborate network of after-school programs with such activities at the Young Pioneer Palace as technical circles, naturalists' circles, song and dance ensembles, and a sports…

  14. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  15. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  16. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  17. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  18. Securing Human Rights on the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam A. Kasyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A lot of profound political, economic, social, cultural and legislative modifications have happened on the post-Soviet space since the disintegration of the USSR. The term “post-Soviet space” should not be considered as the geographical boundaries of the fifteen former Soviet republics. The conception of the “post-Soviet space” has a more profound meaning as it reflects the common historical and cultural heritage as well as close economic relations, moreover, friendship between the citizens of the new independent States. The most developed sphere in the interstate relations nowadays is economics. The most prime example is Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, the youngest integration institution in the world which unites five countries willing to construe their relationship on a stronger basis than the proposed format of cooperation within the Commonwealth of the Independent States. In the modern world the economic and financial interests are determining, their ensuring makes the governments change foreign and domestic policies, start and terminate trade wars, desperately fight for the respect of their legal rights or, on the contrary, voluntarily give up on some parts of their sovereignty in the framework of integration development. The experience of the European Union demonstrates that the construction of the unified internal market within which freely move persons, goods, services and capitals is a necessary but not the only attribute of a successful integration project. At a certain moment the complex of economic and financial interests should be supplied with the interests of a concrete person. A strict observation of rights and freedoms is becoming a factor that predetermines a possibility of a conversion to the higher forms of integration. In this article is analyzed the problem of human rights defense in the main organizations functioning on the post-Soviet space - Eurasian Economic Union and Commonwealth of the Independent

  19. Post-Soviet emptiness (Vladimir Makanin and Viktor Pelevin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emptiness is a key word in several post-Soviet Russian novels of the late 1990s. One can find it as well in Vladimir Makanin's “Underground” as in two novels written by Viktor Pelevin, “Generation ‘P’” and “Chapaev and Emptiness”. After the fall of Soviet power Pelevin's cynical hero from “Generation ‘P’” changes from literature into advertising business, and in his novel “Chapaev and Emptiness” the legendary Soviet Civil War hero Chapaev transforms into a preacher of quasi-Buddhist nothingness. Makanin's hero, the writer Petrovich, renounces of his profession in order to work as a watchman in shelters for the homeless. His self-abasement is in accordance with the tradition of kenoticism (derived from the Greek word kenós = empty which played an important part in the history of Russian religious and cultural life. Criticizing the hypermoralism of classical Russian literature Makanin outlines a new image of the writer which is opposed to the Russian literary myth but still propagates moral and religious values. Pelevin's novels which reflect the relativism of postmodern poetics focus on another issue – the blurring of the difference between reality and illusion. In “Generation ‘P’”, mass media and advertising produce deceitful simulacra of reality and in “Chapaev and Emptiness” the deconstruction of Soviet mythology assumes the shape of a nightmare. Unsurprisingly, among the imagery of emptiness Malevich's famous “Black Square” including its numerous equivalents as black holes or all sorts of empty spaces is rather frequent in the three novels. Emptiness may be considered to be a characteristic trait of the atmosphere of the 1990s when Russians felt to live in a cultural vacuum somewhere between state economy and unbridled capitalism, between Soviet order and “post-slave” (Makanin chaos.

  20. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good

  1. The impact of medical gymnastics on load on the lower limb after knee twisting, on the basis of selected tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The issue of knee sprain is increasingly raised in connection with the large number of people that visit rehabilitation centres to recover efficiency and eliminate the pain of an injured joint. Aim of the research study: To determine the usefulness of medical gymnastics (kinesiotherapy in the process of limb loading and overcoming the discomfort and pain. Material and methods: The study included 50 rehabilitated patients of the Rehabilitation Unit of the District Hospital in Staszow, who were troubled with a history of knee sprains. The subjects were selected from 327 patients admitted to the rehabilitation unit within a 3-month period. Two groups of subjects were established (each with 25 people. Evaluation was focused on certain parameters related to the load of the rehabilitated limb, the rate of occurrence of pain felt during standing and walking, and the disappearance of complaints during resting. The group consisted of patients aged 20–64 years, and the median age of those tested was 42 years. The patients came from villages and towns in the county of Staszow, and a significant percentage of them were economically active. Results: The applied physiotherapy was beneficial as it increased the load on the diseased limbs (two-scales test and standing-on-one-leg test and improved quality of life, thanks to the palliation of pain to a considerable or complete degree. Conclusions: Physiotherapy enriched with physical exercise allows for faster recovery of an injured leg.

  2. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  3. "What Do They Want Me To Say?" The hidden curriculum at work in the medical school selection process: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little study of the role of the essay question in selection for medical school. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of how applicants approached the essay questions used in selection at our medical school in 2007. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of 210 essays written as part of the medical school admissions process, and developed a conceptual framework to describe the relationships, ideas and concepts observed in the data. Results Findings of this analysis were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Analysis revealed a tension between "genuine" and "expected" responses that we believe applicants experience when choosing how to answer questions in the admissions process. A theory named "What do they want me to say?" was developed to describe the ways in which applicants modulate their responses to conform to their expectations of the selection process; the elements of this theory were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Conclusions This work suggests the existence of a "hidden curriculum of admissions" and demonstrates that the process of selection has a strong influence on applicant response. This paper suggests ways that selection might be modified to address this effect. Studies such as this can help us to appreciate the unintended consequences of admissions processes and can identify ways to make the selection process more consistent, transparent and fair.

  4. Emotional intelligence and academic performance of medical undergraduates: a cross-sectional study in a selected university in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Chandrani Nirmala; Amaratunge, Heshan; de Silva, Yashica; Senanayake, Solith; Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Senarath, Upul

    2017-09-25

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been linked with academic and professional success. Such data are scarce in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of EI, to determine its predictors and to determine the effect of EI on academic performance at the final MBBS examination, in medical undergraduates of a Sri Lankan university. This is a cross-sectional study in a selected university, involving those who did final MBBS examination in 2016. Consecutive sampling was done. EI was assessed with self-administered Genos Emotional Intelligence Full Version (7 domains; 70 questions equally weighted; total score 350). Socio-demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Academic performance was assessed with final MBBS results in the first attempt. Of 148 eligible students 130 responded (response rate-88%); 61.5% were females; mean age was 26.3 ± 1 years. Mean total EI score was 241.5 (females-245.5, males-235.1; p = 0.045).Among different domains, mean score was highest for Emotional Self-Awareness (36.8/50) and lowest for Emotional Expression (32.6/50). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that having good family support (p = 0.002), socializing well in university (p = 0.024) and being satisfied with facilities available for learning (p = 0.002), were independent predictors of EI. At the final MBBS examination 51.6% obtained classes, 31.5% passed the examination without classes and 16.9% got repeated. Females had better academic performance than males (p = 0.009). Mean EI of second-class upper division, second-class lower division, pass and repeat groups were 249.4, 246.6, 240.2 and 226.9, respectively (with one-way ANOVA p = 0.015). After adjusting for gender, ordinal regression analysis indicated that, total EI score was an independent predictor of final MBBS results [β-0.018 (95% CI 0.005-0.031); p = 0.006]. In the study population, both EI and academic performance were higher among

  5. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  6. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  7. A call to include medical humanities in the curriculum of colleges of osteopathic medicine and in applicant selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Gary; Hirsch, Norma J; Means, J Jeffrey; Streyffeler, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Medicine stands at a crossroad. Disruptive physician behavior has increased, and patient satisfaction has decreased. A growing body of knowledge demonstrates that the medical humanities assist in the creation of compassionate, resilient physicians. Incorporating medical humanities into the medical school curriculum promotes the development of compassionate, culturally sensitive physicians, and also encourages the development of resilience in health care professionals at a time when internal and external pressures on physicians are increasing. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-08

    the secret hope of finding a companion for life among the military. Which is also understandable, in human terms. Now—who goes? No clear selection...Moussorgsky, Mozart and Scriabin, Chopin and Mendelssohn, Tolstoy and Shakespeare . Everything new in science, technology and art interested him. He

  9. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  10. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kyselova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh, but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-legal functions of pretenziya, this paper concludes that due to its adaptability, pretenziya proved capable of operating both as a token of the public order – the ‘shadow of the law’ - and as part of a private contract enforcement. Pretenziya in a voluntary form has not only survived in market-oriented economy but even opened up new avenues for the creative use of legal forms in post-Soviet business.

  11. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. FUNCTIONING OF THE SOVIET IDEOLOGEME IN THE EMIGRANT LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Шкредова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-40

  13. Response of Soviet VVER-440 accident localization systems to overpressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet designed VVER-440 model V230 and VVER-440 model V213 reactors do not use full containments to mitigate the effects of accidents. Instead, these VVER-440 units employ a sealed set of interconnected compartments, collectively called the accident localization system (ALS), to reduce the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere during accidents. Descriptions of the VVER accident localization structures may be found in the report DOE NE-0084. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural integrity of the VVER-440 ALS at the Soviet design pressure, and to determine their response to pressure loadings beyond the design value. Complex, three-dimensional, nonlinear, finite element models were developed to represent the major structural components of the localization systems of the VVER-440 models V230 and V213. The interior boundary of the localization system was incrementally pressurized in the calculations until the prediction of gross failure. 6 refs., 9 figs

  14. Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, G.P.; Nordyke, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 8, May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    in which ethnographic ties were combined with moral ties, an awareness of spiritual unity, and a community of historical destinies and interests...historical destinies ," noted by Klyuchevskiy. This text does not seem to include the word "nation." But what is a people which has "become a state...toward the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries. S. Karaganov pointed out the fact that the embryos of the new political thinking appeared

  16. Proletkult` ideologeme and Intentions of Soviet Power in 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Грантовна Григорьян

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the questions of the Proletkult's formation and organization and its influence on the cultural life of the young Soviet state are analyzed. The author has shown inconsistent making process of the «socialist values», definition of methods of a party management by new proletarian art, search of estimations and criteria of an ideological orientation of products of socialist culture.

  17. Problems of nuclear energetics safety in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevitsh, O.M.

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe present state of Soviet nuclear energy. They don't cover problems relative to its development and that reasons made so bleak picture of this economic branch. They pay particular attention to low level of nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The improvement of this situation they see in enacting of atomic low, as quickly as possible, which will make a basis of safety development in nuclear industry

  18. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-05

    training aids. 9In sum, the MPA is 6 responsible for providing coordination and standardization for the political socialization in the Soviet military...compelling nationalist loyalties and to instill approved Socialist values in soldiers of the non- lavic minorities. Along with this political ... socialization the political officer will 21 conduct language classes for those minorities with low levels of Russian fluency. In summary, the large number of

  19. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, November-December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-22

    Pentin,Yu.A. (). Physical study methods in chemistry. Structural methods and optical spectroscopy. Textbook for institutions of higher learning...12L268). 225. Vlokh ,0.G.; Vlokh ,R.0.; Shopa,Ya.I. U. Optical activity and birefringence in K(sub2)Cd(sub2)(SO(sub4)](sub3) crystals. (JFIZA, no 7, 1987...GOI). State Optical Institute on the seventieth anniversary of the October Revolution in a period of revolutionary restructuring of Soviet society

  20. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  1. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison

  2. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    seismograms recorded in the former Soviet Union was initiated in the 1990s under the International Science and Technology Centre ( ISTC ) project K-063...The Lamont-Doherty Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) helped to organize that work, writing the proposal to ISTC , which involved the U.S.A...were determined under the ISTC CASRI Project. For Kyrgyzstan temporary stations the coordinates were based on reports and information provided by

  3. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  4. Reducing the nuclear dangers from the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disintegration of the former Soviet Union, a nation armed with over 27,000 nuclear weapons, poses a new form of nuclear danger. First, there is the risk that as political authority devolves to the former Soviet republics, the nuclear arsenal could similarly by parcelled out, in ways that will not be conducive to nuclear stability or to safe custody. Second, there is a danger of seizure, theft, sale, or use of nuclear weapons or components during the period of transition, particularly if the nuclear weapon operating and custodial system - apparently still intact at present - disintegrates. Third, there is a danger that any weakening of control over weapons, fissionable materials, sensitive components, or know-how could result in transfers outside the territory of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, fueling nuclear proliferation worldwide. To deal with these risks, there are a number of steps that should be taken now. These recommendations are primarily addressed to the US government, working in concert with the authorities in the Commonwealth states and the world commmunity. In order of urgency, they are: encouraging and assisting prompt securing, disabling, removing to Russia, and dismantlement of the weapons covered by the Bush-Gorbachev reciprocal proposals of last fall, and by other nuclear arms accords; extending the Bush-Gorbachev proposals to strategic nuclear weapons; assuring safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons during a difficult transitional period; addressing proliferation outside the Commonwealth; exposing the new political structures of the Commonwealth to prevailing conceptions of international stability and security; and adjusting US nuclear relationships and military policy to the new nuclear realities in the former Soviet Union

  5. Moscow State University physics alumni and the Soviet Atomic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, Gennadii V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two closely related themes are addressed: (1) the role that M V Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) played in training specialists in physics for the Soviet Atomic Project, and (2) what its alumni contributed to the development of thermonuclear weapons. In its earlier stages, the Soviet Atomic Project was in acute need of qualified personnel, without whom building nuclear and thermonuclear weapons would be an impossible task, and MSU became a key higher educational institution grappled with the training problem. The first part of the paper discusses the efforts of the leading Soviet scientists and leaders of FMD (First Main Directorate) to organize the training of specialists in nuclear physics at the MSU Physics Department and, on the other hand, to create a new Physics and Technology Department at the university. As a result, a number of Soviet Government's resolutions were prepared and issued, part of which are presented in the paper and give an idea of the large-scale challenges this sphere of education was facing at the time. Information is presented for the first time on the early MSU Physics Department graduates in the structure of matter, being employed in the FMD organizations and enterprises from 1948 to 1951. The second part discusses the contribution to the development of thermonuclear weapons by the teams of scientists led by Academicians I E Tamm, A N Tikhonov, and I M Frank, and including MSU physics alumni. The paper will be useful to anyone interested in the history of Russian physics. (from the history of physics)

  6. Soviet Union: priority development of gas industry forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernomyrdyn, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of gas production and utilization in the Soviet Union is outlined, and the substantial contribution of the gas industry in restraining negative processes in the economy during the transition to a market economy is highlighted. The state owned Gazprom concern which is responsible for gas supply, the large ringed Integrated Gas Supply Systems, exports, underground gas storage, potential reserves, and the growth in gas productions are discussed. (UK)

  7. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    onions, dill). High- fiber foods and foods which promote gas ( peas , beans, radishes, kvas, melons) should not be consumed. Prevention of discomfort...Mas- ter of Sport USSR Lt Col L. Kovalev, and repeated world and USSR record holder Maj V. Perminov, inspected the jumpers. The calm tone of...conducted in two areas. One involved the growing of large homoge- neous protein crystals on the Aynur unit. Essentailly these were the first Soviet

  9. Corrupt Organizational Hierarchies in the Former Soviet Bloc

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2007-01-01

    Increasing scale and scope of corruption in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic transformations as it touches upon issues of organizational structures. This paper presents an overview of the research on corruption in organizations and develops models of corrupt organizations, including the vertical structure, the horizontal structure, and the hierarchy, as applied to transition economies.

  10. Dacha in Post-Soviet Russia: Institutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmainsky Ivan V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the phenomenon of «dacha» according to D. North's approach to institutions. The authors explore how dacha has become mass phenomenon in the late USSR, and how social and economic role of dacha increased in the Post-Soviet period. The specific features of the Post-Soviet Russia’s deurbanization has been studied. In particular, these features include large engagements of citizens in the rural way of life associated with dacha. It is shown how «dacha-ization» attributed to the crony capitalism. The economic role of dacha in Post-Soviet Russia is confirmed by comprehensive statistics, in particular. These data show that in Russia dacha serves rather as the source of food production than as place for leisure and recreation. The paper concludes that explicit priority of the model of organic agriculture in the dacha can be a kind of the solution of the problem of decreasing goods’ quality in the market economy (earlier described by one of the authors of the current paper. Moreover, this priority was fundamentally argued by D. I. Mendeleev. The authors believe that dacha will remain as an important institution for the Russians in coming years.

  11. National narrative, ethnology, and academia in post-Soviet Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the new states of Central Asia have been obliged to adjust their institutions to new symbolic frontiers and to take into account the independence they achieved in 1991. Both universities and Academies of Sciences have been called to reconsider their research policies and to orient them in order to respond to emerging national issues. The building of national narratives is a particularly relevant object of study in observing the various modes of legitimization of the Central Asian states and the scientific instruments they deem necessary for their political validation. The aim of this paper is to overcome the apparent, albeit actual, character of a number of changes that have taken place in Uzbekistan since 1991, in order to demonstrate the continuity of personal, institutional, and intellectual lines uniting contemporary research to that conducted during Soviet period. The preference accorded to ancient history, the praise of the originality and long heritage of the people, and an obsession with ethnogenesis, all are rooted in the contemporary narrative of the previous regime. They invite a reconsideration of the past two decades in a more nuanced manner and a rereading of the Soviet past in order to understand the process of building the nation-state, which has now been underway for more than half a century.

  12. Ranking of the Causes of Medication Errors in the Viewpoints of Nurses in Selected Hospitals Affiliated With Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Askari

    2017-09-01

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 220 nurses working in educational hospitals affiliated to Yazd University of Medical Sciences (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Rahnemoon and Afshar Hospitals. Stratified random sampling was used. Required data was gathered by Gladstone questionnaire. Data analysis was done through SPSS 16. Results: The most common causes of medication errors were the failure to match the patients' names with ordered drugs, the ill-considered and unreadable nature of the physicians' orders and the nominal similarity of drugs. Failure to match the patients' names with ordered drugs (3.45 ± 2.85 and the incorrect setting of the infusion device by the nurse (8.81 ± 2.57 had the highest and lowest scores from the viewpoints of nurses. Conclusion: Establishing and implementing electronic drug prescription, in service training for improving nurses' pharmacological knowledge, identifying the main types and causes of drug errors, the teaching of proper prescribing techniques are needed.

  13. Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maddrell, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the Cold War, the gathering of intelligence on the Soviet Union's current and future military capability seemed a near-impossibility. Soviet high-level communications were secure against decryption. Agent networks in the USSR were very difficult to establish and of uncertain reliability. Aerial reconnaissance of warrelated targets in the Soviet Union was risky and could only be occasional. But valuable intelligence was gathered in the years 1945-55 on the US...

  14. Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies Nos. 67-93, September 1983-February 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    C) 0 00 I: Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies September 1983 - February 1989 A Defense S&T Intelligence Special Purpose Document...90 CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER BIBLIOGRAPHIES Nos. 67-93 SEPTEMBER 1983 - FEBRUARY 1989 Date of Report March 31, 19 Vice Director for...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER DST-2700Z-001-90 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER

  15. Building Healthcare Capacity in Pediatric Neurosurgery and Psychiatry in a Post-Soviet System: Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romach, Myroslava K; Rutka, James T

    2018-03-01

    Many academic centers in North America are initiating global partnerships to build physician capacity in resource-poor countries. An opportunity arose to develop a pediatric program (Ukraine Paediatric Fellowship Program, UPFP) in Ukraine, a large European country in transition from a Soviet/communist political and social system. This entailed dealing with a centralized and rigid healthcare system based on the Semashko model of the former Soviet Union. Our capacity-building model has several key features: endowed philanthropic funding for sustainability, bilateral exchange of knowledge, a focus primarily on pediatric brain disorders, and team building. Centers for partnering are selected on the basis of need, receptivity to change, and participants' fluency in English. Ukrainian physicians attend month-long observerships in Toronto, and biannual teaching visits are conducted by Canadian clinicians. Over 5 years, 7 teaching visits have taken place, and 20 physicians have trained at SickKids Hospital in Toronto. Six Ukrainian children's hospitals are now collaborating with UPFP. New surgical procedures have been introduced, such as endoscopic ventriculostomy and corpus callosotomy. Patient referrals to regional institutions have increased, and new projects that affect fetal and infant neurodevelopment have been initiated (e.g., treatment of perinatal maternal depression and folic acid fortification of flour). Ukrainian participants rate the program highly in their evaluations. In a short time, UPFP has had considerable success in increasing physician capacity for improved pediatric care in regions of Ukraine. The keys to success have included focusing locally, selecting trustable partners, building incrementally, and creating interspecialty synergies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s. The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet power and humanitarian studies lay in their striving towards a complete restructuring of Russian culture, state and man itself. Russian literature is interpreted on the basis of anti-Christian tenets and a set of criteria absolutely alien to Russian literature. We show that this mental attitude has not been overcome by post-Soviet literary criticism. Our article is a call on scholars of Russian literature to get rid of their Freudian complexes in the treatment of Russian culture.

  17. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  18. Comparative analysis of instance selection algorithms for instance-based classifiers in the context of medical decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A; Tourassi, Georgia D; Malof, Jordan M

    2011-01-01

    When constructing a pattern classifier, it is important to make best use of the instances (a.k.a. cases, examples, patterns or prototypes) available for its development. In this paper we present an extensive comparative analysis of algorithms that, given a pool of previously acquired instances, attempt to select those that will be the most effective to construct an instance-based classifier in terms of classification performance, time efficiency and storage requirements. We evaluate seven previously proposed instance selection algorithms and compare their performance to simple random selection of instances. We perform the evaluation using k-nearest neighbor classifier and three classification problems: one with simulated Gaussian data and two based on clinical databases for breast cancer detection and diagnosis, respectively. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the number of instances available for selection on the performance of the selection algorithms and conduct initial analysis of the selected instances. The experiments show that for all investigated classification problems, it was possible to reduce the size of the original development dataset to less than 3% of its initial size while maintaining or improving the classification performance. Random mutation hill climbing emerges as the superior selection algorithm. Furthermore, we show that some previously proposed algorithms perform worse than random selection. Regarding the impact of the number of instances available for the classifier development on the performance of the selection algorithms, we confirm that the selection algorithms are generally more effective as the pool of available instances increases. In conclusion, instance selection is generally beneficial for instance-based classifiers as it can improve their performance, reduce their storage requirements and improve their response time. However, choosing the right selection algorithm is crucial.

  19. Adult Development Theory and Political Analysis: An Integral Account of Social and Political Change in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Fein

    2010-01-01

    I propose a reading of social, political and discursive change in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia which is inspired by an integral, above all developmental perspective. In view of explaining Russia’s current political trajectory, I make several arguments. First, I claim that Russian politics are still to a large extent determined by the effects of a threefold crisis of sense-making. Neither the collapse of the Soviet empire, nor the question of how to define democratic government nor the lack o...

  20. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Changzoo Song

    2016-01-01

    The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram) in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans w...

  1. The predictive validity of a situational judgement test, a clinical problem solving test and the core medical training selection methods for performance in specialty training .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Lopes, Safiatu; Harding, Stephen; Vaux, Emma; Berkin, Liz; Black, David

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up a sample of physicians who began core medical training (CMT) in 2009. This paper examines the long-term validity of CMT and GP selection methods in predicting performance in the Membership of Royal College of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations. We performed a longitudinal study, examining the extent to which the GP and CMT selection methods (T1) predict performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations (T2). A total of 2,569 applicants from 2008-09 who completed CMT and GP selection methods were included in the study. Looking at MRCP(UK) part 1, part 2 written and PACES scores, both CMT and GP selection methods show evidence of predictive validity for the outcome variables, and hierarchical regressions show the GP methods add significant value to the CMT selection process. CMT selection methods predict performance in important outcomes and have good evidence of validity; the GP methods may have an additional role alongside the CMT selection methods. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  2. Student-selected component in the medical curriculum: investigations and psychiatric referral for paracetamol overdose in an accident and emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowman JG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James G Cowman, Manuel Bakheet Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland – Medical University of Bahrain, Manama, Bahrain Background: A student-selected component (SSC of the medical curriculum requires the student to be self-directed in locating and undertaking a placement in a clinical specialty of their choosing and completing a project. The clinical area for experience was an accident and emergency department, and our topic was a focused audit on the investigations and referral for paracetamol overdose. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to reflect on the education value to medical students of an SSC in a medical curriculum, and to highlight learning and understanding through completion of an audit.Materials and methods: An audit approach was applied. The aim of the project study was to investigate the level of compliance with best-practice guidelines for investigations and psychiatric referral in paracetamol overdose.Results: A total of 40 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly selected. The sample had a mean age of 27 years, of whom 70.5% were female, and the ingested dose of paracetamol ranged from 0.864 to 80 g. Paracetamol abuse may present as intentional and unintentional overdose. In our study, 85% of cases were identified as intentional overdose and 76% had a history of psychiatric illness. Generally, medical management was compliant with guidelines, with some minor irregularities. The international normalized ratio was the most underperformed test.Conclusion: Our choice of topic, paracetamol overdose, contributed to our understanding of the breadth of factors to be considered in the emergency medical management of a patient. In this regard, we had the benefit of understanding how the diagnostic and therapeutic factors, when applied in accordance with best-practice guidelines, work very effectively. The SSC impacted positively on our cognitive, personal, and professional development. In facilitating the student with

  3. Self-directed learning: Status of final-year students and perceptions of selected faculty leadership in a Nigerian medical school – a mixed analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T E Nottidge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-directed learning (SDL is the essential mechanism of lifelong learning, which, in turn, is required for medical professionals to maintain competency because of advancing technology and constantly evolving disease care and contexts. Yet, most Nigerian medical schools do not actively promote SDL skills for medical students. Objective. To evaluate the status of SDL behaviour among final-year students, and the perceptions of faculty leadership towards SDL in a Nigerian medical school. Methods. A mixed research method was used, with a survey consisting of a validated Likert-based self-rating scale for SDL (SRSSDL to assess students’ SDL behaviour. Focus group discussions with selected faculty leaders were thematically analysed to assess their perceptions of SDL. Results. The medical students reported moderate SDL behaviour, contrary to faculty, who considered their students’ SDL behaviour to be low. Faculty leadership further defined SDL as the self-motivated student demonstrating initiative in learning under the guidance of teachers, who use interactive forums for teaching. Furthermore, teachers and students should partner towards the goal of ensuring that student learning takes place. Teachers expressed concerns about SDL methods in medical schools owing to the fear that this will require medical students to teach themselves medicine without expert guidance from teachers. Conclusion. This study suggests that final-year students have a low to moderate level of SDL behaviour. The index faculty are willing to develop teacherguided self-motivated learning for their students, rather than strict SDL. Faculty should be concerned about this behaviour and should encourage SDL in such a way that students realise its benefits to become lifelong learners. Further study of the perceptions about self-regulated learning are recommended.

  4. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  5. Evaluation of selected ex-reactor accidents related to the tritium and medical isotope production mission at the FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himes, D.A.

    1997-11-17

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been proposed as a production facility for tritium and medical isotopes. A range of postulated accidents related to ex-reactor irradiated fuel and target handling were identified and evaluated using new source terms for the higher fuel enrichment and for the tritium and medical isotope targets. In addition, two in-containment sodium spill accidents were re-evaluated to estimate effects of increased fuel enrichment and the presence of the Rapid Retrieval System. Radiological and toxicological consequences of the analyzed accidents were found to be well within applicable risk guidelines.

  6. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  7. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  8. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  9. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1970-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    34 Each is preceded by a numerical designation, used in Soviet bibliographies, which corresponds in many ways to the Dewey Decimal System used in the...74-06882 (C0087) Mal’kov,V.I. Character and System of Laws of War and Armed * . Conflict, Principles of Military Art.(Kharakter i Sistema Zakonov...C0561) Stukalov,P.I., Shchetnini,V.F. System of Political Organi- zation of Socialist Society, the Plaice and Role in it of the Armed For- ces.( Sistema

  10. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  11. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    detente. Thus, they are led to argue the economic rationale of benefaction because it is the necessary implica- tion of a policy whose motivations are...administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  12. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Y.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Y.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1990 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% CL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared with the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Katrin U; Brüheim, Linda; Westermann, Jürgen; Katalinic, Alexander; Kötter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen). This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools. Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires. Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales. Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  14. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Katrin U.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen. This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools.Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires.Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales.Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  15. A Survey of Progress in Coding Theory in the Soviet Union. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, William H.; Levitt, Karl N.

    The results of a comprehensive technical survey of all published Soviet literature in coding theory and its applications--over 400 papers and books appearing before March 1967--are described in this report. Noteworthy Soviet contributions are discussed, including codes for the noiseless channel, codes that correct asymetric errors, decoding for…

  16. Plant protection in post-Soviet Kazakhstan: the loss of an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toleubayev, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines why and how plant protection issues are embedded in political, economic and social contexts. It analyses the domain of plant protection in Kazakhstan under two different socio-economic and political formations, namely the Soviet period before 1991 and the post-Soviet period

  17. Charting the Course of the Voyenno-Morskoy Flot: Soviet Naval Strategy towards the Year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-13

    through to the .Soviet strategic centers ashore. It is presumed that main battles will unfold on 144 the high seas, as was the case during WW2 in the...Several methods of nonacoustic detection are currently being explored by U.S. and Soviet scientists. These range from infrared temperature sensors

  18. “Creative Industries” Strategies in Soviet Lithuania: Packages of Mass Consumption Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaškūnienė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the Soviet mechanism of including the creative potentials into formation of economical and ideological policy strategies. Research aims to examine, how mass media and culture theories of Walter Benjamin, Frankfurt school and British Culture studies reflect the situation of mass culture in Soviet system. Case study is based on Lithuanian package design of 1960–1970s.

  19. News Media Use and Adolescents' Attitudes about Nuclear Issues: An American-Soviet Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines linkages between media use and attitudes from a survey of Soviet and American teenagers. Finds that all youths show a great concern about the possible effects of nuclear war, with heavy media users in both countries more optimistic, but the relation was stronger among Soviet students. (MS)

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 3, March 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-11

    CPSU Central Committee V.P. Nikonov received President J. Giffen of the American-Soviet Trade and Economic Council ( ASTEC ). 23—Deputies of the USSR...test against the campaign of slander and the instigation of anti-Soviet actions in the Estonian SSR. A.F. Dobrynin had a meeting with ASTEC

  1. Chernobyl as the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lindbladh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The belief in technology was fundamental in Soviet culture. When the nuclear reactor exploded and harvested souls and spread illness throughout a vast area, over the course of many years, an image of the collapse of the Soviet Union was thereby created. Chernobyl became an image of the apocalypse of communism.

  2. Soviet children and the threat of nuclear war: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivian, E.; Mack, J.E.; Waletzky, J.P.; Lazaroff, C.; Doctor, R.; Goldenring, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study, the first undertaken by Western researchers with Soviet children on the subject of nuclear weapons, compared the questionnaire responses of 293 Soviet youngsters with those of 201 age-matched Californians. Interviews were conducted to supplement the questionnaire findings. Similarities and differences between the two samples are discussed in the context of how young people today perceive the threat of nuclear war

  3. Relations between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European Allies: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Communist states forwarding the process of world revolution. 4. The ideologiaal seaurity faator* Eastern Europe has provided a defensive Soviet...relaxation and the final conclusion of the negotiations on European cooperation and se- curity. In the ideologiaal sphere, the Soviets, as mentioned

  4. ROLE OF JOINT VENTURE “SOVHISPAN” IN NORMALIZATION OF THE SOVIET-SPANISH BILATERAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Николаевна Мосейкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to support the statement about the prevalence of the economic interest over the political ones, taking as an example the reestablishment of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations. The historical context of the creation of the Soviet-Spanish joint venture “Sovhispan”is highlighted as the final outcome of the secret negotiations and previous business practices between Spain and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s. The Soviet-Spanish economic relations started ten years before their normalization in 1977, the Canary Islandsbeing one of the places of their development. The principal conclusions of the research are: the geostrategic position of Spain was appreciated by the USA, via installation of the military bases on the mainland, and the USSR, using the Canary Islands as an operational base for the Soviet Fishing Fleet. “Sovrybflot”, an internal structure of the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR, managed the overseas activity of the Soviet Fishing fleet abroad. Thus, the arrival of avast Soviet fishing fleet in the Canary Islands and the creation of the joint venture “Sovhispan” was a result of its work. “Sovhispan” was a “bridge” in the normalization of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations, and bankrupted with the dissolution of the USSR.

  5. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khinkulova, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    abstractAfter the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief

  6. Strategies representations of gender identity in the practice actionism in the post-soviet space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shelkovina

    2014-04-01

    In addition, the article rises the issue of the construction of national identity. The certain stage of this process is closely overlap with the construction of gender identity. In the post­Soviet region, these processes have become a way of rehabilitation of mental injuries that were acquired during the Soviet period.

  7. The Experience of Soviet Medicine in World War II 1941-1945. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    countries. The low percentage of neuropsychological patients in the Soviet Army is evidence of the achievements of pre- war years of the Soviet people...unsplinted 269 I I II I fracture did not bother them. To the question of the physician about =npn.aints, they most often pointed out hunger . As early

  8. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  9. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  10. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  11. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, Paul A [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  12. A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The ethics of limiting informed debate: censorship of select medical publications in the interest of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for "responsible scholarship" in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which "responsible scholarship" is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public's willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing of the debate on current death criteria and for journal editors to publish only critiques that "substantially engage and advance the debate." We argue that such positions as DuBois' are a threat to responsible scholarship in medical ethics, especially scholarship that opposes popular stances, because it erodes academic freedom and the necessity of debate on an issue that is literally a matter of life and death, no matter what side a person defends.

  14. Appointment keeping for medical review among patients with selected chronic diseases in an urban area of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyango, Joan Nakayaga; Hall, Maurice; Karamagi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Proper management of chronic diseases is important for prevention of disease complications and yet some patients miss appointments for medical review thereby missing the opportunity for proper monitoring of their disease conditions. There is limited information on missed appointments among chronic disease patients in resource limited settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of missed appointments for medical review and associated factors among chronic disease patients in an urban area of Uganda. Patients or caregivers of children with chronic diseases were identified as they bought medicines from a community pharmacy. They were visited at home to access their medical documents and those whose chronic disease status was ascertained were enrolled. The data was collected using: questionnaires, review of medical documents, and in-depth interviews with chronic disease patients. The prevalence of missed appointments was 42% (95%CI = 35-49%). The factors associated with missed appointments were: monthly income ≤30US Dollars (OR = 2.56, CI = 1.25-5.26), affording less than half of prescribed drugs (OR = 3.92, CI = 1.64-9.40), not experiencing adverse events (OR = 2.66, CI = 1.26-5.61), not sure if treatment helps (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.047.77), not having a medicines administration schedule (OR = 6.77, CI = 2.11-21.68), and increasing number of drugs (OR = 0.72, CI = 0.53-0.98). Patients missed appointments mainly due to: financial and health system barriers, conflicting commitments with appointments, and perceptions of the disease condition. Patients should be supported with accessible and affordable health services.

  15. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union.

  16. Soviet psyhology of religion in 1960–1970s: marginalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Orel

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This brief outline deals with the history of development of psychology of religion in the USSR. The author concentrates on the analysis of the historical, social, ideological context, i. e. the analysis of those particular circumstances of the early 1960s when Russian thinkers in the domain of the Humanities turned to the subject of psychology of religion. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of the so-called Khrushchev’s thaw in the formation and development of this research area. The key metaphor of the study is seeing the psychology of religion as an opening in the austere ice of Soviet dictatorship. The author gives a description of the main trends and topics that were raised in discussions on psychology of religion in the 1960–1970s. Ideological interpretation of the position and role of psychology of religion in Soviet science draws on studies by D. Ugrinovich, one of the most infl uential authors of the period in question. The paper suggests that the change of the ideological background in the early 1970s naturally effected the refusal of most of the authors to carry out research in this area and their “switch” to problems of sociology of religion.

  17. 5. Food and Cooking in Revolutionary and Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Steila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tsarist Russia, with both indigenous and foreign cuisine being very popular, since the middle of the 19th century the figure of the revolutionary took ascetic features. The 1917 revolution saw a prevalence of the scientific aspects of nutrition and its collective organization over any ‘culinary’ consideration. Nevertheless, during the 1920s, some cookbooks adapted pre-revolutionary culinary traditions to post- revolutionary conditions. But again and again the country would meet dramatic situations as far as food production and distribution were concerned. At the end of the Twenties, the system of communal dining faced a serious crisis, when local governement was forced to help starving people rather than organize collective canteens. Alongside with industrialization of food production (in which A. Mikojan had a crucial role, nutrition was again considered as a pleasure in the 1930s, when Stalinism started to present the Soviet society as accomplished. Often disregarded in Russian revolutionary movements, food became an important element in the propaganda of the Soviet way of life.

  18. Soviet declaratory policy regarding the controllability of escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prewitt, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three variables were examined for their affect on Soviet views regarding the controllability of escalation. The first was bureaucratic affiliation. It was hypothesized that individuals affiliated with groups which directly controlled weapons would be more likely to support the controllability of escalation than those who were members of groups which did not control weapons. This hypothesis could not be rejected. The second variable was a commentator's rank. It was hypothesized that rank would act in two ways: (1) ideas regarding controlled escalation would appear at lower ranks first; and (2) unique views would be produced by specialized ranks within groups. The rank hypothesis could not be rejected. Certain escalation themes appeared to be presented first by military and civilian writers before being presented by the political leadership. The third variable, image of the West, did not appear to function as theorized. It was hypothesized that hard images of the West would be associated with the rejection of controlled escalation, whereas soft images would be associated with positions suggesting that escalation was controlled through joint US-Soviet cooperation

  19. Limited attacks on the United States and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.; Hippel, F. von.

    1987-01-01

    This report is focused on calculations carried out at Princeton University of the consequences of so-called ''limited'' nuclear attacks by the USA and the USSR on one another - primarily because such scenarios seem to be motivating the acquisition of new nuclear weapons. The conclusions were: The use of only a fraction of the destructive capacity in USA and Soviet nuclear arsenals could have catastrophic consequences to human kind. Although the primary justification of the tens of thousands of nuclear warheads in USA and Soviet arsenals is their potential use against military targets, the most commonly discussed potential large-scale military uses of these weapons - in attacks against the nuclear weapons of the other side - would result in tens of millions of civilian casualties. Certainly, if a first strike resulted in such a huge civilian toll, there could be little assurance of restraint in the response of the country that was attacked. The use of even 1% of the strategic arsenals of the USSR or the USA against the population, military industry or strategic-nuclear targets of the other nation could result in tens of millions of casualties. 17 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1979-12-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of 90 Sr contamination, the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km 2 ). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10 6 Ci of 90 Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage- 137 Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community

  1. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  2. A prospective study on oral manifestations in selective IgA deficient patients in children medical center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2000- 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourpak Z.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: IgA selective deficiency is the most common immunodeficiency. The prevalence of it in different races varies from  to . Since secretary IgA has has a defensive role in the mucosal surfaces, supposing is thought that IgA deficiency will be accompanied by oral manifestations. The previous studies showed controversial results about that. The aim of this cohort study was to finding out oral manifestations in IgA- deficient individuals. As s result oral specialists can find the patients in early stages. 11 IgA- deficient patients (with IgA level < 10 mg/dl in serum and 11 normal volunteers with the same age and sex were compared. The ages of the people were between 3 and 18 years old and 5 girls and 6 boys were in each group. Their oral examination included DMFT (Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth, periodontal condition, Plaque accumulation and oral mucosal lesions. Saliva immunoglobulin and secretary component levels were detected by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and serum immunoglobulin levels were detected by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID methods. All of the IgA- deficient patients had the serum IgA level < 10 mg/dl and their immunoglobulin levels were normal.  of these patients didn't have SIgA and the rest of them had a little SIgA in their saliva(<  SIgA levels in sex and age matched normal group. IgA deficient patients showed no statistical significant difference about oral manifestations in comparison with normal group. It may be related to the increase of compensatory SIgM or assistance of other non- immunological defense factors in saliva, phagocytosis and cellular immunity. Thus IgA- deficiency cannot produce any oral manifestations as a criteria to diagnose it.

  3. Acculturation and adjustment of elderly émigrés from the former Soviet Union: Alife domains perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Genkova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet émigrés in the United States are on average older than other immigrant groups, with adultsover 65 comprising a large portion of the Russian-speaking population. Despite known risks associated withold-age migration, however, researchers and providers have underestimated adjustment difficulties forRussian-speaking elderly in U.S. These older adults tend to acquire a new culture with difficulty and remainhighly oriented towards their heritage culture. However, limited research examines how acculturation to boththe culture of origin and the host culture contributes to wellbeing for this immigrant group. This studyassesses the adaptive value of host and heritage acculturation across several domains in the lives of olderémigrés from the former Soviet Union resettled in the Baltimore and Washington, DC areas in the UnitedStates. Acculturation level with respect to both host and heritage culture was measured with the Language,Identity, and Behavior Scale (LIB; Birman and Trickett, 2001 and used to predict psychological, family, social,and medical care adjustment outcomes. Results suggest that acculturation to the host or heritage culture hasdifferent functions depending on life domain. Particularly, high American acculturation contributed to betteradjustment in the psychological, family, and social domains. Heritage acculturation was associated withbetter outcomes in the social domain and had mixed effects for psychological adjustment. Theoreticalimplications highlight the importance of evaluating multiple life domains of adapting through a bilinearacculturation model for the understudied population of elderly immigrants.

  4. Selection of controls in case-control studies on maternal medication use and risk of birth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.; Dequito, A.; van den Berg, P.B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND:: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as

  5. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  6. Energy and nutritional value of diets used in patients alimentation and their assessment by patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Krzysztof; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Jałocha, Lukasz; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Abramowicz, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the work was laboratory assessment of energy and nutritional value of general and light diets used in patients of selected clinical department in the Military Medical Institute in Warsaw alimentation. Using questionnaire method the assessment of diets was done by patients too. Meals given to patients in hospital not always fulfilled nutritional requirements. Additional consumption of supplementary products did not always meet the requirements of proper nutrition. Half of examined patients appraised nutrition variety as good but at the same time claimed the there was not enough fruits and vegetables.

  7. Selected aspects of medical care for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Górski, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Noncompliance with healthcare undoubtedly has a strong influence on the high prevalence of uncontrolled obstructive diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of medical conduct in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD), with encompassed two-levelled system of health care. A survey of general practitioners (GP), allergists and pulmonologists practicing in Poland was performed between September and December 2016. The basic survey included the data concerning the number of treated patients, the course of the visits, treatment regimens and whether the patients follow the instructions of the physician. The specialist survey recorded the details of the specialist visits, their frequency and character, an evaluation of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies and an evaluation of the GP's actions. The basic questionnaire was completed by 807 doctors with an average of 21 ± 9.85 years of medical experience. Most of the interviewed individuals were GPs (56%), followed by pulmonologists (28%) and allergists (16%). The GP reported 47 cases/month with obstructive pulmonary conditions, including 48.94% asthma and 51.06% COPD patients. They diagnosed three new asthma and COPD patients per month. The allergists treated patients with asthma (105 patients/ month), with 19 newly-diagnosed patients/month. The pulmonologists treated fewer asthma cases than COPD: 71 and 98 patients respectively. They reported 14 patients/month of newly-diagnosed COPD cases. The patients took inhaled glucocorticoids and long-acting b adrenoceptor agonists in separate inhalers. The most frequently-used device was a disc. In opinion of the specialists, half of the therapies initiated recently by GPs for patients with asthma and COPD required modifications. There is a disparity between the true state of medical care of asthma and COPD patients and globally-accepted standards.

  8. Probabilistic risk model to assess the potential for resistance selection following the use of anti-microbial medicated feed in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, Maria Eleni; Chantziaras, Ilias; Devreese, Mathias; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2018-05-30

    The cross-contamination of non-medicated feed with residues of anti-microbials (AM) causes a public and animal health concern associated with the potential for selection and dissemination of resistance. To analyse the associated risks, a probabilistic model was built using @Risk® (Palisade Corporation®) to show the potential extent of the effect of cross-contaminated pig feed on resistance selection. The results of the model include estimations of the proportion of pigs per production stage with residues of doxycycline, chlortetracycline, sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in their intestinal contents, as a result of exposure to cross-contaminated feed with different carry-over levels, in Belgium. By using a semi-quantitative approach, these estimations were combined with experimental data on AM concentrations associated with potential for resistance-selection pressure. Based on this model, it is estimated that 7.76% (min = 1.67; max = 36.94) of sows, 4.23% (min = 1.01%; max = 18.78%) of piglets and 2.8% (min = 0.51%; max = 14.9%) of fatteners in Belgium have residues of doxycycline in their intestinal tract due to consumption of feed with at least 1% carry-over. These values were estimated to be almost triple for sulfadiazine, but substantially lower for chlortetracycline and trimethoprim. Doxycycline concentrations as low as 1 mg/L (corresponding to consumed feed with at least 1% carry-over) can select for resistant porcine commensal Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions on this risk could not be drawn for other AM at this stage, due to the lack of data on concentrations associated with resistance development. However, since the possibility of resistance mechanisms (e.g. co-selection) occurring cannot be excluded, the results of this model highlight that the use of AM medicated feed should be minimised where possible. In case of medicated feed production, good practice should be followed thoroughly at all levels of production, distribution

  9. Trans-middle temporal gyrus selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in adults: seizure response rates, complications, and neuropsychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandt, S Kathleen; Werner, Nicole; Dines, Jennifer; Rashid, Samiya; Eisenman, Lawrence N; Hogan, R Edward; Leuthardt, Eric C; Dowling, Joshua

    2013-07-01

    Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (AHC) has evolved to encompass a variety of techniques to resect the mesial temporal lobe. To date, there have been few large-scale evaluations of trans-middle temporal gyrus selective AHC. The authors examine a large series of patients who have undergone the trans-middle temporal gyrus AHC and assess its clinical and neuropsychological impact. A series of 76 adult patients underwent selective AHC via the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach over a 10-year period, 19 of whom underwent pre- and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations. Favorable seizure response rates were achieved (92% Engel class I or II), with very low surgical morbidity and no mortality. Postoperative neuropsychological assessment revealed a decline in verbal memory for the left AHC group. No postoperative memory decline was identified for the right AHC group, but rather some improvements were noted within this group. The trans-middle temporal gyrus selective AHC is a safe and effective choice for management of medically refractory epilepsy in adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  11. Construct-level predictive validity of educational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medical student selection: meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Measures used for medical student selection should predict future performance during training. A problem for any selection study is that predictor-outcome correlations are known only in those who have been selected, whereas selectors need to know how measures would predict in the entire pool of applicants. That problem of interpretation can be solved by calculating construct-level predictive validity, an estimate of true predictor-outcome correlation across the range of applicant abilities. Methods Construct-level predictive validities were calculated in six cohort studies of medical student selection and training (student entry, 1972 to 2009) for a range of predictors, including A-levels, General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs)/O-levels, and aptitude tests (AH5 and UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT)). Outcomes included undergraduate basic medical science and finals assessments, as well as postgraduate measures of Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) performance and entry in the Specialist Register. Construct-level predictive validity was calculated with the method of Hunter, Schmidt and Le (2006), adapted to correct for right-censorship of examination results due to grade inflation. Results Meta-regression analyzed 57 separate predictor-outcome correlations (POCs) and construct-level predictive validities (CLPVs). Mean CLPVs are substantially higher (.450) than mean POCs (.171). Mean CLPVs for first-year examinations, were high for A-levels (.809; CI: .501 to .935), and lower for GCSEs/O-levels (.332; CI: .024 to .583) and UKCAT (mean = .245; CI: .207 to .276). A-levels had higher CLPVs for all undergraduate and postgraduate assessments than did GCSEs/O-levels and intellectual aptitude tests. CLPVs of educational attainment measures decline somewhat during training, but continue to predict postgraduate performance. Intellectual aptitude tests have lower CLPVs than A-levels or GCSEs

  12. Association of time under immunosuppression and different immunosuppressive medication on periodontal parameters and selected bacteria of patients after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, G; Berisha, L; Wendorff, H; Widmer, F; Marcinkowski, A; Teschler, H; Sommerwerck, U; Haak, R; Kollmar, O; Ziebolz, D

    2018-05-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the association of the time under immunosuppression and different immunosuppressive medication on periodontal parameters and selected periodontal pathogenic bacteria of immunosuppressed patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT). 169 Patients after SOT (lung, liver or kidney) were included and divided into subgroups according their time under (0-1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-10 and >10 years) and form of immunosuppression (Tacrolimus, Cyclosporine, Mycophenolate, Glucocorticoids, Sirolimus and monotherapy vs. combination). Periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were assessed. Periodontal disease severity was classified as healthy/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis. Subgingival biofilm samples were investigated for eleven selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria using polymerasechainreaction. The mean PPD and CAL as well as prevalence of Treponema denticola and Capnocytophaga species was shown to be different but heterogeneous depending on time under immunosuppression (pperiodontal condition compared to patients without Cyclosporine (pperiodontal and microbiological parameters of patients after SOT. Patients under Cyclosporine medication should receive increased attention. Differences in subgingival biofilm, but not in clinical parameters were found for Glucocorticoids, Mycophenolate and combination therapy, making the clinical relevance of this finding unclear.

  13. THE PROBLEM OF DISTINCTION BETWEEN TERMS "SOVIETISM", “IDEOLOGEME " AND "INTERNATIONALISM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkredova Mariya Igorevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problem of distinction between terms "Sovietism" "ideologeme" and "international word" are examined. Criteria of their differentiation and the features of functioning in lexicon and literature are analyzed. As a result of separation of criteria of differentiation and the analysis of characteristic features of these terms it became possible to determine of each of terms. Results of research can be used by the lexicologists studying the lexicon of the Soviet era, authors of dictionaries of Sovietism, by students and teachers in study of lexicon.

  14. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  15. Soviet-France cooperative study of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vsekhvsyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Ivanchuk, V.I.; Popov, O.S.; Rubo, G.A.; Kuchmij, S.; Kuchmij, O.; Shtel'makher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The study continues the investigations on the solar corona performed according to the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''The white corona dynamics'' during total solar eclipses on July 10 1972 and June 30, 1973 by the expeditions of Kiev University and Paris Astrophysical Institute. The results of the study of eclipse negatives obtained on June 30 1973 in Africa are given. On the basis of new methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5sup(m) as the photometry standards it has been found with high accuracy the distribution of the total corona brightness up to r approximately equal to 4.5 Rsub(S) and its K- and F-corona components for E and N directions. Neither color effect nor flattening is found in the dust component (r -6 Esub(S)

  16. The French-Soviet Araks experiments: Main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergnat, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on the Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and the Soviet Union (Araks) experiment, whose objectives were to study the motion of an electron beam inside the magnetosphere with a particular attention focused on the large scale phenomena (e.g. location of the conjugate point), and to study the interaction of the beam with the surrounding plasma. Topics considered include geometry and the experimental set-up, conjugated observations, neutralization of the electron gun, and waves emission. The Araks experiments were designed to study the injection of an electron beam into the ionospheric plasma. It is concluded that active experiment is promising for field line mapping in the auroral zone and precise investigation of beam-plasma interaction

  17. Maritime law and naval arms limitation: A Soviet perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtorygin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Under conditions of the sharply aggravated international situation, there is an urgent necessity to intensify the struggle for the creation and consistent application of the principles and rules of international security law - which is a newly developing branch of modern international law. The Soviet scientists working in the field of international law regard international security law as a leading branch among the various branches of modern international law. The principles and rules of international security law are called upon to regulate international relations in the spheres of arms race limitation, in disarmament (particularly nuclear disarmament), and in the employment of naval fleets with one purpose only-to protect peace. They present, by themselves, an important group of principles and rules which influence the formation of a new international legal order in the oceans

  18. Joint Czechoslovak-Soviet workshop on current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    At the Joint Czechoslovak-Soviet Workshop on Current Drive in Tokamaks, five papers dealing with issues of general interest were presented. In a theoretical paper by Klima and Pavlo a one-dimensional model of the lower-hybrid current drive is described and the results of its analysis are used in a numerical simulation using T-7 tokamak parameters. In the second theoretical paper by Vojtsekhovich, Parail and Pereverzev the influence of the LH wave spectrum on the efficiency of the current drive is studied. Two papers deal with a new microwave system designed for experiments on LHCD in the T-7 tokamak. In particular, the power spectra of new four-waveguide grills are computed. In the last paper the non-inductive start-up of the discharge in the T-7 tokamak by means of electron cyclotron waves is investigated. (J.U.)

  19. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  20. Modernization experience of judicial policy post soviet countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Antoniuc

    2014-12-01

    The findings indicate that analysis of the accumulated Georgia and Kazakhstan, as well as other post­Soviet states, the experience of modernization policy of national judicial systems is very useful for the improvement of the domestic judicial system in the context of the proclaimed judicial reform. First it must ensure the restoration of the unity of the judiciary in the possibility of the existence of certain specialized vessels. Regarding the latter, it is interesting Kazakhstan practice, when the specialized courts are formed with the status of the regional or district court, without disrupting the unity of the judiciary, which is headed by the Supreme Court. Considerable interest may also be the creation of the courts of public councils to assess the ethical qualities of the candidates for judges, the introduction of the model­speakers of judges, the development of pre­trial (mediation and alternative (arbitration courts forms of dispute resolution.