WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected edman isothiocyanate

  1. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  2. Monitoring of environmental cancer initiators through hemoglobin adducts by a modified Edman degradation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernqvist, M.M.; Mowrer, J.; Jensen, S.; Ehrenberg, L.

    1986-01-01

    Tissue doses of cancer initiators/mutagens are suitably monitored through hemoglobin adducts formed in vivo, but the use of this method has been hampered by a lack of sufficiently simple and fast procedures. It was previously observed that when the N-terminal amino acid in hemoglobin, valine, is alkylated it is cleaved off by the Edman sequencing reagent, phenyl isothiocyanate, in the neutral-alkaline coupling medium, as opposed to the acidic medium required by normal amino acids. Based on this principle, conditions for a functioning procedure for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) determination of N-terminal alkylvalines in hemoglobin were worked out. Derivatizing the protein in formamide solution with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate, using a 2 H-alkylated protein as internal standard, and applying on-column injection during analysis, permit reproducible determination of hydroxyethylvaline and other adducts down into the dose range where cancer risks may be considered acceptably low

  3. Isothiocyanates: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Kala*; Syed Salman Ali; Nabeel Ahmad; Sadaf Jamal Gilani; Najam Ali Khan

    2018-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are naturally occurring molecules belonging to highly reactive organosulphur synthons, with the general structure R–N=C=S. The precursor molecule glucosinolate anions are hydrolyzed enzymatically (under the effect of myrosinase enzymes) or unenzymatically to produce nitriles or isothiocyanates depending upon conditions such as pH and temperature. Brassicaceae  Family is known to contain abundant ITCs. A significant number of isothiocyanates has been isolated from differ...

  4. Isothiocyanates: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kala*

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates (ITCs are naturally occurring molecules belonging to highly reactive organosulphur synthons, with the general structure R–N=C=S. The precursor molecule glucosinolate anions are hydrolyzed enzymatically (under the effect of myrosinase enzymes or unenzymatically to produce nitriles or isothiocyanates depending upon conditions such as pH and temperature. Brassicaceae  Family is known to contain abundant ITCs. A significant number of isothiocyanates has been isolated from different plant sources and some of them have been synthesized. Several isothiocyanates have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activities, etc. Pharmacokinetic profiles of these sulphur containing compounds are well established. However, safety profiles of ITCs need consideration and a well-designed study with appropriate control, for their production as lead compounds. This review summarises the chemistry, sources, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activity and toxicity profiles of the isothiocyanates.

  5. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD and flame photometric detector (FPD. The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  6. Optimized Formation of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Endogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The formed benzyl isothiocyanate was extracted by steam distillation method and purified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Relevant process variables were also studied. Finally, the purified benzyl isothiocyanate was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and compared to BITC standard.

  7. The rapid generation of isothiocyanates in flow

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    Marcus Baumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates are versatile starting materials for a wide range of chemical reactions. However, their high nucleophilic susceptibility means they are best prepared and used immediately. We report here on a flow platform for the fast and efficient formation of isothiocyanates by the direct conversion of easily prepared chloroximes. To expedite this chemistry a flow insert cartridge containing two immobilised reagents is used to affect the chemical transformation which typically eliminates the requirements for any conventional work-up or purification of the reaction stream.

  8. Optimized Formation of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Endogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To use endogenous myrosinase in Carica papaya seed to convert benzyl glucosinolate (BG) to benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and then extract it for further studies. Methods: Process variables including seed powder particle size, sample-to-solvent ratio, pH of buffer solution, enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis ...

  9. Dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphene induces reactive oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the apoptotic activity, cell proliferation inhibition and different signaling protein expressions after treatment with a new isothiocyanate, sulforaphene, in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay ...

  10. Compound list: naphthyl isothiocyanate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available naphthyl isothiocyanate ANIT 00009 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/naphthyl_isothiocyanate.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/op...en-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/naphthyl_isothiocyanate.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/arc...hive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/naphthyl_isothiocyanate.Rat.in_...vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/naphthyl_isothiocyanate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  11. Antitrypanosomal isothiocyanate and thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa peregrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyari, Mahdi; Salehi, Peyman; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Portmann, Lena; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Rezadoost, Hassan; Rezazadeh, Shamsali; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    O-Methyl (1), O-ethyl (2), and O-butyl (3) 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] thiocarbamate (E), along with 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate (4) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Moringa peregrina. The compounds were tested for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity in rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). The most potent compound was 4 with an IC50 of 0.10 µM against T.b. rhodesiense and a selectivity index of 73, while the thiocarbamate glycosides 1, 2, and 3 showed only moderate activity. Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg body weight/day of 4 in the T.b. rhodesiense STIB 900 acute mouse model revealed significant in vivo toxicity. Administration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day resulted in a 95% reduction of parasitemia on day 7 postinfection, but did not cure the animals. Because of its high in vitro activity and its ability to irreversibly inhibit trypanothione reductase, an attractive parasite-specific target enzyme, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (4), can be considered as a lead structure for the development and characterization of novel antitrypanosomal drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from broccoliseed extractsuppressproteinglycationand carbonylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Hirano,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucosinolates from brassica plants are hydrolyzed by internal or salivary myrosinase to produce isothiocyanates. Glucoraphanin, a major glucosinolate in broccoli, is hydrolyzed to sulforaphane (SFN, which exhibits antitumor and detoxification activities. Regarding the influence of broccoli and its constituents on the skin, a few studies have reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Recently, advanced glycation end products (AGEs and carbonyl proteins have been reported to accelerate skin aging. Objective: We evaluated the effects of broccoli seed extract (BSE and glucosinolates on protein glycation and carbonylation in vitro. Methods: To evaluate the effects of BSE and its constituents, protein glycation and carbonylation were induced by mixing fructose with bovine serum albumin (BSA and then measuring production of AGEs, fructosamine, and carbonyl proteins (CP. Production of CP after mixing fatty acids with BSA was also assessed. Furthermore, the effect of BSE and its constituents on CP production by human fibroblasts (TIG103 was examined. Results: BSE suppressed the production of AGEs, fructosamine, and CP after mixing fructose and BSA. BSE also suppressed production of CP when oxidized linoleic acid was mixed with BSA. Isothiocyanates, including SFN and iberin, suppressed fructose-based CP production, but SFN had no effect on CP production stimulated by oxidized linoleic acid. In contrast, glucosinolates from BSE did not suppress fructose-based CP production, but suppressed CP production due to oxidized linoleic acid. Among the glucosinolates in BSE, glucoberteroin showed the strongest suppression of CP production. CP production in fibroblasts was also suppressed by glucosinolates, including glucoiberin and glucoberteroin. Conclusions: BSE demonstrated anti-glycation and anti-carbonylation effects on protein reactions with fructose and oxidized fatty acids. Isothiocyanates suppressed protein carbonylation induced by

  13. Fluorescein isothiocyanate: Molecular characterization by theoretical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, Jordi [Departament de Quimica, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Lleida, c/Jaume II No 69, Lleida E-25001 (Spain); Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: denis.jacquemin@fundp.ac.be; Perpete, Eric A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Aleman, Carlos [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, E. T. S. d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu

    2008-12-10

    Quantum mechanical calculations have been used to investigate the conformation, molecular geometry, basicity and spectroscopic properties of fluorescein isothiocyanate in both the gas-phase and aqueous solution. Specifically, calculations have been performed considering the neutral, monoanionic and dianionic forms of this important fluorescent compound. Results reveal that for the neutral form multiple conformational states are possible, all them with significant contributions, and the stability of the different conformers is similar in the gas-phase and aqueous solution. Calculation of the excitation energies revealed that spectroscopic properties are very sensitive to the relaxation effect in solution. A good agreement has been reached obtained between the experimental and theoretical values derived from time-dependent density functional theory methods for the neutral form, whereas for charged species the calculations fail to accurately reproduce the measured trends.

  14. Peptide Reactivity of Isothiocyanates - Implications for Skin Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Isabella; Samuelsson, Kristin; Ponting, David J.; Törnqvist, Margareta; Ilag, Leopold L.; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2016-02-01

    Skin allergy is a chronic condition that affects about 20% of the population of the western world. This disease is caused by small reactive compounds, haptens, able to penetrate into the epidermis and modify endogenous proteins, thereby triggering an immunogenic reaction. Phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and ethyl isothiocyanate (EITC) have been suggested to be responsible for allergic skin reactions to chloroprene rubber, the main constituent of wetsuits, orthopedic braces, and many types of sports gear. In the present work we have studied the reactivity of the isothiocyanates PITC, EITC, and tetramethylrhodamine-6-isothiocyanate (6-TRITC) toward peptides under aqueous conditions at physiological pH to gain information about the types of immunogenic complexes these compounds may form in the skin. We found that all three compounds reacted quickly with cysteine moieties. For PITC and 6-TRITC the cysteine adducts decomposed over time, while stable adducts with lysine were formed. These experimental findings were verified by DFT calculations. Our results may suggest that the latter are responsible for allergic reactions to isothiocyanates. The initial adduct formation with cysteine residues may still be of great importance as it prevents hydrolysis and facilitates the transport of isothiocyanates into epidermis where they can form stable immunogenic complexes with lysine-containing proteins.

  15. Effects of Brassicaceae Isothiocyanates on Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novío

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the major progress made in the field of cancer biology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality, and prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most encountered malignancies among men. The effective management of this disease requires developing better anticancer agents with greater efficacy and fewer side effects. Nature is a large source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents, with more than 50% of current anticancer drugs being of natural origin. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are degradation products from glucosinolates that are present in members of the family Brassicaceae. Although they are known for a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties, nowadays, cell line and animal studies have additionally indicated the chemopreventive action without causing toxic side effects of ITCs. In this way, they can induce cell cycle arrest, activate apoptosis pathways, increase the sensitivity of resistant PCa to available chemodrugs, modulate epigenetic changes and downregulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and invasion-metastasis. The present review summarizes the chemopreventive role of ITCs with a particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo cancer animal models.

  16. Effect of Betong Watercress and Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Betong watercress and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) on the N-demethylation of caffeine (CF) in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 2 phases of experiment. Phase I, they received a single oral dose of CF (10 mg/kg), while in phase II, they were pretreated with the ...

  17. Propargylamine-isothiocyanate reaction: efficient conjugation chemistry in aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viart, Helene Marie-France; Larsen, T. S.; Tassone, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A coupling reaction between secondary propargyl amines and isothiocyanates in aqueous media is described. The reaction is high-yielding and affords cyclized products within 2-24 h. A functionalized ether lipid was synthesized in 8 steps, formulated as liposomes with POPC and conjugated to FITC un...

  18. Antimicrobial activities of isothiocyanates against Campylobacter jejuni isolates

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    Virginie eDufour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes.We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC and benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC, against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176.Both AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 2.5 to 5 g mL-1 compared to AITC (MIC of 50 to 200 g mL-1. Interestingly, the 24 C. jejuni isolates could be classified in 3 groups according to their sensitivity levels to both compounds, suggesting that AITC and BITC shared identical activity mechanisms and consequently faced similar resistance processes in bacterial cells.The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni strains against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (-Glutamyl Transpeptidase encoding gene in the genome nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to WT when exposed to ITC.

  19. Natural isothiocyanates express antimicrobial activity against developing and mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan J; Mutters, Nico T; Blessing, Brigitte; Günther, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The antimicrobial properties of natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in plants such as nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), and the need of new chemotherapeutic options for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), led us to evaluate the effects of three major ITCs, allylisothiocyanate (AITC), benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), and phenylethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC), and a mixture (ITCM) adapted to the ITC composition after release of active components out of natural sources. Out of 105Pa isolates 27 isolates with increased biofilm formation were selected for testing. The effects of ITCs on Pa were evaluated regarding (1) planktonic bacterial proliferation, (2) biofilm formation, (3) metabolic activity in mature biofilms, and (4) synergism of ITCs and antibiotics. (1) Each ITC had anti-Pa activity. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were (μg/ml, mean±standard deviation): AITC 103±6.9; BITC, 2145±249; PEITC 29,423±1652; and ITCM, 140±5. (2) Treating bacteria with PEITC and ITCM in concentrations below the MIC significantly inhibited biofilm formation. Particularly, ITCM reduced biofilm mass and bacterial proliferation. (3) ITCs significantly inhibited metabolic activity in mature biofilms. (4) Combining ITCs with meropenem synergistically increased antimicrobial efficacy on Pa biofilms. ITCs represent a promising group of natural anti-infective compounds with activity against Pa biofilms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  1. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  2. Use of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Inulin as a Marker for Intestinal Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Caturegli, Giorgio; Munoz-Abraham, Armando Salim; Judeeba, Sami; Patron-Lozano, Roger; Morotti, Raffaella; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Geibel, John P

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal ischemia is observed in conditions such as mesenteric ischemia, or during traumatic events such as intestinal transplantation. Intestinal ischemia leads to pathophysiologic disruptions that present as increased fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen. We propose a novel method to detect real-time ischemic injury that is used in an in vitro model applicable to intestinal transplantation. Small intestine segments from rats were procured. The segments were attached to customized perfusion chambers. Both intestines were perfused on the vascular side with a Ringer buffer solution. The experimental buffer solution was bubbled with 100% nitrogen to mimic ischemia. Both lumens were perfused with 3 mL HEPES-Ringer solution containing 50 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin. Intraluminal samples were collected at 15-minute intervals to measure FITC-inulin concentration using a nanofluorospectrophotometer. Intestinal tissue samples were processed and evaluated by a blinded pathologist using the Park/Chiu scoring system for grading intestinal ischemia. Samples collected from the ischemic intestine showed a significant decrease in FITC-inulin fluorescence compared with the control intestine, indicating enhanced fluid secretion. Histopathologic samples from the experimental arm exhibited higher scores of ischemic injury in comparison with the control arm, confirming the FITC-inulin as a correlation to ischemia. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-inulin can be used as a real-time volume marker to monitor the ischemic state of intestinal tissue. A positive correlation between the degree of fluid shift and presence of ischemic injury. The changes in fluorescence signal provide a potential selective method to measure real-time fluid changes inside an intestinal graft to evaluate viability. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Plants against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified isothiocyanates from cruciferous plants (Brassicacea, Syn. Cruciferae plants were evaluated against 15 isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolated from diabetic foot-ulcer patients aiming the study of the potential usage of allyl-isothiocyanate, benzyl-isothiocyanate and 2-phenylethyl-isothiocyanate against this important bacteria. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods were used to access the antimicrobial activity. The index (Ia and rate (Ra of the antibacterial activity for each compound were calculated. The results showed a highly dose-dependent compound and chemical structure antibacterial effectiveness. The results showed a strong relation between the chemical structure of isothiocyanates and its antibacterial effectiveness. The benzyl-isothiocyanate was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration varying between 2.9 and 110 µg·mL−1 with an antibacterial activity rate up to 87%. Moreover, their antibacterial activity was mainly bactericidal. This study provides scientific evidence that isothiocyanates have an interesting biological value and must be considered as an important tool to be used against MRSA.

  4. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. UAE-HPLC-UV: New Contribution for Fast Determination of Total Isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M. Fusari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total isothiocyanates content (ITC is considered a good indicator of bioactive compounds responsible for beneficial effects related to Brassicaceae vegetables. Analytical performance is a critical factor for routine analysis in plant tissues. The extraction technique for isolating phytochemicals from Brassicaceae vegetables is currently the bottleneck of the methodology. The aim of this work was to optimize this step in the analytical process. Fast and less expensive alternative, based on ultrasound-assisted extraction technique (UAE for direct extraction of GLS into an aqueous phase and further analysis of the hydrolysis product, was optimized. Full factorial (2k design followed by Central Composite Design (CCD was used to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. Selected conditions were homogenization time (9 min; ultrasound bath time (5 min; and sample-to-solvent ratio (1 : 5 w/v mg mL−1. The proposed analytical methodology exhibits satisfactory analytical performance in terms of linearity, precision (RSD < 2.4%, and limits of detection (26 nmol g−1 w.w.. The new analytical methodology was applied to cauliflower, cabbage, watercress, and broccoli samples with recoveries higher than 86%. The UAE extraction technique was showed to be efficient for real samples analysis leading to sensible, selective, and reproducible methodology for ITC analysis.

  6. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Russell Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also reported to damage DNA and is toxic to aquatic organisms, the objective of the present study was to determine whether it possesses teratogenic properties. The frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX was used to determine the following measures of developmental toxicity of the allyl isothiocyanate: (a 96-h LC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b 96-h EC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c teratogenic malformation index (TI, equal to 96-h LC50/96-h EC50. The quantitative results and the photographs of embryos before and after exposure suggest that allyl isothiocyanate seems to exhibit moderate teratogenic properties. The results also indicate differences in the toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate toward exposed embryos observed in the present study compared to reported adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate in fish, rodents, and humans. The significance of the results for food safety and possible approaches to protect against adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate are discussed.

  7. Isothiocyanates: An Overview of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Romeo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents has been investigated in depth. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are bioactive products resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GLs, the most abundant secondary metabolites in the botanical order Brassicales. Although the antimicrobial activity of ITCs against foodborne and plant pathogens has been well documented, little is known about their antimicrobial properties against human pathogens. This review collects studies that focus on this topic. Particular focus will be put on ITCs’ antimicrobial properties and their mechanism of action against human pathogens for which the current therapeutic solutions are deficient and therefore of prime importance for public health. Our purpose was the evaluation of the potential use of ITCs to replace or support the common antibiotics. Even though ITCs appear to be effective against the most important human pathogens, including bacteria with resistant phenotypes, the majority of the studies did not show comparable results and thus it is very difficult to compare the antimicrobial activity of the different ITCs. For this reason, a standard method should be used and further studies are needed.

  8. Allyl isothiocyanate induced stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Saini AkalRachna K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC from mustard is cytotoxic; however the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We examined the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also examined factors affecting the production of AITC from its precursor, sinigrin, a glucosinolate, in ground Brassica juncea cv. Vulcan seed as mustard has some potential as a biopesticide. Findings An assay to determine the concentration of AITC in ground mustard seed was improved to allow the measurement of AITC release in the first minutes after exposure of ground mustard seed to water. Using this assay, we determined that temperatures above 67°C decreased sinigrin conversion to AITC in hydrated ground B. juncea seed. A pH near 6.0 was found to be necessary for AITC release. RT-qPCR revealed no significant change in HSP70A mRNA expression at low concentrations of AITC ( 1.0 μM resulted in a four- to five-fold increase in expression. A HSP70 ELISA showed that AITC toxicity in C. elegans was ameliorated by the presence of ground seed from low sinigrin B. juncea cv. Arrid. Conclusions • AITC induced toxicity in C. elegans, as measured by HSP70 expression. • Conditions required for the conversion of sinigrin to AITC in ground B. juncea seed were determined. • The use of C. elegans as a bioassay to test AITC or mustard biopesticide efficacy is discussed.

  9. Sulforaphane (SFN: An Isothiocyanate in a Cancer Chemoprevention Paradigm

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    Mohammad Fahad Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC in its latest World Cancer Report (2014 has projected the increase in the global cancer burden from 14 million (2012 to 22 million incidence annually within the next two decades. Such statistics warrant a collaborative engagement of conventional and complementary and alternative therapies to contain and manage cancer. In recent years, there has been a shift in the cancer chemoprevention paradigm with a significant focus turning towards bioactive components of human diets for their anticancer properties. Since diet is an integral part of lifestyle and given that an estimated one third of human cancers are believed to be preventable though appropriate lifestyle modification including dietary habits, the current shift in the conventional paradigm assumes significance. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of broccoli is associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence including breast, prostate, lung, stomach and colon cancer. The edible plant belonging to the family of cruciferae such as broccoli is a rich source of glucoraphanin, a precursor of isothiocyanate sulforaphane which is considered to be a potent anti-cancer agent. Plant-based dietary agents such as sulforaphane mimic chemotherapeutic drugs such as vorinostat, possessing histone deacetylase inhibition activity. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies have emerged, enhancing the clinical plausibility and translational value of sulforaphane in cancer chemoprevention. The present review provides the current understanding of the cancer chemopreventive pharmacology of sulforaphane towards its potential as an anticancer agent.

  10. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Allyl isothiocyanate affects the cell cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Signe Elisabeth Åsberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates (ITCs are degradation products of glucosinolates present in members of the Brassicaceae family acting as herbivore repellents and antimicrobial compounds. Recent results indicate that allyl ITC (AITC has a role in defense responses such as glutathione depletion, ROS generation and stomatal closure. In this study we show that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of AITC causes a shift in the cell cycle distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana leading to accumulation of cells in S-phases and a reduced number of cells in non-replicating phases. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed an AITC-induced up-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase A while several genes encoding mitotic proteins were down-regulated, suggesting an inhibition of mitotic processes. Interestingly, visualization of DNA synthesis indicated that exposure to AITC reduced the rate of DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that non-lethal concentrations of AITC induce cells of A. thaliana to enter the cell cycle and accumulate in S-phases, presumably as a part of a defensive response. Thus, this study suggests that AITC has several roles in plant defense and add evidence to the growing data supporting a multifunctional role of glucosinolates and their degradation products in plants.

  12. Soil bacterial and fungal communities respond differently to various isothiocyanates added for biofumigation

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    Ping eHu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The meals from many oilseed crops have potential for biofumigation due to their release of biocidal compounds such as isothiocyanates (ITCs. Various ITCs are known to inhibit numerous pathogens; however, much less is known about how the soil microbial community responds to the different types of ITCs released from oilseed meals (SMs. To simulate applying ITC-releasing SMs to soil, we amended soil with 1% flax SM (contains no biocidal chemicals along with four types of ITCs (allyl, butyl, phenyl, and benzyl ITC in order to determine their effects on soil fungal and bacterial communities in a replicated microcosm study. Microbial communities were analyzed based on the ITS region for fungi and 16S rRNA gene for bacteria using qPCR and tag-pyrosequencing with 454 GS FLX titanium technology. A dramatic decrease in fungal populations (~85% reduction was observed after allyl ITC addition. Fungal community compositions also shifted following ITC amendments (e.g., Humicola increased in allyl and Mortierella in butyl ITC amendments. Bacterial populations were less impacted by ITCs, although there was atransient increase in the proportion of Firmicutes, related to bacteria know to be antagonistic to plant pathogens, following amendment with allyl ITC. Our results indicate that the type of ITC released from SMs can result in differential impacts on soil microorganisms. This information will aid selection and breeding of plants for biofumigation-based control of soil-borne pathogens while minimizing the impacts on non-target microorganisms.

  13. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wade, Kristina L.; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280–340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  14. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  15. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Armoracia rusticana essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate and related compounds to Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jun-Ran; Hwang, Kumnara; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    The toxicity to adult Dermatophagoides farinae of allyl isothiocyanate identified in horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, oil and another 27 organic isothiocyanates was evaluated using contact + fumigant and vapour-phase mortality bioassays. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and dibutyl phthalate. Horseradish oil (24 h LC(50), 1.54 µg cm(-2)) and allyl isothiocyanate (2.52 µg cm(-2)) were highly toxic. Benzyl isothiocyanate (LC(50) , 0.62 µg cm(-2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by 4-chlorophenyl, 3-bromophenyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl, cyclohexyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and 2-bromophenyl isothiocyanates (0.93-1.41 µg cm(-2)). All were more effective than either benzyl benzoate (LC(50) , 4.58 µg cm(-2)) or dibutyl phthalate (24.49 µg cm(-2)). The structure-activity relationship indicates that types of functional group and chemical structure appear to play a role in determining the isothiocyanate toxicities to adult D. farinae. In the vapour-phase mortality bioassay, these isothiocyanates were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments, the horseradish oil-derived compounds and the isothiocyanates described herein merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of house dust mite populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Synthesis of 2-(2-R1-Hydrazino-5-(R2-benzyl-2-thiazolines on the Basis of Meerweins Arylation Products of Allyl Isothiocyanate

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    Mykola I. Ganushchak

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available 3-Aryl-2-chloropropylisothiocyanates (1 are formed by interaction of arenediazonium chlorides with allyl isothiocyanate. Adducts 1 react with monoacylhydrazines to form 1-acyl-4-(3-aryl-2-chloropropylthiosemicarbazides (2a–d. Thiosemicarbazides 2a–d in the presence of bases selectively transform into 2-(2-R1-hydrazino-5-(R2-benzyl-2-thiazolines (3a–d.

  17. Benzylglucosinolate Derived Isothiocyanate from Tropaeolum majus Reduces Gluconeogenic Gene and Protein Expression in Human Cells.

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    Valentina Guzmán-Pérez

    Full Text Available Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L. contains high concentrations of benzylglcosinolate. We found that a hydrolysis product of benzyl glucosinolate-the benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC-modulates the intracellular localization of the transcription factor Forkhead box O 1 (FOXO1. FoxO transcription factors can antagonize insulin effects and trigger a variety of cellular processes involved in tumor suppression, longevity, development and metabolism. The current study evaluated the ability of BITC-extracted as intact glucosinolate from nasturtium and hydrolyzed with myrosinase-to modulate i the insulin-signaling pathway, ii the intracellular localization of FOXO1 and, iii the expression of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis, antioxidant response and detoxification. Stably transfected human osteosarcoma cells (U-2 OS with constitutive expression of FOXO1 protein labeled with GFP (green fluorescent protein were used to evaluate the effect of BITC on FOXO1. Human hepatoma HepG2 cell cultures were selected to evaluate the effect on gluconeogenic, antioxidant and detoxification genes and protein expression. BITC reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT/PKB and FOXO1; promoted FOXO1 translocation from cytoplasm into the nucleus antagonizing the insulin effect; was able to down-regulate the gene and protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes; and induced the gene expression of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. Knockdown analyses with specific siRNAs showed that the expression of gluconeogenic genes was dependent on nuclear factor (erythroid derived-like2 (NRF2 and independent of FOXO1, AKT and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1. The current study provides evidence that BITC might have a role in type 2 diabetes T2D by reducing hepatic glucose production and increasing antioxidant resistance.

  18. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.

    2004-01-01

    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formatio...

  19. No metabolic effects of mustard allyl-isothiocyanate compared with placebo in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Tan, Chong Yew; Soeters, Maarten R.; Virtue, Samuel; Watson, Laura Pe; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Vidal-Puig, Santiago; Chatterjee, Krishna V.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Induction of nonshivering thermogenesis can be used to influence energy balance to prevent or even treat obesity. The pungent component of mustard, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), activates the extreme cold receptor transient receptor potential channel, subfamily A, member 1 and may thus

  20. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and

  1. A new efficient synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik; Hansen, Jon S.; Pittelkow, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Alkyl and aryl amines are converted smoothly to the corresponding isothiocyanates via the dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) and 1-3 mol% of DMAP or DABCO as catalyst. As most of the byproducts are volatile, the work-up involves simple evaporation...

  2. Microbial- and isothiocyanate-mediated control of Phytophthora and Pythium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.F. Cohen; E. Yamamoto; E. Condeso; B.L. Anacker; N. Rank; M. Mazzola

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens of the oomycete lineage share common susceptibilities to many biotic and abiotic stresses. We are investigating the potential of antagonistic bacteria, isothiocyanates, and mycophagous amoebae to control diseases caused by Phytophthora spp., including the etiologic agent of sudden oak death, Phytophthora ramorum (...

  3. Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Fan; Casey Crooks; Gary Creissen; Lionel Hill; Shirley Fairhurst; Peter Doerner; Chris Lamb

    2011-01-01

    Most plant-microbe interactions do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. We found that sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate), a natural product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of non-host Pseudomonas bacteria in planta. Multiple sax genes (saxCAB/F/D/G) were identified in Pseudomonas...

  4. Glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates impact mitochondrial function in fungal cells and elicit an oxidative stress response necessary for growth recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eCalmes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are brassicaceous secondary metabolites that have long been considered as chemical shields against pathogen invasion. Isothiocyanates, are glucosinolate-breakdown products that have negative effects on the growth of various fungal species. We explored the mechanism by which isothiocyanates could cause fungal cell death using Alternaria brassicicola, a specialist Brassica pathogens, as model organism. Exposure of the fungus to isothiocyanates led to a decreased oxygen consumption rate, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial-membrane depolarization. We also found that two major regulators of the response to oxidative stress, i.e. the MAP kinase AbHog1 and the transcription factor AbAP1, were activated in the presence of isothiocyanates. Once activated by isothiocyanate-derived reactive oxygen species, AbAP1 was found to promote the expression of different oxidative-response genes. This response might play a significant role in the protection of the fungus against isothiocyanates as mutants deficient in AbHog1 or AbAP1 were found to be hypersensitive to these metabolites. Moreover, the loss of these genes was accompanied by a significant decrease in aggressiveness on Brassica. We suggest that the robust protection response against isothiocyanate-derived oxidative stress might be a key adaptation mechanism for successful infection of host plants by Brassicaceae-specialist necrotrophs like A. brassicicola.

  5. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and lipid gels. Methods and results: Five participants took part in a cross-over study and collected timed urine samples up to 24 h after consumption of proteins, dietary fibers, and lipid gels containing ...

  6. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  7. Effect of Wasabi Component 6-(Methylsulfinylhexyl Isothiocyanate and Derivatives on Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

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    Yu-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi, a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenylhexyl isothiocyanate (I7447 and 6-(methylsulfonylhexyl isothiocyanate (I7557 are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu’s stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC. Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells.

  8. Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates

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    Xiaoji Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(PH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

  9. Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoji; Wang, Yanling; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Neme, Bárbara P; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Miller, Michael J

    2017-03-10

    Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control) or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

  10. Spasmolytic, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate, a new glucosinolate autolysis product from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekić, Milan S; Radulović, Niko S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja

    2017-10-01

    Detailed analyses of horseradish autolysates led to the identification of a new natural product, 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate (PhPeITC). The structural assignment was corroborated by synthesis, and the identity unequivocally established by spectral means. The occurrence of PhPeITC is the first direct proof of the existence of a 5-phenylpentyl glucosinolate in the aerial parts of this species as one of the possible "mustard oil" precursors. To verify its possible contribution to the horseradish functional food status, horseradish above- and underground autolysates, together with five ω-phenylalkyl isothiocyanates were tested for their spasmolytic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Specifically, the cytotoxic effect on Caco-2, HeLa (cancer) and MDCK (non-cancer) cell lines was established. Additionally, the five tested ITCs exerted significant spasmolytic activity (on rat distal colon), with PhPeITC being almost 100 times more potent than papaverine. A non-selective antimicrobial activity of all ITCs was revealed in the case of 6 bacterial and 2 fungal strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation of Radiolabeled [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+)-Hydroxyurea and Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Baris; Teksoz, Serap; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ucar, Eser; Ichedef, Cigdem; Medine, Emin Ilker; Ari, Kadir

    2016-02-01

    The aim of current study is to examine hydroxyurea (HU), which is an antineoplastic drug used for the treatment of leukemia, sickle-cell disease, HIV, psoriasis, thrombocythemia, and various neoplastic diseases in two aspects. The active ingredient hydroxyurea was obtained by purification of the capsule form drug, commercially named as HYDREA. Then, [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+)core radiolabeling with HU was performed as first aspect. Quality control studies of (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex were performed by thin-layer radiochromatography and high-performance liquid radiochromatography methods. The results demonstrated that the radiolabeling yield was quite high (98.43% ± 2.29%). Also, (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex has good stability during the 24-hour period. Biological behavior of (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex is evaluated by biodistribution studies on Wistar Albino rats. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling of HU was performed as second aspect. Fluorometric evaluation of binding efficacy and fluorescence imaging studies on MCF7 and Hela cell lines were carried out. It was thought that the knowledge achieved in this study would contribute to using (99m)Tc(CO)3-HU complex as an imaging agent, which inhibits the DNA synthesis selectively, by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase enzyme. It was observed that FITC-HU has noteworthy incorporation on both cell lines.

  12. New Mild and Simple Approach to Isothiocyanates: A Class of Potent Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingling Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In our current work, acetyl chloride-mediated synthesis of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC derivatives proves to be convenient and provides the expected products at good to excellent yields. Biological evaluation and structure-activity relationship analysis found that the novel compound 7 showed the best anticancer activity against human cancer cell line Panc1 and HGC27 compared with PEITC. Compounds 6 and 7 induced more apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells but less toxicity in non-cancer cells. Further biological study demonstrated that 7 substantially increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and depleted glutathione (GSH, leading to an oxidative stress to kill cancer cell.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photoluminescence of a lithium isothiocyanate compound with 18-crown-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shan; Fu, Bo; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Xi [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). Chongqing Key Lab. of Inorganic Functional Materials

    2018-04-01

    The investigation of the supramolecular interactions between the lithium isothiocyanate salt and 18-crown-6 (18C-6) in commercial tetrahydrofuran leads to the formation of a lithium compound, LiNCS(H{sub 2}O)(18C-6) (1). In the crystal structure the asymmetric unit contains two similar LiNCS(H{sub 2}O)(18C-6) molecules. Solid-state photoluminescence experiments have shown that compound 1 emits violet luminescence, and its possible emission mechanism was investigated in detail based on theoretical calculations.

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Allyl Isothiocyanate Evaluated on N-Nitrosodiethylamine/Phenobarbitol induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thiyagarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA is a potential carcinogenic agent that induces liver cancer. To evaluate the chemotherapeutic effect of Allyl isothiocyanate in the experimental model, Wistar male rats were administered single dose of intraperitoneal (IP injection of NDEA. Two weeks after administration of NDEA, Phenobarbital at the concentration of 0.05% was incorporated in rat chow for up to 14 successive weeks to promote liver cancer. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC (2mg/kg body weight in addition with 0.5ml of corn oil was given orally on a daily basis. At the end of this experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were taken for biochemical studies. The levels of the marker enzymes for liver function were measured in serum. The results of the biochemical studies showed that NDEA administration followed by phenobarbital induces macro and microscopic liver tumors that increase the levels of marker enzymes and decreases the level of antioxidant in the serum in addition to loss of body weight. Conclusively, the administration of AITC as therapeutic treatment for hepatocarcinoma has significantly reduced the tumor development and counteracted all the biochemical effects induced by NDEA.

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  16. Contents of Sulforaphane and Total Isothiocyanates, Antimutagenic Activity, and Inhibition of Clastogenicity in Pulp Juices from Cruciferous Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Totušek, J.; Tříska, Jan; Lefnerová, D.; Strohalm, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Zendulka, O.; Průchová, J.; Chaloupková, J.; Novotná, P.; Houška, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2011), s. 548-556 ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cruciferous vegetables * juice * antimutagenic effects * sulforaphane * isothiocyanates Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2011

  17. The addition of organotin hydrides to isocyanates and isothiocyanates: synthesis and structure of some organotin-substituted amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noltes, J.G.; Janssen, M.J.

    Organotin hydrides add across the carbon---nitrogen double bond of aryl isocyanates (tin---nitrogen bond formation) and hexyl isocyanate (tin---carbon bond formation) and across the carbon---sulfur double bond of phenyl isothiocyanate (tin---sulfur bond formation) to afford in excellent yield 1:1

  18. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Caroline; Loon, Van Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; Nicola, De Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently

  19. Relationship between Chemical Structure and Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables against Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-12-28

    We evaluated the potentials of 10 isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables and radish root hydrolysate for inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens, with an emphasis on assessing any structure-function relationship. Structural differences in ITCs impacted their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens differently. The indolyl ITC (indol-3-carbinol) was the most potent inhibitor of the growth of oral pathogens, followed by aromatic ITCs (benzyl ITC (BITC) and phenylethyl ITC (PEITC)) and aliphatic ITCs (erucin, iberin, and sulforaphene). Sulforaphene, which is similar in structure, but has one double bond, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane. Erucin, which has a thiol group, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane, which has a sulfinyl group. BITC and iberin with a short chain exhibited higher antimicrobial potential than PEITC and sulforaphane with a longer chain, respectively. ITCs have strong antimicrobial activities and may be useful in the prevention and management of dental caries.

  20. Biochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L; Simmler, Charlotte; Kim, Youjin; Kuhn, Peter; Pauli, Guido F; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE), and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE), and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM). MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds. Optimization of the extraction process yielded an extract of 38.9% MIC-1. Phytochemical analysis of MSE revealed the presence of acetylated isothiocyanates, phenolic glycosides unique to moringa, flavonoids, fats and fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates. MSE showed a reduction in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (33% at 500 mg/kg MIC-1) comparable to aspirin (27% at 300 mg/kg), whereas CTE did not have any significant effect. In vitro, MIC-1 at 1 μM significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and at 5 μM, the gene expression of LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukins 1β and 6 (IL-1β and IL-6), whereas CEM did not show any significant activity at all concentrations tested. MIC-1 (10μM) was also more effective at upregulating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) than the CEM. Thus, in contrast to CTE and CEM, MSE and its major isothiocyanate MIC-1 displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro, making them promising botanical leads for the mitigation of inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders.

  1. Biochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa (Moringa oleifera seed extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jaja-Chimedza

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE, and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1 with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE, and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM. MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds. Optimization of the extraction process yielded an extract of 38.9% MIC-1. Phytochemical analysis of MSE revealed the presence of acetylated isothiocyanates, phenolic glycosides unique to moringa, flavonoids, fats and fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates. MSE showed a reduction in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (33% at 500 mg/kg MIC-1 comparable to aspirin (27% at 300 mg/kg, whereas CTE did not have any significant effect. In vitro, MIC-1 at 1 μM significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO and at 5 μM, the gene expression of LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and interleukins 1β and 6 (IL-1β and IL-6, whereas CEM did not show any significant activity at all concentrations tested. MIC-1 (10μM was also more effective at upregulating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 target genes NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 than the CEM. Thus, in contrast to CTE and CEM, MSE and its major isothiocyanate MIC-1 displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro, making them promising botanical leads for the mitigation of inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders.

  2. Apoptotic role of natural isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) in experimental chemical lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana Deepa Priya, D; Gayathri, R; Gunassekaran, G R; Murugan, S; Sakthisekaran, D

    2013-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)]. Since it is among the most potent bioactive components with antioxidant and antitumor properties, it has received intense attention in the recent years for its chemopreventive properties. The present work determined the rehabilitating role in alleviating the oxidative damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to biomolecules and the apoptotic cascade mediated by orally administered isothiocyanate-SFN (9 µmol/mouse/day) against B(a)P (100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Oxidative damage was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, glycoprotein components, protein carbonyl levels and DNA-protein crosslinks. DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and caspase-3 activity by ELISA proved apoptotic induction by SFN along with the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Cyt c. SFN treatment was found to decrease the H2O2 production (p < 0.001) in cancer induced animals, proving its antioxidant potential. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the release of Cyt c (p < 0.001) from mitochondria, decreasing and increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.001), respectively. Caspase-3 activity was also enhanced (p < 0.001) which leads to DNA fragmentation in SFN treated groups. Our results reflect the rehabilitating role of SFN in B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  3. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathematical modelling was performed to determine optimal isothiocyanate formation conditions and to obtain knowledge on the kinetics of the reactions. At 22 °C and endogenous plant pH, nearly all investigated plants formed nitriles and epithionitriles instead of health-promoting isothiocyanates. Response surface models, however, clearly demonstrated that upon change in pH to domestic acidic (pH 4) or basic pH values (pH 8), isothiocyanate formation considerably increases. While temperature also affects this process, the pH value has the greatest impact. Further, a kinetic model showed that isothiocyanate formation strongly increases due to dilution. Finally, the results show that isothiocyanate intake can be strongly increased by optimizing the conditions of preparation of Brassicales vegetables.

  4. Crystal structure of chlorido(η2-phenyl isothiocyanate-κ2C,S-mer-tris(trimethylphosphane-κPiridium(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Merola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, [IrCl(C7H5NS(C3H9P3], is a distorted octahedral iridium complex with three PMe3 ligands arranged in a meridional geometry, a chloride ion cis to all three PMe3 groups and the phenyl isothiocyanate ligand bonded in an η2-fashion through the C and S atoms. The C atom is trans to the chloride ion and the S atom is responsible for a significant deviation from an ideal octahedral geometry. The geometric parameters for the metal-complexing phenyl isothiocyanate group are compared with other metal-complexed phenyl isothiocyanates, as well as with examples of uncomplexed aryl isothiocyanates.

  5. Isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract alleviates ulcerative colitis symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Wu, Alex G; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L; Waterman, Carrie; Verzi, Michael P; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers

  6. Development of new apple beverages rich in isothiocyanates by using extracts obtained from ultrasound-treated cauliflower by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amofa-Diatuo, Tracy; Anang, Daniel M.; Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new apple juice beverage enriched with isothiocyanates (ITC) - rich extracts obtained from cauliflower by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different amplitudes (20-100%) and extraction times (0-10. min) at a frequency of 24. kHz was em......The objective of this study was to develop a new apple juice beverage enriched with isothiocyanates (ITC) - rich extracts obtained from cauliflower by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different amplitudes (20-100%) and extraction times (0-10. min) at a frequency of 24. k......) and UAE (20%, 3. min), respectively. Moreover, the highest recovery of total phenolic compounds (TPC) (≈105. mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L) μM) was found after UAE (100% amplitude, 3. min) of TPC from stems. ITC-rich extracts obtained from caulifower by-products at the optimum UAE conditions were...

  7. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were eva...

  8. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  9. Isothiocyanate-rich Moringa oleifera extract reduces weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Kuhn, Peter; Richard, Allison J; Wicks, Shawna; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Wang, Zhong; Mynatt, Randy; Cefalu, William; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa) is tropical plant traditionally used as an antidiabetic food. It produces structurally unique and chemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICs) that were evaluated for their therapeutic use in vivo. C57BL/6L mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD) supplemented with 5% moringa concentrate (MC, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of MICs) accumulated fat mass, had improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, and did not develop fatty liver disease compared to VHFD-fed mice. MC-fed group also had reduced plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, IL-1β, TNFα, and lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression. In hepatoma cells, MC and MICs at low micromolar concentrations inhibited gluconeogenesis and G6P expression. MICs and MC effects on lipolysis in vitro and on thermogenic and lipolytic genes in adipose tissue in vivo argued these are not likely primary targets for the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects observed. Data suggest that MICs are the main anti-obesity and anti-diabetic bioactives of MC, and that they exert their effects by inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis resulting in direct or indirect increase in insulin signaling and sensitivity. These conclusions suggest that MC may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Watercress and Water Quality: The Effect of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on the Mating Behaviour of Gammarus pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Dixon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Watercress releases phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC upon wounding as a defence against herbivores. PEITC levels released from watercress farms are elevated due to cropping, washing, and processing and are thought to lead to adverse effects on Gammarus pulex in chalk streams. This study elucidates the sublethal effect of PEITC on reproductive behaviour of G. pulex, employing ex situ tests to investigate the disruption of precopular pairing under conditions simulating in situ exposure. Mean time to separation of precopular pairs was 89 ± 6 minutes for watercress wash water (1 g watercress per litre water and 81 ± 15 minutes for pure PEITC (1 μL/L. Re-exposure to watercress wash water to simulate the pulsed operation at a watercress farm did not alter behavioural response. The repeated interruption of reproductive behaviour under in situ conditions would impair long-term reproductive success and could explain in part low abundance of G. pulex downstream of watercress farms.

  11. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root against oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Won; Choi, Kyu-Duck; Shin, Il-Shik

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish root was investigated against oral microorganisms: 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; one strain of yeast, Candida albicans, and 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, and Clostridium perfringens. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed antimicrobial activity against all oral microorganisms by the paper disk method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ITCs extracted from horseradish root ranged from 1.25 to 5.00 mg/ml against 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria and one strain of yeast, and 4.17 to 16.67 mg/ml against 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, with a MBC of 1.25 mg/ml, against C. albicans among facultative microorganisms, and 4.17 mg/ml against F. nucleatum among anaerobic bacteria. These results suggest that the ITCs extracted from horseradish root may be a candidate for use as an antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.

  13. Increased presevation of sliced mozzarella cheese by antimibrobial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clarissa dos Santos Pires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing tendency to add natural antimicrobials of plant origin into food. The objective of this work was to develop a microbial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT, a volatile compound of plant origin, and to test its efficiency against growth of yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus sp. and psychrotrophic bacteria on sliced mozzarella cheese. Another objective was to quantify the concentration of AIT in the headspace of cheese packaging. A reduction of 3.6 log cycles was observed in yeasts and molds counts in the mozzarella packed with the antimicrobial sachet over 15-day storage time. The sachet also showed an antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus sp., reducing 2.4 log cycles after 12-day storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria species were the most resistant to the antimicrobial action. The highest concentration of AIT (0.08µg.mL-1 inside the active packaging system was observed at the 6-day of storage at 12 ºC ± 2 ºC. At the end of the storage time, AIT concentration decreased to only 10% of the initial concentration. Active packaging containing antimicrobial sachet has a potential use for sliced mozzarella, with molds and yeasts being the most sensitive to the antimicrobial effects.

  14. Laboratory Measured Emission Losses of Methyl Isothiocyanate at Pacific Northwest Soil Surface Fumigation Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is a major environmental factor influencing land surface volatilization at the time of agricultural field fumigation. Cooler fumigation soil temperatures relevant to Pacific Northwest (PNW) application practices with metam sodium/potassium should result in appreciably reduced methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) emission rates, thus minimizing off target movement and bystander inhalation exposure. Herein, a series of laboratory controlled flow-through soil column assessments were performed evaluating MITC emissions over the range of cooler temperatures (2-13°C). Assessments were also conducted at the maximum allowed label application temperature of 32°C. All assessments were conducted at registration label-specified field moisture capacity, and no more than 50% cumulative MITC loss was observed over the 2-day post-fumigation timeframe. Three-fold reductions in MITC peak fluxes at cooler PNW application temperatures were observed compared to the label maximum temperature. This study supports current EPA metam sodium/potassium label language that indicates surface fumigations during warmer soil conditions should be discouraged.

  15. Nanoemulsions of cancer chemopreventive agent benzyl isothiocyanate display enhanced solubility, dissolution, and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Wang, Shu; Salihima, Tri; Srivastava, Sanjay K; Liu, Xinli

    2011-12-14

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, is an effective chemopreventive agent. The objective of this study was to develop nanoemulsion formulations for the oral delivery of BITC. Optimized oil-in-water BITC nanoemulsions were prepared by a spontaneous self-nanoemulsification method and a homogenization-sonication method. Both nanoemulsions entrapped high amounts of BITC (15-17 mg/mL), with low polydispersity and good colloidal stability. The BITC nanoemulsions showed enhanced solubility and dissolution compared to pure BITC. These formulations markedly increased the apical to basolateral transport of BITC in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The apparent permeability values were 3.6 × 10(-6) cm/s for pure BITC and (1.1-1.3) × 10(-5) cm/s for BITC nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions were easily taken up by human cancer cells A549 and SKOV-3 and inhibited tumor growth in vitro. This work shows for the first time that BITC can be formulated into nanoemulsions and may show promise in enhancing absorption and bioavailability.

  16. Fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin agglutinin phosphorescent sensor for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein and forecast of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-ming; Lin, Li-ping; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Cui, Ma Lin; Jiao, Li; Zhang, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Li-hong; Zheng, Zhi Yong; Lin, Xuan; Lin, Shao-qin

    2013-11-01

    Based on the reaction of the active -OH group in fullerol (F) with the dissociated -COOH group in fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to form an F-FITC and the enhanced effect of N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) on phosphorescence signal of F-FITC, a new phosphorescent labeling reagent (DMA-F-FITC) was developed. What's more, a phosphorescent sensor for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein variant (AFP-V) has been designed via the coupling technique of the high sensitivity for affinity adsorption-solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) with the strong specificity reaction between DMA-F-FITC-Con A and AFP-V. The DMA-F-FITC increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target which improved the sensitivity of phosphorescent sensor. The proposed sensor was responsive, simple, selective and sensitive, and it has been applied to the determination of trace AFP-V in human serum and the forecast of human diseases using phosphorescence emission wavelength of F or FITC, with the results agreed well with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the mechanisms for the labeling reaction and the sensing detection of AFP-V were discussed.

  17. Benefits and risks of the hormetic effects of dietary isothiocyanates on cancer prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Bao

    Full Text Available The isothiocyanate (ITC sulforaphane (SFN was shown at low levels (1-5 µM to promote cell proliferation to 120-143% of the controls in a number of human cell lines, whilst at high levels (10-40 µM it inhibited such cell proliferation. Similar dose responses were observed for cell migration, i.e. SFN at 2.5 µM increased cell migration in bladder cancer T24 cells to 128% whilst high levels inhibited cell migration. This hormetic action was also found in an angiogenesis assay where SFN at 2.5 µM promoted endothelial tube formation (118% of the control, whereas at 10-20 µM it caused significant inhibition. The precise mechanism by which SFN influences promotion of cell growth and migration is not known, but probably involves activation of autophagy since an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, abolished the effect of SFN on cell migration. Moreover, low doses of SFN offered a protective effect against free-radical mediated cell death, an effect that was enhanced by co-treatment with selenium. These results suggest that SFN may either prevent or promote tumour cell growth depending on the dose and the nature of the target cells. In normal cells, the promotion of cell growth may be of benefit, but in transformed or cancer cells it may be an undesirable risk factor. In summary, ITCs have a biphasic effect on cell growth and migration. The benefits and risks of ITCs are not only determined by the doses, but are affected by interactions with Se and the measured endpoint.

  18. Metformin and phenethyl isothiocyanate combined treatment in vitro is cytotoxic to ovarian cancer cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Daniel K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High mortality rates in ovarian cancer are largely a result of resistance to currently used chemotherapies. Expanding therapies with a variety of drugs has the potential to reduce this high mortality rate. Metformin and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC are both potentially useful in ovarian cancer, and they are particularly attractive because of their safety. Methods Cell proliferation of each drug and drug combination was evaluated by hemacytometry with Trypan blue exclusion or Sytox green staining for cell death. Levels of total and cleaved PARP were measured by Western blot. General cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were measured by flow cytometry and live cell confocal microscopy with the fluorescent dyes dihydroethidine and MitoSOX. Results Individually, metformin and PEITC each show inhibition of cell growth in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. Alone, PEITC was also able to induce apoptosis, whereas metformin was primarily growth inhibitory. Both total cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were increased when treated with either metformin or PEITC. The growth inhibitory effects of metformin were reversed by methyl succinate supplementation, suggesting complex I plays a role in metformin's anti-cancer mechanism. PEITC's anti-cancer effect was reversed by N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation, suggesting PEITC relies on reactive oxygen species generation to induce apoptosis. Metformin and PEITC together showed a synergistic effect on ovarian cancer cell lines, including the cisplatin resistant A2780cis. Conclusions Here we show that when used in combination, these drugs are effective in both slowing cancer cell growth and killing ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, the combination of these drugs remains effective in cisplatin resistant cell lines. Novel combinations such as metformin and PEITC show promise in expanding ovarian cancer therapies and overcoming the high incidence of

  19. Moringa isothiocyanate complexed with α-cyclodextrin: a new perspective in neuroblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-07-14

    Several lines of evidence suggest the consume of natural products for cancer prevention or treatment. In particular, isothiocyanates (ITCs) exerting anti-cancer properties, have received great interest as potential chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to assess the anti-proliferative activities of a new preparation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC (moringin) complexed with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD; MAC) on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. This new formulation arises in the attempt to overcome the poor solubility and stability of moringin alone in aqueous media. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and exposed to increasing concentrations of MAC (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μg). Cell proliferation was examined by MTT and cell count assays. The cytotoxic activity of the MAC complex was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and trypan blue exclusion test. In addition, western blotting analyses for the main apoptosis-related proteins were performed. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with the MAC complex reduced cell growth in concentration dependent manner. Specifically, MAC exhibited a potent action in inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, whose aberrant activation was found in many types of cancer. MAC was also found to induce the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 activation by phosphorylation and its translocation into the nucleus. Moreover, treatment with MAC was able to down-regulate MAPK pathway (results focused on JNK and p38 expression). Finally, MAC was found to trigger apoptotic death pathway (based on expression levels of cleaved-caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 balance, p53 and p21). These findings suggest that use of MAC complex may open novel perspectives to improve the poor prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma.

  20. Ternary Interactions and Energy Transfer between Fluorescein Isothiocyanate, Adenosine Triphosphate, and Graphene Oxide Nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Stobiecka, Magdalena

    2017-07-20

    The interactions of fluorescent probes and biomolecules with nanocarriers are of key importance to the emerging targeted drug delivery systems. Graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) as the nanocarriers offer biocompatibility and robust drug binding capacity. The interactions of GONs with fluorophores lead to strong fluorescence quenching, which may interfere with fluorescence bioimaging and biodetection. Herein, we report on the interactions and energy transfers in a model ternary system: GONs-FITC-ATP, where FITC is a model fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and ATP is a common biomolecule (adenosine-5'-triphosphate). We have found that FITC fluorescence is considerably quenched by ATP (the quenching constant K SV = 113 ± 22 M -1 ). The temperature coefficient of K SV is positive (α T = 4.15 M -1 deg -1 ). The detailed analysis of a model for internal self-quenching of FITC indicates that the temperature dependence of the net quenching efficiency η for the FITC-ATP pair is dominated by FITC internal self-quenching modes with their contribution estimated at 79%. The quenching of FITC by GONs is much stronger (K SV = 598 ± 29 M -1 ) than that of FITC-ATP and is associated with the formation of supramolecular assemblies bound with hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions. For the analysis of the complex behavior of the ternary system GONs-FITC-ATP, a model of chemisorption of ATP on GONs, with partial blocking of FITC quenching, has been developed. Our results indicate that ATP acts as a moderator for FITC quenching by GONs. The interactions between ATP, FITC, and GONs have been corroborated using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations.

  1. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  2. Complexes of (III) lanthanides isothiocyanate and (III) yttrium with 2,6-lutidine-n-oxide (2,6-LNO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the complexes of yttrium and some lanthanides isothiocyanate with 2,6-lutidine-N-oxide (2,6-LNO) are described. The ligand employed in the synthesis of the compounds were prepared by the reaction of 2,6-lutidine with hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid. The complexes were prepared using the relation 1:3 salt-ligand. Their characterization was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectra, electronic absorption spectra of the neodymium and fluorescence spectra of the europium compounds. (author)

  3. Improved synthesis methods of standards used for quantitative determination of total isothiocyanates from broccoli in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    A well-known method for quantification of isothiocyanates (ITCs) and their metabolites is the condensation reaction with 1,2-benzenedithiole to produce 1,3-benzodithiole-2-thione, which can be quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standards of an ITC metabolite and 1,3-benzodithio...... excretion of ITCs from 10 healthy subjects who consumed 350 g broccoli. The excretion was investigated throughout 48 h showing a cumulative urinary ITC excretion of 49.1 +/- 25.2% of the dose....

  4. Benzyl isothiocyanate causes FoxO1-mediated autophagic death in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells but the mechanisms underlying growth inhibitory effect of BITC are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that BITC treatment causes FoxO1-mediated autophagic death in cultured human breast cancer cells. The BITC-treated breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, BT-474, and BRI-JM04 and MDA-MB-231 xenografts from BITC-treated mice exhibited several features characteristic of autophagy, including appearance of double-membrane vacuoles (transmission electron microscopy and acidic vesicular organelles (acridine orange staining, cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3, and/or suppression of p62 (p62/SQSTM1 or sequestosome 1 expression. On the other hand, a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A was resistant to BITC-induced autophagy. BITC-mediated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell viability was partially but statistically significantly attenuated in the presence of autophagy inhibitors 3-methyl adenine and bafilomycin A1. Stable overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, which was fully protective against apoptosis, conferred only partial protection against BITC-induced autophagy. BITC treatment decreased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets (P70s6k and 4E-BP1 in cultured MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 xenografts, but activation of mTOR by transient overexpression of its positive regulator Rheb failed to confer protection against BITC-induced autophagy. Autophagy induction by BITC was associated with increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. Furthermore, autophagy induction and cell growth inhibition resulting from BITC exposure were significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA knockdown of FoxO1. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insights into the molecular circuitry of BITC-induced cell death involving FoxO1-mediated autophagy.

  5. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  6. The isothiocyanate class of bioactive nutrients covalently inhibit the MEKK1 protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Timothy L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs are electrophilic compounds that have diverse biological activities including induction of apoptosis and effects on cell cycle. They protect against experimental carcinogenesis in animals, an activity believed to result from the transcriptional induction of "Phase 2" enzymes. The molecular mechanism of action of ITCs is unknown. Since ITCs are electrophiles capable of reacting with sulfhydryl groups on amino acids, we hypothesized that ITCs induce their biological effects through covalent modification of proteins, leading to changes in cell regulatory events. We previously demonstrated that stress-signaling kinase pathways are inhibited by other electrophilic compounds such as menadione. We therefore tested the effects of nutritional ITCs on MEKK1, an upstream regulator of the SAPK/JNK signal transduction pathway. Methods The activity of MEKK1 expressed in cells was monitored using in vitro kinase assays to measure changes in catalytic activity. The activity of endogenous MEKK1, immunopurified from ITC treated and untreated LnCAP cells was also measured by in vitro kinase assay. A novel labeling and affinity reagent for detection of protein modification by ITCs was synthesized and used in competition assays to monitor direct modification of MEKK1 by ITC. Finally, immunoblots with phospho-specific antibodies were used to measure the activity of MAPK protein kinases. Results ITCs inhibited the MEKK1 protein kinase in a manner dependent on a specific cysteine residue in the ATP binding pocket. Inhibition of MEKK1 catalytic activity was due to direct, covalent and irreversible modification of the MEKK1 protein itself. In addition, ITCs inhibited the catalytic activity of endogenous MEKK1. This correlated with inhibition of the downstream target of MEKK1 activity, i.e. the SAPK/JNK kinase. This inhibition was specific to SAPK, as parallel MAPK pathways were unaffected. Conclusion These results

  7. The isothiocyanate class of bioactive nutrients covalently inhibit the MEKK1 protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Janet V; Foss, Frank W; Rady, Joshua M; Macdonald, Timothy L; Templeton, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) are electrophilic compounds that have diverse biological activities including induction of apoptosis and effects on cell cycle. They protect against experimental carcinogenesis in animals, an activity believed to result from the transcriptional induction of 'Phase 2' enzymes. The molecular mechanism of action of ITCs is unknown. Since ITCs are electrophiles capable of reacting with sulfhydryl groups on amino acids, we hypothesized that ITCs induce their biological effects through covalent modification of proteins, leading to changes in cell regulatory events. We previously demonstrated that stress-signaling kinase pathways are inhibited by other electrophilic compounds such as menadione. We therefore tested the effects of nutritional ITCs on MEKK1, an upstream regulator of the SAPK/JNK signal transduction pathway. The activity of MEKK1 expressed in cells was monitored using in vitro kinase assays to measure changes in catalytic activity. The activity of endogenous MEKK1, immunopurified from ITC treated and untreated LnCAP cells was also measured by in vitro kinase assay. A novel labeling and affinity reagent for detection of protein modification by ITCs was synthesized and used in competition assays to monitor direct modification of MEKK1 by ITC. Finally, immunoblots with phospho-specific antibodies were used to measure the activity of MAPK protein kinases. ITCs inhibited the MEKK1 protein kinase in a manner dependent on a specific cysteine residue in the ATP binding pocket. Inhibition of MEKK1 catalytic activity was due to direct, covalent and irreversible modification of the MEKK1 protein itself. In addition, ITCs inhibited the catalytic activity of endogenous MEKK1. This correlated with inhibition of the downstream target of MEKK1 activity, i.e. the SAPK/JNK kinase. This inhibition was specific to SAPK, as parallel MAPK pathways were unaffected. These results demonstrate that MEKK1 is directly modified and inhibited by

  8. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura; Nicioli da Silva, Glenda; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  9. Fermentation-Assisted Extraction of Isothiocyanates from Brassica Vegetable Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Jaiswal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS, as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in the food industry as a food preservative and colouring agent. They are also used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their several pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective effects, etc. Due to their widespread application in food and pharmaceuticals, the present study was designed to extract ITCs from York cabbage. In order to optimise the fermentation-assisted extraction process for maximum yield of ITCs from York cabbage, Box-Behnken design (BBD combined with response surface methodology (RSM was applied. Additionally, the GLS content of York cabbage was quantified and the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB on GLS was evaluated. A range of GLS such as glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, sinigrin, gluconapin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were identified and quantified in fresh York cabbage. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis, and also examined by appropriate statistical methods. LAB facilitated the degradation of GLS, and the consequent formation of breakdown products such as ITCs. Results showed that the solid-to-liquid (S/L ratio, fermentation time and agitation rate had a significant effect on the yield of ITCs (2.2 times increment. The optimum fermentation conditions to achieve a higher ITCs extraction yield were: S/L ratio of 0.25 w/v, fermentation time of 36 h, and agitation rate of 200 rpm. The obtained yields of ITCs (45.62 ± 2.13 μM sulforaphane equivalent (SFE/mL were comparable to the optimised conditions, indicating the accuracy of the model

  10. Fermentation-Assisted Extraction of Isothiocyanates from Brassica Vegetable Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit K; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2016-11-04

    Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS), as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs) and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in the food industry as a food preservative and colouring agent. They are also used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their several pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective effects, etc. Due to their widespread application in food and pharmaceuticals, the present study was designed to extract ITCs from York cabbage. In order to optimise the fermentation-assisted extraction process for maximum yield of ITCs from York cabbage, Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. Additionally, the GLS content of York cabbage was quantified and the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on GLS was evaluated. A range of GLS such as glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, sinigrin, gluconapin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were identified and quantified in fresh York cabbage. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis, and also examined by appropriate statistical methods. LAB facilitated the degradation of GLS, and the consequent formation of breakdown products such as ITCs. Results showed that the solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio, fermentation time and agitation rate had a significant effect on the yield of ITCs (2.2 times increment). The optimum fermentation conditions to achieve a higher ITCs extraction yield were: S/L ratio of 0.25 w / v , fermentation time of 36 h, and agitation rate of 200 rpm. The obtained yields of ITCs (45.62 ± 2.13 μM sulforaphane equivalent (SFE)/mL) were comparable to the optimised conditions, indicating the accuracy of the model for the

  11. Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Apoptosis Studies of Quercetin-3-O Glucoside and 4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-Rhamnopyranosyloxy)-Benzyl Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona C; Moodley, Roshila; Singh, Moganavelli

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analyses of the crude extracts of M.oleifera and biological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds. The compounds isolated from the leaves and seeds of the plant were quercetin-3-O-glucoside (1), 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), lutein (3), and sitosterol (4). Antioxidant activity of compound 1 was significant when compared to that of the control, while compound 2 showed moderate activity. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 were tested in three cell lines, viz. liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a non-cancer cell line Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293), using the MTT cell viability assay and compared against a standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining method. The isolated compounds showed selective in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against human cancer and non-cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cell line with an IC50 of 79 μg mL(-1) and moderate cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 of 150 μg mL(-1), while compound 2 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco- 2 and HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 45 μg mL(-1) and 60 μg mL(-1), respectively. Comparatively both compounds showed much lower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL(-1) and 224 μg mL(-1), respectively.

  12. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on ultra-structure and the activities of four enzymes in adult Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Xue-ru; Yu, Dong-dong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Jun-tao

    2014-02-01

    Rarefaction and vacuolization of the mitochondrial matrix of AITC-treated (allyl isothiocyanate-treated) adult Sitophilus zeamais were evident according to the ultra-structural by TEM. Four important enzymes in adult S. zeamais were further studied after fumigation treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) extracted from Armoracia rusticana roots and shoots. The enzymes were glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), cytochrome c oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results indicated that the activities of the four enzymes were strongly time and dose depended. With prolonged exposure time, treatment with 0.74μg/mL AITC inhibited the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT, but induced the activity of GST. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT were remarkably induced at a low AITC dosage (0.25μg/mL), but were restrained with increased AITC dosage. The activity of GST was inhibited at a low AITC dosage (0.5μg/mL), but was induced at a high AITC dosage (1.5μg/mL). According to the results of TEM, toxic symptoms and enzymes activities, it suggested that mitochondrial maybe the one site of action of AITC against the adult S. zeamais and it also suggested that cytochrome c oxidase maybe one target protein of AITC against the adult S. zeamais, which need to further confirmed by protein function tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation of quinone reductase activity and allyl isothiocyanate formation among different genotypes and grades of horseradish roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A; Kushad, Mosbah M

    2015-03-25

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its ground root tissue is used in condiments because of the pungency of the glucosinolate (GS)-hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, respectively. Horseradish roots are sold in three grades: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 2 according to the USDA standards. These grading standards are primarily based on root diameter and length. There is little information on whether root grades vary in their phytochemical content or potential health promoting properties. This study measured GS, GS-hydrolysis products, potential anticancer activity (as quinone reductase inducing activity), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities from different grades of horseradish accessions. U.S. Fancy showed significantly higher sinigrin and AITC concentrations than U.S. No. 1 ,whereas U.S. No. 1 showed significantly higher concentrations of 1-cyano 2,3-epithiopropane, the epithionitrile hydrolysis product of sinigrin, and significantly higher total phenolic concentrations than U.S. Fancy.

  14. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  15. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  16. Concentration- and Time-Dependent Effects of Isothiocyanates Produced from Brassicaceae Shoot Tissues on the Pea Root Rot Pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, S.; Bergkvist, G.; Berglund, K.; Glinwood, R.; Kabouw, P.; Martensson, A.; Persson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) hydrolyzed from glucosinolates (GSLs) in Brassicaceae tissue are toxic to soil organisms. In this study, the effect of aliphatic and aromatic ITCs from hydrated dry Brassicaceae shoot tissues on the mycelium and oospores of the pea root rot pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches was

  17. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanschen, F.; Klopsch, R.; Oliviero, T.; Schreiner, M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and

  18. Endophytic fungi from the roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and their interactions with the defensive metabolites of the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Zsolt; Plaszkó, Tamás; Cziáky, Zoltán; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Emri, Tamás; Bertóti, Regina; Sinka, László Tamás; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor

    2018-05-09

    The health of plants is heavily influenced by the intensively researched plant microbiome. The microbiome has to cope with the plant's defensive secondary metabolites to survive and develop, but studies that describe this interaction are rare. In the current study, we describe interactions of endophytic fungi with a widely researched chemical defense system, the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system. The antifungal isothiocyanates are also of special interest because of their beneficial effects on human consumers. Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), from the genera Fusarium, Macrophomina, Setophoma, Paraphoma and Oidiodendron. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the horseradish extract incubated with these fungi showed that six of seven strains could decompose different classes of glucosinolates. Aliphatic, aromatic, thiomethylalkyl and indolic glucosinolates were decomposed by different strains at different rates. SPME-GC-MS measurements showed that two strains released significant amounts of allyl isothiocyanate into the surrounding air, but allyl nitrile was not detected. The LC-ESI-MS analysis of many strains' media showed the presence of allyl isothiocyanate - glutathione conjugate during the decomposition of sinigrin. Four endophytic strains also accepted sinigrin as the sole carbon source. Isothiocyanates inhibited the growth of fungi at various concentrations, phenylethyl isothiocyanate was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate (mean IC 50 was 2.30-fold lower). As a control group, ten soil fungi from the same soil were used. They decomposed glucosinolates with lower overall efficiency: six of ten strains had insignificant or weak activities and only three could use sinigrin as a carbon source. The soil fungi also showed lower AITC tolerance in the growth inhibition assay: the median IC 50 values were 0.1925 mM for endophytes and 0.0899 mM for soil fungi. The host's glucosinolates can be used by the tested

  19. Comparative studies on mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes of Sitophilus zeamais treated with allyl isothiocyanate and calcium phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Hua; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    With Sitophilus zeamais as the target organism, the present study for the first time attempted to elucidate the comparative effects between allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and calcium phosphide (Ca3P2), exposure on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) complex I & IV and their downstream effects on enzymes relevant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vivo, both AITC and Ca3P2 inhibited complex I and IV with similar downstream effects. In contrast with Ca3P2, the inhibition of complex I caused by AITC was dependent on time and dose. In vitro, AITC inhibited complex IV more significantly than complex I. These results indicate that mitochondrial complex IV is the primary target of AITC, and that complex I is another potential target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorescein isothiocyanate and rhodamine B dye encapsulated mesoporous SiO2 for applications of blue LED excited white LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Manam, J.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes were encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNp). The MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor showed a dichromatic PL emission at green region and orange region when excited at 460 nm. A Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was observed from FITC to RhB. The materials were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and temperature dependent photoluminescence. The CIE coordinates were tuned from greenish yellow to the orange region and quantum yield was reached 52.04% based on FRET. So by combining the MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor with the blue LED chip, the white light emission with flexible Color Correlated Temperature and improved Color Rendering Index can be obtained.

  1. Degradation of Biofumigant Isothiocyanates and Allyl Glucosinolate in Soil and Their Effects on the Microbial Community Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S Hanschen

    Full Text Available Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation. In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.

  2. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  3. Iron depletion in HCT116 cells diminishes the upregulatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate on heme oxygenase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolloskis, Michael P.; Carvalho, Fabiana P.; Loo, George

    2016-01-01

    Some of the health-promoting properties of cruciferous vegetables are thought to be partly attributed to isothiocyanates. These phytochemicals can upregulate the expression of certain cytoprotective stress genes, but it is unknown if a particular nutrient is involved. Herein, the objective was to ascertain if adequate iron is needed for enabling HCT116 cells to optimally express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) when induced by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). PEITC increased HO-1 expression and also nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which is a transcription factor known to activate the HO-1 gene. However, in HCT116 cells that were made iron-deficient by depleting intracellular iron with deferoxamine (DFO), PEITC was less able to increase HO-1 expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. These suppressive effects of DFO were overcome by replenishing the iron-deficient cells with the missing iron. To elucidate these findings, it was found that PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation can be inhibited with thiol antioxidants (glutathione and N-acetylcysteine). Furthermore, NADPH oxidase inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin) and a superoxide scavenger (Tiron) each inhibited PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation. In doing so, diphenyleneiodonium was the most potent and also inhibited nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2. Collectively, the results imply that the HO-1 upregulation by PEITC involves an iron-dependent, oxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, it is concluded that ample iron is required to enable PEITC to fully upregulate HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. As such, it is conceivable that iron-deficient individuals may not reap the full health benefits of eating PEITC-containing cruciferous vegetables that via HO-1 may help protect against multiple chronic diseases. - Highlights: • PEITC increased HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. • PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation was impaired in iron-depleted HCT116 cells. • Impairment of PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation was

  4. Labelling of histone H5 and its interaction with DNA. 1. Histone H5 labelling with fluorescein isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, M; Lerho, M; Houssier, C

    1990-06-01

    Histone H5 has been labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with particular attention to the reaction conditions (pH, reaction time and input FITC/H5 molar ratio) and to the complete elimination of non-covalently bound dye. We preferred to use reaction conditions which yielded non-specific uniform labelling rather than specific alpha-NH2 terminal labelling, in order to obtain higher sensitivity in further studies dealing with the detection of perturbation at the binding sites of H5 on DNA. FITC-labelled H5 was further characterized by absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and the fluorescein probe titrated in the 4-8 pH range. The structural integrity of H5 was found to be preserved after labelling. The positive electrostatic potential of the environment in which the FITC probe is embedded in the arginine/lysine-rich tails of H5 is believed to be responsible for the drop of pK of 1 unit found for H5-FITC as compared to free FITC. For the globular part of H5, the pK of covalently-bound FITC was only slightly lowered; this is a consequence of the much lower content in positively-charged amino-acid side chains in this region.

  5. Phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibits growth of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells via reactive oxygen species generation and caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Wei, Sixi; Wang, Jishi; Fang, Qin; Chai, Qixiang

    2014-07-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a potential cancer chemopreventive constituent of cruciferous vegetables, including watercress, has been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in various human cancer cell models. However, the role of PEITC in the inhibition of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cell growth and its underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, PEITC was found to induce cell death through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress and oxidative damage. Heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1), which participates in the development of numerous tumors and the sensitivity of these tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs, plays a protective role by modulating oxidative injury. Therefore, the present study assessed the inhibitory effect of PEITC on K562 cells and whether HO‑1 facilitated cell apoptosis and ROS generation. PEITC was found to suppress cell growth and cause apoptosis by promoting Fas and Fas ligand expression, increasing ROS generation and by the successive release of cytochrome c as well as the activation of caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. PEITC was also combined with the HO‑1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and the inducer hemin to assess whether HO‑1 determines cell survival and ROS generation. The results of the present study suggest that PEITC may be a potential anti‑tumor compound for CML therapy, and that HO‑1 has a critical function in PEITC‑induced apoptosis and ROS generation.

  6. Brown seaweed (Saccharina japonica) as an edible natural delivery matrix for allyl isothiocyanate inhibiting food-borne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Evi Amelia; Pendleton, Phillip; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The edible, brown seaweed Saccharina japonica was prepared as powder in the size range 500-900 μm for the desorption release of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Powders were used as raw (containing lipids) and as de-oiled, where the lipid was removed. In general, de-oiled powders adsorbed larger masses of AITC after vapour or solution contact. Mass adsorbed due to solution contact exceeded vapour contact. Larger particles adsorbed more than smaller particles. No chemical bonding between AITC and the powder surface occurred. Release from vapour deposited particles reached 70-85% available within 72 h; solution deposited reached 70-90% available at 192 h. The larger amounts of AITC adsorbed via solution deposition resulted in greater vapour-phase concentrations at 72 h for antimicrobial activity studies. No loss of activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium or Bacillus cereus. Only a nominal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated. S. japonica powder could be used as an edible, natural vehicle for AITC delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infrared matrix isolation and ab initio studies on isothiocyanic acid HNCS and its complexes with nitrogen and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzejewska, Maria; Wieczorek, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The isothiocyanic acid HNCS (DNCS) and its complexes with nitrogen and xenon have been studied experimentally by FTIR matrix isolation technique and computationally with the use of ab initio calculations at the MP2 level. The spectra show that HNCS (DNCS) interacts specifically with nitrogen forming 1:1 hydrogen bonded complex in argon matrix while non-hydrogen bonded structure is probably formed in solid xenon. Two stable minima were localized on the potential energy surface. One of them involves an almost linear hydrogen bond from NH group of the acid molecule to nitrogen molecule lone pair (structure I) and has an interaction energy ΔE CP equal to -6.85 kJ/mol. The second structure (II) where the nitrogen molecule interacts with the sulfur atom of the HNCS was found to be weaker bound and is characterized by ΔE CP =-1.99 kJ/mol. A low energetic barrier of 5.86 kJ/mol between the structures I and II was found. Both experimental and theoretical results obtained for the Xe···HNCS system point to a structure with the NH group interacting with the xenon atom. An interaction energy ΔE CP for this complex is equal to -3.64 kJ/mol

  8. Allyl isothiocyanate that induces GST and UGT expression confers oxidative stress resistance on C. elegans, as demonstrated by nematode biosensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hasegawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenous products from oxidative stresses induce the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, which form a large family within the phase II enzymes over both animal and plant kingdoms. The GSTs thus induced in turn detoxify these external as well as internal stresses. Because these stresses are often linked to ageing and damage to health, the induction of phase II enzymes without causing adverse effects would be beneficial in slowing down ageing and keeping healthy conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested this hypothesis by choosing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, a functional ingredient in wasabi, as a candidate food ingredient that induces GSTs without causing adverse effects on animals' lives. To monitor the GST induction, we constructed a gst::gfp fusion gene and used it to transform Caenorhabditis elegans for use as a nematode biosensor. With the nematode biosensor, we found that AITC induced GST expression and conferred tolerance on the nematode against various oxidative stresses. We also present evidence that the transcription factor SKN-1 is involved in regulating the GST expression induced by AITC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show the applicability of the nematode biosensor for discovering and evaluating functional food substances and chemicals that would provide anti-ageing or healthful benefits.

  9. Transdermal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans using the combination of microneedles and low-frequency sonophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonnada Pamornpathomkul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the patient-friendly methods that are used in the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules into deep skin layers, in particular, the combination of microneedles patch (MNs patch and low-frequency sonophoresis (SN. The hydrophilic macromolecule drug fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextrans (FD-4: MW 4.4 kDa was used as the model drug in our experimental design. In this study, excised porcine skin was used to investigate and optimize the key parameters that determine effective MNs- and SN-facilitated FD-4 delivery. In vitro skin permeation experiments revealed that the combination of MNs patch with SN had a superior enhancing effect of skin permeation for FD-4 compared to MNs alone, SN alone or untreated skin, respectively. The optimal parameters for the combination of MNs and SN included the following: 10 N insertion force of MNs, 4 W/cm2 SN intensity, 6 mm radiation diameter of the SN probe, 2 min application time, and the continuous mode duty cycle of SN. In addition, vertical sections of skin, clearly observed under a confocal microscope, confirmed that the combination of MNs and SN enhanced permeation of FD-4 into the deep skin layers. These studies suggest that the combination of MNs and SN techniques could have great potential in the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules into deep skin.

  10. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells by extracts from isothiocyanates-rich varieties of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Deulofeu, Ramon; Molina, Rafael; Ballesta, Antonio; Kensler, Thomas W; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    Among the vegetables with anti-carcinogenic properties, members of the genus Brassica are the most effective at reducing the risk of cancer. This property may be explained by their principle bioactive compounds, isothiocyanates (ITCs). The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of ITCs in extracts from vegetables of the Brasssica genus and assay them for potency of induction of apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29). ITCs were determined by the cyclocondensation assay with 1,2-benzenedithiol and induction of apoptosis by assessment of cell viability, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Purple cabbage extract showed the highest ITC concentration per gram, fresh weight, followed by black cabbage and Romanesco cauliflower. At ITC concentrations of 7.08 microg/mL these extracts decreased cell viability and induced caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation at 48h. Brussels sprouts showed the strongest effects on cell viability and caspase-3 activity. Varieties of Brassica Oleracea are rich sources of ITCs that potently inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells by inducting apoptosis. All the extracts showed anticancer activity at ITC concentrations of between 3.54 to 7.08 mug/mL, which are achievable in vivo. Our results showed that ITC concentration and the chemopreventive responses of plant extracts vary among the varieties of Brassica Oleracea studied and among their cultivars.

  12. A new method to measure intestinal secretion using fluorescein isothiocyanate-inulin in small bowel of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Abraham, Armando Salim; Judeeba, Sami; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alfadda, Tariq; Patron-Lozano, Roger; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Geibel, John P

    2015-08-01

    Small intestine ischemia can be seen in various conditions such as intestinal transplantation. To further understand the pathologic disruption in ischemia-reperfusion injury, we have developed a method to measure fluid changes in the intestinal lumen of rats. Two 10-cm rat intestine segments were procured, connected to the terminal apertures of a perfusion device, and continuously infused with 3 mL of HEPES solution (control solution) containing 50 μM of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin. The perfusion device consists of concentric chambers that contain the perfused bowel segments, which are maintained at 37°C via H₂O bath. The individual chamber has four apertures as follows: two fill and/or drain the surrounding HEPES solution on the blood side of the tissue. The others provide flow of HEPES solution containing FITC-inulin through the lumens. The experimental intestine was infused with the same solution with 100 μM of Forskolin. A pump continuously circulated solutions at 6 mL/min. Samples were collected at 15-min intervals until 150 min and were measured by the nanoflourospectrometer. A mean of 6-μM decrease in the FITC-inulin concentration in the Forskolin-treated experimental intestine was observed in comparison with that in the control intestine. The FITC-inulin count dilution in the experimental intestine is a result of an increase of fluid secretion produced by the effect of Forskolin, with P values inulin to allow real-time determinations of fluid and/or electrolyte movement along the small intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled, magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-penicillamine-anti-metadherin and in vitro evaluation on breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akca, Ozlet; Unak, Perihan; Medine, E. Ylker; Sakarya, Serhan; Ozdemir, Caglar; Timur, Suna

    2011-01-01

    Silane modified magnetic nanoparticles were prepared after capped with silica generated from the hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Amino silane (SG-Si900) was added to this solution for surface modification of silica coated magnetic particles. Finally, D-penicillamine (D-PA)-antimetadherin (anti-MTDH) was covalently linked to the amine group using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM results showed that particles are nearly monodisperse, and the average size of particles was 40 to 50 nm. An amino acid derivative D-PA was conjugated anti-MTDH, which results the increase of uptaking potential of a conjugated agent, labelled fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and then conjugated to the magnetic nanoparticles. In vitro evaluation of the conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH-FITC to magnetic nanoparticle was studied on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy images of cells after incubation of the sample were obtained to monitor the interaction of the sample with the cancerous cells. Incorporation on cells of FITC labeled and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH was found higher than FITC labeled D-PA-anti-MTDH. The results show that magnetic properties and application of magnetic field increased incorporation rates. The obtained D-PA-anti-MTDH-magnetic nanoparticles-FITC complex has been used for in vitro imaging of breast cancer cells. FITC labeled and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH may be useful as a new class of scintigraphic agents. Results of this study are sufficiently encouraging to bring about further evaluation of this and related compounds for ultraviolet magnetic resonance (UV-MR) dual imaging. (author)

  14. The inactivation of human CYP2E1 by phenethyl isothiocyanate, a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent, and its oxidative bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshigae, Yasushi; Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2013-04-01

    Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate and potent cancer chemopreventive agent, works by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, such as CYP2E1, that are involved in the bioactivation of carcinogens. PEITC has been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of some P450s. We describe here the possible mechanism for the inactivation of human CYP2E1 by PEITC, as well as the putative intermediate that might be involved in the bioactivation of PEITC. PEITC inactivated recombinant CYP2E1 with a partition ratio of 12, and the inactivation was not inhibited in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and not fully recovered by dialysis. The inactivation of CYP2E1 by PEITC is due to both heme destruction and protein modification, with the latter being the major pathway for inactivation. GSH-adducts of phenethyl isocyanate (PIC) and phenethylamine were detected during the metabolism by CYP2E1, indicating formation of PIC as a reactive intermediate following P450-catalyzed desulfurization of PEITC. Surprisingly, PIC bound covalently to CYP2E1 to form protein adducts but did not inactivate the enzyme. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the inactivated CYP2E1 apo-protein suggests that a reactive sulfur atom generated during desulfurization of PEITC is involved in the inactivation of CYP2E1. Our data suggest that the metabolism of PEITC by CYP2E1 that results in the inactivation of CYP2E1 may occur by a mechanism similar to that observed with other sulfur-containing compounds, such as parathion. Digestion of the inactivated enzyme and analysis by SEQUEST showed that Cys 268 may be the residue modified by PIC.

  15. Photoprotective Properties of Isothiocyanate and Nitrile Glucosinolate Derivatives From Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Against UVB Irradiation in Human Skin Equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Carpenter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation of the skin leads to numerous dermatological concerns including skin cancer and accelerated aging. Natural product glucosinolate derivatives, like sulforaphane, have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive and photoprotective properties. In this study, we examined meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba glucosinolate derivatives, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (MBITC and 3-methoxyphenyl acetonitrile (MPACN, for their activity in protecting against the consequences of UV exposure. To that end, we have exposed human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs and 3D human skin reconstructed in vitro (EpiDermTM FT-400 to UVB insult and investigated whether MBITC and MPACN treatment ameliorated the harmful effects of UVB damage. Activity was determined by the compounds’ efficacy in counteracting UVB-induced DNA damage, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP expression, and proliferation. We found that in monolayer cultures of HPEK, MBITC and MPACN did not protect against a UVB-induced loss in proliferation and MBITC itself inhibited cell proliferation. However, in human reconstructed skin-equivalents, MBITC and MPACN decrease epidermal cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs and significantly reduce total phosphorylated γH2A.X levels. Both MBITC and MPACN inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression indicating their role to prevent photoaging. Both compounds, and MPACN in particular, showed activity against UVB-induced proliferation as indicated by fewer epidermal PCNA+ cells and prevented UVB-induced hyperplasia as determined by a reduction in reconstructed skin epidermal thickness (ET. These data demonstrate that MBITC and MPACN exhibit promising anti-photocarcinogenic and anti-photoaging properties in the skin microenvironment and could be used for therapeutic interventions.

  16. Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera seeds mitigates hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and preserved morphological features of human neuronal cells.

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    Mohammed Sani Jaafaru

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are well known for induction of oxidative stress conditions through oxidation of vital biomarkers leading to cellular death via apoptosis and other process, thereby causing devastative effects on the host organs. This effect is believed to be linked with pathological alterations seen in several neurodegenerative disease conditions. Many phytochemical compounds proved to have robust antioxidant activities that deterred cells against cytotoxic stress environment, thus protect apoptotic cell death. In view of that we studied the potential of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC or moringin to mitigate the process that lead to neurodegeneration in various ways. Neuroprotective effect of GMG-ITC was performed on retinoic acid (RA induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y via cell viability assay, flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy by means of acridine orange and propidium iodide double staining, to evaluate the anti-apoptotic activity and morphology conservation ability of the compound. Additionally, neurite surface integrity and ultrastructural analysis were carried out by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy to assess the orientation of surface and internal features of the treated neuronal cells. GMG-ITC pre-treated neuron cells showed significant resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death, revealing high level of protection by the compound. Increase of intracellular oxidative stress induced by H2O2 was mitigated by GMG-ITC. Thus, pre-treatment with the compound conferred significant protection to cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic inclusion coupled with conservation of surface morphological features and general integrity of neuronal cells. Therefore, the collective findings in the presence study indicated the potentials of GMG-ITC to protect the integrity of neuron cells against induced oxidative-stress related cytotoxic processes, the hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Erucin, the major isothiocyanate in arugula (Eruca sativa, inhibits proliferation of MCF7 tumor cells by suppressing microtubule dynamics.

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    Olga Azarenko

    Full Text Available Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of various types of cancer. Isothiocyanates including sulforaphane and erucin are believed to be responsible for this activity. Erucin [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylthiobutane], which is metabolically and structurally related to sulforaphane, is present in large quantities in arugula (Eruca sativa, Mill., kohlrabi and Chinese cabbage. However, its cancer preventive mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that erucin inhibits proliferation of MCF7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 28 µM in parallel with cell cycle arrest at mitosis (IC50 = 13 µM and apoptosis, by a mechanism consistent with impairment of microtubule dynamics. Concentrations of 5-15 µM erucin suppressed the dynamic instability of microtubules during interphase in the cells. Most dynamic instability parameters were inhibited, including the rates and extents of growing and shortening, the switching frequencies between growing and shortening, and the overall dynamicity. Much higher erucin concentrations were required to reduce the microtubule polymer mass. In addition, erucin suppressed dynamic instability of microtubules reassembled from purified tubulin in similar fashion. The effects of erucin on microtubule dynamics, like those of sulforaphane, are similar qualitatively to those of much more powerful clinically-used microtubule-targeting anticancer drugs, including taxanes and the vinca alkaloids. The results suggest that suppression of microtubule dynamics by erucin and the resulting impairment of critically important microtubule-dependent cell functions such as mitosis, cell migration and microtubule-based transport may be important in its cancer preventive activities.

  18. Critical role of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis in benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptotic cell death.

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    Marie Lue Antony

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables, decreases viability of cancer cells by causing apoptosis but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in BITC-induced apoptosis using MDA-MB-231 (breast, MCF-7 (breast, and HCT-116 (colon human cancer cells. The B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim protein was dispensable for proapoptotic response to BITC in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as judged by RNA interference studies. Instead, the BITC-treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited upregulation of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA protein. The BITC-mediated induction of PUMA was relatively more pronounced in MCF-7 cells due to the presence of wild-type p53 compared with MDA-MB-231 with mutant p53. The BITC-induced apoptosis was partially but significantly attenuated by RNA interference of PUMA in MCF-7 cells. The PUMA knockout variant of HCT-116 cells exhibited significant resistance towards BITC-induced apoptosis compared with wild-type HCT-116 cells. Attenuation of BITC-induced apoptosis in PUMA knockout HCT-116 cells was accompanied by enhanced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest due to induction of p21 and down regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 protein. The BITC treatment caused a decrease in protein levels of Bcl-xL (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and Bcl-2 (MCF-7 cells. Ectopic expression of Bcl-xL in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and that of Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells conferred protection against proapoptotic response to BITC. Interestingly, the BITC-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited induction of Bcl-2 protein expression, and RNA interference of Bcl-2 in this cell line resulted in augmentation of BITC-induced apoptosis. The BITC-mediated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth in vivo was associated with the induction of PUMA protein in the tumor. In conclusion, the results of the present study

  19. Molecular imaging of a cell-penetrating peptide labeled fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate and MR contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Guo Youmin; Duan Xiaoyi; Guo Xiaojuan; Yang Junle; Xu Min

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of a new intracellular contrast agent--cell penetrating peptide labeled Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and MRI contrast agent, Gadopentetate dimeglumine in molecular imaging. Methods: A new cell penetration peptides (CPPs)sequence LAGRRRRRRRRRK were synthesized in solid phase on the base of arginine (9) and were labelled with FITC (CPP 13 -FITC) and Gd - DTPA (CPP 13 -DTPA-Gd). Hepatic carcinoma cell line-HEPG 2 and mouse bone marrow stem cell was respectively stained by CPP 13 -FITC for different time intervals for observing the uptake and intracellular distribution. HEPG 2 in three l00 mm 2 culture plates was respectively incubated with CPP 13 -DTPA-Gd, Gd- DTPA and Dulbecco minimum essential medium for 30 min and imaged by 1.5 T MRI for studying the intracellular uptake and T 1 WI signal characteristics. Results: The peptide was synthesized by the manual solid-phase method successfully. The calculated molecular weight was 1792.78 and the chemical purity was over 95%. By inverted fluorescence microscope, HEPG 2 and mouse stem cell could transport CPP-FITC in cytoplasm and nuclear in 10 min. By MR imaging, CPP-DTPA-Gd could be uptake by HEPG 2 in 30 min and had a short T 1 short T 2 signal, furthermore. T 1 WI signal intensity ratio between in-tube (Ii) and out-tube (Io) in three groups of three scan slices were shown below: Iil/Io of group 1 (Group 1 was the cell incubated by CPP 13 -DTPA-Gd ) respectively was 2.84, 2.60, 2. 48; Iil/Io of group 2 (Group 2 was the cell incubated by DTPA-Gd) respectively is 1.15, 1.11, 1.12; Iil/Io of group 3 (Group 3 was the controled cell ) respectively was 1.15, 1.11, 1.11. By ANVOA analysis, the signal intensity among group 1, group 2 and group 3 had significant difference(F (1,2) = 201.88 P (1,3) =206.37 P (2,3) =0.529 P=0.507). Conclusion: The new constructed cell penetration peptide on the base of the polyargnine can translocate cell by carting FITC and MRI contrast agent-DTPA-Gd and the

  20. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Extraction of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and its fumigant insecticidal activity on four stored-product pests of paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Guo-An; Zeng, Shuiyun; Lin, Kai-chun

    2009-09-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., May & Scherb. have been shown previously to have insecticidal activity. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a major component of ITCs with high volatility, was therefore extracted using different methods and tested as a fumigant against four major pest species of stored products, maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (F.), Tribolium ferrugineum (F.) and book louse Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein). Whereas there was no significant difference between hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction in extraction rate for AITC from A. rusticana, both methods resulted in higher extraction efficiency than water extraction. AITC fumigation showed strong toxicity to the four species of stored-product pests. Adult mortality of 100% of all four pest species, recorded after 72 h exposure to AITC fumes at an atmospheric concentration of 3 microg mL(-1), showed no significant difference from that of insects exposed to phosphine at 5 microg mL(-1), the recommended dose for phosphine. The results suggest good insecticidal efficacy of AITC against the four stored-product pests, with non-gaseous residuals on stored products. AITC obtained from A. rusticana may be an alternative to phosphine and methyl bromide against the four pest species. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Study of the Cytotoxic Effects of the New Synthetic Isothiocyanate CM9 and Its Fullerene Derivative on Human T-Leukemia Cells

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    Elena De Gianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One important strategy to develop effective anticancer agents is based on natural products. Many active phytochemicals are in human clinical trials and have been used for a long time, alone and in association with conventional anticancer drugs, for the treatment of various types of cancers. A great number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical reports document the multi-target anticancer activities of isothiocyanates and of compounds characterized by a naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide scaffold. In order to search for new anticancer agents with a better pharmaco-toxicological profile, we investigated hybrid compounds obtained by inserting isothiocyanate group(s on a naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide scaffold. Moreover, since water-soluble fullerene derivatives can cross cell membranes thus favoring the delivery of anticancer therapeutics, we explored the cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of hybrid compounds conjugated with fullerene. We studied their cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on a human T-lymphoblastoid cell line by using different flow cytometric assays. In order to better understand their pharmaco-toxicological potential, we also analyzed their genotoxicity. Our global results show that the synthesized compounds reduced significantly the viability of leukemia cells. However, the conjugation with a non-toxic vector did not increase their anticancer potential. This opens an interesting research pattern for certain fullerene properties.

  3. Toxic effects of a horseradish extract and allyl isothiocyanate in the urinary bladder after 13-week administration in drinking water to F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Cho, Young-Man; Ueda, Makoto; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic toxicity of a horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and other isothiocyanates, was investigated with administration at concentrations of 0, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05% of HRE in drinking water for 13 weeks to male and female F344 rats. For comparison, treatment with 0.0425% of AITC was similarly performed. Body weight gain was reduced in the 0.05% HRE and AITC males as compared to the 0% controls, and the cause was considered at least partly related to decreased water consumption due to the acrid smell of the test substance and decreased food consumption. Serum biochemistry demonstrated increased urea nitrogen in 0.025 and 0.05% HRE and AITC males and 0.0125-0.05% HRE and AITC females, along with decreased total cholesterol in 0.0125-0.05% HRE females. On histopathological assessment, papillary/nodular hyperplasia of bladder mucosa was observed in 0.05% HRE and AITC males and females, in addition to simple mucosal hyperplasia found in all treated groups. Based on the above findings, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were estimated to be below 0.0125% of HRE for both males and females, corresponding to 9.4 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and there appeared to be comparable toxicological properties of HRE to AITC, such as the inductive effect of significant proliferative lesions in the urinary bladder.

  4. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  6. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

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    Lucília P. Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and sulforaphane (SFN. Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  7. The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-06-01

    In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.

  8. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucília P.; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M. M.; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. PMID:28394276

  9. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta [Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, Uttarakhand (India); Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, Uttarakhand (India); Roy, Partha, E-mail: paroyfbs@iitr.ernet.in [Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.

  10. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC 50 =25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC 50 =65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene

  11. Sulforaphane, a Dietary Isothiocyanate, Induces G2/M Arrest in Cervical Cancer Cells through CyclinB1 Downregulation and GADD45β/CDC2 Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Min Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, cervical cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The main treatment methods for this type of cancer include conization or hysterectomy procedures. Sulforaphane (SFN is a natural, compound-based drug derived from dietary isothiocyanates which has previously been shown to possess potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive effects against several types of cancer. The present study investigated the effects of SFN on anti-proliferation and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in cervical cancer cell lines (Cx, CxWJ, and HeLa. We found that cytotoxicity is associated with an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phases of the cell-cycle. Treatment with SFN led to cell cycle arrest as well as the down-regulation of Cyclin B1 expression, but not of CDC2 expression. In addition, the effects of GADD45β gene activation in cell cycle arrest increase proportionally with the dose of SFN; however, mitotic delay and the inhibition of proliferation both depend on the dosage of SFN used to treat cancer cells. These results indicate that SFN may delay the development of cancer by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase via down-regulation of Cyclin B1 gene expression, dissociation of the cyclin B1/CDC2 complex, and up-regulation of GADD45β proteins.

  12. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Yang, Yichao; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Bielke, Lisa R.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg); shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h); using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results. PMID:28470003

  13. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg; shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h; using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results.

  14. Identification of an Isothiocyanate on the HypEF Complex Suggests a Route for Efficient Cyanyl-Group Channeling during [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Cofactor Generation.

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    Sven T Stripp

    Full Text Available [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze uptake and evolution of H2 in a wide range of microorganisms. The enzyme is characterized by an inorganic nickel/ iron cofactor, the latter of which carries carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands. In vivo generation of these ligands requires a number of auxiliary proteins, the so-called Hyp family. Initially, HypF binds and activates the precursor metabolite carbamoyl phosphate. HypF catalyzes removal of phosphate and transfers the carbamate group to HypE. In an ATP-dependent condensation reaction, the C-terminal cysteinyl residue of HypE is modified to what has been interpreted as thiocyanate. This group is the direct precursor of the cyanide ligands of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site cofactor. We present a FT-IR analysis of HypE and HypF as isolated from E. coli. We follow the HypF-catalyzed cyanation of HypE in vitro and screen for the influence of carbamoyl phosphate and ATP. To elucidate on the differences between HypE and the HypEF complex, spectro-electrochemistry was used to map the vibrational Stark effect of naturally cyanated HypE. The IR signature of HypE could ultimately be assigned to isothiocyanate (-N=C=S rather than thiocyanate (-S-C≡N. This has important implications for cyanyl-group channeling during [NiFe]-hydrogenase cofactor generation.

  15. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225-4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), and moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999-29.497 mg kg -1 ) and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300-47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates that AITC significantly improved plant vigor. Field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both ∼ 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both ∼ 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30-50 g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Exploitation of phosphorescent labelling reagent of fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate and new method for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase as well as forecast of human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiaming; Huang Xiaomei; Liu Zhenbo; Lin Shaoqin; Li Feiming; Gao Fei; Li Zhiming; Zeng Liqing; Li Lianying; Ouyang Ying

    2009-01-01

    A new phosphorescent labelling reagent consisting of fullerol, fluorescein isothiocyanate and N,N-dimethylaniline (F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA) was developed. The mode of action is based on the reactivity of the active -OH group in F-ol with the -COOH group of FITC to form an F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA complex containing several FITC molecules. F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target of WGA-AP-WGA-F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA (WGA and AP are wheat germ agglutinin and alkaline phosphatase, respectively) which improved the sensitivity using solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) detection. The proposed method provided high sensitivity and strong specificity for WGA-AP. The limit of detection (LD) was 0.15 ag AP spot -1 for F-ol and 0.097 ag AP spot -1 for FITC in F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA, which was lower than the method using single luminescent molecules of F-ol-DMA and FITC-DMA to label WGA (0.20 ag AP spot -1 for F-ol-DMA and 0.22 ag AP spot -1 for FITC-DMA). Results for the determination of AP in human serum were in good agreement with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanism of F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA labelling of WGA was discussed.

  17. Ratiometric, visual, dual-signal fluorescent sensing and imaging of pH/copper ions in real samples based on carbon dots-fluorescein isothiocyanate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Jin, Hui; Gao, Cuili; Gui, Rijun; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a facile aqueous synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) was developed by using natural kelp as a new carbon source. Through hydrothermal carbonization of kelp juice, fluorescent CDs were prepared and the CDs' surface was modified with polyethylenimine (PEI). The PEI-modified CDs were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to fabricate CDs-FITC composites. To exploit broad applications, the CDs-FITC composites were developed as fluorescent sensing or imaging platforms of pH and Cu 2+ . Analytical performances of the composites-based fluorescence (FL) sensors were evaluated, including visual FL imaging of pH in glass bottle, ratiometric FL sensing of pH in yogurt samples, visual FL latent fingerprint and leaf imaging detection of [Cu 2+ ], dual-signal FL sensing of [Cu 2+ ] in yogurt and human serum samples. Experimental results from ratiometric, visual, dual-signal FL sensing and imaging applications confirmed the high feasibility, accuracy, stabilization and simplicity of CDs-FITC composites-based FL sensors for the detection of pH and Cu 2+ ions in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment of prostate cancer spheres from a prostate cancer cell line after phenethyl isothiocyanate treatment and discovery of androgen-dependent reversible differentiation between sphere and neuroendocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yamei; Cang, Shundong; Han, Liying; Liu, Christina; Yang, Patrick; Solangi, Zeeshan; Lu, Quanyi; Liu, Delong; Chiao, J W

    2016-05-03

    Prostate cancer can transform from androgen-responsive to an androgen-independent phenotype. The mechanism responsible for the transformation remains unclear. We studied the effects of an epigenetic modulator, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. After treatment with PEITC, floating spheres were formed with characteristics of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSC). These spheres were capable of self-renewal in media with and without androgen. They have been maintained in both types of media as long term cultures. Upon androgen deprivation, the adherent spheres differentiated to neuroendocrine cells (NEC) with decreased proliferation, expression of androgen receptor, and PSA. NEC reverse differentiated to spheres when androgen was replenished. The sphere cells expressed surface marker CD44 and had enhanced histone H3K4 acetylation, DNMT1 down-regulation and GSTP1 activation. We hypothesize that PEITC-mediated alteration in epigenomics of LNCaP cells may give rise to sphere cells, whereas reversible androgenomic alterations govern the shuttling between sphere PCSC and progeny NEC. Our findings identify unrecognized properties of prostate cancer sphere cells with multi-potential plasticity. This system will facilitate development of novel therapeutic agents and allow further exploration into epigenomics and androgenomics governing the transformation to hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  19. Benzyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Prostate Cancer Development in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma Mouse Prostate (TRAMP Model, Which Is Associated with the Induction of Cell Cycle G1 Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC is a hydrolysis product of glucotropaeolin, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to have anti-tumor properties. In the present study, we investigated whether BITC inhibits the development of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP mice. Five-week old, male TRAMP mice and their nontransgenic littermates were gavage-fed with 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg of BITC every day for 19 weeks. The weight of the genitourinary tract increased markedly in TRAMP mice and this increase was suppressed significantly by BITC feeding. H and E staining of the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate demonstrated that well-differentiated carcinoma (WDC was a predominant feature in the TRAMP mice. The number of lobes with WDC was reduced by BITC feeding while that of lobes with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was increased. BITC feeding reduced the number of cells expressing Ki67 (a proliferation marker, cyclin A, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2 in the prostatic tissue. In vitro cell culture results revealed that BITC decreased DNA synthesis, as well as CDK2 and CDK4 activity in TRAMP-C2 mouse prostate cancer cells. These results indicate that inhibition of cell cycle progression contributes to the inhibition of prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice treated with BITC.

  20. Preventive effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) against pulmonary metastasis of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, Yoko; Shinoda, Shoko; Nagata, Ikuko; Sawaki, Saeko; Murata, Mituyoshi; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Nomura, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) or a 6-MITC-containing T-wasabi fraction from wasabi root (Wasabia japonica Matsum) to inhibit the macroscopic pulmonary metastasis was studied with a murine B16-BL6 melanoma model. Two administration routes, subcutaneous or intravenous, and two administration times, prior to or concomitant with tumor inoculation, of 6-MITC or T-wasabi against the metastatic foci formation in C57BL/6J mouse lungs were compared. The number of metastasized foci per lung in either subcutaneous or intravenous injection was significantly reduced by intake of 6-MITC or a T-wasabi fraction. The maximum reduction by a T-wasabi fraction reached to 82%. Fifty-six percent of foci formation was inhibited by a 2 week-prior administration of 6-MITC (200 microM), whereas only 27% inhibition was obtained by a concomitant administration with tumor inoculation. Neither 6-MITC nor T-wasabi at tested concentrations showed any toxic effects. Together with our previous results, a component of the Japanese pungent spice, wasabi appears to inhibit not only tumor cell growth but also tumor metastasis. Therefore, 6-MITC from wasabi is apparently a useful dietary candidate for controlling tumor progression.

  1. Administration of 4-(α-L-Rhamnosyloxy-benzyl Isothiocyanate Delays Disease Phenotype in SOD1G93A Rats: A Transgenic Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Maria Galuppo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-(α-L-Rhamnosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC. The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1G93A at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10 mg/Kg bioactivated with myrosinase (20 µL/rat via intraperitoneal (i.p. injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease.

  2. Acute and subacute effects of tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and phenethyl isothiocyanate on N'-nitrosonornicotine metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyroller, Stefan; Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Thalheim, Charlotte; Richter, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) was the first tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) identified as carcinogen in tobacco smoke, but no data exist on in vivo interactions between NNN and other tobacco alkaloids, TSNA or phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) which have been demonstrated in various studies on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Acute effects on NNN metabolism were tested in male Fischer F344 rats injected s.c. with 30 nmol/kg body weight (bw) [5- 3 H]NNN either alone or simultaneously with 15 μmol/kg bw nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine, or anabasine, 150 μmol/kg bw cotinine, 3 μmol/kg bw myosmine, or 300 nmol/kg bw of either N'-nitrosoanatabine or N'-nitrosoanabasine. Another group of rats was fed a diet supplemented with PEITC at 1 μmol/g diet starting 24 h before NNN treatment. Within 24 h more than 80% and about 10% of the radioactivity was excreted with urine and feces, respectively. Urinary metabolites were separated by reversed-phase radio-HPLC and identified by co-chromatography with UV standards. In two sets of experiments with control rats treated with NNN only, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid, 44.4/44.8%), 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (keto acid, 32.4/31.5%), NNN-N-oxide (5.0/3.8%), 4-(3-pyridyl)butane-1,4-diol (diol, 1.1/1.0%) and norcotinine (2.3/1.0%) were consistently detected besides unmetabolised NNN (4.7/3.3%). Co-treatment with nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine and PEITC shifted the contribution of the two major metabolites significantly in favor of hydroxy acid (108-113% of control) as compared to keto acid (86-90% of control). The same treatments also increased norcotinine (135-170% of control). These changes are consistent with a decreased metabolic activation of NNN. In subacute studies rats received NNN in drinking water for 4 weeks at a daily dose of 30 nmol/kg bw with or without nornicotine at 15 μmol/kg bw or myosmine at 3 μmol/kg bw. On the last day of the experiment all rats received [5- 3 H

  3. Unexpected side products in the conjugation of an amine-derivatized morpholino oligomer with p-isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and their removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guozheng, E-mail: guozheng.liu@umassmed.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Dou Shuping; Liu Yuxia; Liang Minmin; Chen Ling; Cheng Dengfeng [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Greiner, Dale [Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In connection with pretargeting, an amine-derivatized morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (NH{sub 2}-cMORF) was conjugated conventionally with p-isothiocyanate benzyl-DTPA (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA). However, after {sup 111}In radiolabeling, unexpected label instability was observed. To understand this instability, the NH{sub 2}-cMORF and, as control, the native cMORF without the amine were conjugated in the conventional manner. Surprisingly, the {sup 111}In labeling of the native cMORF conjugate was equally effective as that of the NH{sub 2}-cMORF conjugate (>95%) despite the absence of the amine group. Furthermore, heating the radiolabeled NH{sub 2}-cMORF and native cMORF conjugates resulted in a 35% loss and a complete loss of the label, respectively. Since the {sup 111}In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating step was introduced, and labeling efficiency and stability were again investigated. By introducing the heating step, the side products were dissociated, and after purification and labeling, the NH{sub 2}-cMORF conjugate provided a stable label and high labeling efficiency with no need for postlabeling purification. The biodistribution of this radiolabeled conjugate in normal mice showed significantly lower backgrounds compared with the labeled unstable native cMORF conjugate. In conclusion, the conventional conjugation procedure to attach the p-SCN-Bn-DTPA to NH{sub 2}-cMORF resulted in side product(s) that were responsible for the {sup 111}In label instability. Adding a postconjugation-prepurification heating step dissociated the side products, improved the label stability and lowered tissue backgrounds in mice.

  4. Benzyl isothiocyanate suppresses pancreatic tumor angiogenesis and invasion by inhibiting HIF-α/VEGF/Rho-GTPases: pivotal role of STAT-3.

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    Srinivas Reddy Boreddy

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC suppresses pancreatic tumor growth by inhibiting STAT-3; however, the exact mechanism of tumor growth suppression was not clear. Here we evaluated the effects and mechanism of BITC on pancreatic tumor angiogenesis. Our results reveal that BITC significantly inhibits neovasularization on rat aorta and Chicken-Chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, BITC blocks the migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PanC-1 pancreatic cancer cells in a dose dependant manner. Moreover, secretion of VEGF and MMP-2 in normoxic and hypoxic BxPC-3 and PanC-1 cells was significantly suppressed by BITC. Both VEGF and MMP-2 play a critical role in angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results reveal that BITC significantly suppresses the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 (Tyr-1175, and expression of HIF-α. Rho-GTPases, which are regulated by VEGF play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer progression. BITC treatment reduced the expression of RhoC whereas up-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor RhoB. STAT-3 over-expression or IL-6 treatment significantly induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression; however, BITC substantially suppressed STAT-3 as well as STAT-3-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression. Finally, in vivo tumor growth and matrigel-plug assay show reduced tumor growth and substantial reduction of hemoglobin content in the matrigel plugs and tumors of mice treated orally with 12 µmol BITC, indicating reduced tumor angiogenesis. Immunoblotting of BITC treated tumors show reduced expression of STAT-3 phosphorylation (Tyr-705, HIF-α, VEGFR-2, VEGF, MMP-2, CD31 and RhoC. Taken together, our results suggest that BITC suppresses pancreatic tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis through STAT-3-dependant pathway.

  5. Dietary agent, benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation and collaborates with sulforaphane in the growth suppression of PANC-1 cancer cells

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    Deangelis Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT proteins comprise a family of latent transcription factors with diverse functions. STAT3 has well established roles in cell proliferation, growth and survival, and its persistent activation has been detected with high frequency in many human cancers. As constitutive activation of STAT3 appears to be vital for the continued survival of these cancerous cells, it has emerged as an attractive target for chemotherapeutics. We examined whether the inhibitory activities of bioactive compounds from cruciferous vegetables, such as Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and sulforaphane, extended to STAT3 activation in PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. BITC and sulforaphane were both capable of inhibiting cell viability and inducing apoptosis in PANC-1. Sulforaphane had minimal effect on the direct inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, however, suggesting its inhibitory activities are most likely STAT3-independent. Conversely, BITC was shown to inhibit the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, but not the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, MAPK and p70S6 kinase. These results suggest that STAT3 may be one of the targets of BITC-mediated inhibition of cell viability in PANC-1 cancer cells. In addition, we show that BITC can prevent the induction of STAT3 activation by Interleukin-6 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, combinations of BITC and sulforaphane inhibited cell viability and STAT3 phosphorylation more dramatically than either agent alone. These findings suggest that the combination of the dietary agents BITC and sulforaphane has potent inhibitory activity in pancreatic cancer cells and that they may have translational potential as chemopreventative or therapeutic agents.

  6. Possible Effect of 5, 6- Dimethyl -4 Isothiocyanate Thieno [2, 3-d] Pyrimidine and I or Irradiation on Ehrlich Carcinoma in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; Anis, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to the construction of new derivatives of [2,3-d] pyrimidines on the account of their reported biological activities. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antitumour activity of 5, 6- dimethyl -4- isothiocyanate- thieno [2,3-d] pyrimidine (DMITCTP) in solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) bearing mice. DMITCTP was administered on the 10th day after tumor inoculation at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW, day after day, during a period of 3 weeks. Whole body exposure to one dose of 2Gy gamma irradiation was carried out two weeks after DMITCTP administration. Biochemical analysis in the blood of solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) bearing mice showed significant increase in MDA content and GSH-Px activity level a significant decrease in GSH content and SOD activity level, IL 10 concentration and TNF- α concentration was detected associated with significant alteration in kidney and liver functions, as compared to control. Administration of DMITCTP alone or in combination with gamma-irradiation has significantly decrease MDA content and GSH-Px activity level associated with significant increase in GSH content, SOD activity level, IL-10 concentration and TNF-a concentration, compared to SEC bearing mice. These results supported by significant improvement in liver and kidney functions. Treatment solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) bearing mice with gamma-irradiation or DMITCTP combined with y-irradiation showed significant increase in MDA content, GSH-Px and GST activities levels and in amount of metabolites of CYP450 and significant decrease in GSH content, and SOD activity level, as compared to SEC bearing mice. Administration of DMITCTP alone or combined with gamma- irradiation has significantly decreased tumor volume

  7. Noxious heat threshold temperature and pronociceptive effects of allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil) in TRPV1 or TRPA1 gene-deleted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Horváth, Ádám; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Bölcskei, Kata; Boros, Melinda; Pintér, Erika; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Pethő, Gábor; Szolcsányi, János

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in baseline and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-evoked nociceptive responses by comparing wild-type and gene-deficient mice. In contrast to conventional methods of thermonociception measuring reflex latencies, we used our novel methods to determine the noxious heat threshold. It was revealed that the heat threshold of the tail measured by an increasing-temperature water bath is significantly higher in TRPV1(-/-), but not TRPA1(-/-), mice compared to respective wild-types. There was no difference between the noxious heat thresholds of the hind paw as measured by an increasing-temperature hot plate in TRPV1(-/-), TRPA1(-/-) and the corresponding wild-type mice. The withdrawal latency of the tail from 0°C water was prolonged in TRPA1(-/-), but not TRPV1(-/-), mice compared to respective wild-types. In wild-type animals, dipping the tail or paw into 1% AITC induced an 8-14°C drop of the noxious heat threshold (heat allodynia) of both the tail and paw, and 40-50% drop of the mechanonociceptive threshold (mechanical allodynia) of the paw measured by dynamic plantar esthesiometry. These AITC-evoked responses were diminished in TRPV1(-/-), but not TRPA1(-/-), mice. Tail withdrawal latency to 1% AITC was significantly prolonged in both gene-deleted strains. Different heat sensors determine the noxious heat threshold in distinct areas: a pivotal role for TRPV1 on the tail is contrasted with no involvement of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 on the hind paw. Noxious heat threshold measurement appears appropriate for preclinical screening of TRP channel ligands as novel analgesics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined treatment with cotylenin A and phenethyl isothiocyanate induces strong antitumor activity mainly through the induction of ferroptotic cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takashi; Honma, Yoshio; Okabe-Kado, Junko; Higuchi, Yusuke; Kato, Nobuo; Kumakura, Shunichi

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of pancreatic cancer, one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal tract malignancies, with current chemotherapeutic drugs has had limited success due to its chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Therefore, the development of new drugs or effective combination therapies is urgently needed. Cotylenin A (CN-A) (a plant growth regulator) is a potent inducer of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells and exhibits potent antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. In the present study, we demonstrated that CN-A and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a dietary anticarcinogenic compound, synergistically inhibited the proliferation of MIAPaCa-2, PANC-1 and gemcitabine-resistant PANC-1 cells. A combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC also effectively inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of these cancer cells. The combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC strongly induced cell death within 1 day at concentrations at which CN-A or PEITC alone did not affect cell viability. A combined treatment with synthetic CN-A derivatives (ISIR-005 and ISIR-042) or fusicoccin J (CN-A-related natural product) and PEITC did not have synergistic effects on cell death. The combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC synergistically induced the generation of ROS. Antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and trolox), ferroptosis inhibitors (ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin), and the lysosomal iron chelator deferoxamine canceled the synergistic cell death. Apoptosis inhibitors (Z-VAD-FMK and Q-VD-OPH) and the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1s did not inhibit synergistic cell death. Autophagy inhibitors (3-metyladenine and chloroquine) partially prevented cell death. These results show that synergistic cell death induced by the combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC is mainly due to the induction of ferroptosis. Therefore, the combination of CN-A and PEITC has potential as a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer.

  9. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Induces Apoptotic Cell Death Through the Mitochondria-dependent Pathway in Gefitinib-resistant NCI-H460 Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Te-Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Yi-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Cheng, Zheng-Yu; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Peng, Shu-Fen; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2018-04-01

    Some lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib develop resistance to this drug resulting in unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), present in our common cruciferous vegetables, exhibits anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines. Currently, there is no available information on the possible modification of gefitinib resistance of lung cancer in vitro by PEITC. Thus, the effects of PEITC on gefitinib resistant lung cancer NCI-H460 cells were investigated in vitro. The total cell viability, apoptotic cell death, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ , levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were measured by flow cytometry assay. PEITC induced chromatin condensation was examined by DAPI staining. PEITC-induced cell morphological changes, decreased total viable cell number and induced apoptotic cell death in NCI-H460 and NCI-H460/G cells. PEITC decreased ROS production in NCI-H460 cells, but increased production in NCI-H460/G cells. PEITC increased Ca 2+ production, decreased the levels of ΔΨ m and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities in both NCI-H460 and NCI-H460/G cells. Western blotting was used to examine the effect of apoptotic cell death associated protein expression in NCI-H460 NCI-H460/G cells after exposure to PEITC. Results showed that PEITC increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, PARP, GADD153, Endo G and pro-apoptotic protein Bax in NCI-H460/G cells. Based on these results, we suggest that PEITC induces apoptotic cell death via the caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway in NCI-H460/G cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of application methods of metam sodium and plastic covers on horizontal and vertical distributions of methyl isothiocyanate in bedded field plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of three application methods of metam sodium (broadcast, single irrigation drip tape delivery, and double irrigation drip tape delivery) and two plastic covers (polyethylene film and virtually impermeable film) on volatilization and on horizontal and vertical distributions of the biologically active product of metam sodium, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), in field plots in a Florida sandy soil. Volatilization of MITC from field beds lasted for about 20 hours after completion of metam sodium application regardless of application methods. Virtually impermeable film (VIF) was a better barrier to reduce volatilization loss than polyethylene film (PE). Since water was not applied during broadcast application, MITC was mainly retained in the shallow soil layer (0- to 20-cm depth) and downward movement of MITC was limited to about 30 cm. Large values of standard deviation indicated that initial spatial distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) of the two broadcast applied beds covered with PE or VIF was variable. Twice more water was delivered through the single drip tape than through individual tapes of double drip tape treatments during drip application of metam sodium. More water from the single drip tape likely facilitated downward movement of MITC to at least 60-cm depth, but MITC did not penetrate to this depth in the double drip tape beds. On the other hand, horizontal distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) in the double drip tape beds was more uniform than in the single drip tape beds. More MITC was retained in the subsurface of the VIF-covered beds regardless of application methods than in the PE-covered beds.

  11. A 14-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation of an isothiocyanate-enriched hydro-alcoholic extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Merrill, Daniel; Mendes, Odete; Raskin, Ilya

    2018-01-01

    A 14-d short-term oral toxicity study in rats evaluated the safety of moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1)-enriched hydro-alcoholic moringa seeds extract (MSE). Rats (5 males/5 females per group) were gavaged daily for 14 d with the vehicle control or MSE, at 78 (low), 257 (mid-low), 772 (mid-high), or 2571 (high) mg/kg bw/d, standardized to MIC-1 (30, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively). Toxicological endpoints included body weight and weight gain, food consumption and feed efficiency, clinical observations, hematology, gross necropsy and histopathology, and relative organ weights. Mortality was only observed in the high dose group animals, both male and female, representing decreases in body weight/weight gain and food consumption/feed efficiency. Irregular respiratory patterns and piloerection were major clinical observations found primarily in the mid-high and high dose group animals. In the high dose group, gastrointestinal distention and stomach discoloration were observed in non-surviving males and females, and degeneration and necrosis of the testicular germinal cells and epididymal cells were also observed in a non-surviving male. Increased liver weights were found in females in the mid-high and high dose groups. Animals in the low and mid-low groups did not exhibit adverse effects of MSE (100 mg/kg bw/d MIC-1). A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the standardized MSE was determined as 257 mg/kg bw/d providing 100 mg/kg bw/d MIC-1.

  12. Synthesis of 14C labelled electrophilic ligands of the colchicine binding site of tubulin: chloroacetates of demethylthiocolchicines and of N-acetylcolchinol; isothiocyanate of 9-deoxy-N-acetylcolchinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, O.; Brossi, A.

    1993-01-01

    14 C-Chloroacetates of 2-demethylthiocolchicine 7 and of 3-demethylthiocolchicine 8 were synthesized and found to covalently bind with high specificity to the β-subunit of tubulin. The 14 C-chloroacetate of N-acetylcolchinol and the 14 C-isothiocyanate were also prepared and found to react covalently with tubulin but in a nonspecific manner. With the radiolabelled chloroacetates 7 and 8 two compounds are now available to further characterize the colchicine binding site on the β subunit of tubulin. (author)

  13. Synthesis of [sup 14]C labelled electrophilic ligands of the colchicine binding site of tubulin: chloroacetates of demethylthiocolchicines and of N-acetylcolchinol; isothiocyanate of 9-deoxy-N-acetylcolchinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, O.; Brossi, A. (NIDDK (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology); Getahun, Z.; Grover, S.; Hamel, E. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    [sup 14]C-Chloroacetates of 2-demethylthiocolchicine 7 and of 3-demethylthiocolchicine 8 were synthesized and found to covalently bind with high specificity to the [beta]-subunit of tubulin. The [sup 14]C-chloroacetate of N-acetylcolchinol and the [sup 14]C-isothiocyanate were also prepared and found to react covalently with tubulin but in a nonspecific manner. With the radiolabelled chloroacetates 7 and 8 two compounds are now available to further characterize the colchicine binding site on the [beta] subunit of tubulin. (author).

  14. Synthesis of [3]DIPPA: a potent irreversible antagonist selective for the κ opioid receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Anchih; Portoghese, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    2-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(1S)-1-(3-isothiocyanatophe nyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]acetamide (1,DIPPA) has been previously reported to be an opioid receptor affinity label that produces selective and long-lasting κ opioid receptor antagonism in mice. High specific activity [ 3 H]DIPPA (39.7 Ci/mmol) was prepared by bromination and catalytic tritiation of the amino precursor of DIPPA followed by conversion to the isothiocyanate with thiophosgene. (Author)

  15. Induction of lung lesions in Wistar rats by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and its inhibition by aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Bo; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Yang, Fei; Chen, Hong-Lei; Xia, Dong; Liu, Ming-Qiu; Lai, Bai-Tang

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective chemopreventive agents against cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer could be greatly facilitated by suitable laboratory animal models, such as animals treated with the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In the current study, we established a novel lung cancer model in Wistar rats treated with NNK. Using this model, we assessed the effects of two chemopreventive agents, aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on tumor progression. First, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK by intratracheal instillation; control rats received iodized oil. The animals were then sacrificed on the indicated day after drug administration and examined for tumors in the target organs. PCNA, p63 and COX-2 expression were analyzed in the preneoplastic lung lesions. Second, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK (25 mg/kg body weight) in the absence or presence of aspirin and/or PEITC in the daily diet. The control group received only the vehicle in the regular diet. The animals were sacrificed on day 91 after bronchial instillation of NNK. Lungs were collected and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical assays. NNK induced preneoplastic lesions in lungs, including 33.3% alveolar hyperplasia and 55.6% alveolar atypical dysplasia. COX-2 expression increased similarly in alveolar hyperplasia and alveolar atypical dysplasia, while PCNA expression increased more significantly in the latter than the former. No p63 expression was detected in the preneoplastic lesions. In the second study, the incidences of alveolar atypical dysplasia were reduced to 10%, 10% and 0%, respectively, in the aspirin, PEITC and aspirin and PEITC groups, compared with 62.5% in the carcinogen-treated control group. COX-2 expression decreased after dietary aspirin or aspirin and PEITC treatment. PCNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspirin and PEITC group. (1) A single dose of 25 mg/kg body weight

  16. Proteasome-mediated degradation of cell division cycle 25C and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced G2-M-phase cell cycle arrest in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2004-05-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of many cruciferous vegetables, offers significant protection against cancer in animals induced by a variety of carcinogens. The present study demonstrates that PEITC suppresses proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner by causing G(2)-M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), which is a structural analogue of PEITC but lacks the -CH(2) spacers that link the aromatic ring to the -N=C=S group, neither inhibited PC-3 cell viability nor caused cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. These results indicated that even a subtle change in isothiocyanate (ITC) structure could have a significant impact on its biological activity. The PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with a >80% reduction in the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C; 24 h after treatment with 10 micro M PEITC), which led to an accumulation of Tyr(15) phosphorylated (inactive) Cdk1. On the other hand, PITC treatment neither reduced protein levels of Cdk1 or Cdc25C nor affected Cdk1 phosphorylation. The PEITC-induced decline in Cdk1 and Cdc25C protein levels and cell cycle arrest were significantly blocked on pretreatment of PC-3 cells with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. A 24 h exposure of PC-3 cells to 10 micro M PEITC, but not PITC, resulted in about 56% and 44% decrease in the levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), respectively. However, ectopic expression of Bcl-2 failed to alter sensitivity of PC-3 cells to growth inhibition or apoptosis induction by PEITC. Treatment of cells with PEITC, but not PITC, also resulted in cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9, and procaspase-8. Moreover, the PEITC-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in the presence of general caspase inhibitor and specific inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, our data indicate that PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest in PC-3 cells is likely due

  17. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  18. Lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labels a subset of primary afferent fibers which project selectively to the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K

    1986-02-19

    To examine differential carbohydrate expression among different subsets of primary afferent fibers, several fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugated lectins were used in a histochemical study of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of the rabbit. The lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labeled a subset of DRG cells and primary afferent fibers which projected to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. These results suggest that specific carbohydrates containing L-fucosyl residue is expressed selectively in small diameter primary afferent fibers which subserve nociception or thermoception.

  19. [Selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytzhak, A; Doron, Y; Lahat, E; Livne, A

    2012-10-01

    Selective mutism is an uncommon disorder in young children, in which they selectively don't speak in certain social situations, while being capable of speaking easily in other social situations. Many etiologies were proposed for selective mutism including psychodynamic, behavioral and familial etc. A developmental etiology that includes insights from all the above is gaining support. Accordingly, mild language impairment in a child with an anxiety trait may be at the root of developing selective mutism. The behavior will be reinforced by an avoidant pattern in the family. Early treatment and followup for children with selective mutism is important. The treatment includes non-pharmacological therapy (psychodynamic, behavioral and familial) and pharmacologic therapy--mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).

  20. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  1. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  2. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of semi-synthetic molecules obtained from a benzyl-isothiocyanate isolated from Moringa oleifera Lam. in a temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alain Oliveira; do Val, Danielle Rocha; da Silveira, Felipe Dantas; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Freitas, Hermany Capistrano; de Assis, Ellen Lima; de Almeida, Diana Kelly Castro; da Silva, Igor Iuco Castro; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; Mafezoli, Jair; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; de Paulo Teixera Pinto, Vicente de Paulo Teixeira; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is a key component of many clinical conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated the toxicological effects on mice of a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate from M. oleifera and its seven analogue molecules. Further, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on a rat model of TMJ inflammatory hypernociception were assessed. The systemic toxicological profile was determined in mice over a 14-day period: MC-1 1 μg/kg; MC-D1 1 μg/kg, MC-D3 100 μg/kg, MC-D6 1 μg/kg, MC-D7 1 μg/kg, MC-D8 1 μg/kg, MC-D9 10 μg/kg, and MC-H 1 μg/kg. The safest molecules were assayed for anti-nociceptive efficacy in the formalin (1.5%, 50 μL) and serotonin (255 mg) induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the vascular permeability assay using Evans blue. Further, the rota-rod test evaluated any motor impairment. Among the tested molecules, MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were not toxic at the survival rate test, biochemical, and hystological analysis. They reduced the formalin-induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception, but only MC-H decreased the serotonin-induced TMJ inflammation, suggesting an adrenergic receptor-dependent effect. They diminished the plasmatic extravasation, showing anti-inflammatory activity. At the rota-rod test, no difference was observed in comparison with control groups, reinforcing the hypothesis of anti-nociceptive effetc without motor impairment in animals. The analogues MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were safe at the tested doses and efficient in reducing the formalin-induced TMJ hypernociception in rats. Our next steps include determining their mechanisms of anti-nociceptive action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Alexandra; Major, Nili

    2016-02-01

    Selective mutism is a disorder in which an individual fails to speak in certain social situations though speaks normally in other settings. Most commonly, this disorder initially manifests when children fail to speak in school. Selective mutism results in significant social and academic impairment in those affected by it. This review will summarize the current understanding of selective mutism with regard to diagnosis, epidemiology, cause, prognosis, and treatment. Studies over the past 20 years have consistently demonstrated a strong relationship between selective mutism and anxiety, most notably social phobia. These findings have led to the recent reclassification of selective mutism as an anxiety disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. In addition to anxiety, several other factors have been implicated in the development of selective mutism, including communication delays and immigration/bilingualism, adding to the complexity of the disorder. In the past few years, several randomized studies have supported the efficacy of psychosocial interventions based on a graduated exposure to situations requiring verbal communication. Less data are available regarding the use of pharmacologic treatment, though there are some studies that suggest a potential benefit. Selective mutism is a disorder that typically emerges in early childhood and is currently conceptualized as an anxiety disorder. The development of selective mutism appears to result from the interplay of a variety of genetic, temperamental, environmental, and developmental factors. Although little has been published about selective mutism in the general pediatric literature, pediatric clinicians are in a position to play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition.

  4. Dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphene induces reactive oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intracellular oxygen species (ROS) measurement, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and western blot analysis were performed in four time-intervals to explore sulforaphene activity. ..... proteins were transferred to PVDF membranes.

  5. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    life of about 2.2 hours (15). Therefore, in contrast to dietary components such as the flavonoids , oral clearance of these ITCs is low and...reported to have the lowest IC 50 among the dietary flavonoids tested in MCF-7 cells (25). While some studies have demonstrated similar cytotoxicity...pharmacokinetic profiles of total ITC have been examined using a HPLC -based cyclocondensation approach; PEITC, PEITC conjugates as well as other ITCs or

  6. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  7. Selective gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstebay, D.; Castro, R.M.; Rabbat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in compression and distributed transform coding, we propose a new gossip algorithm called Selective Gossip to efficiently compute sparse approximations of network data. We consider running parallel gossip algorithms on the elements of a vector of transform coefficients.

  8. Diffusion and sorption of allyl isothiocyanate in the process of fumigation of maize Difusão e sorção do isotiocianato alilo no processo de fumigação do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Paes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the transport of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC by means of the sorption mechanism and the diffusion of AITC through maize grains. The experimental procedure to study the sorption mechanism was conducted by injection of AITC in glass flasks containing the grains. Kinetic models of zero, first and second order were fitted to AITC concentration data, with the purpose of determining the sorption rate (k. For the study of diffusion, a prototype was utilized in which the components are a gas chamber and a cylindrical column in which the grains were stored. At the interval of 110 min, samples in the chamber and in the column were collected, which were immediately injected into the gas chromatograph. In order to determine the effective diffusion coefficient (Def of AITC through maize grains, the term referring to the sorption rate was added to the diffusion equation. The kinetic model of the first order was the one that best fitted the experimental data for the sorption mechanism, and k was 6.26 x 10-4 s-1. The Def of AITC through grains was 7.2 x 10-3 cm² s-1. It was concluded that the transport of AITC through maize grains is slow, due to the low value of Def and high sorption rate of this component by the grains.Neste trabalho o propósito foi avaliar o transporte do isotiocianato alilo (AITC, por meio do estudo do mecanismo de sorção e da difusão do AITC, nos grãos de milho. O procedimento experimental para o estudo da sorção foi conduzido pela injeção de AITC em frascos de vidro contendo os grãos. Modelos cinéticos de ordem zero, de primeira e de segunda ordem, foram ajustados aos dados de concentração do AITC com a finalidade de determinar a taxa de sorção (k. Para o estudo da difusão utilizou-se um protótipo em que os componentes são uma câmara de gás e uma coluna cilíndrica, para contenção dos grãos. A cada 110 min amostras na câmara e na coluna foram coletadas e imediatamente

  9. Ricardian selection

    OpenAIRE

    Finicelli, Andrea; Pagano, Patrizio; Sbracia, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the foundations of the relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in the Ricardian model. Under general assumptions about the autarky distributions of industry productivities, trade openness raises TFP. This is due to the selection effect of international competition � driven by comparative advantages � which makes "some" high- and "many" low-productivity industries exit the market. We derive a model-based measure of this effect that requires only production...

  10. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  11. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  12. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  13. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  14. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  15. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  16. Selective blockade of TRPA1 channel attenuates pathological pain without altering noxious cold sensation or body temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Joshi, Shailen K; DiDomenico, Stanley; Perner, Richard J; Mikusa, Joe P; Gauvin, Donna M; Segreti, Jason A; Han, Ping; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Niforatos, Wende; Bianchi, Bruce R; Baker, Scott J; Zhong, Chengmin; Simler, Gricelda H; McDonald, Heath A; Schmidt, Robert G; McGaraughty, Steve P; Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Kort, Michael E; Reilly, Regina M; Kym, Philip R

    2011-05-01

    Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human (IC(50): 51 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 67 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay) and rat TRPA1 (IC(50): 101 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 289 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay). It is >1000-fold selective over other TRP channels, and is >150-fold selective over 75 other ion channels, enzymes, and G-protein-coupled receptors. Oral dosing of A-967079 produces robust drug exposure in rodents, and exhibits analgesic efficacy in allyl isothiocyanate-induced nocifensive response and osteoarthritic pain in rats (ED(50): 23.2 mg/kg, p.o.). A-967079 attenuates cold allodynia produced by nerve injury but does not alter noxious cold sensation in naive animals, suggesting distinct roles of TRPA1 in physiological and pathological states. Unlike TRPV1 antagonists, A-967079 does not alter body temperature. It also does not produce locomotor or cardiovascular side effects. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into TRPA1 function and suggest that the selective TRPA1 blockade may present a viable strategy for alleviating pain without untoward side effects. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Moreira, D L; Kaplan, M A; Meirelles, M N; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    1999-05-01

    2',6'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 micrograms/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 micrograms/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 micrograms of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs.

  18. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  19. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  20. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled, magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-penicillamine-anti-metadherin and in vitro evaluation on breast cancer cells; Avaliacao do isotiocianato de fluoresceina marcado, das nanoparticulas magneticas conjugadas da D-penicilamina antimetaderina e in vitro nas celulas do cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca, Ozlet; Unak, Perihan; Medine, E. Ylker [Ege University (Turkey). Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Department of Nuclear Applications; Sakarya, Serhan [Adnan Menderes University (Turkey). ADUBILTEM Science and Technology Research and Development Center; Ozdemir, Caglar; Timur, Suna [Ege University (Turkey). Science Faculty. Department of Nuclear Applications

    2011-07-01

    Silane modified magnetic nanoparticles were prepared after capped with silica generated from the hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Amino silane (SG-Si900) was added to this solution for surface modification of silica coated magnetic particles. Finally, D-penicillamine (D-PA)-antimetadherin (anti-MTDH) was covalently linked to the amine group using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM results showed that particles are nearly monodisperse, and the average size of particles was 40 to 50 nm. An amino acid derivative D-PA was conjugated anti-MTDH, which results the increase of uptaking potential of a conjugated agent, labelled fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and then conjugated to the magnetic nanoparticles. In vitro evaluation of the conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH-FITC to magnetic nanoparticle was studied on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy images of cells after incubation of the sample were obtained to monitor the interaction of the sample with the cancerous cells. Incorporation on cells of FITC labeled and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH was found higher than FITC labeled D-PA-anti-MTDH. The results show that magnetic properties and application of magnetic field increased incorporation rates. The obtained D-PA-anti-MTDH-magnetic nanoparticles-FITC complex has been used for in vitro imaging of breast cancer cells. FITC labeled and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH may be useful as a new class of scintigraphic agents. Results of this study are sufficiently encouraging to bring about further evaluation of this and related compounds for ultraviolet magnetic resonance (UV-MR) dual imaging. (author)

  1. Dose-dependent effects of R-sulforaphane isothiocyanate on the biology of human mesenchymal stem cells, at dietary amounts, it promotes cell proliferation and reduces senescence and apoptosis, while at anti-cancer drug doses, it has a cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanichelli, Fulvia; Capasso, Stefania; Cipollaro, Marilena; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Cartenì, Maria; Casale, Fiorina; Iori, Renato; Galderisi, Umberto

    2012-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are attracting a great deal of attention as healthy foods because of the fact that they contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolite glucosinolates that are converted into isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane [(-)1-isothiocyanato-4R-(methylsulfinyl)-butane] (R-SFN), through the actions of chopping or chewing the vegetables. Several studies have analyzed the biological and molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of synthetic R,S-sulforaphane, which is thought to be a result of its antioxidant properties and its ability to inhibit histone deacetylase enzymes (HDAC). Few studies have addressed the possible antioxidant effects of R-SFN, which could protect cells from the free radical damage that strongly contribute to aging. Moreover, little is known about the effect of R-SFN on stem cells whose longevity is implicated in human aging. We evaluated the effects of R-SFN on the biology on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which, in addition to their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues, support hematopoiesis, and contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs and tissues. Our investigation found evidence that low doses of R-SFN promote MSCs proliferation and protect them from apoptosis and senescence, while higher doses have a cytotoxic effect, leading to the induction of cell cycle arrest, programmed cell death and senescence. The beneficial effects of R-SFN may be ascribed to its antioxidant properties, which were observed when MSC cultures were incubated with low doses of R-SFN. Its cytotoxic effects, which were observed after treating MSCs with high doses of R-SFN, could be attributed to its HDAC inhibitory activity. In summary, we found that R-SFN, like many other dietary supplements, exhibits a hormetic behavior; it is able to induce biologically opposite effects at different doses.

  2. Officer Selection (la Selection des officiers)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The theme of this workshop, officer selection, is an issue of central importance to the military forces of all countries, since it determines which individuals, with what characteristics, will...

  3. Selective Effect of 2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′-Methoxychalcone Isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Moreira, Davyson Lima; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

    1999-01-01

    2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 μg/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 μg/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 μg of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs. PMID:10223942

  4. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  5. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  6. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project......-selection methods, and these findings point to new areas for developing new methodological support for IT project selection....

  7. Restaurant Selection in Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate the selection process used by consumers when choosing a restaurant to dine. This study examined literature on consumer behaviour, restaurant selection, and decision-making, underpinning the contention that service quality is linked to the consumer’s selection of a restaurant. It supports the utility theories that consumers buy bundles of attributes that simultaneously combined represent a certain level of service quality at a certain p...

  8. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  9. ROS accumulation by PEITC selectively kills ovarian cancer cells via UPR-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-hee eHong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unfolded protein response (UPR is crucial for both survival and death of mammalian cells, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS and nutrient depletion. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of ROS-accumulation, induced by β-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, on UPR mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. We used ovarian cancer cell lines, PA-1 and SKOV-3, with different p53 status (wild- and null- type, respectively. PEITC caused increased ROS-accumulation and inhibited proliferation selectively in ovarian cancer cells, and glutathione (GSH depletion in SKOV-3. However, PEITC did not cause any effect in normal ovarian epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After 48 h of PEITC treatment (5 µM, apoptotic cell death was shown to increase significantly in the ovarian cancer cells and not in the normal cells. The key regulator of UPR-mediated apoptosis, CHOP/GADD153 and ER resident chaperone BiP/GRP78 were parallely up-regulated with activation of two major sensors of the UPR (PERK and ATF-6 in PA-1; PERK, and IRE1α in SKOV-3 in response to ROS accumulation induced by PEITC (5 µM. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, attenuated the effect of PEITC on UPR signatures (P-PERK, IRE1α, CHOP/GADD153, and BiP/GRP78, suggesting the involvement of ROS in UPR-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, PEITC induces UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via accumulation of ROS in a cancer-specific manner.

  10. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  11. Recruiter Selection Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halstead, John B

    2006-01-01

    .... The research uses a combination of statistical learning, feature selection methods, and multivariate statistics to determine the better prediction function approximation with features obtained...

  12. Asbestos: selected cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    ...: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos...

  13. The effect of allyl isothiocyanate on RNA | Habibi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the interaction of Allylisothiocyanate with yeast RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using constant RNA concentration and various molar ratios of AITC/RNA complexes are examine. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and uv-visible difference spectroscopic methods are used to determine the ...

  14. Organic Isothiocyanates: Dietary Modulators of Doxorubicin Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    activation (16). In addition, ITCs can study, the compounds were ineffective at a concentration of induce phase II enzymes responsible for the...over 50% of drugs in clinical use including erythromycin, been reported in women as a result of higher alcohol lidocaine , and midazolam and is also

  15. Effect of Betong Watercress and Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2014; 13 (4): 559-566 ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African ..... During blending of the fresh plant to.

  16. Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of Cyclohexyl Isothiocyanate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Alan C; Miles, Jr., Ronald W; Williams, Barry R; Hulet, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    ...)) at a spectral resolution of 0.125 cm(-1). The chemical used in the feedstock was subjected to a rigorous analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Karl-Fischer titration to verify its purity...

  17. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  18. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals

  19. Selection and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgobba, T.; Landon, L.B.; Marciacq, J.B.; Groen, E.L.; Tikhonov, N.; Torchia, F.

    2018-01-01

    Selection and training represent two means of ensuring flight crew members are qualified and prepared to perform safely and effectively in space. The first part of the chapter looks at astronaut selection beginning with the evolutionary changes in the US and Russian programs. A discussion of the

  20. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  1. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  2. Selective labeling of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C in organic solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; López-Lacomba, J L

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C has been isolated from porcine lungs and treated with dansyl isothiocyanate in chloroform:methanol 2:1 (v/v) solutions,under conditions optimized to introduce a single dansyl group covalently attached to the N-terminalamine group of the protein without loss of its...

  3. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  4. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Diamond, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles of fitness trade-offs, indirect (correlated) selection, temporally varying selection, and stabilizing selection for reducing net directional selection and cumulative responses to selection. We detected little evidence that trade-offs among different fitness components reduced total directional selection in most study systems. Comparisons of selection gradients and selection differentials suggest that correlated selection frequently reduced total selection on size but not on other types of traits. The direction of selection on a trait often changes over time in many temporally replicated studies, but these fluctuations have limited impact in reducing cumulative directional selection in most study systems. Analyses of quadratic selection gradients indicated stabilizing selection on body size in at least some studies but provided little evidence that stabilizing selection is more common than disruptive selection for most traits or study systems. Our analyses provide little evidence that fitness trade-offs, correlated selection, or stabilizing selection strongly constrains the directional selection reported for most quantitative traits.

  5. Simulation of selected genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, P F

    2000-02-01

    Algorithms for generating genealogies with selection conditional on the sample configuration of n genes in one-locus, two-allele haploid and diploid models are presented. Enhanced integro-recursions using the ancestral selection graph, introduced by S. M. Krone and C. Neuhauser (1997, Theor. Popul. Biol. 51, 210-237), which is the non-neutral analogue of the coalescent, enables accessible simulation of the embedded genealogy. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme based on that of R. C. Griffiths and S. Tavaré (1996, Math. Comput. Modelling 23, 141-158), is adopted to consider the estimation of ancestral times under selection. Simulations show that selection alters the expected depth of the conditional ancestral trees, depending on a mutation-selection balance. As a consequence, branch lengths are shown to be an ineffective criterion for detecting the presence of selection. Several examples are given which quantify the effects of selection on the conditional expected time to the most recent common ancestor. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  7. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Findings – Our research suggests that generally held assumption that endorsers being selected and thoroughly vetted by a creative agency may not be universally valid. A normative model to illustrate the continuum of the selection process in practise is suggested and the two polar case studies (Swiss brand...

  8. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Selective information sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. F. Fraser-Mackenzie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the amount and valence of information selected during single item evaluation. One hundred and thirty-five participants evaluated a cell phone by reading hypothetical customers reports. Some participants were first asked to provide a preliminary rating based on a picture of the phone and some technical specifications. The participants who were given the customer reports only after they made a preliminary rating exhibited valence bias in their selection of customers reports. In contrast, the participants that did not make an initial rating sought subsequent information in a more balanced, albeit still selective, manner. The preliminary raters used the least amount of information in their final decision, resulting in faster decision times. The study appears to support the notion that selective exposure is utilized in order to develop cognitive coherence.

  10. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  11. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  12. Selection in artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study envisages the analysis of the specific aspects of the selection process in artistic gymnastics, focusing particularly onthe selection of Romania’s recent years. In our opinion, the shift to a cone of darkness of the artistic gymnastics, an extremelypopular sport in our country 20 years ago, is also based on and the orientation of children to other fields – unfortunately manyof them outside sports and physical activities in general. In the present study, we shall present the stages of the artisticgymnastics, as its importance in the subsequent performances has been proven a long time ago. The plethora of qualities andskills which are necessary to select a child for gymnastics and those that this sport develops when performed as a spare timeactivity. The case studied in this endeavour is the one of the main centers for gymnast recruitment in Romania; the attentionpaid by the trainers to the selection for this sport makes the data regarding the number of children involved to increase oncemore. This is a satisfactory fact as it is a well-known fact that a wide range primary selection sets a serious basis for thesecondary selection, and the third, respectively, envisaging the future performance and concurrently ensures the involvementof more children in a physical activity that will prepare them, both physically and mentally for a healthy life.

  13. The use of laser-induced fluorescence or ultraviolet detectors for sensitive and selective analysis of tobramycin or erythropoietin in complex samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hytham M.; Ebeid, Wael B.

    2015-05-01

    Complex samples analysis is a challenge in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical analysis. In this work, tobramycin (TOB) analysis in human urine samples and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) analysis in the presence of similar protein were selected as representative examples of such samples analysis. Assays of TOB in urine samples are difficult because of poor detectability. Therefore laser induced fluorescence detector (LIF) was combined with a separation technique, micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), to determine TOB through derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Borate was used as background electrolyte (BGE) with negative-charged mixed micelles as additive. The method was successively applied to urine samples. The LOD and LOQ for Tobramycin in urine were 90 and 200 ng/ml respectively and recovery was >98% (n = 5). All urine samples were analyzed by direct injection without sample pre-treatment. Another use of hyphenated analytical technique, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) connected to ultraviolet (UV) detector was also used for sensitive analysis of rhEPO at low levels (2000 IU) in the presence of large amount of human serum albumin (HSA). Analysis of rhEPO was achieved by the use of the electrokinetic injection (EI) with discontinuous buffers. Phosphate buffer was used as BGE with metal ions as additive. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of large number of quality control rhEPO samples in a short period.

  14. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  15. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  16. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  17. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  18. Antecedent Selection for Sluicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....

  19. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  20. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  1. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  2. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  3. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  4. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  5. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  6. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  7. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  8. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  9. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  10. Selective Mutism: Phenomenological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary Ann; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Carlson, John; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    To explore factors related to selective mutism (SM), a survey of persons (N=153, including 135 children) with SM was undertaken. Three theoretical assumptions are supported: (1) variant talking behaviors prior to identification of SM; (2) link between SM and social anxiety; (3) potential link between temperament and SM. (EMK)

  11. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  12. Selecting Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djang, Philipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Approach for the selection of personal computers that combines the capabilities of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Integer Goal Programing. An example of how decision makers can use this approach to determine what kind of personal computers and how many of each type to purchase is given. (nine…

  13. Monitoring selected arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Chris Stanton; David J. Horn; Foster F. Purrington; John W. Peacock; Eric H. Metzler

    2003-01-01

    Arthropod populations were sampled in four study areas in southern Ohio in 1995 to document patterns of arthropod diversity and establish a baseline dataset for long-term monitoring in mixed-oak forests. Pitfall, Malaise, and blacklight traps were operated in 12 treatment units from May through September. Several insect groups were selected for detailed study due to...

  14. Selecting a silvicultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a name creates a problem. The name of a silvicultural system usually refers to the way a stand is cut to get regeneration-"single tree selection"-for example. Trouble is, the name suggests that the regeneration cut will be the first treatment applied to the stand. Not so. We are now mostly making "intermediate" cuts in our Lake States...

  15. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...

  16. Selecting the Right Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  17. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  18. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  19. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  20. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  1. Selective fluorescence response and magnetic separation probe for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Ya-Qin; Wang, Feng; Shao, Qun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Despite the rapid development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, it is still desirable to develop novel nanoparticle-based techniques which are cost-effective, timesaving, and environment-friendly, and with ease of operation and procedural simplicity, for assay of target analytes. In the work discussed in this paper, the dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was conjugated to 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA)-capped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs), and the product was characterized. HDA ligands on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs can bind 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to form TNT anions by acid-base pairing interaction. Formation of TNT anions, and captured TNT substantially affect the emission of FITC on the surface of the Fe3O4 MNPs, resulting in quenching of the fluorescence at 519 nm. A novel FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs-based probe featuring chemosensing and magnetic separation has therefore been constructed. i.e. FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs had a highly selective fluorescence response and enabled magnetic separation of TNT from other nitroaromatic compounds by quenching of the emission of FITC and capture of TNT in aqueous solution. Very good linearity was observed for TNT concentrations in the range 0.05-1.5 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 37.2 nmol L(-1) and RSD of 4.7 % (n = 7). Approximately 12 % of the total amount of TNT was captured. The proposed methods are well-suited to trace detection and capture of TNT in aqueous solution.

  2. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  3. Uruguay; 2011 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation—Selected Issues paper focuses on estimating potential output and the output gap and spillovers from agriculture in the case of Uruguay. It introduces additional economic information and theory to estimate potential output, shedding some light on the discussion of current monetary and fiscal policies. The objective is to take advantage of economic data to disentangle the most recent economic performance by introducing multivariate techniques. The paper also pr...

  4. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  5. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  6. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  7. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  8. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  9. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  10. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  11. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  12. Selection, Training and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    most Neck training, Altitudetehamber, PBG, Gas nixtures, Trampoline , important in flying. In years to come we will have a Statoergometer, Raling...superagile world, are mentioned neck, more if X-tra head worn equipment is used put below. a lot of stress to this system. In addition stress will 6-6 be...acceleration Pilot selection criteria like body-type, heart-cerebral forces, mainly head to foot (Gz). The heart itself is distance, vagal and sympathetic nerve

  13. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  14. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  15. Decommissioning strategy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of their useful life nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned. The strategy selection on how to decommission a facility is a highly important decision at the very beginning of decommissioning planning. Basically, a facility may be subject to (a) immediate dismantling; (b) deferred dismantling after a period of ''safe enclosure'' or (c) entombment where a facility is turned into a near surface disposal facility. The first two strategies are normally applied. The third one may be accepted in countries without significant nuclear activities and hence without disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A large number of factors has to be taken into account when a decision on the decommissioning strategy is being made. Many of the factors cannot be quantified. They may be qualitative or subject to public opinion which may change with time. At present, a trend can be observed towards immediate dismantling of nuclear facilities, mainly because it is associated with less uncertainty, less local impact, a better public acceptance, and the availability of operational expertise and know how. A detailed evaluation of the various factors relevant to strategy selection and a few examples showing the situation regarding decommissioning strategy in a number of selected countries are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  16. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  17. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  18. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  19. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  20. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  1. Fungicide selective for basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, L V; Walton, G S; Miller, P M

    1966-07-15

    Concentrations of 2,3-dihydro-5-carboxanilido-6-methyl-1,4-oxathiin lower than 8 parts per million prevented mycelial growth of a number of Basidiomycetes. By contrast, mycelial growth of various other fungi-Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Deuteromycetes-was 50 percent inhibited only by concentrations of 32 ppm or higher. Two exceptions to this pattern of selective fungitoxicity were found:an isolate of Rhizoctonia solani was not as sensitive as other Basidiomycetes, and the deuteromycete Verticillium alboatrum was inhibited by lower concentrations than affected other fungi in this group. Spore germination of two Basidiomycetes, Uromyces phaseoli and Ustilago nuda, was inhibited 95 percent or more at 10 ppm.

  2. Selective protection. Selektivschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    TC 2, ''Transmission and distribution of electrical energy'', held its meeting on selective protection on 16/17 March 1983 at Nuremberg. The main reason for the development of computerized protective systems is their ability to solve a wide range of tasks using only a few, high-integrated systems, i.e. on the software side instead of the hardware side. At the meeting, experts from industrial companies and public utilities reviewed the status and trends of protective systems engineering. Scientific studies and operating experience were presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 papers in this conference proceedings volume.

  3. Selected misdemeanors against monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Klimczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present selected aspects misdemeanors against monuments and the possibility of counteracting them.The author has used: the method of legal analysis  and literature study.  It was moved, among others issues in which cases occur misconduct, when and  what measures can be taken to prevent it. The aim of this paper is to present the matter directly. Attention  also was paid to the role The Provincial Monuments Conservator  and the Minister of Culture and National Heritage.

  4. Scope selection and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, F.

    2011-01-01

    OPG is preparing for a 4-unit refurbishment program at Darlington later in this decade. Key efforts underway include the selection of the right refurbishment scope that will allow Darlington to achieve top-decile performance post-refurbishment. For this to be possible, it is imperative that (1) plant/equipment condition be well understood, (2) post-refurbishment performance objectives be clearly defined, and (3) regulatory and other risks be carefully assessed and mitigated. Significant engineering, operations and maintenance support is required to complete this phase of the project cycle.

  5. Frequency selective bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowitt, M.S.; Fixsen, D.J.; Goldin, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission......-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics; reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal...

  6. Selected cerium phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Verkade, M.E.

    1974-09-01

    A compilation of cerium alloy phase equilibria data based on the most reliable information available is presented. The binary systems selected are those of cerium with each of the following twenty nine elements which might be commonly found in steels: Al, Sb, As, Bi, Ca, C, Cr, Co, Nb, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, N, O, P, Se, Si, Ag, S, Te, Sn, Ti, W, and Zn. A brief discussion, a summary of crystal lattice parameters where applicable, and a list of references is included for each element surveyed. (U.S.)

  7. Broadband network selection issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics

  8. Selective immunosuppression by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.; Joel, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    The historical aspects of selective irradiation of lymphocytes are reviewed as well as the problems concerned with dosimetry and the radiosensitivity of circulating blood elements other than lymphocytes. The possibilities of perturbations in steady-state lymphocytopoiesis which might be triggered by products of radiation-induced cell death are presented; however, the parameters investigated thus far, such as the degree of lymphocytopenia, thoracic duct lymphocyte output, and cell-cycle times of thoracic duct lymphocytes, have failed to reveal any such perturbations. Studies in adrenalectomized calves have failed to confirm the notion that lymphocytopenia after extracorporeal irradiation of blood and lymph might primarily be accounted for by stress-induced corticosteroid hormonal activity. Of the various techniques, only local-graft irradiation and extracorporeal irradiation of blood (ECIB) have found clinical application. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a need for additional, well-controlled clinical trials, especially concerning the role of ECIB as an adjunct to standard immunosuppressive therapy. The experimental results with extracorporeal irradiation of lymph have also established the potential of this technique for clinical application. There is an urgent need for studying the influence of irradiation on various subpopulations of lymphocytes with regard to their functional capabilities and in particular with regard to their reproductive potential. Possible influence of selective blood irradiation on circulating stem cells in blood needs to be evaluated

  9. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  10. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  11. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  12. Selection of maintenance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, B; Rombos, P [Wardrop (W.L.) and Associates Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Selection of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Rombos, P.

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Selected bibliography of agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majisu, L.; Labelle, R.

    1982-01-01

    A successor to a preliminary bibliography by Teemba, L. and containing some of the same references. References (1953-1982) were selected from the 3000 reprints in the agroforestry collection in the ICRAF library, and from approximately 1500 monographs, reports etc. They are grouped in 7 main sections: Agroforestry general, including subsections on agroforestry in arid and semi-arid lands, in lowlands - humid tropics, and in highlands; Agroforestry land-use systems, including concepts from agriculture and forestry land-use systems, and agroforestry systems (cropping with trees, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); Plants and plant management, including multipurpose trees and shrubs; Physical and ecological aspects, (desertification and deforestation, agricultural meteorology, soils and soil management); social and economic aspects, including rural development and human ecology; Training and education; and Information sources and management. A list of information centres relevant to agroforestry is given, and there are subject, species and geographical indexes. 437 references

  15. Skateboard deck materials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.

  16. Antidepressant-selective gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Podolsky, Dina; Greenman, Danielle; Madraswala, Rehman

    2013-01-01

    To describe what we believe is the first reported case of synergistic gynecomastia during treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders when sertraline was added to a stable medication regimen including duloxetine, rosuvastatin, and amlodipine. A 67-year-old male with major depression, dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia presented with new-onset gynecomastia and breast tenderness. Mammography revealed bilateral gynecomastia (fibroglandular tissue posterior to the nipples bilaterally) without suspicious mass, calcification, or other abnormalities. These new symptoms developed after sertraline was added to his stable medication regimen (duloxetine, alprazolam, rosuvastatin, metoprolol, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, metformin, and sitagliptin). These symptoms were dose-dependent, with gynecomastia and breast tenderness more severe as sertraline was titrated from 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day and then to 75 mg/day. When sertraline was discontinued, gynecomastia and breast tenderness rapidly resolved. Mammoplasia and gynecomastia are associated with altered dopamine neurotransmission and/or perturbations in sexual hormones. These adverse effects may be medication induced. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine), rosuvastatin, and amlodipine have been reported to cause these adverse effects. This case was unique, since the patient had been on both sertraline and duloxetine previously as independent psychotropics without the development of gynecomastia. In the context of an additive drug adverse effect, the probability of sertraline as the precipitant drug was determined by both the Naranjo probability scale and the Horn drug interaction probability scale as probable. Gynecomastia is associated with antidepressants and other medications but is rarely addressed. Gynecomastia may be antidepressant selective or may be the result of

  17. Selective Impairment of Auditory Selective Attention under Concurrent Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…

  18. Selective activation of TCR-γδ+ cells in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hviid Lars

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overlap in geographical distribution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL – an aggressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell tumour occurring almost exclusively in the tropics – strongly suggests a link between the two diseases. It is suspected that the polyclonal B-cell activation in P. falciparum malaria may precipitate a breakdown in homeostatic T-cell control of EBV-immortalized B-cell proliferation. Previous studies have suggested that a particular T-cell subset, characterized by expression of Vδ1+ γδ T-cell receptors, is important for maintaining B-cell homeostasis, both in P. falciparum- exposed populations and in individuals subject to polyclonal B-cell activation of other aetiology. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to characterize lymphocyte phenotypes and to investigate possible differences in T-cell subset composition and activation status in P. falciparum-exposed Ghanaian children with and without eBL. Methods Venous blood samples in heparin from 21 eBL patients (mean age: 7.0 years; range: 3–11 years, referred to the Burkitt's Tumour Centre at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra and 15 healthy, age and sex matched children, were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-, phycoerythrin (PE-, R-phycoerythrin (RPE- and RPE-Cy5-conjugated antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD69, CD95, HLA-DR, TCR-γδ, Vδ1, Vδ3, Vγ9 and B-cells and acquired on a flow cytometer. Results A reduction in the proportion of CD3+ cells in eBL patients, due mainly to perturbations among TCR-γδ+ cells was observed. In contrast, the proportions of CD4+ or CD8+ cells were relatively unaffected, as were the mean numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Selective changes in numbers and activation status of TCR-γδ+ cells occurs in Ghanaian children with eBL, a pattern which is similar to P. falciparum-induced changes. The data supports the hypothesis of

  19. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  20. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  1. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  2. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  3. Index Selection in Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choenni, R.S.; Blanken, Henk; Chang, S.C.

    Intending to develop a tool which aims to support the physical design of relational databases can not be done without considering the problem of index selection. Generally the problem is split into a primary and secondary index selection problem and the selection is done per table. Whereas much

  4. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  5. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  6. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  7. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  8. Selective laser trabeculoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ming Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT provided a new choice for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT. SLT was demonstrated equally as effective as topical medical therapy and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT to lower IOP. It is a potentially repeatable procedure because of the lack of coagulation damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM and also effect in patients with previously failed ALT. SLT can be used to treat patients with OAG, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, OHT, juvenile glaucoma, pseudophakic and aphakic glaucoma. Furthermore, SLT can be considered as a primary treatment option in patients who cannot tolerate or are noncompliant with medications, while not interfering with the success of future surgery. Its safety profiles include mild and transient inflammation, ocular pain and a small risk of moderate IOP elevations after the procedure. SLT is a safe and effective means of IOP reduction in eyes with OAG and OHT.

  9. Stirling Engine Configuration Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Egas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike internal combustion engines, Stirling engines can be designed to work with many drive mechanisms based on the three primary configurations, alpha, beta and gamma. Hundreds of different combinations of configuration and mechanical drives have been proposed. Few succeed beyond prototypes. A reason for poor success is the use of inappropriate configuration and drive mechanisms, which leads to low power to weight ratio and reduced economic viability. The large number of options, the lack of an objective comparison method, and the absence of a selection criteria force designers to make random choices. In this article, the pressure—volume diagrams and compression ratios of machines of equal dimensions, using the main (alpha, beta and gamma crank based configurations as well as rhombic drive and Ross yoke mechanisms, are obtained. The existence of a direct relation between the optimum compression ratio and the temperature ratio is derived from the ideal Stirling cycle, and the usability of an empirical low temperature difference compression ratio equation for high temperature difference applications is tested using experimental data. It is shown that each machine has a different compression ratio, making it more or less suitable for a specific application, depending on the temperature difference reachable.

  10. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  11. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  12. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  13. Opportunity structures for selective exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Shehata, Adam; Strömbäck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The transition from low-choice to high-choice media environments has raised new concerns about selective exposure. In this context, two types of selective media exposure are relevant. One is selectivity based on political ideological preferences, the other selectivity based on political...... interest. Evidence for both has been found primarily in an American context, while there is less research on European countries. This is problematic, as the opportunity structures for different forms of selectivity vary across media environments. Against this background, the purpose of this study...

  14. Selective structural source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    In the field of acoustic source reconstruction, the inverse Patch Transfer Function (iPTF) has been recently proposed and has shown satisfactory results whatever the shape of the vibrating surface and whatever the acoustic environment. These two interesting features are due to the virtual acoustic volume concept underlying the iPTF methods. The aim of the present article is to show how this concept of virtual subsystem can be used in structures to reconstruct the applied force distribution. Some virtual boundary conditions can be applied on a part of the structure, called virtual testing structure, to identify the force distribution applied in that zone regardless of the presence of other sources outside the zone under consideration. In the present article, the applicability of the method is only demonstrated on planar structures. However, the final example show how the method can be applied to a complex shape planar structure with point welded stiffeners even in the tested zone. In that case, if the virtual testing structure includes the stiffeners the identified force distribution only exhibits the positions of external applied forces. If the virtual testing structure does not include the stiffeners, the identified force distribution permits to localize the forces due to the coupling between the structure and the stiffeners through the welded points as well as the ones due to the external forces. This is why this approach is considered here as a selective structural source identification method. It is demonstrated that this approach clearly falls in the same framework as the Force Analysis Technique, the Virtual Fields Method or the 2D spatial Fourier transform. Even if this approach has a lot in common with these latters, it has some interesting particularities like its low sensitivity to measurement noise.

  15. Selective noble gases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, S.; Jancik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.; Kubik, I.; Sevecka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: 88 Kr(67; 22) Bq/m 3 ; 85m Kr(17; 7) Bq/m 3 ; 135m Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m 3 ; 138 Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m 3 . (J.K.)

  16. Selective noble gases monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecka, S; Jancik, O; Kapisovsky, V; Kubik, I; Sevecka, S [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: {sup 88}Kr(67; 22) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 85m}Kr(17; 7) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 135m}Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 138}Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m{sup 3}. (J.K.).

  17. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of

  18. Detecting selection needs comparative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive selection at the molecular level is usually indicated by an increase in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in comparative data. However, Plotkin et al. 1 describe a new method for detecting positive selection based on a single nucleotide sequence. We show here...... that this method is particularly sensitive to assumptions regarding the underlying mutational processes and does not provide a reliable way to identify positive selection....

  19. Recruitment and selection of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Čermochová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...

  20. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  1. From demand driven contractor selection towards value driven contractor selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, A.R.; Vries, de B.

    2009-01-01

    The procurement of a construction contractor should consider more aspects than only cost or price. Taking value and price into account to select the ‘best value for money’ bid results in adopting a structured multicriteria approach. An alternative contractor selection method is presented, which

  2. Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruth, J.P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, L.; Rombouts, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides an overview of the different binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), thus improving the understanding of these processes. Design/methodology/approach – A classification of SLS/SLM processes was developed, based on the

  3. Analysis of selected phytotoxins and mycotoxins in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Schenzel, Judith; Strobel, Bjarne W; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2009-11-01

    Natural toxins such as phytotoxins and mycotoxins have been studied in food and feed for decades, but little attention has yet been paid to their occurrence in the environment. Because of increasing awareness of the presence and potential relevance of micropollutants in the environment, phytotoxins and mycotoxins should be considered and investigated as part of the chemical cocktail in natural samples. Here, we compile chemical analytical methods to determine important phytotoxins (i.e. phenolic acids, quinones, benzoxazinones, terpenoids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, flavonoids, coumestans, lignans, and chalcones) and mycotoxins (i.e. resorcyclic acid lactones, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and aflatoxins) in environmentally relevant matrices such as surface water, waste water-treatment plant influent and effluent, soil, sediment, manure, and sewage sludge. The main problems encountered in many of the reviewed methods were the frequent unavailability of suitable internal standards (especially isotope-labelled analogues) and often absent or fragmentary method optimization and validation.

  4. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  5. Conditional control in visual selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Wieske; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Attention and eye movements provide a window into the selective processing of visual information. Evidence suggests that selection is influenced by various factors and is not always under the strategic control of the observer. The aims of this tutorial review are to give a brief introduction to eye

  6. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  7. Exo selective enantioselective nitrone cycloadditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Ma, Zhihua; Jasperse, Craig P

    2004-01-28

    We have developed a novel method for accessing exo adducts with high enantioselectivity in nitrone cycloadditions to enoates. Pyrazolidinones proved to be effective achiral templates in the cycloadditions, providing exo adducts typically in >15:1 selectivity and 90-98% ee. The use of Lewis acids that form square planar complexes, such as copper triflate, was important for obtaining high exo selectivity.

  8. Selective Mutism in Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jennifer Joy

    2008-01-01

    Selective mutism is defined as "the consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other settings" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 as cited in Zelenko & Shaw, 2000). For many years, selective mutism was considered to be a very rare disorder amongst individuals, and little attention…

  9. Interviews with Selectively Mute Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…

  10. Advertising media selection and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience

  11. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  12. Selective attention without a neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Bogadhi, Amarender R; Herman, James P; Bollimunta, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Selective attention refers to the ability to restrict neural processing and behavioral responses to a relevant subset of available stimuli, while simultaneously excluding other valid stimuli from consideration. In primates and other mammals, descriptions of this ability typically emphasize the neural processing that takes place in the cerebral neocortex. However, non-mammals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, which completely lack a neocortex, also have the ability to selectively attend. In this article, we survey the behavioral evidence for selective attention in non-mammals, and review the midbrain and forebrain structures that are responsible. The ancestral forms of selective attention are presumably selective orienting behaviors, such as prey-catching and predator avoidance. These behaviors depend critically on a set of subcortical structures, including the optic tectum (OT), thalamus and striatum, that are highly conserved across vertebrate evolution. In contrast, the contributions of different pallial regions in the forebrain to selective attention have been subject to more substantial changes and reorganization. This evolutionary perspective makes plain that selective attention is not a function achieved de novo with the emergence of the neocortex, but instead is implemented by circuits accrued and modified over hundreds of millions of years, beginning well before the forebrain contained a neocortex. Determining how older subcortical circuits interact with the more recently evolved components in the neocortex will likely be crucial for understanding the complex properties of selective attention in primates and other mammals, and for identifying the etiology of attention disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  14. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  15. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  16. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  17. Sexual selection in marine plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte

    Copepods are among the most abundant metazoans on the planet and play an important role in the marine food web. Many aspects of their ecology have consequently been studied, including details of their reproductive biology and mating behaviour. Sexual selection, the part of evolution which selects...

  18. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-18

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  19. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  20. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, H.

    1984-01-01

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F 5 -lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  1. Lines of Descent Under Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2017-11-01

    We review recent progress on ancestral processes related to mutation-selection models, both in the deterministic and the stochastic setting. We mainly rely on two concepts, namely, the killed ancestral selection graph and the pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph. The killed ancestral selection graph gives a representation of the type of a random individual from a stationary population, based upon the individual's potential ancestry back until the mutations that define the individual's type. The pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph allows one to trace the ancestry of individuals from a stationary distribution back into the distant past, thus leading to the stationary distribution of ancestral types. We illustrate the results by applying them to a prototype model for the error threshold phenomenon.

  2. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  3. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlum Çöpür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors suggest that selective mutism should be considered as a variant of social phobia or a disorder in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Recent studies indicate that pharmacological treatments may be effective in the treatment of selective mutism. In this article, four cases who were treated with citalopram and escitalopram are presented. The results indicate that the drugs were well tolerated, and the level of social and verbal interactions improved significantly. These findings have shown that citalopram and escitalopram can be considered in medication of selective mutism; nevertheless, it is essential that research be done with more cases than previous ones, in order to prove their accuracy

  5. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance: Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Romeijn, J.W.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  6. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance : Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, Denny; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  7. A checkerboard selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: optyang@zju.edu.cn [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Electrical, Computer, and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mo, Lei; Chen, Tuo [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Forsberg, Erik [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Sailing [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Electromagnetic Engineering, JORCEP, Roy Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    A selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity is proposed and analyzed. The absorber is based on a germanium (Ge) checkerboard on top of a tantalum (Ta) substrate. At wavelengths shorter than the 1.2 μm cutoff, a very high absorption is achieved due to strong cavity resonances in the Ge nanosquares, and their interactions with adjacent nanocavities and the bottom Ta substrate. At longer wavelengths, absorption is greatly suppressed due to destructive interference between the transparent checkerboard layer and the highly reflective Ta substrate. To better describe the superior selectivity of our configuration, a new figure of merit (FOM) is introduced. We observe a FOM value of 0.88 compared to 0.69 for its planar counterpart. We also conduct a thermal analysis to verify the excellent selectivity of our absorber. A high temperature can be achieved and maintained, promising good potential for applications in solar thermophotovoltaic systems.

  8. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  9. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  10. Sexual selection protects against extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Alyson J; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Kitson, James J N; Spurgin, Lewis G; Morrison, Catriona A; Godwin, Joanne L; Dickinson, Matthew E; Martin, Oliver Y; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2015-06-25

    Reproduction through sex carries substantial costs, mainly because only half of sexual adults produce offspring. It has been theorized that these costs could be countered if sex allows sexual selection to clear the universal fitness constraint of mutation load. Under sexual selection, competition between (usually) males and mate choice by (usually) females create important intraspecific filters for reproductive success, so that only a subset of males gains paternity. If reproductive success under sexual selection is dependent on individual condition, which is contingent to mutation load, then sexually selected filtering through 'genic capture' could offset the costs of sex because it provides genetic benefits to populations. Here we test this theory experimentally by comparing whether populations with histories of strong versus weak sexual selection purge mutation load and resist extinction differently. After evolving replicate populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum for 6 to 7 years under conditions that differed solely in the strengths of sexual selection, we revealed mutation load using inbreeding. Lineages from populations that had previously experienced strong sexual selection were resilient to extinction and maintained fitness under inbreeding, with some families continuing to survive after 20 generations of sib × sib mating. By contrast, lineages derived from populations that experienced weak or non-existent sexual selection showed rapid fitness declines under inbreeding, and all were extinct after generation 10. Multiple mutations across the genome with individually small effects can be difficult to clear, yet sum to a significant fitness load; our findings reveal that sexual selection reduces this load, improving population viability in the face of genetic stress.

  11. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  12. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    provide important functional information. This review provides a nonmathematical description of the issues involved in detecting selection from DNA sequences and SNP data and is intended for readers who are not familiar with population genetic theory. Particular attention is placed on issues relating......There is an increasing interest in detecting genes, or genomic regions, that have been targeted by natural selection. The interest stems from a basic desire to learn more about evolutionary processes in humans and other organisms, and from the realization that inferences regarding selection may...

  14. Pedagogical basement of sport selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaev A.K.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of relevance, goals, objectives psychological selection of sports heroes. The analysis of the literature reveals the stages of the selection of fighters, revealed three interdependent parts of the selection of athletes as part of the wrestling coach. Established that the content and focus of initial training for wrestling must meet age, stage of training, the level of preparedness practitioners. So it is proved that the intellectual sphere of athletes is mediocre and the average level of development.

  15. Selecting practice management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, R; Ciotti, V

    1997-01-01

    Despite enormous advances in information systems, the process by which most medical practices select them has remained virtually unchanged for decades: the request for proposal (RFP). Unfortunately, vendors have learned ways to minimize the value of RFP checklists to where purchasers now learn little about the system functionality. The authors describe a selection methodology that replaces the RFP with scored demos, reviews of vendor user manuals and mathematically structured reference checking. In a recent selection process at a major medical center, these techniques yielded greater user buy-in and favorable contract terms as well.

  16. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  17. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyer, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...

  18. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  19. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  20. Selecting and Buying Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for selecting/buying educational software are discussed under the following headings: educational soundness; appropriateness; challenge and progress; motivation and reward; correctness; compatibility with systems; instructions and handlings. Includes several sources of software reviews. (JN)

  1. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  2. Optimal selection of TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, P.; Nicoll, J.J.; Edmonds, P.; Paris, M.; Thompson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Large sets of TLD chips are often used to measure beam dose characteristics in radiotherapy. A sorting method is presented to allow optimal selection of chips from a chosen set. This method considers the variation

  3. Species selection for smallholder aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Systems for selection of species for smallholder aquaculture are presented. These are: food fits; management decisions; and economic criteria. Food fits suggests categorizing pond food resources into a few categories based loosely on the instrinsic traits of food which effect their selectivity by predators. Using management decision techniques, potential polycultures might also be compared with each other and with monoculture. Under economic criteria (and for species known in local markets), ...

  4. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  5. Contractor Selection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Bajaber; M. A. Taha

    2012-01-01

    Contractor selection in Saudi Arabia is very important due to the large construction boom and the contractor role to get over construction risks. The need for investigating contractor selection is due to the following reasons; large number of defaulted or failed projects (18%), large number of disputes attributed to contractor during the project execution stage (almost twofold), the extension of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into construction industry, and finally the few ...

  6. A Heckman Selection- t Model

    KAUST Repository

    Marchenko, Yulia V.

    2012-03-01

    Sample selection arises often in practice as a result of the partial observability of the outcome of interest in a study. In the presence of sample selection, the observed data do not represent a random sample from the population, even after controlling for explanatory variables. That is, data are missing not at random. Thus, standard analysis using only complete cases will lead to biased results. Heckman introduced a sample selection model to analyze such data and proposed a full maximum likelihood estimation method under the assumption of normality. The method was criticized in the literature because of its sensitivity to the normality assumption. In practice, data, such as income or expenditure data, often violate the normality assumption because of heavier tails. We first establish a new link between sample selection models and recently studied families of extended skew-elliptical distributions. Then, this allows us to introduce a selection-t (SLt) model, which models the error distribution using a Student\\'s t distribution. We study its properties and investigate the finite-sample performance of the maximum likelihood estimators for this model. We compare the performance of the SLt model to the conventional Heckman selection-normal (SLN) model and apply it to analyze ambulatory expenditures. Unlike the SLNmodel, our analysis using the SLt model provides statistical evidence for the existence of sample selection bias in these data. We also investigate the performance of the test for sample selection bias based on the SLt model and compare it with the performances of several tests used with the SLN model. Our findings indicate that the latter tests can be misleading in the presence of heavy-tailed data. © 2012 American Statistical Association.

  7. Global Sourcing and Firm Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms.......We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms....

  8. Sexual selection protects against extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Alyson; Michalczyk, Lukasz; Kitson, James; Spurgin, Lewis; Morrison, Catriona; Godwin, Joanne; Dickinson, Matthew; Martin, Oliver; Emerson, Brent; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction through sex carries substantial costs, mainly because only half of sexual adults produce offspring. It has been theorised that these costs could be countered if sex allows sexual selection to clear the universal fitness constraint of mutation load. Under sexual selection, competition between (usually) males, and mate choice by (usually) females create important intraspecific filters for reproductive success, so that only a subset of males gains paternity. If reproductive success ...

  9. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  10. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  11. The ancestral selection graph under strong directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokalyuk, Cornelia; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ancestral selection graph (ASG) was introduced by  Neuhauser and Krone (1997) in order to study populations of constant size which evolve under selection. Coalescence events, which occur at rate 1 for every pair of lines, lead to joint ancestry. In addition, splitting events in the ASG at rate α, the scaled selection coefficient, produce possible ancestors, such that the real ancestor depends on the ancestral alleles. Here, we use the ASG in the case without mutation in order to study fixation of a beneficial mutant. Using our main tool, a reversibility property of the ASG, we provide a new proof of the fact that a beneficial allele fixes roughly in time (2logα)/α if α is large. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Feature-selective attention in healthy old age: a selective decline in selective attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-02-12

    Deficient selection against irrelevant information has been proposed to underlie age-related cognitive decline. We recently reported evidence for maintained early sensory selection when older and younger adults used spatial selective attention to perform a challenging task. Here we explored age-related differences when spatial selection is not possible and feature-selective attention must be deployed. We additionally compared the integrity of feedforward processing by exploiting the well established phenomenon of suppression of visual cortical responses attributable to interstimulus competition. Electroencephalogram was measured while older and younger human adults responded to brief occurrences of coherent motion in an attended stimulus composed of randomly moving, orientation-defined, flickering bars. Attention was directed to horizontal or vertical bars by a pretrial cue, after which two orthogonally oriented, overlapping stimuli or a single stimulus were presented. Horizontal and vertical bars flickered at different frequencies and thereby elicited separable steady-state visual-evoked potentials, which were used to examine the effect of feature-based selection and the competitive influence of a second stimulus on ongoing visual processing. Age differences were found in feature-selective attentional modulation of visual responses: older adults did not show consistent modulation of magnitude or phase. In contrast, the suppressive effect of a second stimulus was robust and comparable in magnitude across age groups, suggesting that bottom-up processing of the current stimuli is essentially unchanged in healthy old age. Thus, it seems that visual processing per se is unchanged, but top-down attentional control is compromised in older adults when space cannot be used to guide selection.

  13. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  14. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  15. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  16. Treatment of selective mutism: focus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakeh, Yaman; Stumpf, Janice L

    2008-02-01

    Abstract Selective mutism is a pediatric psychiatric disorder that occurs when a child consistently fails to speak in specific situations in which speaking is expected, such as at school and social gatherings, but speaks appropriately in other settings. Selective mutism often is diagnosed when a child starts school and does not talk to teachers or peers, but talks to family members at home; the condition is frequently accompanied by anxiety and shyness. Although the underlying etiology of the condition remains unclear, psychotherapy is the preferred initial treatment, with the support of parents and teachers. If the child does not respond to psychotherapy, addition of pharmacologic treatment should be considered, depending on the severity of symptoms and presence of other illnesses. Although data are limited to case reports and trials with small patient populations and short follow-up periods, some patients with selective mutism respond to therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluoxetine is the most studied SSRI as treatment for the condition, although further investigation is required to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy.

  17. Directed evolution: selecting today's biocatalysts : selecting today's biocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Linda; Quax, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Directed evolution has become a full-grown tool in molecular biology nowadays. The methods that are involved in creating a mutant library are extensive and can be divided into several categories according to their basic ideas. Furthermore, both screening and selection can be used to target the

  18. Selective carnivory by Euphausia lucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M. J.; Pillar, S. C.; Stuart, V.

    1991-07-01

    Stomach contents of adult Euphausia lucens were analysed to determine what criteria this euphausiid uses to select copepod prey. The results indicate that although E. lucens of all sizes ingest a wide range of prey sizes at apparently ambient proportions, small copepods (e.g. Oithona) are consistently consumed in greater than ambient amounts. Small copepods (especially Oithona) are known to move slowly, and have been shown to be more susceptible to predation via negative pressure than larger copepods. In the presence of an abundant phytoplankton food supply and in an otherwise generally non-selective diet, we conclude that such copepod selection by E. lucens is passive. This is in line with the idea of a non-hunting, preferentially herbivorous zooplankter.

  19. Site selection: Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilford, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Site selection has been going on since the earliest times. The process has evolved through the Industrial Revolution to the present period of exploding population and environmental awareness. Now the work must be done both with increasing sophistication and greater transparency. Modern techniques for site selection have been developed during the last two decades or so, utilizing a teachable body of knowledge and a growing literature. Many firms and individuals have contributed to this growing field. The driving force has been the need for such a process in siting and licensing of critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. A list of crucial, documented steps for identifying social impacts and acceptability are provided. A recent innovation is the self-selection method developed by government. The Superconducting Supercollider serves as an example of this approach. Geological or geologically dependent factors often dominate the process. The role as engineering and environmental geoscientists is to provide responsible leadership, consultation, and communication to the effort

  20. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......) that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. Use of organic chemicals and ionic liquids as solvents will be covered....

  1. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  2. E-recruitment and Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Haahr, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies has revolutionized e-recruitment and selection function in many organizations, especially transforming it into a time- and space-independent process of sourcing and evaluating candidates. In the process, organizations rely on websites, social...... media and job portals for sourcing candidates and deploy computerized and online assessment tools when selecting the best-qualified applicants. Similarly, their communication with jobseekers has moved to cyberspace and is often performed through applicant tracking systems, where hiring managers use...... mobile technologies to track and evaluate candidates. In this chapter, we present an overview of e-recruitment and selection practices and discuss the use of technology throughout the hiring process....

  3. Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F

    2017-12-13

    An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.

  4. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  5. The physiology of follicle selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleznik Anthony J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the follicular phase of the primate menstrual cycle, a single follicle usually matures to the preovulatory stage and releases its oocyte for fertilization and the potential establishment of pregnancy. In assisted reproductive technology procedures, it is desirable to override the natural process of follicle selection to produce many oocytes that are capable of being fertilized and undergoing normal embryo development. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the current views regarding the natural process of follicle selection in primates and to discuss how this process may be amplified to produce a greater number of oocytes.

  6. Feature selection for portfolio optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Thomas Trier; Ross, Omri; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Most portfolio selection rules based on the sample mean and covariance matrix perform poorly out-of-sample. Moreover, there is a growing body of evidence that such optimization rules are not able to beat simple rules of thumb, such as 1/N. Parameter uncertainty has been identified as one major....... While most of the diversification benefits are preserved, the parameter estimation problem is alleviated. We conduct out-of-sample back-tests to show that in most cases different well-established portfolio selection rules applied on the reduced asset universe are able to improve alpha relative...

  7. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  8. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  10. Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    feature behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational ‘ends’ or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends’ (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means’ (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way...

  11. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  12. Guidelines for Effective Selective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Joel D.; Shields, Joyce L.

    Defining selective listening as an intelligence gathering technique that depends on an individual's ability to access, monitor, and report oral messages accurately and to give processing priority to messages of possible intelligence value, this report describes one important application of the technique: overhearing the conversations of others…

  13. Geodesy and Mapping (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-16

    August 1979 MICROFICHE NR. C-0/O GEODESY AND MAPPING (SELECTED ARTICLES) English pages: 53 Source: Geodezja i Kartograflia, Vol. 27, Nr. 2, 1978, pp. 83...Hausbrandt S., Wyrdwnanie sieci trygonemetryernych z odrzuceniem zalolenia bezbIfdneil pwo- ktdw dowiqzania, Geodezja i Kartografia. T III, z. 1, 1954. [2

  14. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  15. Select Papyri from Danish Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas

    The thesis, Select Papyri from Danish Collections: Philological and Archaeometric Studies, consists of an introduction, a book, four articles and a rapport on a scientific experiment at EuropeanRadiation Synchrotron Facility(ESRF), Grenoble, France, together with an application for another...

  16. Development, Awareness and Inductive Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Lim, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined whether adults and children could learn to make context-dependent inferences about novel stimuli and the role of awareness of context cues in such learning. Participants were trained to match probes to targets on the basis of shape or color with the relevant dimension shifting according to item context. A selective induction…

  17. Mass-Selective Laser Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and applications of mass-selective laser photoionization. The ionization can be done with a single intense laser pulse lasting a few billionths of a second with no molecular fragmentation. Applications focus on: (1) benzene clusters, excimers, and exciplexes; (2) metal clusters; and (3) triplet formation and decay. (Author/JN)

  18. Memory control with selective retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory circuit and a method of controlling data retention in the memory circuit, wherein a supply signal is selectively switched to a respective one of at least two virtual supply lines (24) each shared by a respective one of a plurality of groups (30-1 to 30-n) of

  19. Memory control with selective retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory circuit and a method of controlling data retention in the memory circuit, wherein a supply signal is selectively switched to a respective one of at least two virtual supply lines (24) each shared by a respective one of a plurality of groups (30-1 to 30-n) of

  20. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  1. Selected papers on classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication, the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers here are in the general area of mathematical analysis as it pertains to free probability theory.

  2. Selectivity in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Honoré Hansen, S

    2000-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a most promising separation technique providing good selectivity and high separation efficiency of anionic, cationic as well as neutral solutes. In MEEKC lipophilic organic solvents dispersed as tiny droplets in an aqueous buffer by the use...

  3. Efficient data selection for ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, NT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available the deployment of ASR systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. One approach to assist with resource-scarce ASR system development, is to select ‘‘useful’’ training samples which could reduce the resources needed to collect new corpora. In this work...

  4. Selecting Copulas for Risk Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCopulas offer financial risk managers a powerful tool to model the dependence between the different elements of a portfolio and are preferable to the traditional, correlation-based approach. In this paper we show the importance of selecting an accurate copula for risk management. We

  5. Selective Mutism: Causes and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic criteria, causes, assessment, and treatment of selective mutism in school-age children. The most successful treatments have included various forms or combinations of behavior modification, though these may not address the underlying problem. (Author/DB)

  6. density-dependent selection revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    is a more useful way of looking at density-dependent selection, and then go on ... these models was that the condition for maintenance of ... In a way, their formulation may be viewed as ... different than competition among species, and typical.

  7. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called

  8. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the

  9. Teacher Candidate Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Lynn; And Others

    Summaries are presented of three papers presented at a summer workshop on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education conducted by the Association of Teacher Educators. The general topic covered by these presentations was teacher candidate selection and evaluation. Papers focused upon the following questions: (1) What entry level criteria should be…

  10. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplies (pet bowls, pet bed, leash, etc.) as gifts, then selecting the pet as a family. That way, everyone has time to really think about whether your family is ready for a pet. Key Questions Before adopting or purchasing any pet, talk to all family members, discuss ...

  11. Feature selection toolbox software package

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2002), s. 487-492 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/01/0981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : pattern recognition * feature selection * loating search algorithms Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.409, year: 2002

  12. A Selection Method That Succeeds!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitman, Catheryn J.

    Provided a structural selection method is carried out, it is possible to find quality early childhood personnel. The hiring process involves five definite steps, each of which establishes a base for the next. A needs assessment formulating basic minimal qualifications is the first step. The second step involves review of current job descriptions…

  13. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachura, Z.

    1984-09-01

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  14. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  15. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  16. Binaural frequency selectivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; van de Par, Steven

    2018-01-23

    Several behavioural studies in humans have shown that listening to sounds with two ears that is binaural hearing, provides the human auditory system with extra information on the sound source that is not available when sounds are only perceived through one ear that is monaurally. Binaural processing involves the analysis of phase and level differences between the two ear signals. As monaural cochlea processing (in each ear) precedes the neural stages responsible for binaural processing properties it is reasonable to assume that properties of the cochlea may also be observed in binaural processing. A main characteristic of cochlea processing is its frequency selectivity. In psychoacoustics, there is an ongoing discussion on the frequency selectivity of the binaural auditory system. While some psychoacoustic experiments seem to indicate poorer frequency selectivity of the binaural system than that of the monaural processing others seem to indicate the same frequency selectivity for monaural and binaural processing. This study provides an overview of these seemingly controversial results and the different explanations that were provided to account for the different results. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Portfolio selection with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyung, N.; Vries, de C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Consider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore often select corner

  18. A Heckman Selection- t Model

    KAUST Repository

    Marchenko, Yulia V.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    for sample selection bias based on the SLt model and compare it with the performances of several tests used with the SLN model. Our findings indicate that the latter tests can be misleading in the presence of heavy-tailed data. © 2012 American Statistical

  19. Special Warfare: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Strategy. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981. (U162 .A78) 8. Atlantic Research Corporation. Georgetown Research Project. A Histori- cal Survey of...Corps Gazette. The Guerrillp. and How to Fight Him: Selections, ed. by T.N. Greene . Nev ’ork: Praeger, 1962. (U240 K33) 108. Martic, Milos. Insurrection

  20. Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: μ = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time.

  1. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  2. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  3. Inspection methods and their selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First those nondestructive testing methods, which are used in quality assurance, are to be treated, e.g. - ultrasonics - radiography - magnetic particle testing - dye penetrant testing - eddy currents, and their capabilities and limitations are shown. Second the selection of optimal testing methods under the aspect of defect recognition in different materials and components are shown. (orig./RW)

  4. Persuasion: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Steven T.

    Designed to reflect the diversity of approaches to persuasion, this annotated bibliography cites materials selected for their contribution to that diversity as well as for being relatively current and/or especially significant representatives of particular approaches. The bibliography starts with a list of 17 general textbooks on approaches to…

  5. Repetition priming in selective attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    . Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure...

  6. Urinary excretion of total isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables shows high dose-response relationship and may be a useful biomarker for isothiocyanate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    in urine was quanti- fied as the cyclocondensation product of 1,2-bezenedithiol by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The total urinary excretion of ITCs correlated significantly with the two doses of ITC from diets with high or low cruciferous content (r(s) = 0.90, P

  7. Hydroxyl and methoxyl derivatives of benzylglucosinolate in Lepidium densiflorum with hydrolysis to isothiocyanates and non-isothiocyanate products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagnotta, Eleonora; Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2017-01-01

    A system of benzylic glucosinolates was found and characterized in common pepperweed, Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. The major glucosinolate was the novel 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylglucosinolate (3,5-dimethoxysinalbin), present at high levels in seeds, leaves, and roots. Medium......-level glucosinolates were 3,4-dimethoxybenzylglucosinolate and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylglucosinolate. Minor glucosinolates included benzylglucosinolate, 3-hydroxy- and 3-methoxybenzylglucosinolate, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin), the novel 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylglucosinolate (3-methoxysinalbin), and indole......-type glucosinolates. A biosynthetic connection is suggested. NMR, UV, and ion trap MS/MS spectral data are reported, showing contrasting MS fragmentation of p-hydroxyls and p-methoxyls. Additional investigations by GC-MS focused on glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Whereas glucosinolates generally yielded...

  8. Sales Tax Compliance and Audit Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1995-01-01

    Uses sample selection estimation techniques to identify systematic audit selection rules and determinants of sales tax underreporting. Though based on data from only one state (Tennessee), outcomes are useful in developing and evaluating audit selection results.

  9. Opportunistic Relay Selection With Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Elkhalil, Khalil; Bahrami, Hamid Reza; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Generally, relay selection algorithms require channel state information (CSI) feedback from all cooperating relays to make a selection decision

  10. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection

    KAUST Repository

    Siepielski, Adam M.; Gotanda, Kiyoko M.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Diamond, Sarah E.; DiBattista, Joseph; Carlson, Stephanie Marie

    2013-01-01

    the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data

  11. Behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, M. R.; Davis, H. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Weiss, J. F.

    1992-10-01

    Effective radioprotection with minimal behavioral disruption is essential for the selection of protective agents to be used in manned spaceflight. This overview summarizes the studies on the behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors classified as phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-3689), bioactive lipids (16, 16 dimethylprostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4), and immunomodulators (glucan, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, and interleukin-1). Behavioral toxicity was examined in laboratory mice using a locomotor activity test. For all compounds tested, there was a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor behavior that paralleled the dose-dependent increase in radioprotection. While combinations of radioprotective compounds (DiPGE2 plus WR-2721) increased radioprotection, they also decreased locomotor activity. The central nervous system stimulant, caffeine, was able to mitigate the locomotor decrement produced by WR-3689 or PAF.

  12. Statistical learning and selective inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J

    2015-06-23

    We describe the problem of "selective inference." This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have "cherry-picked"--searched for the strongest associations--means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis.

  13. Selective arterial thrombolysis with urokinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Kil Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Sang Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Young [Choong Buk University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    Seven patients with thrombotic occlusions of the peripheral arteries or grafts were treated with urokinase by direct intraarterial selective infusion. During the infusion, simultaneous heparin infusion was used to reduce the frequency of thrombus formation on the infusion catheter or recurrent thrombosis. In 4 patients in whom a complete thrombolysis occurred, urokinase was infused by a high-dose transthrombus bolus technique followed by continuous infusion. There other patients, in whom thrombolysis was partially accomplished and then surgical thrombectomy was performed, were treated only by continuous urokinase infusion. Small hematomas developed at the infusion catheter entry site in 2 patients, but transfusion or operation was not required. Other significant complications were not found. Our results suggest that selective arterial infusion of urokinase with a transthrombus bolus technique can accomplish a complete arterial thrombolysis without any significant complications.

  14. Selective arterial thrombolysis with urokinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Kil Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Dae Young

    1991-01-01

    Seven patients with thrombotic occlusions of the peripheral arteries or grafts were treated with urokinase by direct intraarterial selective infusion. During the infusion, simultaneous heparin infusion was used to reduce the frequency of thrombus formation on the infusion catheter or recurrent thrombosis. In 4 patients in whom a complete thrombolysis occurred, urokinase was infused by a high-dose transthrombus bolus technique followed by continuous infusion. There other patients, in whom thrombolysis was partially accomplished and then surgical thrombectomy was performed, were treated only by continuous urokinase infusion. Small hematomas developed at the infusion catheter entry site in 2 patients, but transfusion or operation was not required. Other significant complications were not found. Our results suggest that selective arterial infusion of urokinase with a transthrombus bolus technique can accomplish a complete arterial thrombolysis without any significant complications

  15. Selective inhibition of distracting input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, MaryAnn P; Crittenden, Ben M; Jensen, Ole; Stokes, Mark G

    2017-10-16

    We review a series of studies exploring distractor suppression. It is often assumed that preparatory distractor suppression is controlled via top-down mechanisms of attention akin to those that prepare brain areas for target enhancement. Here, we consider two alternative mechanisms: secondary inhibition and expectation suppression within a predictive coding framework. We draw on behavioural studies, evidence from neuroimaging and some animal studies. We conclude that there is very limited evidence for selective top-down control of preparatory inhibition. By contrast, we argue that distractor suppression often relies secondary inhibition of non-target items (relatively non-selective inhibition) and on statistical regularities of the environment, learned through direct experience. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rabi N. Bhattacharya selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Waymire, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents some of the most influential papers published by Rabi N. Bhattacharya, along with commentaries from international experts, demonstrating his knowledge, insight, and influence in the field of probability and its applications. For more than three decades, Bhattacharya has made significant contributions in areas ranging from theoretical statistics via analytical probability theory, Markov processes, and random dynamics to applied topics in statistics, economics, and geophysics. Selected reprints of Bhattacharya’s papers are divided into three sections: Modes of Approximation, Large Times for Markov Processes, and Stochastic Foundations in Applied Sciences. The accompanying articles by the contributing authors not only help to position his work in the context of other achievements, but also provide a unique assessment of the state of their individual fields, both historically and for the next generation of researchers. Rabi N. Bhattacharya: Selected Papers will be a valuable resource for yo...

  17. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  18. EBTR design-point selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to select the design point for the ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study is described. The models used in each phase of the selection process are described, with an emphasis placed on the parametric design curves produced by each model. The tradeoffs related to burn physics, stability/equilibrium, electron-ring physics, and magnetics design are discussed. The resulting design point indicates a plasma with a 35-m major radius and a 1-m minor radium operating at an average core-plasma beta of 0.17, which at approx. 30 keV produces an average neutron wall loading of 1.4 MW/m 2 while maintaining key magnet (< 10 T) and total power (less than or equal to 4000 MWt) constraints

  19. Geodesy and Cartography (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-10

    C-OO/b73 GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY (SELECTED ARTICLES) English pages: 40 Source: GeodezJa i Kartografia, Vol. 27, Nr. 1, 1978, PP. 3-27 Country of...1976. 14) kledzixski, J., Zibek, Z., Czarnecki, K., Rogowski, J.B., Problems in Using Satellite Surveys in an Astronomical-Geodesic Network, Geodezja i...Based on Observations of Low-Low Satellites Using Collocation Methods, Geodezja i Kartografia, Vol. XXVI, No. 4, 1977. [-7. Krynski, J., Schwarz, K.P

  20. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  1. Selection Process of ERP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, Bálint; Szabó, Gyula; Benczúr, András

    2013-01-01

    Background: The application and introduction of ERP systems have become a central issue for management and operation of enterprises. The competition on market enforces the improvement and optimization of business processes of enterprises to increase their efficiency, effectiveness, and to manage better the resources outside the company. The primary task of ERP systems is to achieve the before-mentioned objectives. Objective: The selection of a particular ERP system has a decisive effect on th...

  2. Selective shielding device for scintiphotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.W.; Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A selective shielding device to be used in combination with a scintillation camera is described. The shielding device is a substantially oval-shaped configuration removably secured to the scintillation camera. As a result of this combination scanning of preselected areas of a patient can be rapidly and accurately performed without the requirement of mounting any type of shielding paraphernalia on the patient. 1 claim, 2 drawing figures

  3. The selection of occupancy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An estimate of the proportion of time that an area is occupied by radiation workers is often used in radiological protection to permit relaxation of exposure rate limits above those for continuous occupation. This proportion is known as an occupancy factor and is used most frequently in X-ray facilities. The strategy for controlling the external exposure of radiation workers must be decided before occupancy factors are selected for the design of the radiation protection facilities. When shielding has to be designed the occupancy factor effects the design objectives and permits increased exposure rates at the shield surface. It is useful to note that the selection of occupancy factors with due regard to the expected spatial variation of the exposure rate can help to reduce the range of the worker's radiation exposure because field gradients are usually steeper close to the shield. When other hazards, such as internal exposure, and other constraints, such as cost of the space consumed, are added, the selection of the optimum set of occupancy factors is more difficult. Two zone occupancy factors are discussed in this paper and proposals are made for a strategy to be used when there is more than one hazard and the designer has to meet constraints imposed by limitations of the facilities available. An important feature of the strategy is the avoidance of high radiation exposure to small groups of workers. The errors involved in assessment of the actual dose received by the radiation worker must be taken into account and in particular the selection of the higher exposure rate limits must be made with attention to the accident potential

  4. Brand management of selected brand

    OpenAIRE

    Honzíková, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the subject of brand management. My main objective was to summarize the issue of brand management and apply the acquired knowledge on the selected brand of food products on the Czech market, i.e. to assess its current management and the current situation and where appropriate, propose recommendations for the future. I use the case study method, the method of survey and analysis of primary and secondary data. The theoretical part deals with the concept of brand, its featu...

  5. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  6. Selective Functionalization of Arbitrary Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-02

    3-mercaptopropyl)- trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The wires were grown electrochemically in anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) templates. Selective deposition...In the past, templates composed of polycarbonate track-etched membranes or anodic aluminum oxide materials have been used for the construction of...modifier MPTMS was used to function- alize the AAO template because it can form covalent bonds with silanes and metal oxide surfaces21 and because of

  7. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  8. Republic of Lithuania; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews public expenditure in Lithuania with a view to identify areas for which deeper reforms may be warranted to improve spending efficiency and contain future spending pressures. The paper benchmarks spending levels and spending composition in Lithuania against those in other European countries. The 31 European countries covered in the benchmarking exercise include the EU-28 plus Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Reflecting the tendency for public spending to inc...

  9. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  10. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  11. Natural Selection in Large Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to the evolutionary dynamics and population genetics of natural selection in large populations. In these populations, many mutations are often present simultaneously, and because recombination is limited, selection cannot act on them all independently. Rather, it can only affect whole combinations of mutations linked together on the same chromosome. Methods common in theoretical population genetics have been of limited utility in analyzing this coupling between the fates of different mutations. In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that this is a crucial gap in our understanding, as sequence data has begun to show that selection appears to act pervasively on many linked sites in a wide range of populations, including viruses, microbes, Drosophila, and humans. I will describe approaches that combine analytical tools drawn from statistical physics and dynamical systems with traditional methods in theoretical population genetics to address this problem, and describe how experiments in budding yeast can help us directly observe these evolutionary dynamics.

  12. Dysprosium selective potentiometric membrane sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    A novel Dy(III) ion-selective PVC membrane sensor was made using a new synthesized organic compound, 3,4-diamino-N Prime -((pyridin-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (L) as an excellent sensing element. The electrode showed a Nernstian slope of 19.8 {+-} 0.6 mV per decade in a wide concentration range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}-1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1}, a detection limit of 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, a short conditioning time, a fast response time (< 10 s), and high selectivity towards Dy(III) ion in contrast to other cations. The proposed sensor was successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Dy(III) ions with EDTA. The membrane sensor was also applied to the F{sup -} ion indirect determination of some mouth washing solutions and to the Dy{sup 3+} determination in binary mixtures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novelty of this work is based on the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Dy{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique is very simple, fast and inexpensive and it is not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The newly developed sensor is superior to the formerly reported Dy{sup 3+} sensors in terms of selectivity.

  13. Geometric mean for subspace selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.

  14. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  15. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  16. Statistical selection : a way of thinking !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Eikelder, ten H.M.M.; Hemerik, C.; Rem, M.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical selection of the best population is discussed in general terms and the principles of statistical selection procedures are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of Subset Selection, one of the main approaches, are indicated. The selection of an almost best population is considered and

  17. Statistical selection : a way of thinking!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical selection of the best population is discussed in general terms and the principles of statistical selection procedures are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of Subset Selection, one of the main approaches, are indicated. The selection of an almost best population is considered and

  18. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public... PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.6 Selection process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria and...

  19. The Art of Selection: Command Selection Failures, and a Better Way to Select Army Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    and Effects ( MFE ), Force Sustainment (FS), and Operations Support (OS). Board members review board files in accordance with the instructions given to...Fires, and Effects ( MFE ), Operations Support (OS), and Force Sustainment (FS). The exact composition of a command selection board is governed by a...policy updated annually by the Military Personnel Management Directorate. For example, the MFE lieutenant colonel command board will be made up of one

  20. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  1. [Genomic selection and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-De; Bao, Zhen-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2011-12-01

    Selective breeding is very important in agricultural production and breeding value estimation is the core of selective breeding. With the development of genetic markers, especially high throughput genotyping technology, it becomes available to estimate breeding value at genome level, i.e. genomic selection (GS). In this review, the methods of GS was categorized into two groups: one is to predict genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) based on the allele effect, such as least squares, random regression - best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP), Bayes and principle component analysis, etc; the other is to predict GEBV with genetic relationship matrix, which constructs genetic relationship matrix via high throughput genetic markers and then predicts GEBV through linear mixed model, i.e. GBLUP. The basic principles of these methods were also introduced according to the above two classifications. Factors affecting GS accuracy include markers of type and density, length of haplotype, the size of reference population, the extent between marker-QTL and so on. Among the methods of GS, Bayes and GBLUP are usually more accurate than the others and least squares is the worst. GBLUP is time-efficient and can combine pedigree with genotypic information, hence it is superior to other methods. Although progress was made in GS, there are still some challenges, for examples, united breeding, long-term genetic gain with GS, and disentangling markers with and without contribution to the traits. GS has been applied in animal and plant breeding practice and also has the potential to predict genetic predisposition in humans and study evolutionary dynamics. GS, which is more precise than the traditional method, is a breakthrough at measuring genetic relationship. Therefore, GS will be a revolutionary event in the history of animal and plant breeding.

  2. Surgical patient selection and counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelmann, Matt; Köhler, Tobias S; Bailey, George C; Miest, Tanner; Alom, Manaf; Trost, Landon

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures. The process of appropriate patient selection is determined by the integration of patient and surgeon factors, including psychological capacity to handle unsatisfactory results, baseline expectations, complexity of case, and surgeon volume and experience. Using this model, a high-risk scenario includes one in which a low-volume surgeon performs a complex case in a patient with limited psychological capacity and high expectations. In contrast, a high-volume surgeon performing a routine case in a male with low expectations and abundant psychiatric reserve is more likely to achieve a successful outcome. To further help identify patients who are at high risk for dissatisfaction, a previously published mnemonic is recommended: CURSED Patient (compulsive/obsessive, unrealistic, revision, surgeon shopping, entitled, denial, and psychiatric). Appropriate patient counseling includes setting appropriate expectations, reviewing the potential and anticipated risks of surgery, post-operative instruction to limit complications, and long-term follow-up. As thorough counseling is often a time-consuming endeavor, busy practices may elect to utilize various resources including educational materials, advanced practice providers, or group visits, among others. The consequences for poor patient selection and counseling may range from poor surgical outcomes and patient dissatisfaction to lawsuits, loss of

  3. Commodity profiles for selected metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, O.; Wilson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the basic characteristics of 35 metals and gives the prices and production of these metals for the period 1979 to 1983/4. The description of each metal includes the ore grades and reserves, the major minerals in which the metal occurs, and the discovery, selected physical properties, sources, uses, substitutes, and effects on the environment of the metal. Graphs showing price and production cover the period 1950 to 1984, and possible future developments in these areas are forecast for each metal until the year 2000

  4. Selected readings in chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Back, Margaret H

    2013-01-01

    Selected Readings in Chemical Kinetics covers excerpts from 12 papers in the field of general and gas-phase kinetics. The book discusses papers on the laws of connexion between the conditions of a chemical change and its amount; on the reaction velocity of the inversion of the cane sugar by acids; and the calculation in absolute measure of velocity constants and equilibrium constants in gaseous systems. The text then tackles papers on simple gas reactions; on the absolute rate of reactions in condensed phases; on the radiation theory of chemical action; and on the theory of unimolecular reacti

  5. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  6. Social phobia and selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Courtney P; Crosby Budinger, Meghan

    2012-07-01

    Social phobia (SOP) and selective mutism (SM) are related anxiety disorders characterized by distress and dysfunction in social situations. SOP typically onsets in adolescence and affects about 8% of the general population, whereas SM onsets before age 5 and is prevalent in up to 2% of youth. Prognosis includes a chronic course that confers risk for other disorders or ongoing social disability, but more favorable outcomes may be associated with young age and low symptom severity. SOP treatments are relatively more established, whereas dissemination of promising and innovative SM-treatment strategies is needed.

  7. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Malov, L.A.; Shilov, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  8. Socioemotional selectivity in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2006-06-01

    This study analyzed the contact preferences of newly diagnosed cancer patients and healthy control group participants. In line with the theory of socioemotional selectivity, patients were more likely than control participants to prefer contact with familiar social partners, but this difference was stronger in younger and middle-aged patients than in older patients. Across a 6-month interval, patients' contact preferences changed according to the perceived success of therapy. For example, if therapy was perceived to be successful, patients showed an increasing interest in contacts with unfamiliar social partners. Results indicate that contact preferences are adapted to the perception of limited versus extended future lifetime. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov` ev, V G; Gromov, K Ya; Malov, L A; Shilov, V M

    1994-12-31

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles). heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and {beta}-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei.

  10. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  11. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  12. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae

    2005-01-01

    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  13. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, B.

    1975-01-01

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  14. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Diverse cost-estimating techniques and data combined into single program. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM 1.0) is interactive accounting software tool providing means for combining several independent cost-estimating programs into fully-integrated mathematical model capable of assessing costs, analyzing benefits, providing file-handling utilities, and putting out information in text and graphical forms to screen, printer, or plotter. Program based on Lotus 1-2-3, version 2.0. Developed to provide clear, concise traceability and visibility into methodology and rationale for estimating costs and benefits of operations of Space Station tether deployer system.

  15. Novel selective and non-selective optical detection of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L A; Firstenberg-Eden, R

    1997-09-01

    A new instrument, capable of detecting metabolic changes due to microbiological activity, is described. Optical changes in growth media are monitored in a semi-fluid zone that separates the liquid medium containing the sample. Data demonstrate that common media can be utilized in conjunction with this rapid automated technology. Nutrient broth with the pH dye indicator. bromocresol purple was suitable for total counts. Selective media containing dyes were utilized to assess the presence or absence of specific groups of organisms. Biochemical reactions, such as lysine decarboxylase activity, were identified by the unique generated patterns, and specific enzymatic cleavage reactions with chromogenic substrates, such as 5-bromo-4 chloro-3 indolyl-beta-D-glucuronic acid (X-GLUC), were monitored.

  16. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Vidican, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  17. Finding Direction in the Search for Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiltgen, Grant; Dos Reis, Mario; Goldstein, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Tests for positive selection have mostly been developed to look for diversifying selection where change away from the current amino acid is often favorable. However, in many cases we are interested in directional selection where there is a shift toward specific amino acids, resulting in increased fitness in the species. Recently, a few methods have been developed to detect and characterize directional selection on a molecular level. Using the results of evolutionary simulations as well as HIV drug resistance data as models of directional selection, we compare two such methods with each other, as well as against a standard method for detecting diversifying selection. We find that the method to detect diversifying selection also detects directional selection under certain conditions. One method developed for detecting directional selection is powerful and accurate for a wide range of conditions, while the other can generate an excessive number of false positives.

  18. [Sexual offences--selected cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabecka, Marzena; Jarzabek-Bielecka, Grazyna; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota

    2013-04-01

    Expert testimony on violence victims also includes victims of sexual assault. The role of an expert is to classify the injuries by their severity as defined in art. 157 156 or 217 of the Criminal Code pertaining to crimes against health and life. Also, the role of an expert opinion is to determine whether the injuries identified during the exam occurred at the time and under the circumstances stated in medical history. The examination of sexual assault victims is conducted by two experts: a gynecologist and a forensic physician. Most examinations are performed at different times and various medical centers. The conclusions are presented in an official report. Regardless of victim age, all sexual crimes are investigated ex officio by the Police Department and the Prosecutor's Office. Further legal classification of criminal offenses is the task of an appropriate legal body and the offenses are codified in accordance with the provisions of chapter XXV of the Criminal Code, articles 197 - 205. In controversial cases, i.e. when two different expert opinions appear on the same case, or if, according to the law enforcement, a medical opinion is insufficient for some reason, an appropriate expert or team of experts is appointed to resolve the problem. To present selected cases of sexual violence victims treated at the Department of Gynecology and assessed at the Department of Forensic Medicine with reference to the challenges regarding qualification of the sustained injuries and clinical diagnoses. Research material included selected forensic opinions developed for law enforcement offices that involved victims of sexual violence. The expert opinions were prepared either on the basis of submitted evidence, or both, submitted evidence and examination of the victim at the Department of Forensic Medicine. Moreover the article presents a case of a patient examined and treated at the Department of Gynecology in Poznan. Based on the selected cases, the authors conclude that a

  19. An improved selective sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Iida, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1986-01-01

    The coincidence methods which are currently used for the accurate activity standardisation of radio-nuclides, require dead time and resolving time corrections which tend to become increasingly uncertain as countrates exceed about 10 K. To reduce the dependence on such corrections, Muller, in 1981, proposed the selective sampling method using a fast multichannel analyser (50 ns ch -1 ) for measuring the countrates. It is, in many ways, more convenient and possibly potentially more reliable to replace the MCA with scalers and a circuit is described employing five scalers; two of them serving to measure the background correction. Results of comparisons using our new method and the coincidence method for measuring the activity of 60 Co sources yielded agree-ment within statistical uncertainties. (author)

  20. Minimization over randomly selected lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a population-based evolutionary optimization method for minimizing a given cost function. The mutation operator of this method selects randomly oriented lines in the cost function domain, constructs quadratic functions interpolating the cost function at three different points over each line, and uses extrema of the quadratics as mutated points. The crossover operator modifies each mutated point based on components of two points in population, instead of one point as is usually performed in other evolutionary algorithms. The stopping criterion of this method depends on the number of almost degenerate quadratics. We demonstrate that the proposed method with these mutation and crossover operations achieves faster and more robust convergence than the well-known Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm algorithms.

  1. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  2. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  3. Working Memory: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a selective overview of the evolution of the concept and assessment of working memory, and how its assessment has been confused with the assessment of some components of attention. A literature search using PsychNet Gold was conducted using the terms working memory. In addition, the writer reviewed recommendations from a sampling of recent neuropsychology texts in regard to the assessment of attention and working memory, as well as the two most recent editions of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It is argued that many clinicians have an incomplete understanding of the relationship between attention and working memory, and often conflate the two in assessment and treatment. Suggestions were made for assessing these abilities.

  4. Disfluency effects on lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Young, Torin P; Risko, Evan F

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that introducing a disfluency in the context of written composition (i.e., typing with one hand) can increase lexical sophistication. In the current study, we provide a strong test between two accounts of this phenomenon, one that attributes it to the delay caused by the disfluency and one that attributes it to the disruption of typical finger-to-letter mappings caused by the disfluency. To test between these accounts, we slowed down participants' typewriting by introducing a small delay between keystrokes while individuals wrote essays. Critically, this manipulation did not disrupt typical finger-to-letter mappings. Consistent with the delay-based account, our results demonstrate that the essays written in this less fluent condition were more lexically diverse and used less frequent words. Implications for the temporal dynamics of lexical selection in complex cognitive tasks are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomic selection for methane emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Yvette; Pryce, Jennie E; Wall, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing area of international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. Of the various GHG produced by ruminants, enteric methane (CH4 ) is the most important contributor. One mitigation strategy is to reduce methane...... emission through genetic selection. Our first attempt used beef cattle and a GWAS to identify genes associated with several CH4 traits in Angus beef cattle. The Angus population consisted of 1020 animals with phenotypes on methane production (MeP), dry matter intake (DMI), and weight (WT). Additionally......, two new methane traits: residual genetic methane (RGM) and residual phenotypic methane (RPM) were calculated by adjusting CH4 for DMI and WT. Animals were genotyped using the 800k Illumina Bovine HD Array. Estimated heritabilities were 0.30, 0.19 and 0.15 for MeP, RGM and RPM respectively...

  6. Selected aspects of fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this lecture, we present selected aspects of nuclear fusion. The importance of the initial geometry of the reaction and its relation to fusion barrier are first discussed. The effect of deformation leading to the notion of barrier distribution is then illustrated. After a brief overview of the advantages of macroscopic theories, the dynamics of nuclear system under large amplitude motion is reviewed. The di-nuclear concept is presented to understand the competition between fusion and quasi-fission. This concept is then generalized to account for the dissipative dynamics in multidimensional collective space. The last part of this lecture is devoted to new aspects encountered with radioactive beams specific properties of very extended neutron rich system, influence of pygmy or soft dipole resonances and charge exchange far from stability are discussed. (author)

  7. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J; Koljonen, T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  8. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  9. Selected recent results from AMANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Andrés, E; Bai, X; Barouch, G; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becker, K H; Bergström, L; Bertrand, D; Bierenbaum, D; Biron, A; Booth, J; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Boyce, M M; Carius, S; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Costa, C G S; Cowen, D F; Dailing, J; Dalberg, E; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Edsjö, J; Ekstrom, P; Erlandsson, B; Feser, T; Gaug, M; Goldschmidt, A; Goobar, A; Gray, L; Haase, H; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; He, Y D; Hellwig, M; Heukenkamp, H; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kandhadai, V; Karle, A; Kim, J; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Loaiza, P; Lowder, D M; Ludvig, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; Mihályi, A; Mikolajski, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Neunhoffer, T; Newcomer, F M; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Heros, C P D L; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Rawlins, K; Reed, C; Rhode, W; Richards, A; Richter, S; Martino, J R; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Rubinstein, H; Sander, H G; Scheider, T; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schneider, E; Schwarzl, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Starinsky, N; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Streicher, O; Sun, A; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Thon, T; Tilav, S; Usechak, N; Donckt, M V; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S

    2001-01-01

    We present a selection of results based on data taken in 1997 with the 302-PMT Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array-B10 ("AMANDA-B10") array. Atmospheric neutrinos created in the northern hemisphere are observed indirectly through their charged current interactions which produce relativistic, Cherenkov-light-emitting upgoing muons in the South Pole ice cap. The reconstructed angular distribution of these events is in good agreement with expectation and demonstrates the viability of this ice-based device as a neutrino telescope. Studies of nearly vertical upgoing muons limit the available parameter space for WIMP dark matter under the assumption that WIMPS are trapped in the earth's gravitational potential well and annihilate with one another near the earth's center.

  10. Selective cervical myelography. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical ways of subarachnoid puncture - lumbal and suboccipital - require a considerable quantity of air in performing segmental cervical pneumomyelography. An examination technique is described, based on the recently suggested lateral subarachnoid puncture within the interarcus space at C 1 -C 2 level. Emphasis is laid on the possibilities of carrying out various neuro-roentgenological studies through contrast medium introduction in the fashion described, namely: pontocerebellar cistemography and cervical myelography with AMIPAQUE - a water soluble contrast medium. On the basis of literature data and personal experience it is stated that the risk in lateral subarachnoid puncture is by no means higher than in suboccipital puncture. The main advantages of selective cervical myelography effected by contrast medium injection through lateral subarachnoid puncture include the possibility to perform investigation with a minimum amount of air (4-8 cm 3 ) and to study patients with fixed, direct skull fraction after Crutchfield under maximum sparing conditions. (author)

  11. Selective attention within the foveola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Martina; Rucci, Michele; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    Efficient control of attentional resources and high-acuity vision are both fundamental for survival. Shifts in visual attention are known to covertly enhance processing at locations away from the center of gaze, where visual resolution is low. It is unknown, however, whether selective spatial attention operates where the observer is already looking-that is, within the high-acuity foveola, the small yet disproportionally important rod-free region of the retina. Using new methods for precisely controlling retinal stimulation, here we show that covert attention flexibly improves and speeds up both detection and discrimination at loci only a fraction of a degree apart within the foveola. These findings reveal a surprisingly precise control of attention and its involvement in fine spatial vision. They show that the commonly studied covert shifts of attention away from the fovea are the expression of a global mechanism that exerts its action across the entire visual field.

  12. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  13. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  14. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  15. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  16. State-selective electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Liu, C.J.; Berry, H.G.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from a new atomic physics program using the Argonne PII ECR ion source which is being built as part of the upgrade of the Argonne Tandem-Linear Accelerator (ATLAS). Our initial experiments have been aimed at studying state-selective electron capture in ion-atom collisions using the technique of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. We are extending existing cross section measurements at low energy ( 6+ and O 7+ on He and H 2 targets in the energy range from 1-105 keV/amu. We also present uv spectra obtained in collisions of O 6+ , O 5+ and N 5+ on a sodium target. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Unstable decay and state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Alan; Tarlie, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The decay of unstable states when several metastable states are available for occupation is investigated using path-integral techniques. Specifically, a method is described that enables the probabilities with which the metastable states are occupied to be calculated by finding optimal paths, and fluctuations about them, in the weak-noise limit. The method is illustrated on a system described by two coupled Langevin equations, which are found in the study of instabilities in fluid dynamics and superconductivity. The problem involves a subtle interplay between nonlinearities and noise, and a naive approximation scheme that does not take this into account is shown to be unsatisfactory. The use of optimal paths is briefly reviewed and then applied to finding the conditional probability of ending up in one of the metastable states, having begun in the unstable state. There are several aspects of the calculation that distinguish it from most others involving optimal paths: (i) the paths do not begin and end on an attractor, and moreover, the final point is to a large extent arbitrary, (ii) the interplay between the fluctuations and the leading-order contribution are at the heart of the method, and (iii) the final result involves quantities that are not exponentially small in the noise strength. This final result, which gives the probability of a particular state being selected in terms of the parameters of the dynamics, is remarkably simple and agrees well with the results of numerical simulations. The method should be applicable to similar problems in a number of other areas, such as state selection in lasers, activationless chemical reactions, and population dynamics in fluctuating environments

  18. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  19. Film selection in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, Dogan

    1988-01-01

    Importing of medical imaging films is the responsibility of Turkish Red Croscend, but some institutions have currently started to import their own films. Because of the different resources in individual departments throughout Turkey, a general purpose medical film is imported by Turkish Red Croscend. This kind of film has the advantage to tolerate some technical faults related to the exposure, dark room and processing conditions and still reveals the necessary image quality. In addition to general purpose film, many companies produce special used films which improve some film characteristics in order to have a better image. The initial results of a project already started by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority showed that some other technical reasons prevent obtaining films with optimum quality. The film is the last step of diagnostic procedure and not only gives necessary clinical information, but also visualizes all the problems related to the lock of the calibration of X-ray system and dark room processing conditions. Because of these reasons, many people hold the film responsible for every technical problem. During the selection of the best film among the different companies, institutions have to fulfill some prerequisites at the beginning and than evaluate the quantitative results obtained from measurements according to their clinical purposes. It is the subject of this paper to show how to use film parameter as a comparison to different types of films measured with light sensitometry method. The dark room and processing problems which adversely effect the results are also given. The requirements for the best film selection both for general and special purposes are also evaluated. The extent of this paper is limited only to films using radiology and does not cover the types used in other imaging areas

  20. Implementing learnerships: learner recruitment and selection B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing learnerships: learner recruitment and selection B lessons learnt from the KwaZulu-Natal pilot projects. ... 2001 in KwaZulu-Natal, with specific reference to the recruitment and selection of learners. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Sex selection: treating different cases differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Serour, G I; Cook, R J; Qiu, R-Z

    2005-08-01

    This paper contrasts ethical approaches to sex selection in countries where discrimination against women is pervasive, resulting in selection against girl children, and in countries where there is less general discrimination and couples do not prefer children of either sex. National sex ratio imbalances where discrimination against women is common have resulted in laws and policies, such as in India and China, to deter and prevent sex selection. Birth ratios of children can be affected by techniques of prenatal sex determination and abortion, preconception sex selection and discarding disfavored embryos, and prefertilization sperm sorting, when disfavored sperm remain unused. Incentives for son preference are reviewed, and laws and policies to prevent sex selection are explained. The elimination of social, economic and other discrimination against women is urged to redress sex selection against girl children. Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes.

  2. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs. ...

  3. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs. ...

  4. 48 CFR 231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 231.205... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205 Selected costs. ...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs. ...

  6. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs. ...

  7. 48 CFR 631.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 631.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts with Commercial Organizations 631.205 Selected costs. ...

  8. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  9. Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay

    1989-01-01

    The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)

  10. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent Fellow... outstanding applicants from each state for James Madison Fellowships. (b) From among candidates recommended...

  11. Relay Selection with Limited and Noisy Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Elkhalil, Khalil; Mas'ud, Abdullahi Abubakar; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Nonetheless, relay selection algorithms generally require error-free channel state information (CSI) from all cooperating relays. Practically, CSI

  12. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  13. On subset selection from Logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1990-01-01

    Some distributional results are derived for subset selection from Logistic populations, differing only in their location parameter. The probability of correct selection is determined. Exact and numerical results concerning the expected subset size are presented.

  14. The Case for Quality Book Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Murray C.

    1982-01-01

    This essay on library book selection critiques Nora Rawlinson's article on practices at the Baltimore County Public Library which appeared in Library Journal, November 15, 1981, p. 2188, and discusses library circulation statistics in relation to book selection. (EJS)

  15. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location...). However, once the manufacturer ships any test engine, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests...

  16. 40 CFR 90.507 - Sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 90.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location... manufacturer ships any test engine, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests as provided in § 90.508...

  17. Theory of Alike Selectivity in Biological Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Gibby, Will A. T.; Kaufman, Igor Kh.; Eisenberg, Robert S.; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a statistical mechanical model of the selectivity filter that accounts for the interaction between ions within the channel and derive Eisenman equation of the filter selectivity directly from the condition of barrier-less conduction.

  18. Selection - factors and influences on training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.J.; Mascitti, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel performance is certainly the goal of training programs and the impact of personnel performance on plant performance indicators is well known. This presentation discusses the selection of personnel prior to training and emphasizes the need for selection criteria to include aptitude intelligence, mechanical ability, work ethic, and emotional stability. Selected data is presented from Point Beach that support a rigorous selection and screening program to ensure training successfully prepared these personnel for job assignments

  19. Automatic Algorithm Selection for Complex Simulation Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ewald, Roland

    2012-01-01

    To select the most suitable simulation algorithm for a given task is often difficult. This is due to intricate interactions between model features, implementation details, and runtime environment, which may strongly affect the overall performance. An automated selection of simulation algorithms supports users in setting up simulation experiments without demanding expert knowledge on simulation. Roland Ewald analyzes and discusses existing approaches to solve the algorithm selection problem in the context of simulation. He introduces a framework for automatic simulation algorithm selection and

  20. Finding Direction in the Search for Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Thiltgen, G.; Dos Reis, M.; Goldstein, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Tests for positive selection have mostly been developed to look for diversifying selection where change away from the current amino acid is often favorable. However, in many cases we are interested in directional selection where there is a shift toward specific amino acids, resulting in increased fitness in the species. Recently, a few methods have been developed to detect and characterize directional selection on a molecular level. Using the results of evolutionary simulations as well as HIV...