WorldWideScience

Sample records for seismic wave energy

  1. Weak localization of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity

  2. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  3. Time-domain full waveform inversion using the gradient preconditioning based on seismic wave energy: Application to the South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mengxuan, Zhong

    2017-06-01

    The gradient preconditioning algorithms based on Hessian matrices in time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) are widely used now, but consume a lot of memory and do not fit the FWI of large models or actual seismic data well. To avoid the huge storage consumption, the gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy has been proposed it simulates the “approximated wave field” with the acoustic wave equation and uses the energy of the simulated wavefield to precondition the gradient. The method does not require computing and storing the Hessian matrix or its inverse and can effectively eliminate the effect caused by geometric diffusion and uneven illumination on gradient. The result of experiments in this article with field data from South China Sea confirms that the time-domain FWI using the gradient preconditioning based on seismic wave energy (GPWE) can achieve higher inversion accuracy for the deep high-velocity model and its underlying strata.

  4. Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S

    2014-04-04

    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.

  5. Nonlinear acoustic/seismic waves in earthquake processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics induced by seismic sources and seismic waves are common in Earth. Observations range from seismic strong ground motion (the most damaging aspect of earthquakes), intense near-source effects, and distant nonlinear effects from the source that have important consequences. The distant effects include dynamic earthquake triggering—one of the most fascinating topics in seismology today—which may be elastically nonlinearly driven. Dynamic earthquake triggering is the phenomenon whereby seismic waves generated from one earthquake trigger slip events on a nearby or distant fault. Dynamic triggering may take place at distances thousands of kilometers from the triggering earthquake, and includes triggering of the entire spectrum of slip behaviors currently identified. These include triggered earthquakes and triggered slow, silent-slip during which little seismic energy is radiated. It appears that the elasticity of the fault gouge—the granular material located between the fault blocks—is key to the triggering phenomenon.

  6. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  7. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  8. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  9. Horizontal Acoustic Barriers for Protection from Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of a seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers can be suggested. Herein, we consider a kind of a seismic barrier that represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning nonpropagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of nonexistence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  10. Epicenter Location of Regional Seismic Events Using Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave Ambient Seismic Noise Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Moschetti, M. P.; Mendoza, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    We describe a novel method to locate regional seismic events based on exploiting Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) that are produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long time-series of ambient noise recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh waves on the vertical-vertical cross-correlations and Love waves on the transverse-transverse cross-correlations. Earlier work (Barmin et al., "Epicentral location based on Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions from ambient seismic noise", Geophys. J. Int., 2011) showed that group time delays observed on Rayleigh wave EGFs can be exploited to locate to within about 1 km moderate sized earthquakes using USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. The principal advantage of the method is that the ambient noise EGFs are affected by lateral variations in structure similarly to the earthquake signals, so the location is largely unbiased by 3-D structure. However, locations based on Rayleigh waves alone may be biased by more than 1 km if the earthquake depth is unknown but lies between 2 km and 7 km. This presentation is motivated by the fact that group time delays for Love waves are much less affected by earthquake depth than Rayleigh waves; thus exploitation of Love wave EGFs may reduce location bias caused by uncertainty in event depth. The advantage of Love waves to locate seismic events, however, is mitigated by the fact that Love wave EGFs have a smaller SNR than Rayleigh waves. Here, we test the use of Love and Rayleigh wave EGFs between 5- and 15-sec period to locate seismic events based on the USArray TA in the western US. We focus on locating aftershocks of the 2008 M 6.0 Wells earthquake, mining blasts in Wyoming and Montana, and small earthquakes near Norman, OK and Dallas, TX, some of which may be triggered by hydrofracking or injection wells.

  11. Seismic waves and earthquakes in a global monolithic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2018-03-01

    The philosophy that a single "monolithic" model can "asymptotically" replace and couple in a simple elegant way several specialized models relevant on various Earth layers is presented and, in special situations, also rigorously justified. In particular, global seismicity and tectonics is coupled to capture, e.g., (here by a simplified model) ruptures of lithospheric faults generating seismic waves which then propagate through the solid-like mantle and inner core both as shear (S) or pressure (P) waves, while S-waves are suppressed in the fluidic outer core and also in the oceans. The "monolithic-type" models have the capacity to describe all the mentioned features globally in a unified way together with corresponding interfacial conditions implicitly involved, only when scaling its parameters appropriately in different Earth's layers. Coupling of seismic waves with seismic sources due to tectonic events is thus an automatic side effect. The global ansatz is here based, rather for an illustration, only on a relatively simple Jeffreys' viscoelastic damageable material at small strains whose various scaling (limits) can lead to Boger's viscoelastic fluid or even to purely elastic (inviscid) fluid. Self-induced gravity field, Coriolis, centrifugal, and tidal forces are counted in our global model, as well. The rigorous mathematical analysis as far as the existence of solutions, convergence of the mentioned scalings, and energy conservation is briefly presented.

  12. Air-coupled seismic waves at long range from Apollo launchings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, W. L.; Dalins, I.; Mccarty, V.; Ewing, M.; Kaschak , G.

    1971-01-01

    Microphones and seismographs were co-located in arrays on Skidaway Island, Georgia, for the launchings of Apollo 13 and 14, 374 km to the south. Simultaneous acoustic and seismic waves were recorded for both events at times appropriate to the arrival of the acoustic waves from the source. The acoustic signal is relatively broadband compared to the nearly monochromatic seismic signal; the seismic signal is much more continuous than the more pulse-like acoustic signal; ground loading from the pressure variations of the acoustic waves is shown to be too small to account for the seismic waves; and the measured phase velocities of both acoustic and seismic waves across the local instrument arrays differ by less than 6 per cent and possibly 3 per cent if experimental error is included. It is concluded that the seismic waves are generated by resonant coupling to the acoustic waves along some 10 km of path on Skidaway Island.

  13. Seismic wave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaure, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for simulating earth tremors. This device includes a seismic wave generator formed of a cylinder, one end of which is closed by one of the walls of a cell containing a soil, the other end being closed by a wall on which are fixed pyrotechnic devices generating shock waves inside the cylinder. These waves are transmitted from the cylinder to the cell through openings made in the cell wall. This device also includes a mechanical device acting as low-pass filter, located inside the cylinder and close to the cell wall [fr

  14. Assessment of seismic wave effects on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most common hypotheses made for soil-structure interaction analyses is that the earthquake input motion is identical at all points beneath the structure. Several papers have recently shown that this assumption may be overly conservative and that the effect of wave passage is extremely important. These studies typically employ a relatively simple model, namely, the basemat is represented by a rectangular rigid foundation resting on top of the soil and connected to the soil by a continuously distributed set of soil springs. The seismic input is applied at the base of the soil springs and is assumed to be traveling at a constant wave velocity across the site. It ispossible to improve on the soil/structure model by use of finite element methods; however, little is known about how to model the input seismic energy and typically a simple travelling wave is used. In this paper, the author examines the available data to determine: (i) the appropriate wave velocity to use, and (ii) if the currently availble analytic models are adequate. (Auth.)

  15. Compressive and Shear Wave Velocity Profiles using Seismic Refraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziman, M; Hazreek, Z A M; Azhar, A T S; Haimi, D S

    2016-01-01

    Seismic refraction measurement is one of the geophysics exploration techniques to determine soil profile. Meanwhile, the borehole technique is an established way to identify the changes of soil layer based on number of blows penetrating the soil. Both techniques are commonly adopted for subsurface investigation. The seismic refraction test is a non-destructive and relatively fast assessment compared to borehole technique. The soil velocities of compressive wave and shear wave derived from the seismic refraction measurements can be directly utilised to calculate soil parameters such as soil modulus and Poisson’s ratio. This study investigates the seismic refraction techniques to obtain compressive and shear wave velocity profile. Using the vertical and horizontal geophones as well as vertical and horizontal strike directions of the transient seismic source, the propagation of compressive wave and shear wave can be examined, respectively. The study was conducted at Sejagung Sri Medan. The seismic velocity profile was obtained at a depth of 20 m. The velocity of the shear wave is about half of the velocity of the compression wave. The soil profiles of compressive and shear wave velocities were verified using the borehole data and showed good agreement with the borehole data. (paper)

  16. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  17. DEFORMATION WAVES AS A TRIGGER MECHANISM OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation waves as a trigger mechanism of seismic activity and migration of earthquake foci have been under discussion by researchers in seismology and geodynamics for over 50 years. Four sections of this article present available principal data on impacts of wave processes on seismicity and new data. The first section reviews analytical and experimental studies aimed at identification of relationships between wave processes in the lithosphere and seismic activity manifested as space-and-time migration of individual earthquake foci or clusters of earthquakes. It is concluded that with a systematic approach, instead of using a variety of terms to denote waves that trigger seismic process in the lithosphere, it is reasonable to apply the concise definition of ‘deformation waves’, which is most often used in fact.The second section contains a description of deformation waves considered as the trigger mechanism of seismic activity. It is concluded that a variety of methods are applied to identify deformation waves, and such methods are based on various research methods and concepts that naturally differ in sensitivity concerning detection of waves and/or impact of the waves on seismic process. Epicenters of strong earthquakes are grouped into specific linear or arc-shaped systems, which common criterion is the same time interval of the occurrence of events under analysis. On site the systems compose zones with similar time sequences, which correspond to the physical notion of moving waves (Fig. 9. Periods of manifestation of such waves are estimated as millions of years, and a direct consideration of the presence of waves and wave parameters is highly challenging. In the current state-of-the-art, geodynamics and seismology cannot provide any other solution yet.The third section presents a solution considering record of deformation waves in the lithosphere. With account of the fact that all the earthquakes with М≥3.0 are associated with

  18. Seismic wave propagation in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in

  19. Demonstration of improved seismic source inversion method of tele-seismic body wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Y.; Okuwaki, R.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic rupture inversion of tele-seismic body wave has been widely applied to studies of large earthquakes. In general, tele-seismic body wave contains information of overall rupture process of large earthquake, while the tele-seismic body wave is inappropriate for analyzing a detailed rupture process of M6 7 class earthquake. Recently, the quality and quantity of tele-seismic data and the inversion method has been greatly improved. Improved data and method enable us to study a detailed rupture process of M6 7 class earthquake even if we use only tele-seismic body wave. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of the improved data and method through analyses of the 2016 Rieti, Italy earthquake (Mw 6.2) and the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan earthquake (Mw 7.0) that have been well investigated by using the InSAR data set and the field observations. We assumed the rupture occurring on a single fault plane model inferred from the moment tensor solutions and the aftershock distribution. We constructed spatiotemporal discretized slip-rate functions with patches arranged as closely as possible. We performed inversions using several fault models and found that the spatiotemporal location of large slip-rate area was robust. In the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan earthquake, the slip-rate distribution shows that the rupture propagated to southwest during the first 5 s. At 5 s after the origin time, the main rupture started to propagate toward northeast. First episode and second episode correspond to rupture propagation along the Hinagu fault and the Futagawa fault, respectively. In the 2016 Rieti, Italy earthquake, the slip-rate distribution shows that the rupture propagated to up-dip direction during the first 2 s, and then rupture propagated toward northwest. From both analyses, we propose that the spatiotemporal slip-rate distribution estimated by improved inversion method of tele-seismic body wave has enough information to study a detailed rupture process of M6 7 class earthquake.

  20. Refinements to the method of epicentral location based on surface waves from ambient seismic noise: introducing Love waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, Anatoli L.; Barmin, Mikhail P.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mendoza, Carlos; Ritzwoller, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a modification to a previous method of regional seismic event location based on Empirical Green’s Functions (EGFs) produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long ambient noise time-series recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh- and Love-wave energy on the vertical and transverse components, respectively, and we utilize these signals between about 5 and 12 s period. The previous method, based exclusively on Rayleigh waves, may yield biased epicentral locations for certain event types with hypocentral depths between 2 and 5 km. Here we present theoretical arguments that show how Love waves can be introduced to reduce or potentially eliminate the bias. We also present applications of Rayleigh- and Love-wave EGFs to locate 10 reference events in the western United States. The separate Rayleigh and Love epicentral locations and the joint locations using a combination of the two waves agree to within 1 km distance, on average, but confidence ellipses are smallest when both types of waves are used.

  1. Analysis of seismic waves crossing the Santa Clara Valley using the three-component MUSIQUE array algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Cornou, Cécile; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Le Bihan, Nicolas; Imperatori, Walter

    2016-10-01

    We introduce the MUSIQUE algorithm and apply it to seismic wavefield recordings in California. The algorithm is designed to analyse seismic signals recorded by arrays of three-component seismic sensors. It is based on the MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms. In a first step, the MUSIC algorithm is applied in order to estimate the backazimuth and velocity of incident seismic waves and to discriminate between Love and possible Rayleigh waves. In a second step, the polarization parameters of possible Rayleigh waves are analysed using quaternion-MUSIC, distinguishing retrograde and prograde Rayleigh waves and determining their ellipticity. In this study, we apply the MUSIQUE algorithm to seismic wavefield recordings of the San Jose Dense Seismic Array. This array has been installed in 1999 in the Evergreen Basin, a sedimentary basin in the Eastern Santa Clara Valley. The analysis includes 22 regional earthquakes with epicentres between 40 and 600 km distant from the array and covering different backazimuths with respect to the array. The azimuthal distribution and the energy partition of the different surface wave types are analysed. Love waves dominate the wavefield for the vast majority of the events. For close events in the north, the wavefield is dominated by the first harmonic mode of Love waves, for farther events, the fundamental mode dominates. The energy distribution is different for earthquakes occurring northwest and southeast of the array. In both cases, the waves crossing the array are mostly arriving from the respective hemicycle. However, scattered Love waves arriving from the south can be seen for all earthquakes. Combining the information of all events, it is possible to retrieve the Love wave dispersion curves of the fundamental and the first harmonic mode. The particle motion of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves is retrograde and for the first harmonic mode, it is prograde. For both modes, we can also retrieve dispersion and ellipticity

  2. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  3. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  4. Characterization of tsunamigenic earthquake in Java region based on seismic wave calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribadi, Sugeng, E-mail: sugengpribadimsc@gmail.com [Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi Geofisika, Jl Angkasa I No. 2 Jakarta (Indonesia); Afnimar,; Puspito, Nanang T.; Ibrahim, Gunawan [Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    This study is to characterize the source mechanism of tsunamigenic earthquake based on seismic wave calculation. The source parameter used are the ratio (Θ) between the radiated seismic energy (E) and seismic moment (M{sub o}), moment magnitude (M{sub W}), rupture duration (T{sub o}) and focal mechanism. These determine the types of tsunamigenic earthquake and tsunami earthquake. We calculate the formula using the teleseismic wave signal processing with the initial phase of P wave with bandpass filter 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz. The amount of station is 84 broadband seismometer with far distance of 30° to 90°. The 2 June 1994 Banyuwangi earthquake with M{sub W}=7.8 and the 17 July 2006 Pangandaran earthquake with M{sub W}=7.7 include the criteria as a tsunami earthquake which distributed about ratio Θ=−6.1, long rupture duration To>100 s and high tsunami H>7 m. The 2 September 2009 Tasikmalaya earthquake with M{sub W}=7.2, Θ=−5.1 and To=27 s which characterized as a small tsunamigenic earthquake.

  5. Characterization of tsunamigenic earthquake in Java region based on seismic wave calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribadi, Sugeng; Afnimar,; Puspito, Nanang T.; Ibrahim, Gunawan

    2014-01-01

    This study is to characterize the source mechanism of tsunamigenic earthquake based on seismic wave calculation. The source parameter used are the ratio (Θ) between the radiated seismic energy (E) and seismic moment (M o ), moment magnitude (M W ), rupture duration (T o ) and focal mechanism. These determine the types of tsunamigenic earthquake and tsunami earthquake. We calculate the formula using the teleseismic wave signal processing with the initial phase of P wave with bandpass filter 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz. The amount of station is 84 broadband seismometer with far distance of 30° to 90°. The 2 June 1994 Banyuwangi earthquake with M W =7.8 and the 17 July 2006 Pangandaran earthquake with M W =7.7 include the criteria as a tsunami earthquake which distributed about ratio Θ=−6.1, long rupture duration To>100 s and high tsunami H>7 m. The 2 September 2009 Tasikmalaya earthquake with M W =7.2, Θ=−5.1 and To=27 s which characterized as a small tsunamigenic earthquake

  6. Compressional seismic waves recorded during underground nuclear explosion tests in HOGGAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, Henri

    1970-01-01

    The seismic measurement device was the following: - a movable apparatus in the shot area, - at larger distances, two stations at permanent places. The radial compression wave is examined from the beginning of the pseudo-elastical behaviour of the medium to a distance of fifty kilometers. The amplitude laws evolution is conformed to the theory predictions. The shots energy and the observation distance influence on the amplitude spectra of the compression waves, is studied. (author)

  7. Compressional seismic waves recorded during underground nuclear explosion tests in HOGGAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrieux, Henri [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The seismic measurement device was the following: - a movable apparatus in the shot area, - at larger distances, two stations at permanent places. The radial compression wave is examined from the beginning of the pseudo-elastical behaviour of the medium to a distance of fifty kilometers. The amplitude laws evolution is conformed to the theory predictions. The shots energy and the observation distance influence on the amplitude spectra of the compression waves, is studied. (author)

  8. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1970-01-01

    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  9. Effects of fault heterogeneity on seismic energy and spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Michele; Santini, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of friction heterogeneity on the dynamics of a seismogenic fault. To this aim, we consider a fault model containing two asperities with different static frictions and a rate-dependent dynamic friction. We consider the seismic events produced by the consecutive failure of the two asperities and study their properties as functions of the ratio between static frictions. In particular, we calculate the moment rate, the stress evolution during fault slip, the average stress drop, the partitioning of energy release, the seismic energy, the far-field waveforms and the spectrum of seismic waves. These quantities depend to various extent on the friction distribution on the fault. In particular, the stress distribution on the fault is always strongly heterogeneous at the beginning of the seismic event. Seismic energy and frictional heat decrease with increasing friction heterogeneity, while seismic efficiency is constant. We obtain an equation relating seismic efficiency to the parameters of the friction law, showing that the efficiency is maximum for smaller values of dynamic friction. The seismic spectrum depends on the friction distribution as to the positions and the values of the minima. However, under the model assumption that the slip durations are the same for both asperities, the corner frequency is independent of the friction distribution, but it depends on the friction law and on the coupling between asperities. The model provides a relation between the total radiated energy and the seismic moment that is consistent with the empirical relation between the two quantities. The fault model with one asperity is also considered as a particular case. The model is applied to the 1965 Rat Islands (Alaska) earthquake and shows the role of fault heterogeneity in controlling the spatial distribution of stress drop as well as the time dependence and the final amount of radiated energy.

  10. Guided Seismic Waves: Possible Diagnostics for Hot Plumes in the Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. R.; Julian, B. R.; Foulger, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic waves potentially provide by far the highest resolution view of the three-dimensional structure of the mantle, and the hope of detecting wave-speed anomalies caused by hot or compositionally buoyant mantle plumes has been a major incentive to the development of tomographic seismic techniques. Seismic tomography is limited, however, by the uneven geographical distribution of earthquakes and seismometers, which can produce artificial tomographic wave-speed anomalies that are difficult to distinguish from real structures in the mantle. An alternate approach may be possible, because hot plumes and possibly some compositional upwellings would have low seismic-wave speeds and would act as efficient waveguides over great depth ranges in the mantle. Plume-guided waves would be little affected by bends or other geometric complexities in the waveguides (analogously to French horns and fiber-optic cables), and their dispersion would make them distinctive on seismograms and would provide information on the size and structure of the waveguide. The main unanswered question is whether guided waves in plumes could be excited sufficiently to be observable. Earthquakes do not occur in the deep mantle, but at least two other possible sources of excitation can be imagined: (1) shallow earthquakes at or near plume-fed hotspots; and (2) coupling of plume-guided waves to seismic body waves near the bottom of the mantle. In the first case, downward-traveling guided waves transformed to seismic body waves at the bottom of the waveguide would have to be detected at teleseismic distances. In the second case, upward-traveling guided waves generated by teleseismic body waves would be detected on seismometers at hotspots. Qualitative reasoning based on considerations of reciprocity suggests that the signals in these two situations should be similar in size and appearance. The focusing of seismic core phases at caustics would amplify plume waves excited by either mechanism (1) or (2) at

  11. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-ye Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due to the traveling wave resonance. A new traveling wave excitation method that can simplify the multisupport excitation process into a two-support excitation process is developed.

  12. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  13. Numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation from land-excited large volume air-gun source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The land-excited large volume air-gun source can be used to study regional underground structures and to detect temporal velocity changes. The air-gun source is characterized by rich low frequency energy (from bubble oscillation, 2-8Hz) and high repeatability. It can be excited in rivers, reservoirs or man-made pool. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation from the air-gun source helps to understand the energy partitioning and characteristics of the waveform records at stations. However, the effective energy recorded at a distance station is from the process of bubble oscillation, which can not be approximated by a single point source. We propose a method to simulate the seismic wave propagation from the land-excited large volume air-gun source by finite difference method. The process can be divided into three parts: bubble oscillation and source coupling, solid-fluid coupling and the propagation in the solid medium. For the first part, the wavelet of the bubble oscillation can be simulated by bubble model. We use wave injection method combining the bubble wavelet with elastic wave equation to achieve the source coupling. Then, the solid-fluid boundary condition is implemented along the water bottom. And the last part is the seismic wave propagation in the solid medium, which can be readily implemented by the finite difference method. Our method can get accuracy waveform of land-excited large volume air-gun source. Based on the above forward modeling technology, we analysis the effect of the excited P wave and the energy of converted S wave due to different water shapes. We study two land-excited large volume air-gun fields, one is Binchuan in Yunnan, and the other is Hutubi in Xinjiang. The station in Binchuan, Yunnan is located in a large irregular reservoir, the waveform records have a clear S wave. Nevertheless, the station in Hutubi, Xinjiang is located in a small man-made pool, the waveform records have very weak S wave. Better understanding of

  14. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  15. Shear wave profiles from surface wave inversion: the impact of uncertainty on seismic site response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaga, J; Vignoli, G; Cassiani, G

    2011-01-01

    Inversion is a critical step in all geophysical techniques, and is generally fraught with ill-posedness. In the case of seismic surface wave studies, the inverse problem can lead to different equivalent subsoil models and consequently to different local seismic response analyses. This can have a large impact on an earthquake engineering design. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of non-uniqueness of surface wave inversion on seismic responses, with both numerical and experimental data. Our goal is to evaluate the consequences on common seismic response analysis in the case of different impedance contrast conditions. We verify the implications of inversion uncertainty, and consequently of data information content, on realistic local site responses. A stochastic process is used to generate a set of 1D shear wave velocity profiles from several specific subsurface models. All these profiles are characterized as being equivalent, i.e. their responses, in terms of a dispersion curve, are compatible with the uncertainty in the same surface wave data. The generated 1D shear velocity models are then subjected to a conventional one-dimensional seismic ground response analysis using a realistic input motion. While recent analyses claim that the consequences of surface wave inversion uncertainties are very limited, our test points out that a relationship exists between inversion confidence and seismic responses in different subsoils. In the case of regular and relatively smooth increase of shear wave velocities with depth, as is usual in sedimentary plains, our results show that the choice of a specific model among equivalent solutions strongly influences the seismic response. On the other hand, when the shallow subsoil is characterized by a strong impedance contrast (thus revealing a characteristic soil resonance period), as is common in the presence of a shallow bedrock, equivalent solutions provide practically the same seismic amplification, especially in the

  16. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  17. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  18. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  19. Seismic rotation waves: basic elements of theory and recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Returning to the old problem of observed rotation effects, we present the recording system and basic elements of the theory related to the rotation fi eld and its association with seismic waves. There can be many different causes leading to observed/recorded rotation effects; we can group them as follows: generation of micro-displacement motion due to asymmetry of source processes and/or due to interaction between seismic body/surface waves and medium structure; interaction between incident seismic waves and objects situated on the ground surface. New recording techniques and advanced theory of deformation in media with defects and internal (e.g., granular structure make it possible to focus our attention on the fi rst group, related to microdisplacement motion recording, which includes both rotation and twist motions. Surface rotations and twists caused directly by the action of emerging seismic waves on some objects situated on the ground surface are considered here only in the historical aspects of the problem. We present some examples of experimental results related to recording of rotation and twist components at the Ojcow Observatory, Poland, and L'Aquila Observatory, Italy, and we discuss some prospects for further research.

  20. Automated Processing Workflow for Ambient Seismic Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A. J.; Shragge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Structural imaging using body-wave energy present in ambient seismic data remains a challenging task, largely because these wave modes are commonly much weaker than surface wave energy. In a number of situations body-wave energy has been extracted successfully; however, (nearly) all successful body-wave extraction and imaging approaches have focused on cross-correlation processing. While this is useful for interferometric purposes, it can also lead to the inclusion of unwanted noise events that dominate the resulting stack, leaving body-wave energy overpowered by the coherent noise. Conversely, wave-equation imaging can be applied directly on non-correlated ambient data that has been preprocessed to mitigate unwanted energy (i.e., surface waves, burst-like and electromechanical noise) to enhance body-wave arrivals. Following this approach, though, requires a significant preprocessing effort on often Terabytes of ambient seismic data, which is expensive and requires automation to be a feasible approach. In this work we outline an automated processing workflow designed to optimize body wave energy from an ambient seismic data set acquired on a large-N array at a mine site near Lalor Lake, Manitoba, Canada. We show that processing ambient seismic data in the recording domain, rather than the cross-correlation domain, allows us to mitigate energy that is inappropriate for body-wave imaging. We first develop a method for window selection that automatically identifies and removes data contaminated by coherent high-energy bursts. We then apply time- and frequency-domain debursting techniques to mitigate the effects of remaining strong amplitude and/or monochromatic energy without severely degrading the overall waveforms. After each processing step we implement a QC check to investigate improvements in the convergence rates - and the emergence of reflection events - in the cross-correlation plus stack waveforms over hour-long windows. Overall, the QC analyses suggest that

  1. Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with an Irregular Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyi; Zhao, Zhencong; Lan, Haiqiang; Liu, Fuping

    2018-05-01

    In seismic numerical simulations of wave propagation, it is very important for us to consider surface topography and attenuation, which both have large effects (e.g., wave diffractions, conversion, amplitude/phase change) on seismic imaging and inversion. An irregular free surface provides significant information for interpreting the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in areas with rugged or rapidly varying topography, and viscoelastic media are a better representation of the earth's properties than acoustic/elastic media. In this study, we develop an approach for seismic wavefield simulation in 2D viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface. Based on the boundary-conforming grid method, the 2D time-domain second-order viscoelastic isotropic equations and irregular free surface boundary conditions are transferred from a Cartesian coordinate system to a curvilinear coordinate system. Finite difference operators with second-order accuracy are applied to discretize the viscoelastic wave equations and the irregular free surface in the curvilinear coordinate system. In addition, we select the convolutional perfectly matched layer boundary condition in order to effectively suppress artificial reflections from the edges of the model. The snapshot and seismogram results from numerical tests show that our algorithm successfully simulates seismic wavefields (e.g., P-wave, Rayleigh wave and converted waves) in viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface.

  2. Seismic Wave Propagation in Icy Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähler, Simon C.; Panning, Mark P.; Vance, Steven D.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; van Driel, Martin; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Kedar, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Seismology was developed on Earth and shaped our model of the Earth's interior over the twentieth century. With the exception of the Philae lander, all in situ extraterrestrial seismological effort to date was limited to other terrestrial planets. All have in common a rigid crust above a solid mantle. The coming years may see the installation of seismometers on Europa, Titan, and Enceladus, so it is necessary to adapt seismological concepts to the setting of worlds with global oceans covered in ice. Here we use waveform analyses to identify and classify wave types, developing a lexicon for icy ocean world seismology intended to be useful to both seismologists and planetary scientists. We use results from spectral-element simulations of broadband seismic wavefields to adapt seismological concepts to icy ocean worlds. We present a concise naming scheme for seismic waves and an overview of the features of the seismic wavefield on Europa, Titan, Ganymede, and Enceladus. In close connection with geophysical interior models, we analyze simulated seismic measurements of Europa and Titan that might be used to constrain geochemical parameters governing the habitability of a sub-ice ocean.

  3. Time-domain full waveform inversion using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2017-06-01

    The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge storage consumption in the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on Hessian matrices in time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI), but the accuracy is affected by the energy of reflected waves when strong reflectors are present in velocity model. To address this problem, we propose a gradient preconditioning method, which scales the gradient based on the energy of the “approximated transmitted wavefield” simulated by the nonreflecting acoustic wave equation. The method does not require computing or storing the Hessian matrix or its inverse. Furthermore, it can effectively eliminate the effects caused by geometric diffusion and non-uniformity illumination on gradient. The results of model experiments confirm that the time-domain FWI using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy can achieve higher inversion precision for high-velocity body and the deep strata below when compared with using the gradient preconditioning based on seismic waves energy.

  4. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,

  5. Spectral-element Seismic Wave Propagation on CUDA/OpenCL Hardware Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, D. B.; Videau, B.; Pouget, K.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation codes are essential tools to investigate a variety of wave phenomena in the Earth. Furthermore, they can now be used for seismic full-waveform inversions in regional- and global-scale adjoint tomography. Although these seismic wave propagation solvers are crucial ingredients to improve the resolution of tomographic images to answer important questions about the nature of Earth's internal processes and subsurface structure, their practical application is often limited due to high computational costs. They thus need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities to improving the current state of knowledge. At present, numerous large HPC systems embed many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) to enhance numerical performance. Such hardware accelerators can be programmed using either the CUDA programming environment or the OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted by additional hardware accelerators, like e.g. AMD graphic cards, ARM-based processors as well as Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. For seismic wave propagation simulations using the open-source spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, we incorporated an automatic source-to-source code generation tool (BOAST) which allows us to use meta-programming of all computational kernels for forward and adjoint runs. Using our BOAST kernels, we generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages within the source code package. Thus, seismic wave simulations are able now to fully utilize CUDA and OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show benchmarks of forward seismic wave propagation simulations using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  6. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  7. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang; Fomel, Sergey; Du, Qizhen; Hu, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  8. Analysis of seismic waves and strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.; Sutton, R.

    1976-10-01

    A number of Western USA earthquake acceleration-time histories concerning events of magnitude less than 6 are considered and their Fourier spectra calculated. An analysis of some of the simpler types of seismic wave is given in order to consider the generation of a spatially dependent acceleration-time history suitable for input into a soil-structure program of analysis. Such an acceleration-time history is required by a comprehensive analysis of soil-structure interaction since the conventionally assumed model of vertically propagating seismic waves, which give rise to three spatially independent ground motions, can lead to over-conservative estimates of the building response in the high frequency range. The possible application is discussed of a given component of a recorded acceleration-time history to the base of structure under the assumption of surface Rayleigh waves or obliquely incident P and SV bulk waves. (author)

  9. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  10. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  11. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel construction using Rayleigh-waves

    OpenAIRE

    Jetschny, Stefan; De Nil, Denise; Bohlen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. We developed a new forward looking seismic imaging technique e.g. to determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of tunnel surface-waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the fr...

  12. A modified symplectic PRK scheme for seismic wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Yang, Dinghui; Ma, Jian

    2017-02-01

    A new scheme for the temporal discretization of the seismic wave equation is constructed based on symplectic geometric theory and a modified strategy. The ordinary differential equation in terms of time, which is obtained after spatial discretization via the spectral-element method, is transformed into a Hamiltonian system. A symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) scheme is used to solve the Hamiltonian system. A term related to the multiplication of the spatial discretization operator with the seismic wave velocity vector is added into the symplectic PRK scheme to create a modified symplectic PRK scheme. The symplectic coefficients of the new scheme are determined via Taylor series expansion. The positive coefficients of the scheme indicate that its long-term computational capability is more powerful than that of conventional symplectic schemes. An exhaustive theoretical analysis reveals that the new scheme is highly stable and has low numerical dispersion. The results of three numerical experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of this method for seismic wave modeling.

  13. Using Tectonic Tremor to Constrain Seismic-wave Attenuation in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, G.; Thomas, A.; Baltay, A.

    2017-12-01

    In addition to fast, seismic slip, many subduction zones also host slow, largely aseismic slip, accompanied by a weak seismic signal known as tectonic tremor. Tremor is a small amplitude, low-frequency seismic signal that originates at the plate interface, down-dip of where large earthquakes typically occur. The Cascadia subduction zone has not seen a large megathrust earthquake since 1700, yet its recurrence interval of 350-500 years motivates heightened interest in understanding the seismic hazard of the region. Of great importance is to understand the degree to which waves are attenuated as they leave the plate interface and travel towards populated regions of interest. Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) relate ground motion to a number of parameters, including earthquake magnitude, depth, style of faulting, and anelastic attenuation, and are typically determined empirically from earthquake ground motion recordings. In Cascadia, however, earthquakes of the moderate size typically used to constrain GMPEs occur relatively infrequently compared to tectonic tremor events, which, in contrast, occur periodically approximately every 10-19 months. Studies have shown that the abundant tectonic tremor in Cascadia, despite its small amplitudes, can be used to constrain seismic wave attenuation in GMPEs. Here we quantify seismic wave attenuation and determine its spatial variations in Cascadia by performing an inversion using tremor ground motion amplitudes, taken as peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) from 1 min window waveforms of each individual tremor event. We estimate the anelastic attenuation parameter for varying regional sections along the Cascadia margin. Changes in seismic-wave attenuation along the Cascadia Subduction Zone could result in significantly different ground motions in the event of a very large earthquake, hence quantifying attenuation may help to better estimate the severity of shaking in densely populated

  14. Fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves under seismic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dongwei; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Xinhai

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation method of spring-loaded pressure relief valve was established. The dynamic performances of the fluid regions and the stress and strain of the structure regions were calculated at the same time by accurately setting up the contact pairs between the solid parts and the coupling surfaces between the fluid regions and the structure regions. A two way fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of a simplified pressure relief valve model was carried out. The influence of vertical sinusoidal seismic waves on the performance of the pressure relief valve was preliminarily investigated by loading sine waves. Under vertical seismic waves, the pressure relief valve will flutter, and the reseating pressure was affected by the amplitude and frequency of the seismic waves. This simulation method of the pressure relief valve under vertical seismic waves can provide effective means for investigating the seismic performances of the valves, and make up for the shortcomings of the experiment.

  15. Automatic picking of direct P, S seismic phases and fault zone head waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Z. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We develop a set of algorithms for automatic detection and picking of direct P and S waves, as well as fault zone head waves (FZHW), generated by earthquakes on faults that separate different lithologies and recorded by local seismic networks. The S-wave picks are performed using polarization analysis and related filters to remove P-wave energy from the seismograms, and utilize STA/LTA and kurtosis detectors in tandem to lock on the phase arrival. The early portions of P waveforms are processed with STA/LTA, kurtosis and skewness detectors for possible first-arriving FZHW. Identification and picking of direct P and FZHW is performed by a multistage algorithm that accounts for basic characteristics (motion polarities, time difference, sharpness and amplitudes) of the two phases. The algorithm is shown to perform well on synthetic seismograms produced by a model with a velocity contrast across the fault, and observed data generated by earthquakes along the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault and the Hayward fault. The developed techniques can be used for systematic processing of large seismic waveform data sets recorded near major faults.

  16. Using Co-located Rotational and Translational Ground-Motion Sensors to Characterize Seismic Scattering in the P-Wave Coda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrand, J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present data and analysis of a seismic data collect at the site of a historical underground nuclear explosion at Yucca Flat, a sedimentary basin on the Nevada National Security Site, USA. The data presented here consist of active-source, six degree-of-freedom seismic signals. The translational signals were collected with a Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole seismometer and the rotational signals were collected with an ATA Proto-SMHD, a prototype rotational ground motion sensor. The source for the experiment was the Seismic Hammer (a 13,000 kg weight-drop), deployed on two-kilometer, orthogonal arms centered on the site of the nuclear explosion. By leveraging the fact that compressional waves have no rotational component, we generated a map of subsurface scattering and compared the results to known subsurface features. To determine scattering intensity, signals were cut to include only the P-wave and its coda. The ratio of the time-domain signal magnitudes of angular velocity and translational acceleration were sectioned into three time windows within the coda and averaged within each window. Preliminary results indicate an increased rotation/translation ratio in the vicinity of the explosion-generated chimney, suggesting mode conversion of P-wave energy to S-wave energy at that location. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  17. Seismic fatigue life evaluation of mechanical structures using energy balance equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Seiji; Okamura, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic resistant performance for severe earthquakes is required, because of occurrence of earthquakes which exceed the design criteria. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of cumulative damage by earthquake is also required. In this study, the energy balance equation is applied to the evaluation. The energy balance equation expresses integral information of response, so that the energy balance equation is adequate for the evaluation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. At first, vibration experiment that leads experimental model to fatigue failure by continuous vibration disturbance is conducted. As a result of the experiment, relation between fatigue failure and energy balance equation is confirmed. Then the relation is proved from the viewpoint of hysteresis energy, and consistency between energy balance equation and hysteresis energy is confirmed. Finally, we adopted cumulative damage rule to energy balance equation in order to expect the fatigue life under random waves that have various input acceleration. (author)

  18. Influence of apparent wave velocity on seismic performance of a super-long-span triple-tower suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main characteristics of seismic waves, apparent wave velocity has great influence on seismic responses of long-span suspension bridges. Understanding these influences is important for seismic design. In this article, the critical issues concerning the traveling wave effect analysis are first reviewed. Taizhou Bridge, the longest triple-tower suspension bridge in the world, is then taken as an example for this investigation. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge is established in ABAQUS, and the LANCZOS eigenvalue solver is employed to calculate the structural dynamic characteristics. Traveling wave effect on seismic responses of these long-span triple-tower suspension bridges is investigated. Envelopes of seismic shear force and moment in the longitudinal direction along the three towers, relative displacements between the towers and the girder, and reaction forces at the bottoms of the three towers under different apparent wave velocities are calculated and presented in detail. The results show that the effect of apparent wave velocity on the seismic responses of triple-tower suspension bridge fluctuates when the velocity is lower than 2000 m/s, and the effects turn stable when the velocity becomes larger. In addition, the effects of traveling wave are closely related to spectral characteristics and propagation direction of the seismic wave, and seismic responses of components closer to the source are relatively larger. Therefore, reliable estimation of the seismic input and apparent wave velocity according to the characteristics of the bridge site are significant for accurate prediction of seismic responses. This study provides critical reference for seismic analysis and design of long-span triple-tower suspension bridges.

  19. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.

  20. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  1. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G; Yoshikuni, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  3. FINOSEIS: A new approach to offshore-building foundation soil analysis using high resolution reflection seismic and Scholte-wave dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Dennis; Wölz, Susanne; Müller, Christof; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2009-05-01

    As part of the FINOSEIS project we present the development of new seismic acquisition and inversion concepts for offshore-building foundation soil analysis. FINOSEIS is a subproject of the FINO3 project, which is aimed at the construction of an offshore research platform based in 28 m water depth, hosting eight research projects dealing with offshore wind energy topics. Our investigations focus on the determination of seismic parameters and structural information of the building plot of FINO3. We infer the shear-wave velocity structure by exploiting the dispersive properties of Scholte-waves and use high resolution 2.5D reflection seismic acquisition to determine seismic stratigraphy in three dimensions. Our work is motivated regarding possible hazards to offshore foundations such as wind parks and the FINO3 platform itself, e.g. permanent mechanical load by wind- and wave-forces possibly leading to an impairment of the soil. We conducted a pre-investigation of the site of the future platform in order to help finding a suitable foundation soil by improving common site investigation methods. In May 2006 we did a survey covering an area of 2 km square employing high resolution 2.5D reflection seismic. Along three 2 km airgun profiles Scholte-waves were recorded with Ocean-Bottom-Seismometers. Spectral analysis of these led to pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity models along the profiles. The reflection seismic area is characterized by glacial stratigraphy and diffractions documented within the penetration range of 30 m. With respect to the topography of the identified horizons as well as to the distribution of diffracting objects, a suitable foundation area for the platform was suggested. The results of the Scholte-wave experiment provide valuable information for further inversion models as well as for the dimensioning of further measurements. We also implemented an inversion strategy using the particle swarm optimization method. The inverted layers of shear-wave velocity

  4. Modeling Water Motion near Seismic Waves Propagating across a Graded Seabed, as Generated by Man-Made Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Hazelwood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic interface waves generated by seabed impacts are believed to have biological importance. Various wave types are of interest to seismologists, who can minimize the unwanted, but often dominant, ground roll waves with suitable instrumentation. Waves made by dredging and piling have been measured using geophones and found to be of this interface type, which propagate much more slowly than the pressure waves in the water column above. Short interface wavelets of a few cycles were modeled using transient finite element analysis (FEA. Wavelets with low losses have been modeled using graded sediment data from the literature. They do not radiate energy away from the interface because the evanescent acoustic pressures they generate decay rapidly with distance from the seabed. Associated water particle velocities are much greater than would be expected from similar acoustic pressure measurements in a free field. This motion is significant to aquatic life which is dependent on inertial sensors (otoliths, etc. to respond to the environment. Additional amplification of the horizontal seabed motion of the adjacent water is predicted for a short seismic wavelet modeled in a graded solid seabed. Further recent analysis studied the distribution of the energy flux within the sediment layers.

  5. Shear wave velocity versus quality factor: results from seismic noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxberger, Tobias; Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of the shear wave velocity (vs) and shear wave quality factor (Qs) for the shallow structure below a site is necessary to characterize its site response. In the past, methods based on the analysis of seismic noise have been shown to be very efficient for providing a sufficiently accurate estimation of the vs versus depth at reasonable costs for engineering seismology purposes. In addition, a slight modification of the same method has proved to be able to provide realistic Qs versus depth estimates. In this study, data sets of seismic noise recorded by microarrays of seismic stations in different geological environments of Europe and Central Asia are used to calculate both vs and Qs versus depth profiles. Analogous to the generally adopted approach in seismic hazard assessment for mapping the average shear wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m (vs30) as a proxy of the site response, this approach was also applied to the quality factor within the uppermost 30 m (Qs30). A slightly inverse correlation between both parameters is found based on a methodological consistent determination for different sites. Consequently, a combined assessment of vs and Qs by seismic noise analysis has the potential to provide a more comprehensive description of the geological structure below a site.

  6. Data from investigation on seismic Sea-waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of Christ to 500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean has a long history of damaging seismic sea
    waves (Tsunamis but a great number of them which are locally generated are small. They have caused no serious damage to the coasts because their
    energy is confined by many islands of the Greek Archipelagos. However,
    some of them have been rather severe and destructive to property and
    human life.
    This paper is comprised of data from an investigation into the activity
    of seismic sea waves in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of
    Christ to 500 A.D. It contains a great amount of information concerning
    earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and seismic sea waves.
    All the available information has been compiled from historical accounts,
    archives, press reports, magazines and related works.

  7. Anatomy of the high-frequency ambient seismic wave field at the TCDP borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Roux, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) installed a vertical seismic array between 950 and 1270 m depth in an active thrust fault environment. In this paper we analyze continuous noise records of the TCDP array between 1 and 16 Hz. We apply multiple array processing and noise correlation techniques to study the noise source process, properties of the propagation medium, and the ambient seismic wave field. Diurnal amplitude and slowness patterns suggest that noise is generated by cultural activity. The vicinity of the recording site to the excitation region, indicated by a narrow azimuthal distribution of propagation directions, leads to a predominant ballistic propagation regime. This is evident from the compatibility of the data with an incident plane wave model, polarized direct arrivals of noise correlation functions, and the asymmetric arrival shape. Evidence for contributions from scattering comes from equilibrated earthquake coda energy ratios, the frequency dependent randomization of propagation directions, and the existence of correlation coda waves. We conclude that the ballistic and scattered propagation regime coexist, where the first regime dominates the records, but the second is weaker yet not negligible. Consequently, the wave field is not equipartitioned. Correlation signal-to-noise ratios indicate a frequency dependent noise intensity. Iterations of the correlation procedure enhance the signature of the scattered regime. Discrepancies between phase velocities estimated from correlation functions and in-situ measurements are associated with the array geometry and its relative orientation to the predominant energy flux. The stability of correlation functions suggests their applicability in future monitoring efforts.

  8. MIGRATION OF SEISMIC AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AS DISPLAY OF WAVE GEODYNAMIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Publications about the earthquake foci migration have been reviewed. An important result of such studies is establishment of wave nature of seismic activity migration that is manifested by two types of rotational waves; such waves are responsible for interaction between earthquakes foci and propagate with different velocities. Waves determining long-range interaction of earthquake foci are classified as Type 1; their limiting velocities range from 1 to 10 cm/s. Waves determining short-range interaction of foreshocks and aftershocks of individual earthquakes are classified as Type 2; their velocities range from 1 to 10 km/s. According to the classification described in [Bykov, 2005], these two types of migration waves correspond to slow and fast tectonic waves. The most complete data on earthquakes (for a period over 4.1 million of years and volcanic eruptions (for 12 thousand years of the planet are consolidated in a unified systematic format and analyzed by methods developed by the authors. For the Pacific margin, Alpine-Himalayan belt and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which are the three most active zones of the Earth, new patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of seismic and volcanic activity are revealed; they correspond to Type 1 of rotational waves. The wave nature of the migration of seismic and volcanic activity is confirmed. A new approach to solving problems of geodynamics is proposed with application of the data on migration of seismic and volcanic activity, which are consolidated in this study, in combination with data on velocities of movement of tectonic plate boundaries. This approach is based on the concept of integration of seismic, volcanic and tectonic processes that develop in the block geomedium and interact with each other through rotating waves with a symmetric stress tensor. The data obtained in this study give grounds to suggest that a geodynamic value, that is mechanically analogous to an impulse

  9. Seismic Interferometry of Gulf of Mexico Basin Opening (GUMBO) Data: Extraction of Body and Surface Waves with a Mixed-Mode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.

    2017-12-01

    that exhibit dispersive behavior, which we interpret to be Rayleigh waves. Current efforts are focused on extending the spatial range of the airgun-generated seismic energy further inland (> 70 km) by creating more VSG, to obtain a body wave velocity model along the transect. Similarly, we are inverting the Rayleigh waves in the VSG to obtain a shear wave velocity model.

  10. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  11. Finite-Frequency Seismic Tomography of Body Waves and Surface Waves from Ambient Seismic Noise: Crustal and Mantle Structure Beneath Eastern Eurasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ren, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    To improve seismic calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring, we use 3D sensitivity kernels of finite-frequency body and surface waves to develop models of the crustal and mantle structures beneath eastern Eurasia...

  12. SeismoDome: Sonic and visual representation of earthquakes and seismic waves in the planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, B. K.; Candler, J.; Repetto, D.; Pratt, M. J.; Paté, A.; Turk, M.; Gualtieri, L.; Peter, D. B.; Trakinski, V.; Ebel, D. S. S.; Gossmann, J.; Lem, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2014, we have produced four "Seismodome" public programs in the Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. To teach the general public about the dynamics of the Earth, we use a range of seismic data (seismicity catalogs, surface and body wave fields, ambient noise, free oscillations) to generate movies and sounds conveying aspects of the physics of earthquakes and seismic waves. The narrative aims to stretch people's sense of time and scale, starting with 2 billion years of convection, then zooming in seismicity over days to twenty years at different length scales, to hours of global seismic wave propagation, all compressed to minute long movies. To optimize the experience in the planetarium, the 180-degree fisheye screen corresponds directly to the surface of the Earth, such that the audience is inside the planet. The program consists of three main elements (1) Using sonified and animated seismicity catalogs, comparison of several years of earthquakes on different plate boundaries conveys the dramatic differences in their dynamics and the nature of great and "normal" earthquakes. (2) Animations of USArray data (based on "Ground Motion Visualizations" methods from IRIS but in 3D, with added sound) convey the basic observations of seismic wave fields, with which we raise questions about what they tell us about earthquake physics and the Earth's interior structure. (3) Movies of spectral element simulations of global seismic wave fields synchronized with sonified natural data push these questions further, especially when viewed from the interior of the planet. Other elements include (4) sounds of the global ambient noise field coupled to movies of mean ocean wave height (related to the noise source) and (5) three months of free oscillations / normal modes ringing after the Tohoku earthquake. We use and develop a wide range of sonification and animation methods, written mostly in python. Flat-screen versions of these movies

  13. Models for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudarova, A.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Several models are discussed for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered poroelastic media where layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities that are larger than the pore and grain sizes but smaller than the wavelength. The layers behave according to Biot’s theory. Wave propagation

  14. The imprint of crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plonka, A.I.; Blom, N.A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Density heterogeneities are the source of mass transport in the Earth. However, the 3-D density structure remains poorly constrained because travel times of seismic waves are only weakly sensitive to density. Inspired by recent developments in seismic waveform tomography, we investigate whether the

  15. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A. [Electromagnetic cluster, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  16. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A.

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  17. Body-wave seismic interferometry applied to earthquake- and storm-induced wavefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    Seismology is the study of the vibration of the Earth. Seismologists pay much attention to the main source of Earth vibration: earthquakes. But also other seismic sources, like mining blasts, ocean storms and windmills, are studied. All these sources induce seismic waves, which can eventually be

  18. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  19. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad

    2017-11-06

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  20. Homogenization of Electromagnetic and Seismic Wavefields for Joint Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, G. A.; Commer, M.; Petrov, P.; Um, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    A significant obstacle in developing a robust joint imaging technology exploiting seismic and electromagnetic (EM) wave fields is the resolution at which these different geophysical measurements sense the subsurface. Imaging of seismic reflection data is an order of magnitude finer in resolution and scale compared to images produced with EM data. A consistent joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity) requires/demands the different geophysical data types be similar in their resolution of the subsurface. The superior resolution of seismic data results from the fact that the energy propagates as a wave, while propagation of EM energy is diffusive and attenuates with distance. On the other hand, the complexity of the seismic wave field can be a significant problem due to high reflectivity of the subsurface and the generation of multiple scattering events. While seismic wave fields have been very useful in mapping the subsurface for energy resources, too much scattering and too many reflections can lead to difficulties in imaging and interpreting seismic data. To overcome these obstacles a formulation for joint imaging of seismic and EM wave fields is introduced, where each data type is matched in resolution. In order to accomplish this, seismic data are first transformed into the Laplace-Fourier Domain, which changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from wave propagation to diffusion. Though high frequency information (reflectivity) is lost with this transformation, several benefits follow: (1) seismic and EM data can be easily matched in resolution, governed by the same physics of diffusion, (2) standard least squares inversion works well with diffusive type problems including both transformed seismic and EM, (3) joint imaging of seismic and EM data may produce better starting velocity models critical for successful reverse time migration or full waveform imaging of seismic data (non transformed) and (4

  1. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Fomel, Sergey

    2012-04-30

    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  2. Constraints on seismic anisotropy beneath the Appalachian Mountains from Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.

  3. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  4. 2D and 3D numerical modeling of seismic waves from explosion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Stevens, J.L.; Barker, T.G.; Shkoller, B.; Day, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, nonlinear and linear 2D axisymmetric finite difference codes have been used in conjunction with far-field seismic Green's functions to simulate seismic waves from a variety of sources. In this paper we briefly review some of the results and conclusions that have resulted from numerical simulations and explosion modeling in support of treaty verification research at S-CUBED in the last decade. We then describe in more detail the results from two recent projects. Our goal is to provide a flavor for the kinds of problems that can be examined with numerical methods for modeling excitation of seismic waves from explosions. Two classes of problems have been addressed; nonlinear and linear near-source interactions. In both classes of problems displacements and tractions are saved on a closed surface in the linear region and the representation theorem is used to propagate the seismic waves to the far-field

  5. Factors influencing seismic wave attenuation in the lithosphere in continental rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Dobrynina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in the crust and the upper mantle has been studied in three global rift systems: the Baikal rift system (Eurasia, the North Tanzanian divergence zone (Africa and the Basin and Range Province (North America. Using the records of direct and coda waves of regional earthquakes, the single scattering theory [Aki, Chouet, 1975], the hybrid model from [Zeng, 1991] and the approach described in [Wennerberg, 1993], we estimated the seismic quality factor (QC, frequency parameter (n, attenuation coefficient (δ, and total attenuation (QT. In addition, we evaluated the contributions of two components into total attenuation: intrinsic attenuation (Qi, and scattering attenuation (Qsc. Values of QC are strongly dependent on the frequency within the range of 0.2–16 Hz, as well as on the length of the coda processing window. The observed increase of QC with larger lengths of the coda processing window can be interpreted as a decrease in attenuation with increasing depth. Having compared the depth variations in the attenuation coefficient (δ and the frequency (n with the velocity structures of the studied regions, we conclude that seismic wave attenuation changes at the velocity boundaries in the medium. Moreover, the comparison results show that the estimated variations in the attenuation parameters with increasing depth are considerably dependent on utilized velocity models of the medium. Lateral variations in attenuation of seismic waves correlate with the geological and geophysical characteristics of the regions, and attenuation is primarily dependent on the regional seismic activity and regional heat flow. The geological inhomogeneities of the medium and the age of crust consolidation are secondary factors. Our estimations of intrinsic attenuation (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc show that in all the three studied regions, intrinsic attenuation is the major contributor to total attenuation. Our study shows that the

  6. Radiated Seismic Energy of Earthquakes in the South-Central Region of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Mendoza-Camberos, Antonio; Pérez-Vertti, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the radiated seismic energy (ES) of 65 earthquakes located in the south-central region of the Gulf of California. Most of these events occurred along active transform faults that define the Pacific-North America plate boundary and have magnitudes between M3.3 and M5.9. We corrected the spectral records for attenuation using nonparametric S-wave attenuation functions determined with the whole data set. The path effects were isolated from the seismic source using a spectral inversion. We computed radiated seismic energy of the earthquakes by integrating the square velocity source spectrum and estimated their apparent stresses. We found that most events have apparent stress between 3 × 10-4 and 3 MPa. Model independent estimates of the ratio between seismic energy and moment (ES/M0) indicates that this ratio is independent of earthquake size. We conclude that in general the apparent stress is low (σa < 3 MPa) in the south-central and southern Gulf of California.

  7. Seismic surface wave tomography of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The K-901 data have been examined and a preliminary Single Valued Decomposition inversion has been obtained. The preliminary data indicates a need for additional seismic data to ground-truth the inversion. The originally proposed gravity data acquisition has been dropped because sufficient gravity data are now available for a preliminary analysis and because the seismic data are considered more critical to the interpretation. The proposed prototype for the portable acquisition and analysis system was developed during the first year and will be used in part of the acquisition of additional seismic data.'

  8. Forward and adjoint spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation using hardware accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Daniel; Videau, Brice; Pouget, Kevin; Komatitsch, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Improving the resolution of tomographic images is crucial to answer important questions on the nature of Earth's subsurface structure and internal processes. Seismic tomography is the most prominent approach where seismic signals from ground-motion records are used to infer physical properties of internal structures such as compressional- and shear-wave speeds, anisotropy and attenuation. Recent advances in regional- and global-scale seismic inversions move towards full-waveform inversions which require accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media, providing access to the full 3D seismic wavefields. However, these numerical simulations are computationally very expensive and need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities for further improving the current state of knowledge. During recent years, many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) have been added to available large HPC systems. Such GPU-accelerated computing together with advances in multi-core central processing units (CPUs) can greatly accelerate scientific applications. There are mainly two possible choices of language support for GPU cards, the CUDA programming environment and OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted mainly by AMD graphic cards. In order to employ such hardware accelerators for seismic wave propagation simulations, we incorporated a code generation tool BOAST into an existing spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. This allows us to use meta-programming of computational kernels and generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages, running simulations on either CUDA or OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show here applications of forward and adjoint seismic wave propagation on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  9. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  10. Shallow shear-wave reflection seismics in the tsunami struck Krueng Aceh River Basin, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the project "Management of Georisk" (MANGEONAD of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hanover, high resolution shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia, local counterparts, and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Hanover. The investigations were expected to support classification of earthquake site effects for the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure as well as for groundwater exploration. The study focussed on the city of Banda Aceh and the surroundings of Aceh Besar. The shear-wave seismic surveys were done parallel to standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests to support subsequent site specific statistical calibration. They were also partly supplemented by shallow p-wave seismics for the identification of (a elastic subsurface parameters and (b zones with abundance of groundwater. Evaluation of seismic site effects based on shallow reflection seismics has in fact been found to be a highly useful method in Aceh province. In particular, use of a vibratory seismic source was essential for successful application of shear-wave seismics in the city of Banda Aceh and in areas with compacted ground like on farm tracks in the surroundings, presenting mostly agricultural land use areas. We thus were able to explore the mechanical stiffness of the subsurface down to 100 m depth, occasionally even deeper, with remarkably high resolution. The results were transferred into geotechnical site classification in terms of the International Building Code (IBC, 2003. The seismic images give also insights into the history of the basin sedimentation processes of the Krueng Aceh River delta, which is relevant for the exploration of new areas for construction of safe foundations of buildings and for identification of fresh water aquifers in the tsunami

  11. Seismic surface-wave tomography of waste sites. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The portable analysis system will display an image representing the shear-wave velocity structure. The image would be developed in the field from successive data samples. As of May 1998, the author established compatibility with computer programs at Georgia Tech and computed a preliminary singular value decomposition solution for the K-901 data. The analysis included modeling of surface wave dispersion and analysis of velocity structure. The analysis demonstrated that the authors needed additional field data to verify the conclusions and provide independent confirmation of velocity structure. The K-901 site data were obtained with 8 Hz geophones. The frequencies below 8 Hz are strongly attenuated in such recording instruments and are difficult to analyze. In particular, group velocities can have multiple answers for a given frequency. Consequently, without a record of the low-frequency energy, the authors found it difficult to identify the portion of the dispersion curve responsible for the seismogram. In particular, it was difficult to determine if the reverse dispersion observed in the frequencies above 8 Hz was caused by a low velocity layer or caused by observing only the frequencies above the group velocity minimum. In either model, synthetic seismograms can be made to match the observed data for the higher frequencies. The contract for the proposed work was completed in December. The field work was

  12. Near Source Energy Partitioning for Regional Waves in 2D and 3D Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Xiao-Bi; Lay, Thome; Wu, Ru-Shan

    2008-01-01

    ...) to calculate seismic wave excitation and propagation in near-source region. An embedded array slowness analysis is used for quantifying how energy will be partitioned into the long-range propagation regime...

  13. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  14. Local amplification of seismic waves from the Denali earthquake and damaging seiches in Lake Union, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Qamar, A.; Pratt, T.L.; Creager, K.C.; Steele, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mw7.9 Denali, Alaska earthquake of 3 November, 2002, caused minor damage to at least 20 houseboats in Seattle, Washington by initiating water waves in Lake Union. These water waves were likely initiated during the large amplitude seismic surface waves from this earthquake. Maps of spectral amplification recorded during the Denali earthquake on the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) strong-motion instruments show substantially increased shear and surface wave amplitudes coincident with the Seattle sedimentary basin. Because Lake Union is situated on the Seattle basin, the size of the water waves may have been increased by local amplification of the seismic waves by the basin. Complete hazard assessments require understanding the causes of these water waves during future earthquakes. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Investigation of optimal seismic design methodology for piping systems supported by elasto-plastic dampers. Part. 2. Applicability for seismic waves with various frequency characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Michiue, Masashi; Fujita, Katsuhisa

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the applicability of a previously developed optimal seismic design methodology, which can consider the structural integrity of not only piping systems but also elasto-plastic supporting devices, is studied for seismic waves with various frequency characteristics. This methodology employs a genetic algorithm and can search the optimal conditions such as the supporting location and the capacity and stiffness of the supporting devices. Here, a lead extrusion damper is treated as a typical elasto-plastic damper. Numerical simulations are performed using a simple piping system model. As a result, it is shown that the proposed optimal seismic design methodology is applicable to the seismic design of piping systems subjected to seismic waves with various frequency characteristics. The mechanism of optimization is also clarified. (author)

  16. Seismic isolation of buildings using composite foundations based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casablanca, O.; Ventura, G.; Garescı, F.; Azzerboni, B.; Chiaia, B.; Chiappini, M.; Finocchio, G.

    2018-05-01

    Metamaterials can be engineered to interact with waves in entirely new ways, finding application on the nanoscale in various fields such as optics and acoustics. In addition, acoustic metamaterials can be used in large-scale experiments for filtering and manipulating seismic waves (seismic metamaterials). Here, we propose seismic isolation based on a device that combines some properties of seismic metamaterials (e.g., periodic mass-in-mass systems) with that of a standard foundation positioned right below the building for isolation purposes. The concepts on which this solution is based are the local resonance and a dual-stiffness structure that preserves large (small) rigidity for compression (shear) effects. In other words, this paper introduces a different approach to seismic isolation by using certain principles of seismic metamaterials. The experimental demonstrator tested on the laboratory scale exhibits a spectral bandgap that begins at 4.5 Hz. Within the bandgap, it filters more than 50% of the seismic energy via an internal dissipation process. Our results open a path toward the seismic resilience of buildings and a critical infrastructure to shear seismic waves, achieving higher efficiency compared to traditional seismic insulators and passive energy-dissipation systems.

  17. Seismic wave propagation in non-homogeneous elastic media by boundary elements

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George D; Rangelov, Tsviatko V; Wuttke, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the mathematical potential and computational efficiency of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modeling seismic wave propagation in either continuous or discrete inhomogeneous elastic/viscoelastic, isotropic/anisotropic media containing multiple cavities, cracks, inclusions and surface topography. BEM models may take into account the entire seismic wave path from the seismic source through the geological deposits all the way up to the local site under consideration. The general presentation of the theoretical basis of elastodynamics for inhomogeneous and heterogeneous continua in the first part is followed by the analytical derivation of fundamental solutions and Green's functions for the governing field equations by the usage of Fourier and Radon transforms. The numerical implementation of the BEM is for antiplane in the second part as well as for plane strain boundary value problems in the third part. Verification studies and parametric analysis appear throughout the book, as do both ...

  18. Combined effects of traveling seismic waves and soil nonlinearity on nuclear power plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Charman, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ground motion nonuniformity on the seismic input have been actively studied in recent years by considering the passage of traveling seismic waves. These studies gave rise to a new class of soil-structure interaction problems in which the seismic input is modified as a result of the spatial variations of ground motion. The phenomena were usually studied by using the elastic half-space simulation or discrete spring-models for modeling the soil medium. Finite element methods were also used recently on a limited scope. Results obtained from these investigations are often manifested by an attenuation of translational excitation along with an addition of rotational ground motion input. The decrease in structural response resulting from the input loss in the translational component was often insignificant since the response reduction tends to be offset by the effects from rotational input. The traveling wave effects have, so far, been investigated within the framework of linear theory with soil nonlinearity ignored. Conversely, the incorporation of soil nonlinearity in soil-structure interaction analyses has been done without including wave effect. Seismic analyses considering the hysteretic behavior of soil have been performed using highly idealized models for steady-state solution. More elaborate nonlinear seismic models deal with only the strain-dependent soil modulus rather than the transient unloading-reloading type of hysteretic characteristics of soil under a time-function input of earthquake trace. Apparently, the traveling wave effect and soil nonlinearity have been separately treated in the past. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these two major effects can be combined in one model such that the influence of wave passage is reflected through the hysteretic behavior of soil particles, and thereby achieving significant reduction in seismic loads. (orig./RW)

  19. Wave passage effects on the seismic response of a maglev vehicle moving on multi-span guideway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Yau

    Full Text Available As a seismic wave travels along the separate supports of an extended structure, the structure is subjected to multiple-support excitation due to seismic wave propagation. Considering the seismic wave passage effect, this paper describes seismic analysis of a maglev vehicle moving on a multiply supported gudieway. The guideway system is modeled as a series of simple beams and the vehicle as a four degrees-of-freedom (DOFs rigid bar equipped with multiple onboard PI+LQR hybrid controllers. The controller is used to regulate control voltage for tuning both magnetic forces of uplift levitation and lateral guidance in the maglev system. Numerical studies show that as a maglev vehicle is equipped with more supported magnets then they can provide more control gains for tuning the guidance forces of the moving vehicle, and mitigate seismic-induced lateral vibration of a maglev vehicle running a guideway.

  20. Induced Electromagnetic Field by Seismic Waves in Stratified Media in Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves accompany electromagnetic (EM) variations because Earth's crust involves a variety of EM properties such as finite electrical conductivity and ion contents. If we can catch the EM variations just after the earthquake rupture, we will know the occurrence of earthquake before the arrival of seismic waves at observation point. However, quantitative aspects of EM variations arising from seismic waves have not sufficiently understood. Together with observational works, theoretical works have been made to simulate EM variations arising from seismic waves. The generation mechanisms of EM variations include electrokinetic effect (Pride, 1994), motional induction (Gao et al., 2014), piezo-electric effect (Ogawa and Utada, 2000), piezo-magnetic effect (Yamazaki, 2016), etc. It is widely accepted that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant mechanism. Theoretical calculation of EM variations assuming the electrokinetic effect roughly explains the observed EM variations accompanying with earthquake ground motions (e.g. Gao et al. 2016). However, there are a significant disagreement between observed and predicted EM variations. In the present study, I focus on the motional induction mechanism that possibly explain some parts of EM variations accompanying with seismic waves. A theoretical work on EM variations arising from the motional induction has been presented by Gao et al. (2014), but their work assumed uniform full-space medium. In contrast, the present work assumes stratified media which correctly incorporate the effect of the ground surface. I apply a calculating method developed in seismology (e.g. Kennett, 2013) and in EM studies (Haartsen and Pride, 1997), and derive a set of expressions describing the spatial-temporal variations of the EM field after the onset of rupture. The derived formula is used to calculate EM variations for actual earthquakes to compare the theoretical prediction to observed EM variations.

  1. Groundwater exploration in a Quaternary sediment body by shear-wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, M.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    The detailed investigation of a shallow aquifer structure is the prerequisite for choosing a proper well location for groundwater exploration drilling for human drinking water supply and subsequent managing of the aquifer system. In the case of shallow aquifers of some 10 m in depth, this task is still a challenge for high-resolution geophysical methods, especially in populated areas. In areas of paved surfaces, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics is advantageous compared to conventional P-wave seismic methods. The sediment body of the Alfbach valley within the Vulkaneifel region in Germany, partly covered by the village Gillenfeld, was estimated to have a maximum thickness of nearly 60 m. It lies on top of a complicated basement structure, constituted by an incorporated lava flow near the basement. For the positioning of new well locations, a combination of a SH-wave land streamer receiver system and a small, wheelbarrow-mounted SH-wave source was used for the seismic investigations. This equipment can be easily applied also in residential areas without notable trouble for the inhabitants. The results of the 2.5D profiling show a clear image of the sediment body down to the bedrock with high resolution. Along a 1 km seismic profile, the sediment thickness varies between 20 to more than 60 m in the centre of the valley. The reflection behaviour from the bedrock surface corroborates the hypothesis of a basement structure with distinct topography, including strong dipping events from the flanks of the valley and strong diffractions from subsurface discontinuities. The reflection seismic imaging leads to an estimation of the former shape of the valley and a reconstruction of the flow conditions at the beginning of the sedimentation process.

  2. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  3. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  4. Measurement Of Compressional-Wave Seismic Velocities In 29 Wells At The Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Check shot seismic velocity surveys were collected in 100 B/C, 200 East, 200-PO-1 Operational Unit (OU), and the Gable Gap areas in order to provide time-depth correlation information to aid the interpretation of existing seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site (Figure 1). This report details results from 5 wells surveyed in fiscal year (FY) 2008, 7 wells in FY 2009, and 17 wells in FY 2010 and provides summary compressional-wave seismic velocity information to help guide future seismic survey design as well as improve current interpretations of the seismic data (SSC 1979/1980; SGW-39675; SGW-43746). Augmenting the check shot database are four surveys acquired in 2007 in support of the Bechtel National, Inc. Waste Treatment Plant construction design (PNNL-16559, PNNL-16652), and check shot surveys in three wells to support seismic testing in the 200 West Area (Waddell et al., 1999). Additional sonic logging was conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s as part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) (SSC 1979/1980) and check shot/sonic surveys as part of the safety report for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear project (RDH/10-AMCP-0164). Check shot surveys are used to obtain an in situ measure of compressional-wave seismic velocity for sediment and rock in the vicinity of the well point, and provide the seismic-wave travel time to geologic horizons of interest. The check shot method deploys a downhole seismic receiver (geophone) to record the arrival of seismic waves generated by a source at the ground surface. The travel time of the first arriving seismic-wave is determined and used to create a time-depth function to correlate encountered geologic intervals with the seismic data. This critical tie with the underlying geology improves the interpretation of seismic reflection profile information. Fieldwork for this investigation was conducted by in house staff during the weeks of September 22, 2008 for 5 wells in the 200 East Area (Figure 2); June 1

  5. Time-domain full waveform inversion using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Tan, Jun; Song, Peng; Li, Jin-shan; Xia, Dong-ming; Liu, Zhao-lun

    2017-01-01

    The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge storage consumption in the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on Hessian matrices in time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI), but the accuracy

  6. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  7. Improved surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi?dimensional deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Draganov, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface?wave Green's function. A point?spread function, derived from the

  8. Seismic wave triggering of nonvolcanic tremor, episodic tremor and slip, and earthquakes on Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Gomberg, Joan; Vidale, John E.; Wech, Aaron G.; Kao, Honn; Creager, Kenneth C.; Rogers, Garry

    2009-02-01

    We explore the physical conditions that enable triggering of nonvolcanic tremor and earthquakes by considering local seismic activity on Vancouver Island, British Columbia during and immediately after the arrival of large-amplitude seismic waves from 30 teleseismic and 17 regional or local earthquakes. We identify tremor triggered by four of the teleseismic earthquakes. The close temporal and spatial proximity of triggered tremor to ambient tremor and aseismic slip indicates that when a fault is close to or undergoing failure, it is particularly susceptible to triggering of further events. The amplitude of the triggering waves also influences the likelihood of triggering both tremor and earthquakes such that large amplitude waves triggered tremor in the absence of detectable aseismic slip or ambient tremor. Tremor and energy radiated from regional/local earthquakes share the same frequency passband so that tremor cannot be identified during these smaller, more frequent events. We confidently identify triggered local earthquakes following only one teleseism, that with the largest amplitude, and four regional or local events that generated vigorous aftershock sequences in their immediate vicinity. Earthquakes tend to be triggered in regions different from tremor and with high ambient seismicity rates. We also note an interesting possible correlation between large teleseismic events and episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes, whereby ETS events that are "late" and have built up more stress than normal are susceptible to triggering by the slight nudge of the shaking from a large, distant event, while ETS events that are "early" or "on time" are not.

  9. Investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany using 2D shear wave reflection seismics and zero-offset VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschache, Saskia; Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes pose a serious geohazard for humans and infrastructure in populated areas. The Junior Research Group Subrosion within the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics and the joint project SIMULTAN work on the multi-scale investigation of subrosion processes in the subsurface, which cause natural sinkholes. In two case studies in sinkhole areas of Thuringia in Germany, we applied 2D shear wave reflection seismics using SH-waves with the aim to detect suitable parameters for the characterisation of critical zones. This method has the potential to image near-surface collapse and faulting structures in improved resolution compared to P-wave surveys resulting from the shorter wavelength of shear waves. Additionally, the shear wave velocity field derived by NMO velocity analysis is a basis to calculate further physical parameters, as e.g. the dynamic shear modulus. In both investigation areas, vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired by generating P- and SH-waves (6 component VSP) directly next to a borehole equipped with a 3C downhole sensor. They provide shear and compressional wave velocity profiles, which are used to improve the 2D shear wave velocity field from surface seismics, to perform a depth calibration of the seismic image and to calculate the Vp/Vs ratio. The signals in the VSP data are analysed with respect to changes in polarisation and attenuation with depth and/or azimuth. The VSP data reveal low shear wave velocities of 200-300 m/s in rock layers known to be heavily affected by subrosion and confirm the low velocities calculated from the surface seismic data. A discrepancy of the shear wave velocities is observed in other intervals probably due to unsymmetrical travel paths in the surface seismics. In some VSP data dominant conversion of the direct SH-wave to P-wave is observed that is assumed to be caused by an increased presence of cavities. A potential fault distorting the vertical travel paths was detected by abnormal P-wave first

  10. Detection of sinkholes or anomalies using full seismic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This research presents an application of two-dimensional (2-D) time-domain waveform tomography for detection of embedded sinkholes and anomalies. The measured seismic surface wave fields were inverted using a full waveform inversion (FWI) technique, ...

  11. Assessment of seismic wave effects on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-03-01

    It is normally assumed in the seismic analysis of structures that the free-field motion which is used as input is the same for all points on a given level beneath the foundation mat. This represents a simplification, as not all particles of soil describe the same motion simultaneously. As the foundation mat of the structure is rigid in the horizontal direction, it will tend to average the ground motion. Abandoning the assumption of the uniformity of the input motion may lead to a reduction of the translational motion which a foundation mat will experience, as the displacement components will cancel each other to a certain extent. This is of considerable interest for the design of nuclear power plants which are very stiff, large structures. To investigate these effects, the extremely complex phenomenon of the passage of a seismic wave has to be simplified considerably. It is the purpose of this paper to determine if wave passage effects can be determined from the simplified analyses currently used

  12. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  13. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput [Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha Street no.10 Basic Science B Buliding fl.2-3 Bandung, 40132, West Java Indonesia puput.erlangga@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  14. Comparison of shear-wave velocity measurements by crosshole, downhole and seismic cone penetration test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthaker, N.; Tweedie, R. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Shear wave velocity measurements are an integral part of geotechnical studies for major structures and are an important tool in their design for site specific conditions such as site-specific earthquake response. This paper reported on a study in which shear wave velocities were measured at a proposed petrochemical plant site near Edmonton, Alberta. The proposed site is underlain by lacustrine clay, glacial till and upper Cretaceous clay shale and sandstone bedrock. The most commonly used methods for determining shear wave velocity include crosshole seismic tests, downhole seismic tests, and seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT). This paper presented the results of all 3 methods used in this study and provided a comparison of the various test methods and their limitations. The crosshole test results demonstrated a common trend of increasing shear wave velocity with depth to about 15 m, below which the velocities remained relatively constant. An anomaly was noted at one site, where the shear wave velocity was reduced at a zone corresponding to clay till containing stiff high plastic clay layers. The field study demonstrated that reasonable agreement in shear wave velocity measurements can be made using crosshole, downhole and seismic tests in the same soil conditions. The National Building Code states that the shear wave velocity is the fundamental method for determining site classification, thus emphasizing the importance of obtaining shear wave velocity measurements for site classification. It was concluded that an SCPT program can be incorporated into the field program without much increase in cost and can be supplemented by downhole or crosshole techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  15. A Shear-Wave Seismic System to Look Ahead of a Tunnel Boring Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Mulder, W.A.; Tscharner, Thomas; Jenneskens, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s properties, composition and structure ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) should be mapped for hazard assessment during excavation. We study the use of seismic-exploration techniques for this purpose. We focus on a seismic system for soft soils, where shear waves are better and easier

  16. Investigating Deep-Marine Sediment Waves in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using 3D Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Gani, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Deep-water depositional elements have been studied for decades using outcrop, flume tank, sidescan sonar, and seismic data. Even though they have been well recognized by researchers, the improvements in the quality of 3D seismic data with increasingly larger dimension allow detailed analysis of deep-water depositional elements with new insights. This study focuses on the deep-marine sediment waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico. By interpreting a 3D seismic dataset covering 635 km2 at Mississippi Canyon and Viosca Knoll areas, large sediment waves, generated by sediment gravity flows, were mapped and analyzed with various seismic attributes. A succession of sediment waves, approximately 100 m in thickness, is observed on the marine slope that tapers out at the toe of the slope. The individual sediment wave exhibits up to 500 m in wavelength and up to 20 m in height. The wave crests oriented northeast-southwest are broadly aligned parallel to the regional slope-strike, indicating their sediment gravity flow origin. The crestlines are straight or slightly sinuous, with sinuosity increasing downslope. Their anti-dune patterns likely imply the presence of supercritical flows. The sediment waves have a retrogradational stacking pattern. Seismic amplitude maps of each sediment wave revealed that after depositing the majority of sheet-like sands on the upper slope, sediment gravity flows started to form large sediment waves on the lower slope. The steep and narrow upcurrent flanks of the sediment waves always display higher amplitudes than the gentle and wide downcurrent flanks, indicating that the sands were likely preferentially trapped along the upcurrent flanks, whereas the muds spread along the downcurrent flanks. The formation of sediment waves likely requires a moderate sand-mud ratio, as suggested by these observations: (1) absence of sediment waves on the upper slope where the sands were mainly deposited as unconfined sheets with a high sand-mud ratio; (2

  17. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  18. 3-component beamforming analysis of ambient seismic noise field for Love and Rayleigh wave source directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, Carina; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2014-05-01

    Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves observed in the microseism band of the ambient seismic noise field is still limited, including the understanding of source locations and source mechanisms. Multi-component array methods are suitable to address this issue. In this work we use a 3-component beamforming algorithm to obtain source directions and polarization states of the ambient seismic noise field within the primary and secondary microseism bands recorded at the Gräfenberg array in southern Germany. The method allows to distinguish between different polarized waves present in the seismic noise field and estimates Love and Rayleigh wave source directions and their seasonal variations using one year of array data. We find mainly coinciding directions for the strongest acting sources of both wave types at the primary microseism and different source directions at the secondary microseism.

  19. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  20. Subduction factory 1. Theoretical mineralogy, densities, seismic wave speeds, and H2O contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Peacock, Simon M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new compilation of physical properties of minerals relevant to subduction zones and new phase diagrams for mid-ocean ridge basalt, lherzolite, depleted lherzolite, harzburgite, and serpentinite. We use these data to calculate H2O content, density and seismic wave speeds of subduction zone rocks. These calculations provide a new basis for evaluating the subduction factory, including (1) the presence of hydrous phases and the distribution of H2O within a subduction zone; (2) the densification of the subducting slab and resultant effects on measured gravity and slab shape; and (3) the variations in seismic wave speeds resulting from thermal and metamorphic processes at depth. In considering specific examples, we find that for ocean basins worldwide the lower oceanic crust is partially hydrated (measurements. Subducted hydrous crust in cold slabs can persist to several gigapascals at seismic velocities that are several percent slower than the surrounding mantle. Seismic velocities and VP/VS ratios indicate that mantle wedges locally reach 60-80% hydration.

  1. A local adaptive method for the numerical approximation in seismic wave modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuzzi Bruno G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new numerical approach for the solution of the 2D acoustic wave equation to model the predicted data in the field of active-source seismic inverse problems. This method consists in using an explicit finite difference technique with an adaptive order of approximation of the spatial derivatives that takes into account the local velocity at the grid nodes. Testing our method to simulate the recorded seismograms in a marine seismic acquisition, we found that the low computational time and the low approximation error of the proposed approach make it suitable in the context of seismic inversion problems.

  2. Seismic waves in 3-D: from mantle asymmetries to reliable seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Giuliano F.; Romanelli, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    A global cross-section of the Earth parallel to the tectonic equator (TE) path, the great circle representing the equator of net lithosphere rotation, shows a difference in shear wave velocities between the western and eastern flanks of the three major oceanic rift basins. The low-velocity layer in the upper asthenosphere, at a depth range of 120 to 200 km, is assumed to represent the decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Along the TE-perturbed (TE-pert) path, a ubiquitous LVZ, about 1,000-km-wide and 100-km-thick, occurs in the asthenosphere. The existence of the TE-pert is a necessary prerequisite for the existence of a continuous global flow within the Earth. Ground-shaking scenarios were constructed using a scenario-based method for seismic hazard analysis (NDSHA), using realistic and duly validated synthetic time series, and generating a data bank of several thousands of seismograms that account for source, propagation, and site effects. Accordingly, with basic self-organized criticality concepts, NDSHA permits the integration of available information provided by the most updated seismological, geological, geophysical, and geotechnical databases for the site of interest, as well as advanced physical modeling techniques, to provide a reliable and robust background for the development of a design basis for cultural heritage and civil infrastructures. Estimates of seismic hazard obtained using the NDSHA and standard probabilistic approaches are compared for the Italian territory, and a case-study is discussed. In order to enable a reliable estimation of the ground motion response to an earthquake, three-dimensional velocity models have to be considered, resulting in a new, very efficient, analytical procedure for computing the broadband seismic wave-field in a 3-D anelastic Earth model.

  3. Spectral-Element Seismic Wave Propagation Codes for both Forward Modeling in Complex Media and Adjoint Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present both SPECFEM3D_Cartesian and SPECFEM3D_GLOBE open-source codes, representing high-performance numerical wave solvers simulating seismic wave propagation for local-, regional-, and global-scale application. These codes are suitable for both forward propagation in complex media and tomographic imaging. Both solvers compute highly accurate seismic wave fields using the continuous Galerkin spectral-element method on unstructured meshes. Lateral variations in compressional- and shear-wave speeds, density, as well as 3D attenuation Q models, topography and fluid-solid coupling are all readily included in both codes. For global simulations, effects due to rotation, ellipticity, the oceans, 3D crustal models, and self-gravitation are additionally included. Both packages provide forward and adjoint functionality suitable for adjoint tomography on high-performance computing architectures. We highlight the most recent release of the global version which includes improved performance, simultaneous MPI runs, OpenCL and CUDA support via an automatic source-to-source transformation library (BOAST), parallel I/O readers and writers for databases using ADIOS and seismograms using the recently developed Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) with built-in provenance. This makes our spectral-element solvers current state-of-the-art, open-source community codes for high-performance seismic wave propagation on arbitrarily complex 3D models. Together with these solvers, we provide full-waveform inversion tools to image the Earth's interior at unprecedented resolution.

  4. Dispersion Energy Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves in the Presence of Low-Velocity Layers in Near-Surface Seismic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface

  5. The finite-difference and finite-element modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Pazak, P.; Balazovijech, M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion is an irreplaceable tool in investigation of the Earth's structure, processes in the Earth, and particularly earthquake phenomena. Among various numerical methods, the finite-difference method is the dominant method in the modeling of earthquake motion. Moreover, it is becoming more important in the seismic exploration and structural modeling. At the same time we are convinced that the best time of the finite-difference method in seismology is in the future. This monograph provides tutorial and detailed introduction to the application of the finite-difference, finite-element, and hybrid finite-difference-finite-element methods to the modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion. The text does not cover all topics and aspects of the methods. We focus on those to which we have contributed. (Author)

  6. Seismic Applications of Energy Dampers

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Sinha

    2004-01-01

    Damping devices based on the operating principle of high velocity fluid flow through orifices have found numerous applications in the shock and vibration isolation of aerospace and defence systems. The study aims to investigate the feasibility of using energy dissipating fluid viscous dampers in structures to protect against seismic loads and to prove analytically and  experimentally that fluid viscous dampers can improve the seismic capacity of a structure by reducing damage and displacement...

  7. Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.

  8. SH-wave reflection seismic and VSP as tools for the investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Tschache, Saskia; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes can lead to damage of buildings and infrastructure and they can cause life-threatening situations, if they occur in urban areas. The process behind this phenomenon is called subrosion. Subrosion is the underground leaching of soluble rocks, e.g. anhydrite and gypsum, due to the contact with ground- and meteoric water. Depending on the leached material, and especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. For a better understanding of the subrosion processes a detailed characterization of the resulting structures is necessary. In Germany sinkholes are a problem in many areas. In northern Germany salt and in central and southern Germany sulfate and carbonate deposits are affected by subrosion. The study areas described here are located in Thuringia in central Germany and the underground is characterized by soluble Permian deposits. The occurrence of 20 to 50 sinkholes is reported per year. Two regions, Bad Frankenhausen and Schmalkalden, are investigated, showing a leaning church tower and a sinkhole of 30 m diameter and 20 m depth, respectively. In Bad Frankenhausen four P-wave and 16 SH-wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out, supplemented by three zero-offset VSPs. In Schmalkalden five SH-wave reflection seismic profiles and one zero-offset VSP were acquired. The 2-D seismic sections, in particular the SH-wave profiles, showed known and unknown near-surface faults in the vicinity of sinkholes and depressions. For imaging the near-surface ( 2,5, probably indicating unstable areas due to subrosion. We conclude, that SH-wave reflection seismic offer an important tool for the imaging and characterization of near-surface subrosion structures and the identification of unstable zones, especially in combination with P-wave reflection seismic and zero-offset VSP with P- and S-waves. Presumably there is a connection between the presence of large

  9. Spectrum of the seismic-electromagnetic and acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koshevaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the spectrum of the seismo-electromagnetic and acoustic waves, caused by seismic and volcanic activity, has been done. This spectrum includes the Electromagnetic Emission (EME, due to fracturing piezoelectrics in rocks and the Acoustic Emission (AE, caused by the excitation and the nonlinear passage of acoustic waves through the Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere. The investigated mechanism of the EME uses the model of fracturing and the crack motion. For its analysis, we consider a piezoelectric crystal under mechanical stresses, which cause the uniform crack motion, and, consequently, in the vicinity of the moving crack also cause non-stationary polarization currents. A possible spectrum of EME has been estimated. The underground fractures produce Very Low (VLF and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF acoustic waves, while the acoustic waves at higher frequencies present high losses and, on the Earth's surface, they are quite small and are not registered. The VLF acoustic wave is subject to nonlinearity under passage through the lithosphere that leads to the generation of higher harmonics and also frequency down-conversion, namely, increasing the ELF acoustic component on the Earth's surface. In turn, a nonlinear propagation of ELF acoustic wave in the atmosphere and the ionosphere leads to emerging the ultra low frequency (ULF acousto-gravity waves in the ionosphere and possible local excitation of plasma waves.

  10. Influence of LOD variations on seismic energy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguzzi, F.; Krumm, F.; Wang, K.; Kiszely, M.; Varga, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tidal friction causes significant time variations of geodynamical parameters, among them geometrical flattening. The axial despinning of the Earth due to tidal friction through the change of flattening generates incremental meridional and azimuthal stresses. The stress pattern in an incompressible elastic upper mantle and crust is symmetric to the equator and has its inflection points at the critical latitude close to ±45°. Consequently the distribution of seismic energy released by strong, shallow focus earthquakes should have also sharp maxima at this latitude. To investigate the influence of length of day (LOD) variations on earthquake activity an earthquake catalogue of strongest seismic events (M>7.0) was completed for the period 1900-2007. It is shown with the use of this catalogue that for the studied time-interval the catalogue is complete and consists of the seismic events responsible for more than 90% of released seismic energy. Study of the catalogue for earthquakes M>7.0 shows that the seismic energy discharged by the strongest seismic events has significant maxima at ±45°, what renders probably that the seismic activity of our planet is influenced by an external component, i.e. by the tidal friction, which acts through the variation of the hydrostatic figure of the Earth caused by it. Distribution along the latitude of earthquake numbers and energies was investigated also for the case of global linear tectonic structures, such as mid ocean ridges and subduction zones. It can be shown that the number of the shallow focus shocks has a repartition along the latitude similar to the distribution of the linear tectonic structures. This means that the position of foci of seismic events is mainly controlled by the tectonic activity.

  11. Analysis of pressure wave transients and seismic response in LMFBR piping systems using the SHAPS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuch, W.R.; Wang, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents some of the current capabilities of the three-dimensional piping code SHAPS and demonstrates their usefulness in handling analyses encountered in typical LMFBR studies. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the SHAPS code for problems involving fluid-structure interactions and seismic-related events occurring in three-dimensional piping networks. Results of two studies of pressure wave propagation demonstrate the dynamic coupling of pipes and elbows producing global motion and rigorous treatment of physical quantities such as changes in density, pressure, and strain energy. Results of the seismic analysis demonstrate the capability of SHAPS to handle dynamic structural response within a piping network over an extended transient period of several seconds. Variation in dominant stress frequencies and global translational frequencies were easily handled with the code. 4 refs., 10 figs

  12. The use of multiwavelets for uncertainty estimation in seismic surface wave dispersion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppeliers, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report describes a new single-station analysis method to estimate the dispersion and uncer- tainty of seismic surface waves using the multiwavelet transform. Typically, when estimating the dispersion of a surface wave using only a single seismic station, the seismogram is decomposed into a series of narrow-band realizations using a bank of narrow-band filters. By then enveloping and normalizing the filtered seismograms and identifying the maximum power as a function of frequency, the group velocity can be estimated if the source-receiver distance is known. However, using the filter bank method, there is no robust way to estimate uncertainty. In this report, I in- troduce a new method of estimating the group velocity that includes an estimate of uncertainty. The method is similar to the conventional filter bank method, but uses a class of functions, called Slepian wavelets, to compute a series of wavelet transforms of the data. Each wavelet transform is mathematically similar to a filter bank, however, the time-frequency tradeoff is optimized. By taking multiple wavelet transforms, I form a population of dispersion estimates from which stan- dard statistical methods can be used to estimate uncertainty. I demonstrate the utility of this new method by applying it to synthetic data as well as ambient-noise surface-wave cross-correlelograms recorded by the University of Nevada Seismic Network.

  13. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  14. Relationships between seismic wave-Speed, density, and electrical conductivity beneath Australia from seismology, mineralogy, and laboratory-based conductivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Koch, S.; Shankland, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present maps of the three-dimensional density (ρ), electrical conductivity (σ), and shear-wave speed (VS) structure of the mantle beneath Australia and surrounding ocean in the depth range of 100–800 km. These maps derived from stochastic inversion of seismic surface-wave dispersion data...... shear-wave speeds, low densities, and high conductivities. This trend appears to continue to depths well below 300 km. The slow-fast shear-wave speed distribution found here is also observed in independent seismic tomographic models of the Australian region, whereas the coupled slow-fast shear......-wave speed, low-high density, and high-low electrical conductivity distribution has not been observed previously. Toward the bottom of the upper mantle at 400 km depth marking the olivine ⃗ wadsleyite transformation (the “410–km” seismic discontinuity), the correlation between VS, ρ, and σ weakens...

  15. Sub-basalt Imaging of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mesozoic Sediments Using Ray-Trace Inversion of First-Arrival Seismic Data and Elastic Finite-Difference Full-Wave Modeling Along Sinor-Valod Profile of Deccan Syneclise, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Karabi; Behera, Laxmidhar

    2018-03-01

    Imaging below the basalt for hydrocarbon exploration is a global problem because of poor penetration and significant loss of seismic energy due to scattering, attenuation, absorption and mode-conversion when the seismic waves encounter a highly heterogeneous and rugose basalt layer. The conventional (short offset) seismic data acquisition, processing and modeling techniques adopted by the oil industry generally fails to image hydrocarbon-bearing sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments hidden below the basalt and is considered as a serious problem for hydrocarbon exploration in the world. To overcome this difficulty of sub-basalt imaging, we have generated dense synthetic seismic data with the help of elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling using staggered-grid scheme for the model derived from ray-trace inversion using sparse wide-angle seismic data acquired along Sinor-Valod profile in the Deccan Volcanic Province of India. The full-wave synthetic seismic data generated have been processed and imaged using conventional seismic data processing technique with Kirchhoff pre-stack time and depth migrations. The seismic image obtained correlates with all the structural features of the model obtained through ray-trace inversion of wide-angle seismic data, validating the effectiveness of robust elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling approach for imaging below thick basalts. Using the full-wave modeling also allows us to decipher small-scale heterogeneities imposed in the model as a measure of the rugose basalt interfaces, which could not be dealt with ray-trace inversion. Furthermore, we were able to accurately image thin low-velocity hydrocarbon-bearing Mesozoic sediments sandwiched between and hidden below two thick sequences of high-velocity basalt layers lying above the basement.

  16. Global propagation of cyclone-induced seismic wave from the Atlantic detected by the high-sensitivity accelerometers of Hi-net, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Obara, K.; Maeda, T.

    2008-12-01

    A nationwide seismic network in Japan detected long period microtremors from the northern Atlantic region. It is reported that a cyclone generate ocean swells which excite microtremors. If the microtremors have sufficient intensity, the seismic waves propagate far from the source. Such propagation was sometimes observed at the high-sensitivity accelerometers of Hi-net, NIED. In this study, a migration of the source location with a cyclone is estimated by an array analysis technique, combining broadband seismic data of another array. In the middle of March 2007, anomalous seismic waves were continuously arrived from the north direction in Japan. Such waves were automatically detected by the array analysis of Hi-net data. The automated analysis also shows that the seismic wave is originated far from Japan because the propagation is well approximated to plane waves rather than cylindrical waves. The waves are especially predominant at the period of around 20 s. In addition, from a semblance analysis, apparent velocity is estimated to 3.4--3.6 km/s and 3.8--4.0 km/s in radial and transverse components, respectively. This suggests that the observed waves are composed both of Rayleigh and Love waves. To discuss the more accurate direction and the temporal change, we apply a multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method to the data of high-sensitivity accelerometers. The arrival direction rotated to several degrees clockwise from the azimuth of -15 degrees. In addition, we analyze broadband seismic data of the Graefenberg-array (GRF array) in Germany, and also obtain an evident rotation of the arrival direction from - 40 to -5 degrees. The result of array analysis suggests that the source of seismic wave moves to the north direction at the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. The location of the source is estimated as the intersections of the expected ray paths from two arrays. To calculate a ray path, we assumed the Rayleigh wave velocity at the period of 35 s. The shooting

  17. Shear-wave polarization analysis of the seismic swarm following the July 9th 1998 Faial (Azores) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, N. A.; Matias, L.; Tellez, J.; Senos, L.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores Islands, located at a tectonic triple Junction, geodynamically are a highly active place. The seismicity in this region occurs mainly in the form of two types of seismic swarms with tectonic and/or volcanic origins, lasting from hours to years. In some cases the swarm follows a main stronger shock, while in others the more energetic event occurs sometime after the beginning of the swarm. In order to understand the complex phenomena of this region, a multidisciplinary approach is needed, involving geophysical, geological and geochemical studies such as the one being carried under the MASHA project (POCTI/CTA/39158/2001), On July 9th 1998 an Mw=6.2 earthquake stroked the island of Faial, in the central group of the Azores archipelago, followed by a seismic swarm still active today. We will present some preliminary results of the shear-wave polarization analysis of a selected dataset of events of this swarm. These correspond to the 112 best- constrained events, record during the first 2 weeks by the seismic network deployed on the 3 islands surrounding the area of the main shock. The objective was to analyse the behaviour of the S wave polarization and the eventual relationship with the presence of seismic anisotropy under the seismic stations, and to correlate this with the regional structure and origin of the Azores plateau. Two main tectonic features are observable on the islands, one primarily orientated SE-NW and the other crossing it roughly with the WNW-ESE direction. The polarization direction observed in the majority of the seismic stations is not stable, varying from SE-NW to WSW-ENE, and showing also the presence in same cases of shear-wave splitting, indicating the presence of anisotropy. Part of the polarization seems to be coherent with the direction of the local tectonic features, but its instability suggest a more complex seismic anisotropy than that proposed by the model EDA of Crampin. Furthermore, the dataset revealed some limitations to

  18. Imaging the Chicxulub central crater zone from large scale seismic acoustic wave propagation and gravity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Martin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Large complex craters are characterized by central uplifts that represent large-scale differential movement of deep basement from the transient cavity. Here we investigate the central sector of the large multiring Chicxulub crater, which has been surveyed by an array of marine, aerial and land-borne geophysical methods. Despite high contrasts in physical properties,contrasting results for the central uplift have been obtained, with seismic reflection surveys showing lack of resolution in the central zone. We develop an integrated seismic and gravity model for the main structural elements, imaging the central basement uplift and melt and breccia units. The 3-D velocity model built from interpolation of seismic data is validated using perfectly matched layer seismic acoustic wave propagation modeling, optimized at grazing incidence using shift in the frequency domain. Modeling shows significant lack of illumination in the central sector, masking presence of the central uplift. Seismic energy remains trapped in an upper low velocity zone corresponding to the sedimentary infill, melt/breccias and surrounding faulted blocks. After conversion of seismic velocities into a volume of density values, we use massive parallel forward gravity modeling to constrain the size and shape of the central uplift that lies at 4.5 km depth, providing a high-resolution image of crater structure.The Bouguer anomaly and gravity response of modeled units show asymmetries, corresponding to the crater structure and distribution of post-impact carbonates, breccias, melt and target sediments

  19. The forecast of mining-induced seismicity and the consequent risk of damage to the excavation in the area of seismic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzewiecki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Mining Institute has developed a method for forecasting the amount of seismic energy created by tremors induced by mining operations. The results of geophysical measurements of S wave velocity anomalies in a rock mass or the results of analytic calculations of the values of pressure on the horizon of the elastic layers are used in the process of calculating the energy. The calculation program which has been developed and adopted has been modified over recent years and it now enables not only the prediction of the energy of dynamic phenomena induced by mining but also the forecasting of the devastating range of seismic shock. The results obtained from this calculation, usually presented in a more readable graphic form, are useful for the macroscopic evaluation of locations that are potential sources of seismic energy. Forecasting of the maximum energy of seismic shock without prior knowledge of the location of the shock's source, does not allow shock attenuation that results from, for example, a distance of tremor source from the excavation which will be affected by seismic energy, to be taken into consideration. The phenomena of energy dissipation, which is taken into account in the forecasts, create a new quality of assessment of threat to the excavation. The paper presents the principle of a method of forecasting the seismic energy of a shock and the risk of damage to the excavation as a result of the impact of its energy wave. The solution assumes that the source of the energy shock is a resilient layer in which the sum of the gravitational stresses, resulting from natural disturbances and those induced by the conducted or planned mining exploitation, is estimated. The proposed solution assumes a spherical model for the tremor source, for which seismic energy is forecasted as a function of the longwall advance and the elementary value of seismic energy destroying the excavation. Subsequently, the following are calculated for the

  20. Seismic waves at the epicenter's antipode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rial, J.A.; Cormier, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    The antipodal region (178 0 0 ) of a seismic wave source is investigated in detail and shown to provide a new set of remarkable data to use in the exploration of the earth's interior. Body and surface waves converge individually at antipodal distances after having sampled laterally the totality of the planet. The waves are focused and strongly amplified up to 1 order of magnitude with respect to the normal phase recorded 2 0 or more away. The delicate interference patterns thus formed yield information on departures from lateral homogeneity and sphericity of the core and mantle, the structure of the inner core, global dissipation characteristics of the upper mantle, and provide strong constraints on earth models. Seismograms have been synthesized that closely reproduce the phases P/sub diff/, PKIKP, PKIIKP, PKP(BC), PKP, and PP observed at World-Wide Standard Seismographic Network long-period instruments located within 5 0 from the antipode of the New Zealand Inangahua earthquake of May 23, 1968. Preliminary results indicate that the lower mantle and upper core are laterally homogeneous as seen by 15-s waves, but the core-mantle boundary region is probably laterally inhomogeneous. The inner core--outer core boundary appears to be a sharp transition with a P wave velocity jump of the order of 0.8 km/s. The resolution of the long-period data is poor, but the potential richness of the method when better data sets are available strongly motivated the investigation. Suggested future lines of research using antipodal observations include monitoring of inner core phases, study of focal processes of large earthquakes, and the exploration of planetary interiors

  1. Non-periodic homogenization of 3-D elastic media for the seismic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupillard, Paul; Capdeville, Yann

    2018-05-01

    Because seismic waves have a limited frequency spectrum, the velocity structure of the Earth that can be extracted from seismic records has a limited resolution. As a consequence, one obtains smooth images from waveform inversion, although the Earth holds discontinuities and small scales of various natures. Within the last decade, the non-periodic homogenization method shed light on how seismic waves interact with small geological heterogeneities and `see' upscaled properties. This theory enables us to compute long-wave equivalent density and elastic coefficients of any media, with no constraint on the size, the shape and the contrast of the heterogeneities. In particular, the homogenization leads to the apparent, structure-induced anisotropy. In this paper, we implement this method in 3-D and show 3-D tests for the very first time. The non-periodic homogenization relies on an asymptotic expansion of the displacement and the stress involved in the elastic wave equation. Limiting ourselves to the order 0, we show that the practical computation of an upscaled elastic tensor basically requires (i) to solve an elastostatic problem and (ii) to low-pass filter the strain and the stress associated with the obtained solution. The elastostatic problem consists in finding the displacements due to local unit strains acting in all directions within the medium to upscale. This is solved using a parallel, highly optimized finite-element code. As for the filtering, we rely on the finite-element quadrature to perform the convolution in the space domain. We end up with an efficient numerical tool that we apply on various 3-D models to test the accuracy and the benefit of the homogenization. In the case of a finely layered model, our method agrees with results derived from Backus. In a more challenging model composed by a million of small cubes, waveforms computed in the homogenized medium fit reference waveforms very well. Both direct phases and complex diffracted waves are

  2. WAVE EQUATION DATUMING TO CORRECT TOPOGRAPHY EFFECT ON FOOTHILL SEISMIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Vides Luis Alfredo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The current seismic processing applies Static Corrections to overcome the effects associated to rough topography, based in the assumption that velocity in near surface is lower than in the substratum, which force going up rays travel near to vertical. However, when the velocity contrast between these layers is not large enough, the trajectory of the up going rays deviate from vertical raveling the reflectors erroneously. A better alternative to correct this is to continue the wave field to a datum, because it does not assume vertical ray trajectory and solves the acoustic wave equation to extrapolate sources and receivers. The Kirchhoff approach was tested in synthetic shots continuing their wave field to a datum and finally it was applied instead of Static Corrections in real data acquired in foothill zones. First shot and receiver gathers were downward continued to the base of weathering layer and later upward continued to a final flat datum. Comparing the obtained results we observed that continuation approach provides a noticeable enhancement of reflectors in seismic records, displaying a better continuity of the reflectors and an increment in frequency content.

  3. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  4. The Strain Energy, Seismic Moment and Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaru, G.

    2004-12-01

    The strain energy Est, as potential energy, released by an earthquake and the seismic moment Mo are two fundamental physical earthquake parameters. The earthquake rupture process ``represents'' the release of the accumulated Est. The moment Mo, first obtained in 1966 by Aki, revolutioned the quantification of earthquake size and led to the elimination of the limitations of the conventional magnitudes (originally ML, Richter, 1930) mb, Ms, m, MGR. Both Mo and Est, not in a 1-to-1 correspondence, are uniform measures of the size, although Est is presently less accurate than Mo. Est is partitioned in seismic- (Es), fracture- (Eg) and frictional-energy Ef, and Ef is lost as frictional heat energy. The available Est = Es + Eg (Aki and Richards (1980), Kostrov and Das, (1988) for fundamentals on Mo and Est). Related to Mo, Est and Es, several modern magnitudes were defined under various assumptions: the moment magnitude Mw (Kanamori, 1977), strain energy magnitude ME (Purcaru and Berckhemer, 1978), tsunami magnitude Mt (Abe, 1979), mantle magnitude Mm (Okal and Talandier, 1987), seismic energy magnitude Me (Choy and Boatright, 1995, Yanovskaya et al, 1996), body-wave magnitude Mpw (Tsuboi et al, 1998). The available Est = (1/2μ )Δ σ Mo, Δ σ ~=~average stress drop, and ME is % \\[M_E = 2/3(\\log M_o + \\log(\\Delta\\sigma/\\mu)-12.1) ,\\] % and log Est = 11.8 + 1.5 ME. The estimation of Est was modified to include Mo, Δ and μ of predominant high slip zones (asperities) to account for multiple events (Purcaru, 1997): % \\[E_{st} = \\frac{1}{2} \\sum_i {\\frac{1}{\\mu_i} M_{o,i} \\Delta\\sigma_i} , \\sum_i M_{o,i} = M_o \\] % We derived the energy balance of Est, Es and Eg as: % \\[ E_{st}/M_o = (1+e(g,s)) E_s/M_o , e(g,s) = E_g/E_s \\] % We analyzed a set of about 90 large earthquakes and found that, depending on the goal these magnitudes quantify differently the rupture process, thus providing complementary means of earthquake characterization. Results for some

  5. Detecting P and S-wave of Mt. Rinjani seismic based on a locally stationary autoregressive (LSAR) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhaida, Subanar, Abdurakhman, Abadi, Agus Maman

    2017-08-01

    Seismic data is usually modelled using autoregressive processes. The aim of this paper is to find the arrival times of the seismic waves of Mt. Rinjani in Indonesia. Kitagawa algorithm's is used to detect the seismic P and S-wave. Householder transformation used in the algorithm made it effectively finding the number of change points and parameters of the autoregressive models. The results show that the use of Box-Cox transformation on the variable selection level makes the algorithm works well in detecting the change points. Furthermore, when the basic span of the subinterval is set 200 seconds and the maximum AR order is 20, there are 8 change points which occur at 1601, 2001, 7401, 7601,7801, 8001, 8201 and 9601. Finally, The P and S-wave arrival times are detected at time 1671 and 2045 respectively using a precise detection algorithm.

  6. Mathematical modeling of seismic explosion waves impact on rock mass with a working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Господариков

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, within the framework of the dynamic theory of elasticity, a mathematical model of the impact of seismic blast waves on rock mass is presented, including a working. The increase in the volume of mining operations in complex mining and geological conditions, taking into account the influence of the explosion energy, is closely connected with the analysis of the main parameters of the stress-strain state of the rock massif including a working. The latter leads to the need to determine the safe parameters of drilling and blasting operations that ensure the operational state of mining. The main danger in detonation of an explosive charge near an active working is a seismic explosive wave which characteristics are determined by the properties of soil and parameters of drilling and blasting operations. The determination of stress fields and displacement velocities in rock mass requires the use of a modern mathematical apparatus for its solution. For numerical solution of the given boundary value problem by the method of finite differences, an original calculation-difference scheme is constructed. The application of the splitting method for solving a two-dimensional boundary value problem is reduced to the solution of spatially one-dimensional differential equations. For the obtained numerical algorithm, an effective computational software has been developed. Numerical solutions of the model problem are given for the case when the shape of the working has a form of an ellipse.

  7. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  8. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  9. Controlled-source seismic interferometry with one way wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Neut, J.; Wapenaar, K.; Thorbecke, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    In Seismic Interferometry we generally cross-correlate registrations at two receiver locations and sum over an array of sources to retrieve a Green's function as if one of the receiver locations hosts a (virtual) source and the other receiver location hosts an actual receiver. One application of this concept is to redatum an area of surface sources to a downhole receiver location, without requiring information about the medium between the sources and receivers, thus providing an effective tool for imaging below complex overburden, which is also known as the Virtual Source method. We demonstrate how elastic wavefield decomposition can be effectively combined with controlled-source Seismic Interferometry to generate virtual sources in a downhole receiver array that radiate only down- or upgoing P- or S-waves with receivers sensing only down- or upgoing P- or S- waves. For this purpose we derive exact Green's matrix representations from a reciprocity theorem for decomposed wavefields. Required is the deployment of multi-component sources at the surface and multi- component receivers in a horizontal borehole. The theory is supported with a synthetic elastic model, where redatumed traces are compared with those of a directly modeled reflection response, generated by placing active sources at the virtual source locations and applying elastic wavefield decomposition on both source and receiver side.

  10. Detection of sinkholes or anomalies using full seismic wave fields : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A new 2-D Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) software code was developed to characterize layering and anomalies beneath the ground surface using seismic testing. The software is capable of assessing the shear and compression wave velocities (Vs and Vp) fo...

  11. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T; Kozawa, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Earthquake Source Parameters Inferred from T-Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J.; Dziak, R.; Lau, T. A.; Matsumoto, H.; Goslin, J.

    2004-12-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic Ocean has been recorded by two networks of autonomous hydrophones moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). In February 1999, a consortium of U.S. investigators (NSF and NOAA) deployed a 6-element hydrophone array for long-term monitoring of MAR seismicity between 15o-35oN south of the Azores. In May 2002, an international collaboration of French, Portuguese, and U.S. researchers deployed a 6-element hydrophone array north of the Azores Plateau from 40o-50oN. The northern network (referred to as SIRENA) was recovered in September 2003. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation results in a detection threshold reduction from a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ˜ 4.7 for MAR events recorded by the land-based seismic networks to Mc=3.0 using hydrophone arrays. Detailed focal depth and mechanism information, however, remain elusive due to the complexities of seismo-acoustic propagation paths. Nonetheless, recent analyses (Dziak, 2001; Park and Odom, 2001) indicate fault parameter information is contained within the T-wave signal packet. We investigate this relationship further by comparing an earthquake's T-wave duration and acoustic energy to seismic magnitude (NEIC) and radiation pattern (for events M>5) from the Harvard moment-tensor catalog. First results show earthquake energy is well represented by the acoustic energy of the T-waves, however T-wave codas are significantly influenced by acoustic propagation effects and do not allow a direct determination of the seismic magnitude of the earthquakes. Second, there appears to be a correlation between T-wave acoustic energy, azimuth from earthquake source to the hydrophone, and the radiation pattern of the earthquake's SH waves. These preliminary results indicate there is a relationship between the T-wave observations and earthquake source parameters, allowing for additional insights into T-wave

  13. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Self-Assembling Sup-porosity: The Effect On Fluid Flow And Seismic Wave Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J. [Purdue University

    2013-04-27

    Fractures and joints in the field often contain debris within the void spaces. Debris originates from many different mechanisms: organic and/or inorganic chemical reactions/mineralization, sediment transport, formation of a fracture, mechanical weathering or combinations of these processes. In many cases, the presence of debris forms a sub-porosity within the fracture void space. This sub-porosity often is composed of material that differs from the fracture walls in mineralogy and morphology. The sub-porosity may partially fill voids that are on the order of hundreds of microns and thereby reduce the local porosity to lengths scales on the order of sub-microns to tens of microns. It is quite clear that a sub-porosity affects fracture porosity, permeability and storativity. What is not known is how the existence/formation of a sub-porosity affects seismic wave propagation and consequently our ability to probe changes in the subsurface caused by the formation or alteration of a sub-porosity. If seismic techniques are to be developed to monitor the injection and containment of phases in sequestration reservoirs or the propping of hydraulically induced fracture to enhance oil & gas production, it is important to understand how a sub-porosity within a fracture affects macroscopic seismic and hydraulic measurements. A sub-porosity will directly affect the interrelationship between the seismic and hydraulic properties of a fracture. This reports contains the results of the three main topics of research that were performed (1) to determine the effect of a sub-porosity composed of spherical grains on seismic wave propagation across fractures, (2) to determine the effect of biofilm growth in pores and between grains on seismic wave propagation in sediment, and (3) to determine the effect of the scale of observation (field-of-view) on monitoring alteration the pore space within a fracture caused by reactive flow. A brief summary of the results for each topic is contained in

  15. Characterization of rotary-percussion drilling as a seismic-while-drilling source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingjian; Hurich, Charles; Butt, Stephen D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of rotary-percussion drilling (RPD) as a seismic source. Two field experiments were conducted to characterize seismic sources from different rocks with different strengths, i.e. weak shale and hard arkose. Characterization of RPD sources consist of spectral analysis and mean power measurements, along with field measurements of the source radiation patterns. Spectral analysis shows that increase of rock strength increases peak frequency and widens bandwidth, which makes harder rock more viable for seismic-while-drilling purposes. Mean power analysis infers higher magnitude of body waves in RPD than in conventional drillings. Within the horizontal plane, the observed P-wave energy radiation pattern partially confirms the theoretical radiation pattern under a single vertical bit vibration. However a horizontal lobe of energy is observed close to orthogonal to the axial bit vibration. From analysis, this lobe is attributed to lateral bit vibration, which is not documented elsewhere during RPD. Within the horizontal plane, the observed radiation pattern of P-waves is generally consistent with a spherically-symmetric distribution of energy. In addition, polarization analysis is conducted on P-waves recorded at surface geophones for understanding the particle motions. P-wave particle motions are predominantly in the vertical direction showing the interference of the free-surface.

  16. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic

  17. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  18. Anatomy of the high-frequency ambient seismic wave field at the TCDP borehole.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillers , Gregor; Campillo , Michel; Lin , Y.-Y.; Ma , K.F.; Roux , Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) installed a vertical seismic array between 950 and 1270 m depth in an active thrust fault environment. In this paper we analyze continuous noise records of the TCDP array between 1 and 16 Hz. We apply multiple array processing and noise correlation techniques to study the noise source process, properties of the propagation medium, and the ambient seismic wave field. Diurnal amplitude and slowness patterns suggest that ...

  19. A Full-Wave Seismic Tomography for the Crustal Structure in the Metropolitan Beijing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The greater Beijing metropolitan region is located in an old cratonic block in northeast China with complex geology and several large historic earthquakes, such as the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (~M8.0) in 1679, the Xingtai earthquake (M7.2) in 1966, and the Tangshan earthquake (M7.8) in 1976. To enhance our understanding of the crustal structure and the seismotectonics under this region, we conduct a full-wave three-dimensional (3D) tomographic study of this region using the waveforms recorded by the newly established Beijing metropolitan digital seismic network. Since the Beijing network was put into operation in October 2001, there have been 89 local earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 and above. From these, we selected 23 events of magnitude 3.2 and above and obtained their waveform records at 50 stations within our area of interest. The types of instruments at these stations include broadband, short-period and very broadband. First-motion focal mechanisms were determined for these events. We used a regional 3D model obtained by seismic reflection surveys as the reference model and calculated the synthetic seismograms by the finite-difference method. In this first attempt at finite- frequency tomography for the Beijing region, we focus on the variation of the P-wave speed using the first- arriving P waves. We measure the frequency-dependent traveltime anomalies of the P waves by the cross- correlation between observed and synthetic P waveforms within several discrete frequency bands between 20-sec and 5-sec periods. The sensitivity or Frechet kernels of these measurements for the perturbations in P-wave speed were computed by the same finite-difference method. We will present the preliminary result in our full-wave seismic tomography for the Beijing region.

  20. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  1. Field test investigation of high sensitivity fiber optic seismic geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Shujuan; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Zhong; Hao, Guanghu

    2017-10-01

    Seismic reflection, whose measured signal is the artificial seismic waves ,is the most effective method and widely used in the geophysical prospecting. And this method can be used for exploration of oil, gas and coal. When a seismic wave travelling through the Earth encounters an interface between two materials with different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy will reflect off the interface and some will refract through the interface. At its most basic, the seismic reflection technique consists of generating seismic waves and measuring the time taken for the waves to travel from the source, reflect off an interface and be detected by an array of geophones at the surface. Compared to traditional geophones such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas geophone, optical fiber geophones have many advantages. Optical fiber geophones can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. With the development of fiber grating sensor technology, fiber bragg grating (FBG) is being applied in seismic exploration and draws more and more attention to its advantage of anti-electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and insensitivity to meteorological conditions. In this paper, we designed a high sensitivity geophone and tested its sensitivity, based on the theory of FBG sensing. The frequency response range is from 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the acceleration of the fiber optic seismic geophone is over 1000pm/g. sixteen-element fiber optic seismic geophone array system is presented and the field test is performed in Shengli oilfield of China. The field test shows that: (1) the fiber optic seismic geophone has a higher sensitivity than the traditional geophone between 1-100 Hz;(2) The low frequency reflection wave continuity of fiber Bragg grating geophone is better.

  2. Explosion-produced ground motion: technical summary with respect to seismic hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, Howard C [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    This paper summarizes the present technical knowledge, experimental and theoretical, of how underground nuclear explosions produce seismic motion that may be a hazard at distances measured in tens of kilometers. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties (at the explosion, along the signal propagation path, and at the site where a hazard may exist) on the ground motion are described in detail, and some consideration is given to the relation between ground motion and damage criteria. The energy released in a nuclear explosion is sufficient to vaporize the explosive and to generate an intense shock wave that is propagated outward into the surrounding rock. Part of the energy transported by the shock wave is dissipated in the shocked material. The shock wave strength decreases with distance from the center of the explosion as a consequence of this energy loss and because of geometric (approximately spherical) divergence. The dissipated energy fraction ranges from over 95% (for competent rocks like granite) to over 99% (for crushable, porous rocks like alluvium) of the explosion yield. Therefore, the energy fraction that is radiated in the form of seismic waves ranges from a few percent down to a few tenths of a percent. This is consistent with the observation that explosions in granite produce more severe ground motion than corresponding explosions in alluvium. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties on the frequency spectrum of the seismic source function are demonstrated by both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The characteristics of an ideal elastic medium are such that its frequency response is that of a low-pass filter, with its cutoff frequency being a function of the elastic properties of the material and the radius at which the explosion-produced stress wave becomes elastic. There is further frequency- and distance-dependent attenuation (especially of the higher frequencies) of the seismic waves, because rocks are not

  3. Explosion-produced ground motion: technical summary with respect to seismic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, Howard C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present technical knowledge, experimental and theoretical, of how underground nuclear explosions produce seismic motion that may be a hazard at distances measured in tens of kilometers. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties (at the explosion, along the signal propagation path, and at the site where a hazard may exist) on the ground motion are described in detail, and some consideration is given to the relation between ground motion and damage criteria. The energy released in a nuclear explosion is sufficient to vaporize the explosive and to generate an intense shock wave that is propagated outward into the surrounding rock. Part of the energy transported by the shock wave is dissipated in the shocked material. The shock wave strength decreases with distance from the center of the explosion as a consequence of this energy loss and because of geometric (approximately spherical) divergence. The dissipated energy fraction ranges from over 95% (for competent rocks like granite) to over 99% (for crushable, porous rocks like alluvium) of the explosion yield. Therefore, the energy fraction that is radiated in the form of seismic waves ranges from a few percent down to a few tenths of a percent. This is consistent with the observation that explosions in granite produce more severe ground motion than corresponding explosions in alluvium. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties on the frequency spectrum of the seismic source function are demonstrated by both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The characteristics of an ideal elastic medium are such that its frequency response is that of a low-pass filter, with its cutoff frequency being a function of the elastic properties of the material and the radius at which the explosion-produced stress wave becomes elastic. There is further frequency- and distance-dependent attenuation (especially of the higher frequencies) of the seismic waves, because rocks are not

  4. Effect of Vertically Propagating Shear Waves on Seismic Behavior of Circular Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Akhlaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes the ovaling deformations of circular tunnels to develop, resulting in a distortion of the cross sectional shape of the tunnel lining. In this paper, seismic behavior of circular tunnels has been investigated due to propagation of shear waves in the vertical direction using quasi-static analytical approaches as well as numerical methods. Analytical approaches are based on the closed-form solutions which compute the forces in the lining due to equivalent static ovaling deformations, while the numerical method carries out dynamic, nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis. Based on comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solutions are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the axial forces determined using the analytical approaches are in acceptable agreement with numerical analysis results, while the computed bending moments are less comparable and show significant discrepancies. The differences between the analytical approaches are also investigated and addressed.

  5. Study on Seismic Behavior of Recycled Concrete Energy-efficient Homes Structure Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point is to study the seismic behavior of the lattice type recycled concrete energy saving wall under low-cyclic loading,to provide the basis for the seismic performance of application of recycled concrete lattice wall in energy-saving residential structure. Design two walls with the same structure measures, include Lattice type recycled concrete wall and natural concrete wall, they are tested under low-cycle repetitive loading, compared failure mode and seismic performance in different reinforcement conditions of side column. The bearing capacity and ductility of recycled aggregate concrete are better than natural aggregate concrete, The stiffness degradation curves and the skeleton curves of the walls are basically the same, both of them have better seismic energy dissipation capacity. Lattice type concrete wall is good at seismic performance, recycled aggregate concrete is good at plastic deformation ability, it is advantageous to seismic energy dissipation of wall, it can be applied in energy efficient residential structure wall.

  6. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  7. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Métivier, L., E-mail: ludovic.metivier@ujf-grenoble.fr [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Brossier, R. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Labbé, S. [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Operto, S. [Géoazur, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, IRD, OCA, Villefranche-sur-Mer (France); Virieux, J. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2014-12-15

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  8. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labbé, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2014-01-01

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped

  9. Introducing wave energy into the renewable energy marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroncini, S.; Yemm, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The energy sector in Europe is going through a dynamic evolution that sees the introduction and development of renewable energy and the re-emergence of a wave energy industry. Although wave energy is currently not economically competitive with mature technologies such as wind energy, the wave energy world-wide resource of 2 TW has a potential contribution in the electricity market of 2000TWh/year. Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, Norway and the UK have been analysed in terms of wave energy resources, renewable energy market structure and political and economic support for the introduction of wave energy into the marketplace. The results have been used together with Ocean Power Delivery Ltd to develop an initial market survey for the wave energy converter Pelamis. (au)

  10. Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.

  11. Making the most of CZ seismics: Improving shallow critical zone characterization using surface-wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Wang, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Bodet, L.; Carr, B.; Flinchum, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating porosity and saturation in the shallow subsurface over large lateral scales is vitally important for understanding the development and evolution of the Critical Zone (CZ). Because elastic properties (P- and S-wave velocities) are particularly sensitive to porosity and saturation, seismic methods (in combination with petrophysical models) are effective tools for mapping CZ architecture and processes. While many studies employ P-wave refraction methods, fewer use the surface waves that are typically also recorded in those same surveys. Here we show the value of exploiting surface waves to extract supplementary shear-wave velocity (Vs) information in the CZ. We use a new, user-friendly, open-source MATLAB-based package (SWIP) to invert surface-wave data and estimate lateral variations of Vs in the CZ. Results from synthetics show that this approach enables the resolution of physical property variations in the upper 10-15 m below the surface with lateral scales of about 5 m - a vast improvement compared to P-wave tomography alone. A field example at a Yellowstone hydrothermal system also demonstrates the benefits of including Vs in the petrophysical models to estimate not only porosity but also saturation, thus highlighting subsurface gas pathways. In light of these results, we strongly suggest that surface-wave analysis should become a standard approach in CZ seismic surveys.

  12. Shear-wave velocity of marine sediments offshore Taiwan using ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tse; Lin, Jing-Yi; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Yeh, Yi-Chin; Cheng, Win-Bin

    2017-04-01

    Seismic ambient noise technology has many advantages over the traditional two-station method. The most important one is that noise is happening all the time and it can be widely and evenly distributed. Thus, the Green's Function of any station pair can be obtained through the data cross-correlation process. Many related studies have been performed to estimate the velocity structures based on the inland area. Only a few studies were reported for the marine area due to the relatively shorter recording time of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployment and the high cost of the marine experiment. However, the understanding about the shear-wave velocity (Vs) of the marine sediments is very crucial for the hazard assessment related to submarine landslides, particularly with the growing of submarine resources exploration. In this study, we applied the ambient noise technique to four OBS seismic networks located offshore Taiwan in the aim of getting more information about the noise sources and having the preliminary estimation for the Vs of the marine sediments. Two of the seismic networks were deployed in the NE part of Taiwan, near the Ryukyu subduction system, whereas the others were in the SW area, on the continental margin rich in gas hydrate. Generally, ambient seismic noise could be associated with wind, ocean waves, rock fracturing and anthropogenic activity. In the southwestern Taiwan, the cross-correlation function obtained from two seismic networks indicate similar direction, suggestion that the source from the south part of the network could be the origin of the noise. However, the two networks in the northeastern Taiwan show various source direction, which could be caused by the abrupt change of bathymetry or the volcanic degassing effect frequently observed by the marine geophysical method in the area. The Vs determined from the dispersion curve shows a relatively higher value for the networks in the Okinawa Trough (OT) off NE Taiwan than that in the

  13. Seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous multiphasic media: numerical modelling, sensibility and inversion of poro-elastic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, B.

    2011-11-01

    Seismic wave propagation in multiphasic porous media have various environmental (natural risks, geotechnics, groundwater pollutions...) and resources (aquifers, oil and gas, CO 2 storage...) issues. When seismic waves are crossing a given material, they are distorted and thus contain information on fluid and solid phases. This work focuses on the characteristics of seismic waves propagating in multiphasic media, from the physical complex description to the parameter characterisation by inversion, including 2D numerical modelling of the wave propagation. The first part consists in the description of the physics of multiphasic media (each phase and their interactions), using several up-scaling methods, in order to obtain an equivalent mesoscale medium defined by seven parameters. Thus, in simple porosity saturated media and in complex media (double porosity, patchy saturation, visco-poro-elasticity), I can compute seismic wave propagation without any approximation. Indeed, I use a frequency-space domain for the numerical method, which allows to consider all the frequency dependent terms. The spatial discretization employs a discontinuous finite elements method (discontinuous Galerkin), which allows to take into account complex interfaces.The computation of the seismic attributes (velocities and attenuations) of complex porous media shows strong variations in respect with the frequency. Waveforms, computed without approximation, are strongly different if we take into account the full description of the medium or an homogenisation by averages. The last part of this work deals with the poro-elastic parameters characterisation by inversion. For this, I develop a two-steps method: the first one consists in a classical inversion (tomography, full waveform inversion) of seismograms data to obtain macro-scale parameters (seismic attributes). The second step allows to recover, from the macro-scale parameters, the poro-elastic micro-scale properties. This down-scaling step

  14. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres

    1995-04-01

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  15. A Study on distinguishing seismic waves caused by natural earthquakes and underground nuclear explosion within North Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premlet, B.; Sabu, S.; Kamarudheen, R.; Subair, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first nuclear test on 15 July 1945 , there have been over 2,051 other weapon tests around the world . The waveforms of a natural earthquake which generates strong S waves and an underground explosion which is dominated by P waves were distinguished from the analysis of data corresponding to a 2005 M5.0 Earthquake and a 2016 North Korean nuclear test , both at similar distances from seismometer . Further differences between the seismograms were evaluated and successfully distinguished between the origins of the elastic waves through the data using Moment Tensor Solution using stations BJT , HIA and INCN . North Korea has developed a nuclear fuel cycle capability and has both plutonium and enriched uranium programs at Pyongyang . Seismic recordings of vertical ground motion at Global Seismographic Network station IC.MDJ of the 4 seismic events at Punggye-ri , North Korea , which occurred on the 9th of October 2006 , 25th of May 2009, 12th of February 2013 and on the 6th of January and 9th of September , 2016 were examined and the P waves of these seismic waves , which show very similar wave form , were inspected and compared to the seismic data of the latest underground nuclear test on the 3rd of September 2017 at 03:30 UTC at the same site which is many times more powerful than the previous tests . The country , which is the only nation to have tested nuclear weapons in this millennium , has successfully prevented the release of radioactive isotopes and hampered data collection but further studies were done using acoustic data which was analysed from sonograms of the 4 North Korean tests at station MDJ. The latest explosion data from 3rd September was also compared to 42 presumed underground explosions which occurred in China , India , the U.S.S.R , Iran , Turkey and recorded at Arkansas Seismic Network.

  16. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  17. Understanding the seismic wave propagation inside and around an underground cavity from a 3D numerical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as "resonance seismometry" - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and so far, there are only very few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in numerical modeling of wave propagation problems. Our numerical study includes the full elastic wave field in three dimensions. We consider the effects from an incoming plane wave as well as point source located in the surrounding of the cavity at the surface. While the former can be considered as passive source like a tele-seismic earthquake, the latter represents a man-made explosion or a viborseis as used for/in active seismic techniques. Further we want to demonstrate the specific characteristics of the scattered wave field from a P-waves and S-wave separately. For our simulations in 3D we use the discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Element Code SPEED developed by MOX (The Laboratory for Modeling and Scientific Computing, Department of Mathematics) and DICA (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) at the Politecnico di Milano. The computations are carried out on the Vienna Scientific Cluster (VSC). The accurate numerical modeling can facilitate the development of proper analysis techniques to detect the remnants of an

  18. Duration of Tsunami Generation Longer than Duration of Seismic Wave Generation in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, S.; Korenaga, M.; Kawaji, K.; Akiyama, S.

    2013-12-01

    We try to compare and evaluate the nature of tsunami generation and seismic wave generation in occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (hereafter, called as TOH11), in terms of two type of moment rate functions, inferred from finite source imaging of tsunami waveforms and seismic waveforms. Since 1970's, the nature of "tsunami earthquakes" has been discussed in many researches (e.g. Kanamori, 1972; Kanamori and Kikuchi, 1993; Kikuchi and Kanamori, 1995; Ide et al., 1993; Satake, 1994) mostly based on analysis of seismic waveform data , in terms of the "slow" nature of tsunami earthquakes (e.g., the 1992 Nicaragura earthquake). Although TOH11 is not necessarily understood as a tsunami earthquake, TOH11 is one of historical earthquakes that simultaneously generated large seismic waves and tsunami. Also, TOH11 is one of earthquakes which was observed both by seismic observation network and tsunami observation network around the Japanese islands. Therefore, for the purpose of analyzing the nature of tsunami generation, we try to utilize tsunami waveform data as much as possible. In our previous studies of TOH11 (Fujihara et al., 2012a; Fujihara et al., 2012b), we inverted tsunami waveforms at GPS wave gauges of NOWPHAS to image the spatio-temporal slip distribution. The "temporal" nature of our tsunami source model is generally consistent with the other tsunami source models (e.g., Satake et al, 2013). For seismic waveform inversion based on 1-D structure, here we inverted broadband seismograms at GSN stations based on the teleseismic body-wave inversion scheme (Kikuchi and Kanamori, 2003). Also, for seismic waveform inversion considering the inhomogeneous internal structure, we inverted strong motion seismograms at K-NET and KiK-net stations, based on 3-D Green's functions (Fujihara et al., 2013a; Fujihara et al., 2013b). The gross "temporal" nature of our seismic source models are generally consistent with the other seismic source models (e.g., Yoshida et al

  19. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  20. Assessment of dynamic material properties of intact rocks using seismic wave attenuation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanniarachchi, W A M; Ranjith, P G; Perera, M S A; Rathnaweera, T D; Lyu, Q; Mahanta, B

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical properties of any substance are essential facts to understand its behaviour and make the maximum use of the particular substance. Rocks are indeed an important substance, as they are of significant use in the energy industry, specifically for fossil fuels and geothermal energy. Attenuation of seismic waves is a non-destructive technique to investigate mechanical properties of reservoir rocks under different conditions. The attenuation characteristics of five different rock types, siltstone, shale, Australian sandstone, Indian sandstone and granite, were investigated in the laboratory using ultrasonic and acoustic emission instruments in a frequency range of 0.1-1 MHz. The pulse transmission technique and spectral ratios were used to calculate the attenuation coefficient ( α ) and quality factor ( Q ) values for the five selected rock types for both primary ( P ) and secondary ( S ) waves, relative to the reference steel sample. For all the rock types, the attenuation coefficient was linearly proportional to the frequency of both the P and S waves. Interestingly, the attenuation coefficient of granite is more than 22% higher than that of siltstone, sandstone and shale for both P and S waves. The P and S wave velocities were calculated based on their recorded travel time, and these velocities were then used to calculate the dynamic mechanical properties including elastic modulus ( E ), bulk modulus ( K ), shear modulus ( µ ) and Poisson's ratio ( ν ). The P and S wave velocities for the selected rock types varied in the ranges of 2.43-4.61 km s -1 and 1.43-2.41 km h -1 , respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the P wave velocity was always greater than the S wave velocity, and this confirmed the first arrival of P waves to the sensor. According to the experimental results, the dynamic E value is generally higher than the static E value obtained by unconfined compressive strength tests.

  1. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  2. Rayleigh wave tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    2008/2009 The theory and methodology of ambient noise tomography has been studied and applied to North-China successfully. Continuous vertical-component seismograms, spanning the period from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 recorded by 190 broadband stations and 10 very broadband stations, have been used. The cross correlation technique has been applied to ambient noise data recorded by North-China Seismic Array for each station pairs of the array. Rayleigh wave group ve...

  3. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  4. Improved surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi-dimensional deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; Ruigrok, Elmer; van der Neut, Joost; Draganov, Deyan

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function. A point-spread function, derived from the same ambient noise field, quantifies the smearing in space and time of the virtual source of the Green's function. By multidimensionally deconvolving the retrieved Green's function by the point-spread function, the virtual source becomes better focussed in space and time and hence the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function may improve significantly. We illustrate this at the hand of a numerical example and discuss the advantages and limitations of this new methodology.

  5. Simulation of seismic waves in the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) using a Burgers model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Carcione, José Maria

    2014-05-01

    The seismic characterization of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Earth's crust is of great importance for the study of high-enthalpy geothermal fields in the proximity of magmatic zones. It is well known that the BDT can be viewed as the transition between zones with viscoelastic and plastic behavior, i.e., the transition between the upper, cooler, brittle crustal zone, and the deeper ductile zone. Depending on stress and temperature conditions, the BDT behavior is basically determined by the viscosity of the crustal rocks, which acts as a key factor. In situ shear stress and temperature are related to shear viscosity and steady-state creep flow through the Arrhenius equation, and deviatory stress by octahedral stress criterion. We present a numerical approach to simulate the propagation of P-S and SH seismic waves in a 2D model of the heterogeneous Earth's crust. The full-waveform simulation code is based on a Burgers mechanical model (Carcione, 2007), which enables us to describe both the seismic attenuation effects and the steady-state creep flow (Carcione and Poletto, 2013; Carcione et al. 2013). The differential equations of motion are calculated for the Burgers model, and recast in the velocity-stress formulation. Equations are solved in the time domain using memory variables. The approach uses a direct method based on the Runge-Kutta technique, and the Fourier pseudo-spectral methods, for time integration and for spatial derivation, respectively. In this simulation we assume isotropic models. To test the code, the signals generated by the full-waveform simulation algorithm are compared with success to analytic solutions obtained with different shear viscosities. Moreover, synthetic results are calculated to simulate surface and VSP seismograms in a realistic rheological model with a dramatic temperature change, to study the observability of BDT by seismic reflection methods. The medium corresponds to a selected rheology of the Iceland scenario

  6. Passive monitoring of a sea dike during a tidal cycle using sea waves as a seismic noise source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Anaëlle; Feuvre, Mathieu Le; Cote, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Over the past decade, ambient seismic noise has been used successfully to monitor various geological objects with high accuracy. Recently, it has been shown that surface seismic waves propagating within a sea dike body can be retrieved from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise generated by sea waves. We use sea wave impacts to monitor the response of a sea dike during a tidal cycle using empirical Green's functions. These are obtained either by cross-correlation or deconvolution, from signals recorded by sensors installed linearly on the crest of a dike. Our analysis is based on delay and spectral amplitude measurements performed on reconstructed surface waves propagating along the array. We show that localized variations of velocity and attenuation are correlated with changes in water level as a probable consequence of water infiltration inside the structure. Sea dike monitoring is of critical importance for safety and economic reasons, as internal erosion is generally only detected at late stages by visual observations. The method proposed here may provide a solution for detecting structural weaknesses, monitoring progressive internal erosion, and delineating areas of interest for further geotechnical studies, in view to understanding the erosion mechanisms involved.

  7. Coupling Hydrodynamic and Wave Propagation Codes for Modeling of Seismic Waves recorded at the SPE Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. For this, the SPE program includes a strong modeling effort based on first principles calculations with the challenge to capture both the source and near-source processes and those taking place later in time as seismic waves propagate within complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of modeling that uses hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH) coupled with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. For modeling the near source region, we employ a fully-coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability with a new continuum-based visco-plastic fracture model for simulation of damage processes, called AZ_Frac. These capabilities produce high-fidelity models of various factors believed to be key in the generation of seismic waves: the explosion dynamics, a weak grout-filled borehole, the surrounding jointed rock, and damage creation and deformations happening around the source and the free surface. SPECFEM3D, based on the Spectral Element Method (SEM) is a direct numerical method for full wave modeling with mathematical accuracy. The coupling interface consists of a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated inside of the hydrodynamic code's domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed using output data from CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests with the Sharpe's model and comparisons of waveforms modeled with Rg waves (2-8Hz) that were recorded up to 2 km for SPE. We especially show effects of the local topography, velocity structure and spallation. Our models predict smaller amplitudes of Rg waves for the first five SPE shots compared to pure elastic models such as Denny &Johnson (1991).

  8. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  9. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and shallow mantle of the Central and Eastern United States by seismic surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred; Mooney, Walter D.

    2016-01-01

    Seismic surface waves from the Transportable Array of EarthScope's USArray are used to estimate phase velocity structure of 18 to 125 s Rayleigh waves, then inverted to obtain three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure of the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) down to ∼200 km. The obtained lithosphere structure confirms previously imaged CEUS features, e.g., the low seismic-velocity signature of the Cambrian Reelfoot Rift and the very low velocity at >150 km depth below an Eocene volcanic center in northwestern Virginia. New features include high-velocity mantle stretching from the Archean Superior Craton well into the Proterozoic terranes and deep low-velocity zones in central Texas (associated with the late Cretaceous Travis and Uvalde volcanic fields) and beneath the South Georgia Rift (which contains Jurassic basalts). Hot spot tracks may be associated with several imaged low-velocity zones, particularly those close to the former rifted Laurentia margin.

  10. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  11. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  12. Matrix Approach of Seismic Wave Imaging: Application to Erebus Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, T.; Chaput, J.; Derode, A.; Campillo, M.; Aubry, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work aims at extending to seismic imaging a matrix approach of wave propagation in heterogeneous media, previously developed in acoustics and optics. More specifically, we will apply this approach to the imaging of the Erebus volcano in Antarctica. Volcanoes are actually among the most challenging media to explore seismically in light of highly localized and abrupt variations in density and wave velocity, extreme topography, extensive fractures, and the presence of magma. In this strongly scattering regime, conventional imaging methods suffer from the multiple scattering of waves. Our approach experimentally relies on the measurement of a reflection matrix associated with an array of geophones located at the surface of the volcano. Although these sensors are purely passive, a set of Green's functions can be measured between all pairs of geophones from ice-quake coda cross-correlations (1-10 Hz) and forms the reflection matrix. A set of matrix operations can then be applied for imaging purposes. First, the reflection matrix is projected, at each time of flight, in the ballistic focal plane by applying adaptive focusing at emission and reception. It yields a response matrix associated with an array of virtual geophones located at the ballistic depth. This basis allows us to get rid of most of the multiple scattering contribution by applying a confocal filter to seismic data. Iterative time reversal is then applied to detect and image the strongest scatterers. Mathematically, it consists in performing a singular value decomposition of the reflection matrix. The presence of a potential target is assessed from a statistical analysis of the singular values, while the corresponding eigenvectors yield the corresponding target images. When stacked, the results obtained at each depth give a three-dimensional image of the volcano. While conventional imaging methods lead to a speckle image with no connection to the actual medium's reflectivity, our method enables to

  13. Waveguide Controls on Regional Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lay, Thorne

    2000-01-01

    One of the first-order challenges associated with non-proliferation monitoring is to understand short-period seismic wave energy partitioning for different sources in diverse geological environments...

  14. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-09-25

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  15. Interface waves propagating along tensile fractures in dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Elastic interface waves have been observed in induced tensile fractures in dolomite rock cores. Multiscaling wavelet analysis distinguishes the interface wave from bulk shear waves, quantifies the interface wave spectral content, and determines the arrival time of peak energy. The dominant seismic energy is concentrated in the slow interface wave, with little or no detectable energy in the fast wave. As stress across the fracture increases, the slow interface wave velocity increases, and the frequency of the spectral peak shifts to higher frequencies. The shear dynamic specific stiffness of the fracture was calculated from the peak energy arrival time as a function of stress. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Optimal wave focusing for seismic source imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Farhad

    In both global and exploration seismology, studying seismic sources provides geophysicists with invaluable insight into the physics of earthquakes and faulting processes. One way to characterize the seismic source is to directly image it. Time-reversal (TR) focusing provides a simple and robust solution to the source imaging problem. However, for recovering a well- resolved image, TR requires a full-aperture receiver array that surrounds the source and adequately samples the wavefield. This requirement often cannot be realized in practice. In most source imaging experiments, the receiver geometry, due to the limited aperture and sparsity of the stations, does not allow adequate sampling of the source wavefield. Incomplete acquisition and imbalanced illumination of the imaging target limit the resolving power of the TR process. The main focus of this thesis is to offer an alternative approach to source imaging with the goal of mitigating the adverse effects of incomplete acquisition on the TR modeling. To this end, I propose a new method, named Backus-Gilbert (BG) source imaging, to optimally focus the wavefield onto the source position using a given receiver geometry. I first introduce BG as a method for focusing waves in acoustic media at a desired location and time. Then, by exploiting the source-receiver reciprocity of the Green function and the linearity of the problem, I show that BG focusing can be adapted and used as a source-imaging tool. Following this, I generalize the BG theory for elastic waves. Applying BG formalism for source imaging requires a model for the wave propagation properties of the earth and an estimate of the source location. Using numerical tests, I next examine the robustness and sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to errors in the earth model, uncertainty in the source location, and noise in data. The BG method can image extended sources as well as point sources. It can also retrieve the source mechanism. These features of

  17. Modeling seismic wave propagation using staggered-grid mimetic finite differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freysimar Solano-Feo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic finite difference (MFD approximations of continuous gradient and divergence operators satisfy a discrete version of the Gauss-Divergence theorem on staggered grids. On the mimetic approximation of this integral conservation principle, an unique boundary flux operator is introduced that also intervenes on the discretization of a given boundary value problem (BVP. In this work, we present a second-order MFD scheme for seismic wave propagation on staggered grids that discretized free surface and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC with same accuracy order. This scheme is time explicit after coupling a central three-level finite difference (FD stencil for numerical integration. Here, we briefly discuss the convergence properties of this scheme and show its higher accuracy on a challenging test when compared to a traditional FD method. Preliminary applications to 2-D seismic scenarios are also presented and show the potential of the mimetic finite difference method.

  18. Correlation-based seismic velocity inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of the subsurface comes from the measurement of quantities that are indirectly related to the earth’s structure. Examples are seismic waves, gravity and electromagnetic waves. We consider the use of seismic waves for inference of structural information on an exploration scale.

  19. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....

  20. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...

  1. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  2. Composition and variation of noise recorded at the Yellowknife Seismic Array, 1991-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, K.D.; De Foy, B.; Benz, H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze seismic noise recorded on the 18 short-period, vertical component seismometers of the Yellowknife Seismic Array (YKA). YKA has an aperture of 23 km and is sited on cratonic lithosphere in an area with low cultural noise. These properties make it ideal for studying natural seismic noise at periods of 1-3 s. We calculated frequency-wave number spectra in this band for over 6,000 time windows that were extracted once per day for 17 years (1991-2007). Slowness analysis reveals a rich variety of seismic phases originating from distinct source regions: Rg waves from the Great Slave Lake; Lg waves from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans; and teleseismic P waves from the north Pacific and equatorial mid-Atlantic regions. The surface wave energy is generated along coastlines, while the body wave energy is generated at least in part in deep-water, pelagic regions. Surface waves tend to dominate at the longer periods and, just as in earthquake seismograms, Lg is the most prominent arrival. Although the periods we study are slightly shorter than the classic double-frequency microseismic band of 4-10 s, the noise at YKA has clear seasonal behavior that is consistent with the ocean wave climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The temporal variation of most of the noise sources can be well fit using just two Fourier components: yearly and biyearly terms that combine to give a fast rise in microseismic power from mid-June through mid-October, followed by a gradual decline. The exception is the Rg energy from the Great Slave Lake, which shows a sharp drop in noise power over a 2-week period in November as the lake freezes. The L g noise from the east has a small but statistically significant positive slope, perhaps implying increased ocean wave activity in the North Atlantic over the last 17 years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  4. Regional seismic-wave propagation from the M5.8 23 August 2011, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred; Mooney, Walter D.

    2015-01-01

    The M5.8 23 August 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was felt over nearly the entire eastern United States and was recorded by a wide array of seismic broadband instruments. The earthquake occurred ~200 km southeast of the boundary between two distinct geologic belts, the Piedmont and Blue Ridge terranes to the southeast and the Valley and Ridge Province to the northwest. At a dominant period of 3 s, coherent postcritical P-wave (i.e., direct longitudinal waves trapped in the crustal waveguide) arrivals persist to a much greater distance for propagation paths toward the northwest quadrant than toward other directions; this is probably related to the relatively high crustal thickness beneath and west of the Appalachian Mountains. The seismic surface-wave arrivals comprise two distinct classes: those with weakly dispersed Rayleigh waves and those with strongly dispersed Rayleigh waves. We attribute the character of Rayleigh wave arrivals in the first class to wave propagation through a predominantly crystalline crust (Blue Ridge Mountains and Piedmont terranes) with a relatively thin veneer of sedimentary rock, whereas the temporal extent of the Rayleigh wave arrivals in the second class are well explained as the effect of the thick sedimentary cover of the Valley and Ridge Province and adjacent Appalachian Plateau province to its northwest. Broadband surface-wave ground velocity is amplified along both north-northwest and northeast azimuths from the Mineral, Virginia, source. The former may arise from lateral focusing effects arising from locally thick sedimentary cover in the Appalachian Basin, and the latter may result from directivity effects due to a northeast rupture propagation along the finite fault plane.

  5. Seismic signature of turbulence during the 2017 Oroville Dam spillway erosion crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodling, Phillip J.; Lekic, Vedran; Prestegaard, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Knowing the location of large-scale turbulent eddies during catastrophic flooding events improves predictions of erosive scour. The erosion damage to the Oroville Dam flood control spillway in early 2017 is an example of the erosive power of turbulent flow. During this event, a defect in the simple concrete channel quickly eroded into a 47 m deep chasm. Erosion by turbulent flow is difficult to evaluate in real time, but near-channel seismic monitoring provides a tool to evaluate flow dynamics from a safe distance. Previous studies have had limited ability to identify source location or the type of surface wave (i.e., Love or Rayleigh wave) excited by different river processes. Here we use a single three-component seismometer method (frequency-dependent polarization analysis) to characterize the dominant seismic source location and seismic surface waves produced by the Oroville Dam flood control spillway, using the abrupt change in spillway geometry as a natural experiment. We find that the scaling exponent between seismic power and release discharge is greater following damage to the spillway, suggesting additional sources of turbulent energy dissipation excite more seismic energy. The mean azimuth in the 5-10 Hz frequency band was used to resolve the location of spillway damage. Observed polarization attributes deviate from those expected for a Rayleigh wave, though numerical modeling indicates these deviations may be explained by propagation up the uneven hillside topography. Our results suggest frequency-dependent polarization analysis is a promising approach for locating areas of increased flow turbulence. This method could be applied to other erosion problems near engineered structures as well as to understanding energy dissipation, erosion, and channel morphology development in natural rivers, particularly at high discharges.

  6. Seismic signature of turbulence during the 2017 Oroville Dam spillway erosion crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Goodling

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the location of large-scale turbulent eddies during catastrophic flooding events improves predictions of erosive scour. The erosion damage to the Oroville Dam flood control spillway in early 2017 is an example of the erosive power of turbulent flow. During this event, a defect in the simple concrete channel quickly eroded into a 47 m deep chasm. Erosion by turbulent flow is difficult to evaluate in real time, but near-channel seismic monitoring provides a tool to evaluate flow dynamics from a safe distance. Previous studies have had limited ability to identify source location or the type of surface wave (i.e., Love or Rayleigh wave excited by different river processes. Here we use a single three-component seismometer method (frequency-dependent polarization analysis to characterize the dominant seismic source location and seismic surface waves produced by the Oroville Dam flood control spillway, using the abrupt change in spillway geometry as a natural experiment. We find that the scaling exponent between seismic power and release discharge is greater following damage to the spillway, suggesting additional sources of turbulent energy dissipation excite more seismic energy. The mean azimuth in the 5–10 Hz frequency band was used to resolve the location of spillway damage. Observed polarization attributes deviate from those expected for a Rayleigh wave, though numerical modeling indicates these deviations may be explained by propagation up the uneven hillside topography. Our results suggest frequency-dependent polarization analysis is a promising approach for locating areas of increased flow turbulence. This method could be applied to other erosion problems near engineered structures as well as to understanding energy dissipation, erosion, and channel morphology development in natural rivers, particularly at high discharges.

  7. One-dimensional modeling of thermal energy produced in a seismic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konga, Guy Pascal; Koumetio, Fidèle; Yemele, David; Olivier Djiogang, Francis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, one observes an anomaly of temperature before a big earthquake. In this paper, we established the expression of thermal energy produced by friction forces between the walls of a seismic fault while considering the dynamic of a one-dimensional spring-block model. It is noted that, before the rupture of a seismic fault, displacements are caused by microseisms. The curves of variation of this thermal energy with time show that, for oscillatory and aperiodic displacement, the thermal energy is accumulated in the same way. The study reveals that thermal energy as well as temperature increases abruptly after a certain amount of time. We suggest that the corresponding time is the start of the anomaly of temperature observed which can be considered as precursory effect of a big seism. We suggest that the thermal energy can heat gases and dilate rocks until they crack. The warm gases can then pass through the cracks towards the surface. The cracks created by thermal energy can also contribute to the rupture of the seismic fault. We also suggest that the theoretical model of thermal energy, produced in seismic fault, associated with a large quantity of experimental data may help in the prediction of earthquakes.

  8. Seismic characterisation for geothermal energy prospecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, A.; Groot, P. de; Simmelink, E.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Willemsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The city of The Hague intends to use geothermal energy to heat approx. 4000 houses in a planned urban development area called The Hague South-West. This paper describes the application of advanced seismic interpretation workflows to help positioning a geothermal doublet consisting of one injector -

  9. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  10. Development of the Wave Energy Converter -Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    2Over the years wave energy has gradually been brought into focus, as it has become clear that the fossil energy resources are limited, and cause large environmental problems, e.g. CO2 pollution. On this background a number of different wave energy converters have been proposed. In Denmark the go...

  11. Dispersion calculation method based on S-transform and coordinate rotation for Love channel waves with two components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Zhang, Yugui

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion analysis is an important part of in-seam seismic data processing, and the calculation accuracy of the dispersion curve directly influences pickup errors of channel wave travel time. To extract an accurate channel wave dispersion curve from in-seam seismic two-component signals, we proposed a time-frequency analysis method based on single-trace signal processing; in addition, we formulated a dispersion calculation equation, based on S-transform, with a freely adjusted filter window width. To unify the azimuth of seismic wave propagation received by a two-component geophone, the original in-seam seismic data undergoes coordinate rotation. The rotation angle can be calculated based on P-wave characteristics, with high energy in the wave propagation direction and weak energy in the vertical direction. With this angle acquisition, a two-component signal can be converted to horizontal and vertical directions. Because Love channel waves have a particle vibration track perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, the signal in the horizontal and vertical directions is mainly Love channel waves. More accurate dispersion characters of Love channel waves can be extracted after the coordinate rotation of two-component signals.

  12. The seismic investigation of rock properties at the Carwynnen test mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, B.M.

    1984-11-01

    The research described follows on from the seismic velocity tomography carried out previously at this site and describes an attempt to map the rock mass in terms of its attenuative properties. This is done by comparison of the spectral distributions of energy within wave packets observed at various distances from numerous source locations. The method was not found sensitive to the variations in natural rock condition at this site as the spectra were dominated by the effects of man-made openings and rock damage which appeared to control the energy input/output transfer function at each location. The seismic shadow caused by the presence of a major void in the area was clearly identified and suggested that similar observations could considerably enhance the value of velocity tomography techniques. Shear and compressional wave velocities are used to obtain estimates of the dynamic elastic properties of the rock mass. Brief recommendations regarding future seismic research are given. (author)

  13. Shear-wave seismic reflection imaging and impedance inversion for a near-surface point-bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, N. W.; Morrison, M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Odom, B.; Clift, P. D.; Olson, E.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging and inversion of SH-waves are useful to detect, map, and quantitatively characterize near-surface point-bar strata. We conduct a horizontally-polarized (SH) reflection survey across and along a near-surface (9 - 40 m) downstream point-bar. We invert for shear-impedance profiles and correlate our interpretation to electrical conductivity (EC) logs in adjacent wells to study the internal architecture and lithology of point-bars. We acquire two common-midpoint (CMP) SH-wave seismic reflection lines at False River (Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana). A 104 m long seismic line (L1) is oriented orthogonal (NW - SE) to point-bar strike. A second line (L2) is 48 m long and set parallel to point-bar strike (NE - SW). Two EC wells lie 33 m apart. Both wells are parallel with respect to the L1 survey and offset from it by 15 m. EC log measurements range from 1 - 25 m depth. Interference of Love-waves prevents seismic imaging at depths less than 9 m. The L1 and L2 data sets are inverted for shear-impedance using a model-based band-limited impedance (BLIMP) algorithm that incorporates a low-frequency velocity model. This model is also used for the depthing processing. The L1 cross-section shows coherent dipping reflection events ( 4 - 7º) from 0.15 - 0.35 s (10 - 40 m). The corresponding shear-impedance profile also reveals coherent and dipping impedance contrasts that grow in magnitude with increasing depth. The L2 cross-section shows comparatively less dip ( 1º) as well as sharper and shallower continuity of reflection events (0.1 - 0.28 s TWT or 9 - 25 m). Depth-converted (TVD) seismic amplitudes and impedance values correlate to near-surface point-bar geology via superposition of log data. The first well (W5) shows distinct EC local maxima (+50 - 70 mS/m) at 14.5 and 15.5 m depth that correlate well with the seismic amplitudes and impedance values from both L1 and L2 data sets. The second well (W7) shows comparatively lower local maxima (+40 - 60 mS/m) but at greater

  14. Energy and polarization of the telluric field in correlation with seismic activity in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargemezis, G.; Tsokas, G. N. [Geophysical Laboratory of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zlotnicki, J. [Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2001-04-01

    Many attempts have been made to disclose anomalous changes of the electromagnetic field in relation with tectonic earthquakes. It was tentatively developed a new approach based on the energy and polarity of the electric field, and apply this method to the seismicity in Greece. The study of the parameters of the horizontal electric field is realized in a time interval of five years. The data allows the study of long-term variations of the field. Further, it was examined the possible relation of the geoelectric activity with long distance seismicity (up to 500 km). The energy of the electric signal was estimated and correlated with the logarithm of the seismic moment (M{sub 0}). The values of the seismic moment estimated for each earthquake were summed for daily intervals, and the logarithm of the sum was computed. The same process was applied to the energy of the geoelectric field. Then, a correlation was attempted between the energy of the geoelectric field and the seismic moment referring to daily intervals. In two cases, changes in the energy of the horizontal geoelectric field were observed before the burst of the seismic activity. The energy of the telluric field increased several months before the burst of seismic activity and recovered right after the occurrence of the mainshocks. The hodograms of the horizontal geoelectric field show polarization changes regardless of the magnetic field. This is possibly attributed to the process of generation of electric currents before major earthquakes. Due to high and continuous regional seismicity in Greece, it was impossible to attribute the response of the polarization to the activation of specific seismic areas. It seems that the long-term energy variations of the horizontal geoelectric field as well as the polarization could be used in tandem with other possible precursors in order to contribute to earthquake prediction studies.

  15. Relative abundance of PcP energy in explosion seismic signals from Eastern Kazakh and South Western Russia recorded at Eskdalemuir, Yellowknife and Gauribidanur arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, T.K.; Arora, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study further evidence of relative abundance of PcP (core reflected P) energy in explosion seismic records is gathered. It is based on the analysis of temporal and spectral characteristics of P and PcP digital seismograms of twenty-three underground nuclear explosions in Eastern Kazakh and Southern Russia recorded at Eskdalemuir (EKA) and Yellowkinfe (YKA) arrays. The results are compared with those obtained earlier using Gauribidanur array (GBA) data. It is found that seismic sources in Southwestern Russia give consistently large values of the PcP identifier when both EKA and YKA data are used thus corroborating authors' earlier finding with regard to this Soviet region of typical Q-structure inferred from GBA data. As regards relative levels of PcP energy in explosion generated seismic waves, it is found to be substantially large at GBA, moderate at YKA and least at EKA. (author). 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Seismic Shear Energy Reflection By Radon-Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Umairia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic waves split in an anisotropic medium, instead of rotating horizontal component to principal direction, Radon-Fourier is derived to observe the signature of shear wave reflection. Synthetic model with fracture is built and discretized using finite difference scheme for spatial and time domain. Common depth point (CDP with single shot gives traces and automatic gain is preprocessed before Radon Transform (RT, a filtering technique gives radon domain. It makes easier to observe fractures at specific incidence and improves its quality in some way by removing the noise. A comparison of synthetic data and BF-data is performed on the basis of root means square error (RMS values. The RMS error is minimum at the 10th trace in radon domain.

  17. Investigations of the low frequency seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances from the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances are used to characterize the source of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) and three selected nuclear explosions detonated in N-tunnel on Rainier Mesa. For periods longer than 5 sec, the signal-to-noise ratio is poor on most recordings of the NPE. A seismogram-stacking method is used in order to reduce background noise in coherent arrivals of Rayleigh waves. This method requires equalization of path dispersion and attenuation, which is accomplished in this study with empirical Green`s functions. The stacked, equalized Rayleigh-wave spectra are inverted, along with the spectral amplitudes of Lg waves with periods of 2-5 sec, for estimates of the seismic moment tensor. The NPE isotropic moment is 1.6 x 10{sup 14} Nt-m. The inferred static level of the reduced displacement potential is 825 m{sup 3}, which is about two times smaller than the estimate from free-field data recorded within 1 km of the NPE. Moment tensors of the NPE and nuclear explosions are asymmetric, describing prolate ellipsoids of rotation with the long axis in the vertical direction. The asymmetries are among the largest for explosions on Pahute and Rainier Mesa. The non-isotropic component is a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), which may represent driven block motions occurring within a conical volume of material extending from the shot point (apex) to the free surface. The CLVD source can help explain some observations of scalloping in the spectra of Lg waves and Lg spectral ratios. Seismic radiation from the NPE is virtually indistinguishable from that of nearby nuclear explosions for frequencies below 1 Hz.

  18. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Eli Joseph

    We present a single-station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 sec the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 sec, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher ( 2%) and significantly higher (>20%), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e., Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves.

  19. Wave energy : from demonstration to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Wave Energy Centre is a non-profit organization dedicated to the development and marketing of ocean wave energy devices through technical and strategic support to companies and research and development institutions. WEC provides access to researchers to associated test infrastructures for testing and demonstration of wave energy structures. This presentation described the current status of wave energy. Public policies that support wave energy were also highlighted. Wave energy technology is currently in the demonstration phase, with several pilot plants and prototypes in service around the world. The first 2 offshore shoreline ocean wave current pilot plants were constructed in 2000. This presentation identified the 12 near or offshore pilot plants that were in operation by 2007. The pilot plants represent 5 basic different concepts with many different designs. The world's first commercial park was launched in 2007 in Portugal. The Pelamis wave farm uses three Pelamis P-750 machines with a capacity of 2.25 megawatts. figs.

  20. OpenSWPC: an open-source integrated parallel simulation code for modeling seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Takemura, Shunsuke; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We have developed an open-source software package, Open-source Seismic Wave Propagation Code (OpenSWPC), for parallel numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in 3D and 2D (P-SV and SH) viscoelastic media based on the finite difference method in local-to-regional scales. This code is equipped with a frequency-independent attenuation model based on the generalized Zener body and an efficient perfectly matched layer for absorbing boundary condition. A hybrid-style programming using OpenMP and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is adopted for efficient parallel computation. OpenSWPC has wide applicability for seismological studies and great portability to allowing excellent performance from PC clusters to supercomputers. Without modifying the code, users can conduct seismic wave propagation simulations using their own velocity structure models and the necessary source representations by specifying them in an input parameter file. The code has various modes for different types of velocity structure model input and different source representations such as single force, moment tensor and plane-wave incidence, which can easily be selected via the input parameters. Widely used binary data formats, the Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) and the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) are adopted for the input of the heterogeneous structure model and the outputs of the simulation results, so users can easily handle the input/output datasets. All codes are written in Fortran 2003 and are available with detailed documents in a public repository.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    O'Boyle, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Whittaker, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An ...

  2. The Gassmann-Burgers Model to Simulate Seismic Waves at the Earth Crust And Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Craglietto, Aronne

    2017-03-01

    The upper part of the crust shows generally brittle behaviour while deeper zones, including the mantle, may present ductile behaviour, depending on the pressure-temperature conditions; moreover, some parts are melted. Seismic waves can be used to detect these conditions on the basis of reflection and transmission events. Basically, from the elastic-plastic point of view the seismic properties (seismic velocity and density) depend on effective pressure and temperature. Confining and pore pressures have opposite effects on these properties, such that very small effective pressures (the presence of overpressured fluids) may substantially decrease the P- and S-wave velocities, mainly the latter, by opening of cracks and weakening of grain contacts. Similarly, high temperatures induce the same effect by partial melting. To model these effects, we consider a poro-viscoelastic model based on Gassmann equations and Burgers mechanical model to represent the properties of the rock frame and describe ductility in which deformation takes place by shear plastic flow. The Burgers elements allow us to model the effects of seismic attenuation, velocity dispersion and steady-state creep flow, respectively. The stiffness components of the brittle and ductile media depend on stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. Effective pressure effects are taken into account in the dry-rock moduli using exponential functions whose parameters are obtained by fitting experimental data as a function of confining pressure. Since fluid effects are important, the density and bulk modulus of the saturating fluids (water and steam) are modeled using the equations provided by the NIST website, including supercritical behaviour. The theory allows us to obtain the phase velocity and quality factor as a function of depth and geological pressure and temperature as well as time frequency. We then obtain the PS and SH

  3. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  4. Experiments on the WavePiston, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelelli, E.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a new Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the Oscillating Water Column type (OWC), named WavePiston. This near-shore floating device is composed of plates (i.e. energy collectors) sliding around a cylinder, that is placed perpendicular to the shore. Tests...... in the wave basin at Aalborg University allowed to investigate power production in the North Sea typical wave climate, with varying design parameters such as plate dimensions and their mutual distance. The power produced per meter by each collector is about the 5% of the available wave power. Experimental...... results and survivability considerations suggest that the WavePiston would be particularly suited for installations in milder seas. An example application is therefore presented in the Mediterranean Sea, off-shore the island of Sicily. In this case, each collector harvests the 10% of the available wave...

  5. Investigation of Fault Zones In The Penninic Gneiss Complex of The Swiss Central Alps Using Tomograhic Inversion of The Seismic Wavefield Along Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R.; Klose, C.; Otto, P.; Selke, C.; Borm, G.

    Underground seismic investigations have been carried out since March 2000 in the Faido adit of the Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland) and the Piora exploration adit. Both adits cut metamorphic rock formations of the Leventina and Lucomagno Gneiss Complexes. The seismic measurements in the Faido Adit were carried out every 200 m during the excavation work with the Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) developed by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam in cooperation with Amberg Measuring Technique, Switzerland. This system provides high resolution seismic images via an array of stan- dard anchor rods containing 3D-geophones which can be installed routinely during the excavation process. The seismic source is a repetitive pneumatic impact hammer. For each measurement in the Faido adit, seismic energy was transmitted from 30 to 50 source points distributed along the tunnel wall at intervals of 1.0 to 1.5 m. In the Piora exploration adit a 2D grid of 441 source points distributed along a distance of 147 tunnel meters were measured. In both adits the shots were recorded by arrays of 8 to 16 three - component geophone anchor rods glued into 2 m deep boreholes at intervals of 9 m - 10 m. The total length of all profiles was about 850 m. Seismic sections show first P-wave energy at frequencies up to 2 kHz and S-wave energy up to 1.3 kHz. Reflection energy was observed from distances of up to 350 m for P-waves and 200 m for S-waves. The dominant frequencies of reflective energy were found between 600 and 800 Hz for P-waves and between 200 and 400 Hz for S-waves. The corresponding wave lengths were 8 to 10 m. We used the first arrival times of P- and S- waves to calculate tomographic inversions. The 2D-velocity models for P- and S-waves in the Faido adit revealed a near field of 2 to 3 m from the tunnel surface which is characterized by strong velocity variations: 3000 to 5700 m/s for P-wave velocity (Vp) and 2000 to 3000 m/s for S-wave velocity (Vs). High velocity zones

  6. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  7. High-resolution seismic data regularization and wavefield separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Aimin; Stump, Brian; DeShon, Heather

    2018-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, non-equispaced fast antileakage Fourier transform (NFALFT), for irregularly sampled seismic data regularization. Synthetic tests from 1-D to 5-D show that the algorithm may efficiently remove leaked energy in the frequency wavenumber domain, and its corresponding regularization process is accurate and fast. Taking advantage of the NFALFT algorithm, we suggest a new method (wavefield separation) for the detection of the Earth's inner core shear wave with irregularly distributed seismic arrays or networks. All interfering seismic phases that propagate along the minor arc are removed from the time window around the PKJKP arrival. The NFALFT algorithm is developed for seismic data, but may also be used for other irregularly sampled temporal or spatial data processing.

  8. Rayleigh wave tomography of the British Isles from ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Heather; Curtis, Andrew; Baptie, Brian

    2014-08-01

    We present the first Rayleigh wave group speed maps of the British Isles constructed from ambient seismic noise. The maps also constitute the first surface wave tomography study of the crust under the British Isles at a relatively high resolution. We computed interferometric, interstation Rayleigh waves from vertical component records of ambient seismic noise recorded on 63 broad-band and short-period stations across the UK and Ireland. Group velocity measurements were made from the resulting surface wave dispersion curves between 5 and 25 s using a multiple phase-matched filter method. Uncertainties in the group velocities were computed by calculating the standard deviation of four dispersion curves constructed by stacking a random selection of daily cross-correlations. Where an uncertainty could not be obtained for a ray path using this method, we estimated it as a function of the interreceiver distance. Group velocity maps were computed for 5-25-s period using the Fast Marching forward solution of the eikonal equation and iterative, linearized inversion. At short and intermediate periods, the maps show remarkable agreement with the major geological features of the British Isles including: terrane boundaries in Scotland; regions of late Palaeozoic basement uplift; areas of exposed late Proterozoic/early Palaeozoic rocks in southwest Scotland, northern England and northwest Wales and, sedimentary basins formed during the Mesozoic such as the Irish Sea Basin, the Chester Basin, the Worcester Graben and the Wessex Basin. The maps also show a consistent low-velocity anomaly in the region of the Midlands Platform, a Proterozoic crustal block in the English Midlands. At longer periods, which are sensitive velocities in the lower crustal/upper mantle, the maps suggest that the depth of Moho beneath the British Isles decreases towards the north and west. Areas of fast velocity in the lower crust also coincide with areas thought to be associated with underplating of the

  9. Combining finite element and finite difference methods for isotropic elastic wave simulations in an energy-conserving manner

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2018-02-22

    We consider numerical simulation of the isotropic elastic wave equations arising from seismic applications with non-trivial land topography. The more flexible finite element method is applied to the shallow region of the simulation domain to account for the topography, and combined with the more efficient finite difference method that is applied to the deep region of the simulation domain. We demonstrate that these two discretization methods, albeit starting from different formulations of the elastic wave equation, can be joined together smoothly via weakly imposed interface conditions. Discrete energy analysis is employed to derive the proper interface treatment, leading to an overall discretization that is energy-conserving. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed interface treatment.

  10. Combining finite element and finite difference methods for isotropic elastic wave simulations in an energy-conserving manner

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei; Keyes, David E.

    2018-01-01

    We consider numerical simulation of the isotropic elastic wave equations arising from seismic applications with non-trivial land topography. The more flexible finite element method is applied to the shallow region of the simulation domain to account for the topography, and combined with the more efficient finite difference method that is applied to the deep region of the simulation domain. We demonstrate that these two discretization methods, albeit starting from different formulations of the elastic wave equation, can be joined together smoothly via weakly imposed interface conditions. Discrete energy analysis is employed to derive the proper interface treatment, leading to an overall discretization that is energy-conserving. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed interface treatment.

  11. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O’Boyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy converters (WECs inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An experimental campaign to map, at high resolution, the wave field variation around arrays of 5 oscillating water column WECs and a methodology for extracting scattered and radiated waves is presented. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the full extent of the WEC behavior when assessing impacts on the wave field. The effect of radiated waves on the wave field is not immediately apparent when considering changes to the entire wave spectrum, nor when observing changes in wave climate due to scattered and radiated waves superimposed together. The results show that radiated waves may account for up to 50% of the effects on wave climate in the near field in particular operating conditions.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON FLUID DYNAMICS INSIDE A HYDRAULIC SEISMIC ENERGY ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘCHEAUA Fănel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for obtaining a simplified model of a seismic energy dissipation device whose operating principle is based on viscous fluid as a solution for structural isolation against seismic actions. The device operation is based on the resistance force developed by the working fluid when the piston tends to move due to occurrence of a seismic motion. A 3D model achieved is introduced in CFD analysis for emphasize dynamic fluid flow inside the device dissipation cylinder.

  13. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  14. Detection and monitoring of shear crack growth using S-P conversion of seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiriasari, A.; Bobet, A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    , which causes energy partitioning into P, S, and P-to-S or S-to-P waves. This finding provides a diagnostic method for detecting shear crack initiation and growth using seismic wave conversions. Acknowledgments: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation, Geomechanics and Geotechnical Systems Program (award No. CMMI-1162082).

  15. Effects of Strike-Slip Fault Segmentation on Earthquake Energy and Seismic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, E. H.; Cooke, M. L.; Savage, H. M.; McBeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many major strike-slip faults are segmented along strike, including those along plate boundaries in California and Turkey. Failure of distinct fault segments at depth may be the source of multiple pulses of seismic radiation observed for single earthquakes. However, how and when segmentation affects fault behavior and energy release is the basis of many outstanding questions related to the physics of faulting and seismic hazard. These include the probability for a single earthquake to rupture multiple fault segments and the effects of segmentation on earthquake magnitude, radiated seismic energy, and ground motions. Using numerical models, we quantify components of the earthquake energy budget, including the tectonic work acting externally on the system, the energy of internal rock strain, the energy required to overcome fault strength and initiate slip, the energy required to overcome frictional resistance during slip, and the radiated seismic energy. We compare the energy budgets of systems of two en echelon fault segments with various spacing that include both releasing and restraining steps. First, we allow the fault segments to fail simultaneously and capture the effects of segmentation geometry on the earthquake energy budget and on the efficiency with which applied displacement is accommodated. Assuming that higher efficiency correlates with higher probability for a single, larger earthquake, this approach has utility for assessing the seismic hazard of segmented faults. Second, we nucleate slip along a weak portion of one fault segment and let the quasi-static rupture propagate across the system. Allowing fractures to form near faults in these models shows that damage develops within releasing steps and promotes slip along the second fault, while damage develops outside of restraining steps and can prohibit slip along the second fault. Work is consumed in both the propagation of and frictional slip along these new fractures, impacting the energy available

  16. Integral anomalous effect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostyshevskiy, M.B.; Nabokov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic precepts of an elaborated version of a procedure for forecasting (direct exploration) of oil and gas deposits according to seismic prospecting data MOV are examined. This procedure was previously called the procedure of analysis of the integral affect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field (MIIEZ-VP). The procedure is implemented in the form of an automated system ASOM-VP for the BESM-4 computer in a standard configuration equipped with standard input-output devices for seismic information (''Potok'', MVU, ''Atlas''). The entire procedure of processing from input of data into the computer to output of resulting maps and graphs on graph plotter ''Atlas'' is automated. Results of testing of procedure MIIEZ-VP and system ASOM-VP on drilled areas of Kazakhstan, Azerbaydzhan and Uzbekistan are cited.

  17. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  18. Sources of Error and the Statistical Formulation of M S: m b Seismic Event Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.; Patton, H. J.; Taylor, S. R.; Bonner, J. L.; Selby, N. D.

    2014-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a global ban on nuclear explosions, is currently in a ratification phase. Under the CTBT, an International Monitoring System (IMS) of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasonic and radionuclide sensors is operational, and the data from the IMS is analysed by the International Data Centre (IDC). The IDC provides CTBT signatories basic seismic event parameters and a screening analysis indicating whether an event exhibits explosion characteristics (for example, shallow depth). An important component of the screening analysis is a statistical test of the null hypothesis H 0: explosion characteristics using empirical measurements of seismic energy (magnitudes). The established magnitude used for event size is the body-wave magnitude (denoted m b) computed from the initial segment of a seismic waveform. IDC screening analysis is applied to events with m b greater than 3.5. The Rayleigh wave magnitude (denoted M S) is a measure of later arriving surface wave energy. Magnitudes are measurements of seismic energy that include adjustments (physical correction model) for path and distance effects between event and station. Relative to m b, earthquakes generally have a larger M S magnitude than explosions. This article proposes a hypothesis test (screening analysis) using M S and m b that expressly accounts for physical correction model inadequacy in the standard error of the test statistic. With this hypothesis test formulation, the 2009 Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea announced nuclear weapon test fails to reject the null hypothesis H 0: explosion characteristics.

  19. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...

  20. The Texcoco Seismic Array: Analysis of the Seismic Movement in the Deep Sediments of Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Cardenas-Soto, M.; Lomnitz, C.

    2007-05-01

    The seismic movement in the Lake Zone of the Mexico Basin is characterized by long durations and late energy arrivals; many efforts have been made to find the origin of these late waves. In 1997 the Texcoco Seismic Array (TXC) was installed in the former Lake of Texcoco, in the northeastern part of Mexico Basin. It is a natural reserve formed by the same lacustrine clays of the Lake Zone in Mexico City, however we consider TXC as a virgin site as there are no buildings near, and there is almost no human activity. We analyzed 7 earthquakes recorded at TXC in two instrumental arrays, to identify late energy arrivals near the fundamental period and we also analyzed these pulses with F-K method to estimate the phase velocity and its origin.

  1. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  2. Ray-tracing traveltime tomography versus wave-equation traveltime inversion for near-surface seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-05-11

    Full-waveform inversion of land seismic data tends to get stuck in a local minimum associated with the waveform misfit function. This problem can be partly mitigated by using an initial velocity model that is close to the true velocity model. This initial starting model can be obtained by inverting traveltimes with ray-tracing traveltime tomography (RT) or wave-equation traveltime (WT) inversion. We have found that WT can provide a more accurate tomogram than RT by inverting the first-arrival traveltimes, and empirical tests suggest that RT is more sensitive to the additive noise in the input data than WT. We present two examples of applying WT and RT to land seismic data acquired in western Saudi Arabia. One of the seismic experiments investigated the water-table depth, and the other one attempted to detect the location of a buried fault. The seismic land data were inverted by WT and RT to generate the P-velocity tomograms, from which we can clearly identify the water table depth along the seismic survey line in the first example and the fault location in the second example.

  3. Link Between the Seismic Events and the Different Seismic Precursor Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHITA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the earthquake prediction methods, highlighting mainly the VLF and LF electromagnetic waves seismic precursors’ monitoring method and the correlation among these in order to obtain a more precise result. It is well known the fact that there are lots of links between the seismic events occurrence and different phenomena that predict their occurrence, such as theelectromagnetic field, Earth movement, gaseous content of radon and hydrogen within the soil, or within the underground waters. This paper aims to demonstrate the close link between the seismic events and the electromagnetic wave propagation anomalies, which are recorded before the advent of an earthquake.

  4. Wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, T.J.T. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK)); White, P.R.S. (Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry (UK)); Baker, A.C.J. (Binnie and Partners, London (UK))

    1988-10-01

    An informal discussion on various wave energy converters is reported. These included a prototype oscillating water column (OWC) device being built on the Isle of Islay in Scotland; the SEA Clam; a tapering channel device (Tapchan) raising incoming waves into a lagoon on a Norwegian island and an OWC device on the same island. The Norwegian devices are delivering electricity at about 5.5p/KWh and 4p/KWh respectively with possibilities for reduction to 2.5-3p/KWh and 3p/KWh under favourable circumstances. The discussion ranged over comparisons with progress in wind power, engineering aspects, differences between inshore and offshore devices, tidal range and energy storage. (UK).

  5. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  6. Numerical modeling of landslides and generated seismic waves: The Bingham Canyon Mine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miallot, H.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Hibert, C.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are important natural hazards and key erosion processes. They create long period surface waves that can be recorded by regional and global seismic networks. The seismic signals are generated by acceleration/deceleration of the mass sliding over the topography. They consist in a unique and powerful tool to detect, characterize and quantify the landslide dynamics. We investigate here the processes at work during the two massive landslides that struck the Bingham Canyon Mine on the 10th April 2013. We carry a combined analysis of the generated seismic signals and the landslide processes computed with a 3D modeling on a complex topography. Forces computed by broadband seismic waveform inversion are used to constrain the study and particularly the force-source and the bulk dynamic. The source time function are obtained by a 3D model (Shaltop) where rheological parameters can be adjusted. We first investigate the influence of the initial shape of the sliding mass which strongly affects the whole landslide dynamic. We also see that the initial shape of the source mass of the first landslide constrains pretty well the second landslide source mass. We then investigate the effect of a rheological parameter, the frictional angle, that strongly influences the resulted computed seismic source function. We test here numerous friction laws as the frictional Coulomb law and a velocity-weakening friction law. Our results show that the force waveform fitting the observed data is highly variable depending on these different choices.

  7. Seismic Barrier Protection of Critical Infrastructure from Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We observe that such barrier structures reduce seismic wave powers by 10 – 40 dB that would otherwise reach the foundation location. Moreover, the... structure composed of opposing boreholes or trenches to mitigate seismic waves from diffracting and traveling in the vertical plane. Computational...seismic wave propagation models suggest that air or fluid filled subsurface V- shaped muffler structures are critical to the redirection and self

  8. Analysis of the seismic wavefield in the Moesian Platform (Bucharest area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Florinela Manea, Elena; Hobiger, Manuel-Thomas; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; -Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Bucharest is located in the center of the Moesian platform, in a large and deep sedimentary basin (450 km long, 300 km wide and in some places up to 20 km depth). During large earthquakes generated by the Vrancea seismic zone, located approximately 140 km to the North, the ground motion recorded in Bucharest area is characterized by predominant long periods and large amplification. This phenomenon has been explained by the influence of both source mechanism (azimuth and type of incident waves) and mechanical properties of the local structure (geological layering and geometry). The main goal of our study is to better characterize and understand the seismic wave field produced by earthquakes in the area of Bucharest. We want to identify the contribution of different seismic surface waves, such as the ones produced at the edges of the large sedimentary basin or multipath interference waves (Airy phases of Love and Rayleigh waves) to the ground motion. The data from a 35 km diameter array (URS experiment) installed by the National Institute for Earth Physics during 10 months in 2003 and 2004 in the urban area of Bucharest and adjacent zones was used. In order to perform the wave field characterization of the URS array, the MUSIQUE technique was used. This technique consists in a combination of the classical MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms and analyzes the three-component signals of all sensors of a seismic array together in order to analyze the Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves as well as the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curve. The analysis includes 20 regional earthquakes with Mw >3 and 5 teleseismic events with Mw> 7 that have enough energy at low frequency (0.1 - 1 Hz), i.e. in the resolution range of the array. For all events, the greatest energy is coming from the backazimuth of the source and the wave field is dominated by Love waves. The results of the array analyses clearly indicate a significant scattering corresponding to 2D or 3D effects in the

  9. Tunnel effect wave energy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  10. Probing the internal structure of the asteriod Didymoon with a passive seismic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, N.; Hempel, S.; Pou, L.; Cadu, A.; Garcia, R. F.; Mimoun, D.; Margerin, L.; Karatekin, O.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the internal structure of an asteroid has important implications for interpreting its evolutionary history, for understanding its continuing geological evolution, and also for asteroid deflection and in-situ space resource utilisation. Given the strong evidence that asteroids are seismically active, an in-situ passive seismic experiment could provide information about the asteroid surface and interior properties. Here, we discuss the natural seismic activity that may be present on Didymoon, the secondary component of asteroid (65803) Didymos. Our analysis of the tidal stresses in Didymoon shows that tidal quakes are likely to occur if the secondary has an eccentric orbit. Failure occurs most easily at the asteroid poles and close to the surface for both homogeneous and layered internal structures. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in Didymoon show that the seismic moment of even small meteoroid impacts can generate clearly observable body and surface waves if the asteroid's internal structure is homogeneous. The presence of a regolith layer over a consolidated core can result in the seismic energy becoming trapped in the regolith due to the strong impedance contrast at the regolith-core boundary. The inclusion of macro-porosity (voids) further complexifies the wavefield due to increased scattering. The most prominent seismic waves are always found to be those traveling along the surface of the asteroid and those focusing in the antipodal point of the seismic source. We find also that the waveforms and ground acceleration spectra allow discrimination between the different internal structure models. Although the science return of a passive seismic experiment would be enhanced by having multiple seismic stations, one single seismic station can already vastly improve our knowledge about the seismic environment and sub-surface structure of an asteroid. We describe several seismic measurement techniques that could be applied in order to study the

  11. Forecasting of Energy Expenditure of Induced Seismicity with Use of Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Tomasz; Banka, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Coal mining in many Polish mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is accompanied by high levels of induced seismicity. In mining plants, the methods of shock monitoring are improved, allowing for more accurate localization of the occurring phenomena and determining their seismic energy. Equally important is the development of ways of forecasting seismic hazards that may occur while implementing mine design projects. These methods, depending on the length of time for which the forecasts are made, can be divided into: longterm, medium-term, short-term and so-called alarm. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful for the design of seam exploitations. The paper presents a method of predicting changes in energy expenditure of shock using a properly trained artificial neural network. This method allows to make long-term forecasts at the stage of the mine’s exploitation design, thus enabling the mining work plans to be reviewed to minimize the potential for tremors. The information given at the input of the neural network is indicative of the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation occurring in the selected, thick, resistant rock layers (tremor-prone layers). Energy changes, taking place in one or more tremor-prone layers are considered. These indicators describe only the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation accumulating in the rock as a consequence of the mining operation, but does not determine the amount of energy released during the destruction of a given volume of rock. In this process, the potential energy of elastic strain transforms into other, non-measurable energy types, including the seismic energy of recorded tremors. In this way, potential energy changes affect the observed induced seismicity. The parameters used are characterized by increases (declines) of specific energy with separation to occur before the hypothetical destruction of the rock and after it. Additional input information is an index characterizing the rate of

  12. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...

  13. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  14. Quasi-seismic scaling processes in sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmel, A; Smirnov, V N

    2011-01-01

    The cracking, shearing and stick–slip motions in sea ice are similar to those in fracturing geostructures. In this work, the fracture-related, quasi-seismic activity in the Arctic ice pack was monitored during a large-scale ice cover fragmentation that occurred in March 2008. This fragmentation resulted in the formation of a two-dimensional 'fault' clearly seen in satellite images. The energy distribution in elastic waves detected by seismic tiltmeters follows the power law in pre- and post-faulting periods. The power exponent decreases as the 'catastrophe' approaches, and exhibits a trend to restore its initial value after the large-scale perturbation. The detected fracture events are correlated in time in the sense of a scaling relation. A quiescent period (very low quasi-seismic activity) was observed before 'faulting'. A close similarity in scaling characteristics between the crustal seismicity and quasi-seismic activity observed in the ice pack is discussed from the viewpoint of the role of heterogeneity in the behavior of large-scale critical systems

  15. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...

  16. Detecting Seismic Infrasound Signals on Balloon Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the interior structure of a planet requires detailed seismic investigations - a process that entails the detection and characterization of seismic waves due to geological activities (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.). For decades, this task has primarily been performed on Earth by an ever-expanding network of terrestrial seismic stations. However, on planets such as Venus, where the surface pressure and temperature can reach as high as 90 atmospheres and 450 degrees Celsius respectively, placing seismometers on the planet's surface poses a vexing technological challenge. However, the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere are more benign and capable of hosting geophysical payloads for longer mission lifetimes. In order to achieve the aim of performing geophysical experiments from an atmospheric platform, JPL and its partners (ISAE-SUPAERO and California Institute of Technology) are in the process of developing technologies for detection of infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes from a balloon. The coupling of seismic energy into the atmosphere critically depends on the density differential between the surface of the planet and the atmosphere. Therefore, the successful demonstration of this technique on Earth would provide ample reason to expect success on Venus, where the atmospheric impedance is approximately 60 times that of Earth. In this presentation, we will share results from the first set of Earth-based balloon experiments performed in Pahrump, Nevada in June 2017. These tests involved the generation of artificial sources of known intensity using a seismic hammer and their detection using a complex network of sensors, including highly sensitive micro-barometers suspended from balloons, GPS receivers, geophones, microphones, and seismometers. This experiment was the first of its kind and was successful in detecting infrasonic waves from the earthquakes generated by the seismic hammer. We will present the first comprehensive analysis

  17. High-resolution surface wave tomography of the European crust and uppermost mantle from ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Stehly, Laurent; Paul, Anne; AlpArray Working Group

    2018-05-01

    Taking advantage of the large number of seismic stations installed in Europe, in particular in the greater Alpine region with the AlpArray experiment, we derive a new high-resolution 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the European crust and uppermost mantle from ambient noise tomography. The correlation of up to four years of continuous vertical-component seismic recordings from 1293 broadband stations (10° W-35° E, 30° N-75° N) provides Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion data in the period band 5-150 s at more than 0.8 million virtual source-receiver pairs. Two-dimensional Rayleigh wave group velocity maps are estimated using adaptive parameterization to accommodate the strong heterogeneity of path coverage. A probabilistic 3-D shear-wave velocity model, including probability densities for the depth of layer boundaries and S-wave velocity values, is obtained by non-linear Bayesian inversion. A weighted average of the probabilistic model is then used as starting model for the linear inversion step, providing the final Vs model. The resulting S-wave velocity model and Moho depth are validated by comparison with previous geophysical studies. Although surface-wave tomography is weakly sensitive to layer boundaries, vertical cross-sections through our Vs model and the associated probability of presence of interfaces display striking similarities with reference controlled-source (CSS) and receiver-function sections across the Alpine belt. Our model even provides new structural information such as a ˜8 km Moho jump along the CSS ECORS-CROP profile that was not imaged by reflection data due to poor penetration across a heterogeneous upper crust. Our probabilistic and final shear wave velocity models have the potential to become new reference models of the European crust, both for crustal structure probing and geophysical studies including waveform modeling or full waveform inversion.

  18. Temporal change in shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy inferred from coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Takeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent progresses in theoretical and observational researches on seismic interferometry reveal the possibility to detect subtle change in subsurface seismic structure. This high sensitivity of seismic interferometry to the medium properties may thus one of the most important ways to directly observe the time-lapse behavior of shallow crustal structure. Here, using the coda wave interferometry, we show the co-seismic and post-seismic changes in P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). In this study, we use the acceleration data recorded at KiK-net stations operated by NIED, Japan. Each KiK-net station has a borehole whose typical depth is about 100m, and two three-component accelerometers are installed at the top and bottom of the borehole. To estimate the shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy between two sensors and their temporal change, we select about 1000 earthquakes that occurred between 2004 and 2012, and extract body waves propagating between borehole sensors by computing the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of 3 x 3 component pairs. We use frequency bands of 2-4, 4-8, 8-16 Hz in our analysis. Each averaged CCF shows clear wave packets traveling between borehole sensors, and their travel times are almost consistent with those of P- and S-waves calculated from the borehole log data. Until the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the estimated travel time at each station is rather stable with time except for weak seasonal/annual variation. On the other hand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its aftershocks cause sudden decrease in the S-wave velocity at most of the KiK-net stations in eastern Japan. The typical value of S-wave velocity changes, which are measured by the time-stretching method, is about 5-15%. After this co-seismic change, the S-wave velocity gradually recovers with time, and the recovery continues for over one year following the

  19. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  20. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  1. Numerical Simulation on Seismic Response of the Filled Joint under High Amplitude Stress Waves Using Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically investigates the seismic response of the filled joint under high amplitude stress waves using the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM. A thin layer of independent polygonal particles are used to simulate the joint fillings. Each particle is meshed using the Delaunay triangulation scheme and can be crushed when the load exceeds its strength. The propagation of the 1D longitude wave through a single filled joint is studied, considering the influences of the joint thickness and the characteristics of the incident wave, such as the amplitude and frequency. The results show that the filled particles under high amplitude stress waves mainly experience three deformation stages: (i initial compaction stage; (ii crushing stage; and (iii crushing and compaction stage. In the initial compaction stage and crushing and compaction stage, compaction dominates the mechanical behavior of the joint, and the particle area distribution curve varies little. In these stages, the transmission coefficient increases with the increase of the amplitude, i.e., peak particle velocity (PPV, of the incident wave. On the other hand, in the crushing stage, particle crushing plays the dominant role. The particle size distribution curve changes abruptly with the PPV due to the fragments created by the crushing process. This process consumes part of wave energy and reduces the stiffness of the filled joint. The transmission coefficient decreases with increasing PPV in this stage because of the increased amount of energy consumed by crushing. Moreover, with the increase of the frequency of the incident wave, the transmission coefficient decreases and fewer particles can be crushed. Under the same incident wave, the transmission coefficient decreases when the filled thickness increases and the filled particles become more difficult to be crushed.

  2. Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Two applications of time reversal mirrors: Seismic radio and seismic radar

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-01-01

    Two seismic applications of time reversal mirrors (TRMs) are introduced and tested with field experiments. The first one is sending, receiving, and decoding coded messages similar to a radio except seismic waves are used. The second one is, similar

  5. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based...... in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  6. Seismic Structure of Perth Basin (Australia) and surroundings from Passive Seismic Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, N.; Saygin, E.; Lumley, D. E.; Hoskin, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    We image the subsurface structure of Perth Basin, Western Australia and surroundings by using ambient seismic noise data from 14 seismic stations recently deployed by University of Western Australia (UWA) and other available permanent stations from Geoscience Australia seismic network and the Australian Seismometers in Schools program. Each of these 14 UWA seismic stations comprises a broadband sensor and a high fidelity 3-component 10 Hz geophone, recording in tandem at 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. The other stations used in this study are equipped with short period and broadband sensors. In addition, one shallow borehole station is operated with eight 3 component geophones at depths of between 2 and 44 m. The network is deployed to characterize natural seismicity in the basin and to try and identify any microseismic activity across Darling Fault Zone (DFZ), bounding the basin to the east. The DFZ stretches to approximately 1000 km north-south in Western Australia, and is one of the longest fault zones on the earth with a limited number of detected earthquakes. We use seismic noise cross- and auto-correlation methods to map seismic velocity perturbations across the basin and the transition from DFZ to the basin. Retrieved Green's functions are stable and show clear dispersed waveforms. Travel times of the surface wave Green's functions from noise cross-correlations are inverted with a two-step probabilistic framework to map the absolute shear wave velocities as a function of depth. The single station auto-correlations from the seismic noise yields P wave reflectivity under each station, marking the major discontinuities. Resulting images show the shear velocity perturbations across the region. We also quantify the variation of ambient seismic noise at different depths in the near surface using the geophones in the shallow borehole array.

  7. Testing, Analysis and Control of Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James

    of the incident waves upon a wave device allows the possibility of accurately tuning the power-take off mechanism (the hydro-turbines for the Wave Dragon) to capture more energy. A digital filter method for performing this prediction in real-time with minimal computational effort is presented. Construction...... of digital filters is well known within signal processing, but their use for this application in Wave Energy is new. The filter must be designed carefully as the frequency components of waves travel at different speeds. Research presented in this thesis has advanced the development of the Wave Dragon device...

  8. Enhancing Wave Energy Competitiveness through Co-Located Wind and Wave Energy Farms. A Review on the Shadow Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharay Astariz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy is one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels due to the enormous available resource; however, its development may be slowed as it is often regarded as uneconomical. The largest cost reductions are expected to be obtained through economies of scale and technological progress. In this sense, the incorporation of wave energy systems into offshore wind energy farms is an opportunity to foster the development of wave energy. The synergies between both renewables can be realised through these co-located energy farms and, thus, some challenges of offshore wind energy can be met. Among them, this paper focuses on the longer non-operational periods of offshore wind turbines—relative to their onshore counterparts—typically caused by delays in maintenance due to the harsh marine conditions. Co-located wave energy converters would act as a barrier extracting energy from the waves and resulting in a shielding effect over the wind farm. On this basis, the aim of this paper is to analyse wave energy economics in a holistic way, as well as the synergies between wave and offshore wind energy, focusing on the shadow effect and the associated increase in the accessibility to the wind turbines.

  9. Problems of application of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.; Morozkina, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    Technical solutions of using the energy both sea waves and lake ones are analyzed. Mathematical description of wave processes and phenomena as well as techniques of selection and conversion of the wave energy are given. Wave energy electromechanical converters are considered. Great attention is paid to linear generators of electromechanical converters eddy currents in massive sections of these generators and features of their calculation. Techniques for optimization of the linear generator parameters are shown. 60 refs

  10. Hydraulic Response of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  11. An extraordinary locally generated nonlinear internal wave on the shelf of northern South China Sea from marine seismic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    A secondary nonlinear internal wave (NIW) on the continental shelf of northern South China Sea (SCS) is studied from high resolution seismic data. It is an extraordinary complex NIW combination of two mode-2 NIWs and an NIW of elevation within a short distance of 2 km. The most energetic part of the NIW could be regarded as a mode-2 NIW localized in the upper layer between 40 and 120 m with its onset at 92 km. The vertical particle velocity of 41 cm/s may exceed the critical value of wave breaking and thus collapse the strongest stratification followed by a series of processes including internal wave breaking, overturning, Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, stratification splitting, and re-stratification eventually. Among these processes, the shear induced KH billows are directly imaged using the seismic method for the first time. The stratification splitting and re-stratification show that the unstable stage lasts only for a few hours and several kilometers. No previous work has reported the wave of elevation occurred in the deep water of 370 m. Different from the periodical NIWs originated from Luzon Strait, this secondary NIW is most likely generated locally at the shelf break during ebb tide. This is also the first seismic observation that a locally generated NIW is analyzed in detail on the continental shelf of northern SCS. A more sophisticated numerical model is necessary to simulate the extraordinary NIW and its accompanying features.

  12. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  13. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M; Watanabe, T; Ashida, Y; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  14. The Crest Wing Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    to generate power. Model tests have been performed using scale models (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept....... of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate mechanical power available to the power take off....

  15. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  16. On Long-Time Instabilities in Staggered Finite Difference Simulations of the Seismic Acoustic Wave Equations on Discontinuous Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei; Ketcheson, David I.; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the long-time instability issue associated with finite difference simulation of seismic acoustic wave equations on discontinuous grids. This issue is exhibited by a prototype algebraic problem abstracted from practical application

  17. Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Biermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.

  18. Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with a system for operation of directly driven offshore wave energy converters. The work that has been carried out includes laboratory testing of a permanent magnet linear generator, wave energy converter mechanical design and offshore testing, and finally design, implementation, and offshore testing of an underwater collector substation. Long-term testing of a single point absorber, which was installed in March 2006, has been performed in real ocean waves in linear and in non-linear damping mode. The two different damping modes were realized by, first, a resistive load, and second, a rectifier with voltage smoothing capacitors and a resistive load in the DC-link. The loads are placed on land about 2 km east of the Lysekil wave energy research site, where the offshore experiments have been conducted. In the spring of 2009, another two wave energy converter prototypes were installed. Records of array operation were taken with two and three devices in the array. With two units, non-linear damping was used, and with three units, linear damping was employed. The point absorbers in the array are connected to the underwater substation, which is based on a 3 m3 pressure vessel standing on the seabed. In the substation, rectification of the frequency and amplitude modulated voltages from the linear generators is made. The DC voltage is smoothened by capacitors and inverted to 50 Hz electrical frequency, transformed and finally transmitted to the on-shore measuring station. Results show that the absorption is heavily dependent on the damping. It has also been shown that by increasing the damping, the standard deviation of electrical power can be reduced. The standard deviation of electrical power is reduced by array operation compared to single unit operation. Ongoing and future work include the construction and installation of a second underwater substation, which will connect the first substation and seven new WECs

  19. Benefits of up-wave measurements in linear short-term wave forecasting for wave energy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, Miguel; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2014-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation upwave of the wave energy converter. As an application example, the paper focuses on the prediction of the wave eleva...

  20. Seismic anisotropies of the Songshugou peridotites (Qinling orogen, central China) and their seismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Though extensively studied, the roles of olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPOs or fabrics) in affecting the seismic anisotropies in the Earth's upper mantle are rather complicated and still not fully known. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by analyzing the seismic anisotropies [e.g., P-wave anisotropy (AVp), S-wave polarization anisotropy (AVs), radial anisotropy (ξ), and Rayleigh wave anisotropy (G)] of the Songshugou peridotites (dunite dominated) in the Qinling orogen in central China, based on our previously reported olivine CPOs. The seismic anisotropy patterns of olivine aggregates in our studied samples are well consistent with the prediction for their olivine CPO types; and the magnitude of seismic anisotropies shows a striking positive correlation with equilibrium pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions. Significant reductions of seismic anisotropies (AVp, max. AVs, and G) are observed in porphyroclastic dunite compared to coarse- and fine-grained dunites, as the results of olivine CPO transition (from A-/D-type in coarse-grained dunite, through AG-type-like in porphyroclastic dunite, to B-type-like in fine-grained dunite) and strength variation (weakening: A-/D-type → AG-type-like; strengthening: AG-type-like → B-type-like) during dynamic recrystallization. The transition of olivine CPOs from A-/D-type to B-/AG-type-like in the forearc mantle may weaken the seismic anisotropies and deviate the fast velocity direction and the fast S-wave polarization direction from trench-perpendicular to trench-oblique direction with the cooling and aging of forearc mantle. Depending on the size and distribution of the peridotite body such as the Songshugou peridotites, B- and AG-type-like olivine CPOs can be an additional (despite minor) local contributor to the orogen-parallel fast velocity direction and fast shear-wave polarization direction in the orogenic crust such as in the Songshugou area in Qinling orogen.

  1. Investigation of Seismic Waves from Non-Natural Sources: A Case Study for Building Collapse and Surface Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houng, S.; Hong, T.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and excitation mechanism of incidents or non-natural events have been widely investigated using seismological techniques. With introduction of dense seismic networks, small-sized non-natural events such as building collapse and chemical explosions are well recorded. Two representative non-natural seismic sources are investigated. A 5-story building in South Korea, Sampoong department store, was collapsed in June 25, 1995, causing casualty of 1445. This accident is known to be the second deadliest non-terror-related building collapse in the world. The event was well recorded by a local station in ~ 9 km away. P and S waves were recorded weak, while monotonic Rayleigh waves were observed well. The origin time is determined using surface-wave arrival time. The magnitude of event is determined to be 1.2, which coincides with a theoretical estimate based on the mass and volume of building. Synthetic waveforms are modeled for various combinations of velocity structures and source time functions, which allow us to constrain the process of building collapse. It appears that the building was collapsed once within a couple of seconds. We also investigate a M2.1 chemical explosion at a fertilizer plant in Texas on April 18, 2013. It was reported that more than one hundred people were dead or injured by the explosion. Seismic waveforms for nearby stations are collected from Incorporated Research Institution of Seismology (IRIS). The event was well recorded at stations in ~500 km away from the source. Strong acoustic signals were observed at stations in a certain great-circle direction. This observation suggests preferential propagation of acoustic waves depending on atmospheric environment. Waveform cross-correlation, spectral analysis and waveform modeling are applied to understand the source physics. We discuss the nature of source and source excitation mechanism.

  2. Improving seismic crustal models in the Corinth Gulf, Greece and estimating source depth using PL-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vackář, Jiří; Zahradník, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    A recent shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece (Mw 5.3, January 18, 2010; Sokos et al., Tectonophysics 2012) generated unusual long-period waves (periods > 5 seconds), well recorded at several near-regional stations between the P - and S-wave arrival. The 5-second period, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicates a structural effect. The wave is similar to PL-wave or Pnl-wave, but with shorter periods and observed in much closer distances (ranging from 30 to 200 km). For theoretical description of the observed wave, structural model is required. No existing regional crustal model generates that wave, so we need to find another model, better in terms of the PL-wave existence and strength. We find such models by full waveform inversion using the subset of stations with strong PL-wave. The Discrete Wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981; Coutant 1989) is used for forward problem and the Neighborhood Algorithm (Sambridge, 1999) for stochastic search (more details in poster by V. Plicka and J. Zahradník). We obtain a suite of models well fitting synthetic seismograms and use some of these models to evaluate dependence of the studied waves on receiver distance and azimuth as well as dependence on source depth. We compare real and synthetic dispersion curves (derived from synthetic seismograms) as an independent validation of found model and discuss limitations of using dispersion curves for these cases. We also relocated the event in the new model. Then we calculate the wavefield by two other methods: modal summation and ray theory to better understand the nature of the PL-wave. Finally, we discuss agreement of found models with published crustal models in the region. The full waveform inversion for structural parameters seems to be powerful tool for improving seismic source modeling in cases we do not have accurate structure model of studied area. We also show that the PL-wave strength has a potential to precise the earthquake depth

  3. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  4. High resolution Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Lihua; Wu Jianping; Ding Zhifeng; Panza, G.F.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China performed using ambient seismic noise observed at 190 broadband and 10 very broadband stations of the North-China Seismic Array. All available vertical component time-series for the 14 months span between January, 2007 and February, 2008 are cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave Green functions that are subsequently processed, with the multiple filter method, to isolate the group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave. Tomographic maps, with a grid spacing of 0.25 deg. x 0.25 deg., are computed at the periods of 4.5s, 12s, 20s, 28s. The maps at short periods reveal an evident lateral heterogeneity in the crust of North-China, quite well in agreement with known geological and tectonic features. The North China Basin is imaged as a broad low velocity area, while the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts and Ordos block are imaged as high velocity zones, and the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. The group velocity contours at 4.5s, 12s and 20s are consistent with the Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in the area of the Taihangshan fault, that cuts through the lower crust at least. Most of the historical strong earthquakes (M≥6.0) are located where the tomographic maps show zones with moderate velocity gradient. (author)

  5. Mobile seismic exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dräbenstedt, A., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de; Seyfried, V. [Research & Development, Polytec GmbH, Waldbronn (Germany); Cao, X.; Rembe, C., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Institute of Electrical Information Technology, TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Polom, U., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Leibniz Institute of Applied Geophysics, Hannover (Germany); Pätzold, F.; Hecker, P. [Institute of Flight Guidance, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Zeller, T. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik Institut CUTEC, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-06-28

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  6. Wave Resource Characterization at US Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Marine and Hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program is supporting a diverse research and development portfolio intended to accelerate commercialization of the marine renewable industry by improving technology performance, reducing market barriers, and lowering the cost of energy. Wave resource characterization at potential and existing wave energy converter (WEC) test sites and deployment locations contributes to this DOE goal by providing a catalogue of wave energy resource characteristics, met-ocean data, and site infrastructure information, developed utilizing a consistent methodology. The purpose of the catalogue is to enable the comparison of resource characteristics among sites to facilitate the selection of test sites that are most suitable for a developer's device and that best meet their testing needs and objectives. It also provides inputs for the design of WEC test devices and planning WEC tests, including the planning of deployment and operations and maintenance. The first edition included three sites: the Pacific Marine Energy Center (PMEC) North Energy Test Site (NETS) offshore of Newport, Oregon, the Kaneohe Bay Naval Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) offshore of Oahu, HI, and a potential site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA (Eureka, CA). The second edition was recently finished, which includes five additional sites: the Jennette's Pier Wave Energy Converter Test Site in North Carolina, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Field Research Facility (FRF), the PMEC Lake Washington site, the proposed PMEC South Energy Test Site (SETS), and the proposed CalWave Central Coast WEC Test Site. The operational sea states are included according to the IEC Technical Specification on wave energy resource assessment and characterization, with additional information on extreme sea states, weather windows, and representative spectra. The methodology and a summary of results will be discussed.

  7. Target-oriented retrieval of subsurface wave fields - Pushing the resolution limits in seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ivan; Ozmen, Neslihan; van der Neut, Joost; Cui, Tianci

    2017-04-01

    Travelling wide-bandwidth seismic waves have long been used as a primary tool in exploration seismology because they can probe the subsurface over large distances, while retaining relatively high spatial resolution. The well-known Born resolution limit often seems to be the lower bound on spatial imaging resolution in real life examples. In practice, data acquisition cost, time constraints and other factors can worsen the resolution achieved by wavefield imaging. Could we obtain images whose resolution beats the Born limits? Would it be practical to achieve it, and what are we missing today to achieve this? In this talk, we will cover aspects of linear and nonlinear seismic imaging to understand elements that play a role in obtaining "super-resolved" seismic images. New redatuming techniques, such as the Marchenko method, enable the retrieval of subsurface fields that include multiple scattering interactions, while requiring relatively little knowledge of model parameters. Together with new concepts in imaging, such as Target-Enclosing Extended Images, these new redatuming methods enable new targeted imaging frameworks. We will make a case as to why target-oriented approaches to reconstructing subsurface-domain wavefields from surface data may help in increasing the resolving power of seismic imaging, and in pushing the limits on parameter estimation. We will illustrate this using a field data example. Finally, we will draw connections between seismic and other imaging modalities, and discuss how this framework could be put to use in other applications

  8. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  9. Seismic waves travel-time curve, basing on the results of signal detection from chemical explosions detonated at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Aristova, I.L.; Germanova, T.I.

    2001-01-01

    A large amount of digital seismic data from the permanent and temporary seismic stations was acquired in the result of detonation of large chemical explosions at Semipalatinsk Test Site. All the records were collected, systematized and processed, and databases were created. Travel-time curves for regional Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg waves were created and compared with the ones used in routine earthquake processing practice. (author)

  10. Rayleigh waves from correlation of seismic noise in Great Island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Constraints on upper crustal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation technique is applied to estimate the upper structure of the crust beneath Great Island of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, Argentina, by the analysis of short-period Rayleigh wave group velocities. The island, situated in the southernmost South America, is a key area of investigation among the interaction between the South American and Scotia plates and is considered as a very seismically active one. Through cross-correlating the vertical components of ambient seismic noise registered at four broadband stations in TdF, we were able to extract Rayleigh waves which were used to estimate group velocities in the period band of 2.5–16 s using a time-frequency analysis. Although ambient noise sources are distributed inhomogeneously, robust empirical Green's functions could be recovered from the cross-correlation of 12 months of ambient noise. The observed group velocities were inverted considering a non-linear iterative damped least-squares inversion procedure and several 1-D shear wave velocity models of the upper crust were obtained. According to the inversion results, the S-wave velocity ranges between 1.75 and 3.7 km/s in the first 10 km of crust, depending on the pair of stations considered. These results are in agreement to the major known surface and sub-surface geological and tectonic features known in the area. This study represents the first ambient seismic noise analysis in TdF in order to constraint the upper crust beneath this region. It can also be considered as a successful feasibility study for future analyses with a denser station deployment for a more detailed imaging of structure.

  11. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  12. Characteristic Seismic Waves Associated with Cryosphere Dynamics in Eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several kinds of natural source signals are recorded by seismic exploration stations on the continental ice sheet in Eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, during 2002 austral summer. They include not only tectonic earthquakes, but also ice-related phenomena possibly involving recent global climate change. The recorded signals are classified into (1 teleseismic events, (2 local ice quakes, and (3 unidentified events (X-phases. The teleseismic waves show the high signal-to-noise ratio in spite of the small magnitude of the event; this indicates that it is highly feasible to study not only the local shallow structure but also the deep structure of the earth by using teleseismic events. Frequency spectra of the all waveforms represent discordances along the observation seismic profile. The abrupt change of topography in the valley along the seismic profile might cause both the anomalous frequency content and travel times. Finally, an origin of the X-phases is speculated as the intraplate earthquakes or possibly large ice-quakes (glacial earthquakes around Antarctica, involving global warming appeared in polar region.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    Ocean waves provide a sustainable, power-dense, predictable and widely available source of energy that could provide about 10 % of worlds energy needs. While research into waveenergy has been undertaken for decades, a significant increase in related activities has been seen in the recent years......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes....... Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. Thisimplicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...

  14. Energy conversion of orbital motions in gravitational waves: Simulation and test of the Seaspoon wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fresco, L.; Traverso, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate an innovative wave energy converter. • We study a robust technology derived from wind power sector. • We increased the performance of a drag type rotor exploiting the motion of ocean waves and a simple flat plate component. • We proved the working principle with a numerical model first and with experimental test in wave flume later. • We aim to obtain a robust large energy harvester able to operate in mild energy sea and with an extended operating range. - Abstract: The conversion of ocean wave power into sustainable electrical power represents a major opportunity to Nations endowed with such a kind of resource. At the present time the most of the technological innovations aiming at converting such resources are at early stage of development, with only a handful of devices close to be at the commercial demonstration stage. The Seaspoon device, thought as a large energy harvester, catches the kinetic energy of ocean waves with promising conversion efficiency, and robust technology, according to specific “wave-motion climate”. University of Genoa aims to develop a prototype to be deployed in medium average energy content seas (i.e. Mediterranean or Eastern Asia seas). This paper presents the first simulation and experimental results carried out on a reduced scale proof-of-concept model tested in the laboratory wave flume

  15. Fault Lines: Seismicity and the Fracturing of Energy Narratives in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, E.; Drummond, V. A.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Fault Lines: Seismicity and the Fracturing of Energy Narratives in Oklahoma Virginia Drummond1, Emily Grubert21Stanford University, Stanford Earth Summer Undergraduate Research Program2Stanford University, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and ResourcesOklahoma is an oil state where residents have historically been supportive of the oil and gas industry. However, a dramatic increase in seismic activity between 2009 and 2015 widely attributed to wastewater injection associated with oil production is a new and highly salient consequence of oil development, affecting local communities' relationship to the environment and to the oil industry. Understanding how seismicity plays into Oklahoma's evolving dialogue about energy is integral to understanding both the current realities and the future of energy communities in Oklahoma.This research engages Oklahoma residents through open-ended interviews and mixed quantitative-qualitative survey research to characterize how energy narratives shape identity in response to conflict between environmental outcomes and economic interest. We perform approximately 20 interviews with residents of Oklahoma, with particular attention to recruiting residents from a wide range of age groups and who work either within or outside the oil and gas industry. General population surveys supplementing detailed interviews with information about community characteristics, social and environmental priorities, and experience with hazards are delivered to residents selected at random from zip codes known to have experienced significant seismicity. We identify narratives used by residents in response to tension between economic and environmental concerns, noting Oklahoma as an interesting case study for how a relatively pro-industry community reacts to and reframes its relationship with energy development, given conflict. In particular, seismicity has fractured the dominant narrative of oil development as positive into new narratives

  16. Resistivity and Seismic Surface Wave Tomography Results for the Nevşehir Kale Region: Cappadocia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Nart; Çakır, Özcan; Erduran, Murat; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    The Nevşehir Kale region located in the middle of Cappadocia with approximately cone shape is investigated for existence of an underground city using the geophysical methods of electrical resistivity and seismic surface wave tomography together. Underground cities are generally known to exist in Cappadocia. The current study has obtained important clues that there may be another one under the Nevşehir Kale region. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic profiles approximately 4-km long surrounding the Nevşehir Kale are measured to determine the distribution of electrical resistivities and seismic velocities under the profiles. Several high resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m are discovered to associate with a systematic void structure beneath the region. Because of the high resolution resistivity measurement system currently employed we were able to isolate the void structure from the embedding structure. Low seismic velocity zones associated with the high resistivity depths are also discovered. Using three-dimensional visualization techniques we show the extension of the void structure under the measured profiles.

  17. Deep geological strucure of a volcano verified by seismic wave. Jishinha de mita kazan no shinbu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-09-01

    Three dimensional structure of seismic wave velocity for the crest and upper mantle under the North East Japan is determined by the seismic tomography which is prepared by the natural earthquakes confirmed by the observation network for micro earthquakes, indicating that the low velocity region exists just under the corresponding volcano to the upper mantle. Further, the following contents can be verified: Any micro earthquakes which are verified by the above observation network and occur at the depth of 25-40km show the lower generation rate less than 1% and the low dominant frequency compared with the conventional inland earthquake(lower limit of depth is 15km) in the same region and occur around volcanos. The existence of the remarkable reflection surface for S wave which is found at the depth of 10-20km seems to be caused by the melting mass. The above mentioned low velocity region is estimated to correspond to the lifting region of high temperature magma, micro earthquakes of low frequency to the magma activity around that magma and the reflection surface for S wave to the part of the magma. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Handbook of ocean wave energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kofoed, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners in the wave energy sector.

  19. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack-moored and ......The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack...

  20. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  1. Detecting Seismic Events Using a Supervised Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, L.; Forrest, R.; Ray, J.; Young, C.

    2017-12-01

    We explore the use of supervised hidden Markov models (HMMs) to detect seismic events in streaming seismogram data. Current methods for seismic event detection include simple triggering algorithms, such as STA/LTA and the Z-statistic, which can lead to large numbers of false positives that must be investigated by an analyst. The hypothesis of this study is that more advanced detection methods, such as HMMs, may decreases false positives while maintaining accuracy similar to current methods. We train a binary HMM classifier using 2 weeks of 3-component waveform data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) that was carefully reviewed by an expert analyst to pick all seismic events. Using an ensemble of simple and discrete features, such as the triggering of STA/LTA, the HMM predicts the time at which transition occurs from noise to signal. Compared to the STA/LTA detection algorithm, the HMM detects more true events, but the false positive rate remains unacceptably high. Future work to potentially decrease the false positive rate may include using continuous features, a Gaussian HMM, and multi-class HMMs to distinguish between types of seismic waves (e.g., P-waves and S-waves). Acknowledgement: Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.SAND No: SAND2017-8154 A

  2. Energy dissipation through wind-generated breaking waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuwen; CAO Ruixue; XIE Lingling

    2012-01-01

    Wave breaking is an important process that controls turbulence properties and fluxes of heat and mass in the upper oceanic layer.A model is described for energy dissipation per unit area at the ocean surface attributed to wind-generated breaking waves,in terms of ratio of energy dissipation to energy input,windgenerated wave spectrum,and wave growth rate.Also advanced is a vertical distribution model of turbulent kinetic energy,based on an exponential distribution method.The result shows that energy dissipation rate depends heavily on wind speed and sea state.Our results agree well with predictions of previous works.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERIC MANTLE OF THE SIBERAIN CRATON AND SEISMODYNAMICS OF DEFORMATION WAVES IN THE BAIKAL SEISMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko

    2013-01-01

    mantle lense (Fig 6, A; it is one of four main tectonical units that compose the basement of the Siberian craton [Mironyuk, Zagruzina, 1983]. As evidenced by the zonal composition of the mantle lense, the centre of the lense is highly dense, and this explains the location of a seismic anomaly there (Fig. 6, B which is determined to a depth of about 50–60 km [Pavlenkova G.A., Pavlenkova N.I., 2006]. The high-velocity root located in this segment of the craton is traced by seismic tomography [Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010] to a depth of about 600 km (Fig. 7. The southward-stretching edge of the sub-cratonic mantle has played a major role in the evolution of the Central Asian orogenic belt. In the Paleozoic, the position and the configuration of the accretional margin of the Siberian paleocontinent were determined by the hidden boundary of the craton (Fig. 8, A. Along the craton’s boundary, rifting zones of various ages are located, and intrusions are concentrated, which genesis was related to extension settings (Fig. 8, B. The Cenozoic sedimentary basins are located above the hidden edge of the Siberian craton, which gives evidence of involvement of the deep lithospheric structure in the formation of the recent destruction zone. The basin of Lake Baikal is located along the mantle edge of the Siberian craton, and the basin’s crescent shape accentuates the strike of the mantle edge.In the region under study, the wave nature of seismicity is most evidently manifested by the cyclicity of the strongest earthquakes in the Baikal zone (Table 2. Three seismic cycles are distinguished as follows: (1 at the turn of the 20th century (earthquakes in the period from 1885 to 1931, M=6.6–8.2, (2 the middle of the 20th century (earthquakes from 1950 to 1967, M=6.8–8.1, and (3 at the turn of the 21st century (earthquakes from 1991 to 2012, M=6.3–7.3. While moving in the mantle, the deformation front collapses with the craton’s basement, partially releases its energy to the

  4. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  5. Correlations between Energy and Displacement Demands for Performance-Based Seismic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaioli, Fabrizio; Bruno, Silvia; Decanini, Luis; Saragoni, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    The development of a scientific framework for performance-based seismic engineering requires, among other steps, the evaluation of ground motion intensity measures at a site and the characterization of their relationship with suitable engineering demand parameters (EDPs) which describe the performance of a structure. In order to be able to predict the damage resulting from earthquake ground motions in a structural system, it is first necessary to properly identify ground motion parameters that are well correlated with structural response and, in turn, with damage. Since structural damage during an earthquake ground motion may be due to excessive deformation or to cumulative cyclic damage, reliable methods for estimating displacement demands on structures are needed. Even though the seismic performance is directly related to the global and local deformations of the structure, energy-based methodologies appear more helpful in concept, as they permit a rational assessment of the energy absorption and dissipation mechanisms that can be effectively accomplished to balance the energy imparted to the structure. Moreover, energy-based parameters are directly related to cycles of response of the structure and, therefore, they can implicitly capture the effect of ground motion duration, which is ignored by conventional spectral parameters. Therefore, the identification of reliable relationships between energy and displacement demands represents a fundamental issue in both the development of more reliable seismic code provisions and the evaluation of seismic vulnerability aimed at the upgrading of existing hazardous facilities. As these two aspects could become consistently integrated within a performance-based seismic design methodology, understanding how input and dissipated energy are correlated with displacement demands emerges as a decisive prerequisite. The aim of the present study is the establishment of functional relationships between input and dissipated energy

  6. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  7. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack

    2014-01-01

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  8. A wave model test bed study for wave energy resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Neary, Vincent S.; Wang, Taiping; Gunawan, Budi; Dallman, Annie R.; Wu, Wei-Cheng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a test bed study conducted to evaluate best practices in wave modeling to characterize energy resources. The model test bed off the central Oregon Coast was selected because of the high wave energy and available measured data at the site. Two third-generation spectral wave models, SWAN and WWIII, were evaluated. A four-level nested-grid approach—from global to test bed scale—was employed. Model skills were assessed using a set of model performance metrics based on comparing six simulated wave resource parameters to observations from a wave buoy inside the test bed. Both WWIII and SWAN performed well at the test bed site and exhibited similar modeling skills. The ST4 package with WWIII, which represents better physics for wave growth and dissipation, out-performed ST2 physics and improved wave power density and significant wave height predictions. However, ST4 physics tended to overpredict the wave energy period. The newly developed ST6 physics did not improve the overall model skill for predicting the six wave resource parameters. Sensitivity analysis using different wave frequencies and direction resolutions indicated the model results were not sensitive to spectral resolutions at the test bed site, likely due to the absence of complex bathymetric and geometric features.

  9. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  10. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  11. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  12. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  13. Statistical analysis of laser-interferometric detector Dylkin-1 data and data on seismic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, R S; Bochkarev, V V; Dulkyn, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Scientific Center of Gravitational-Wave Research Dulkyn, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation))" >Skochilov, A F

    2014-01-01

    This work presents statistical analysis of data collected from laser interferometric detector ''Dylkin-1'' and nearby seismic stations. The final goal of Dylkin project consists in creating detector of theoretically predicted gravitational waves produced by binary relativistic astrophysical objects. Currently, works are underway to improve sensitivity of detector by 2-3 orders. The goals of this research were to test isolation of detector from noise caused by seismic waves and to find out whether it is sensitive to variations in the gradient of gravitational potential (acceleration of free fall) caused by free Earth oscillations. Noise isolation has been tested by comparing energy of signals during significant seismic events. Sensitivity to variations in acceleration of free fall has been tested by means of cross-spectral analysis

  14. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Lopez, M.; Carballo, R.; Castro, A. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Hydraulic Engineering, E.P.S., Campus Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fraguela, J.A. [University of A Coruna, E.P.S., Campus de Esteiro s/n, Ferrol (Spain); Frigaard, P. [University of Aalborg, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK 9000 (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO{sub 2}-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996-2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location of ports, navigation routes, and fishing and aquaculture zones, an area is selected for wave energy exploitation. The transformation of the offshore wave field as it propagates into this area is computed by means of a nearshore wave model (SWAN) in order to select the optimum locations for a wave farm. Two zones emerge as those with the highest potential for wave energy exploitation. The large modifications in the available wave power resulting from relatively small changes of position are made apparent in the process. (author)

  15. Seismic characterization of the Chelyabinsk meteor's terminal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Álvaro; Heimann, Sebastian; Wang, Rongjiang; Cesca, Simone; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    On February 15th, 2013, an exceptionally large meteor in the region of Chelyabinsk, Russia, produced a powerful shock wave which caused unprecedented damage to people and property, the strongest atmospheric infrasound signal ever recorded, and remarkable ground motion. Here we describe and model the resulting Rayleigh waves, recorded at broadband seismic stations at distances from ~230 to ~4,100 km. Our full-waveform modeling uses a seismogram simulation code specifically tailored to consider wave propagation in the atmosphere and solid Earth, and the coupling at the interface between them. An isotropic point-like airburst reproduces very well the available seismic observations, without requiring a more complex explanation, such as a moving source. The measured seismic shaking was generated by direct coupling of the atmospheric shock wave to the ground, and then it propagated outwards faster than the atmospheric shock wave itself, at up to 3.9 km/s. The best-fitting airburst location (61.22° E, 54.88° N) is SW of Chelyabinsk city, exactly at the terminal part of the meteor's trajectory, just after it experienced a dramatic flare, with apparent brightness larger than the Sun's. We estimated the meteor's ground path from published trajectory data, eyewitness observations, and detailed satellite imagery of the exact location where a major meteorite fragment landed, in the frozen Lake Chebarkul (60.32074° E, 54.95966° N). Fixing the source origin time allowed us calculating that the explosion took place in the stratosphere, at an altitude of 22.5 ± 1.5 km. This value is lower than the reported altitude of peak brightness (about 29.5 km), but more consistent with the observations of shock wave travel times. Such results highlight the importance of terminal energy release down to lower altitude. We analyzed a surveillance video recorded inside a factory (61.347° E, 54.902° N) at Korkino, a locality close to the airburst. It shows a time delay of 87.5 seconds

  16. Parallel 3D Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in the Structure of Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, A.; Furumura, T.; Hirahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    We performed large-scale parallel simulations of the seismic wave propagation to understand the complex wave behavior in the 3D basin structure of the Nobi Plain, which is one of the high population cities in central Japan. In this area, many large earthquakes occurred in the past, such as the 1891 Nobi earthquake (M8.0), the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9) and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake (M6.8). In order to mitigate the potential disasters for future earthquakes, 3D subsurface structure of Nobi Plain has recently been investigated by local governments. We referred to this model together with bouguer anomaly data to construct a detail 3D basin structure model for Nobi plain, and conducted computer simulations of ground motions. We first evaluated the ground motions for two small earthquakes (M4~5); one occurred just beneath the basin edge at west, and the other occurred at south. The ground motions from these earthquakes were well recorded by the strong motion networks; K-net, Kik-net, and seismic intensity instruments operated by local governments. We compare the observed seismograms with simulations to validate the 3D model. For the 3D simulation we sliced the 3D model into a number of layers to assign to many processors for concurrent computing. The equation of motions are solved using a high order (32nd) staggered-grid FDM in horizontal directions, and a conventional (4th-order) FDM in vertical direction with the MPI inter-processor communications between neighbor region. The simulation model is 128km by 128km by 43km, which is discritized at variable grid size of 62.5-125m in horizontal directions and of 31.25-62.5m in vertical direction. We assigned a minimum shear wave velocity is Vs=0.4km/s, at the top of the sedimentary basin. The seismic sources for the small events are approximated by double-couple point source and we simulate the seismic wave propagation at maximum frequency of 2Hz. We used the Earth Simulator (JAMSTEC, Yokohama Inst) to conduct such

  17. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  18. Enhancing Wave Energy Competitiveness through Co-Located Wind and Wave Energy Farms. A Review on the Shadow Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sharay Astariz; Gregorio Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy is one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels due to the enormous available resource; however, its development may be slowed as it is often regarded as uneconomical. The largest cost reductions are expected to be obtained through economies of scale and technological progress. In this sense, the incorporation of wave energy systems into offshore wind energy farms is an opportunity to foster the development of wave energy. The synergies between both renewables can be rea...

  19. Study of the rates of dissemination of elastic waves with diffraction transformation of seismic recordings. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, A.N.; Bulatov, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for determining effective velocities in the process of diffraction transformation of seismic waves. It is based on summation with conjugate recordings. Results of the study of velocities are indicated in materials of Sakhalin. A difference is noted in the procedures for computing effective velocities in the OGT method and diffraction transformation.

  20. Teaching on ocean-wave-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falnes, J. [Norges teknisk-naturvitskaplege univ., Inst. for fysikk, Trondheim (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    Ocean-wave energy utilisation has for 27 years been a university research subject, in which the author has been active from the first year. In this paper he presents some information related to his teaching on the subject during many of these years. This includes teaching on the pre-university level and, in particular, development of the wave-energy module for an educational CD-ROM on sustainable technology and renewable energy. Education of the general public is very important. On the other hand teaching of doctor students and other wave-energy researchers is also a subject of the paper. (au)

  1. The discrete Kalman filtering approach for seismic signals deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic signals are a convolution of reflectivity and seismic wavelet. One of the most important stages in seismic data processing is deconvolution process; the process of deconvolution is inverse filters based on Wiener filter theory. This theory is limited by certain modelling assumptions, which may not always valid. The discrete form of the Kalman filter is then used to generate an estimate of the reflectivity function. The main advantage of Kalman filtering is capability of technique to handling continually time varying models and has high resolution capabilities. In this work, we use discrete Kalman filter that it was combined with primitive deconvolution. Filtering process works on reflectivity function, hence the work flow of filtering is started with primitive deconvolution using inverse of wavelet. The seismic signals then are obtained by convoluting of filtered reflectivity function with energy waveform which is referred to as the seismic wavelet. The higher frequency of wavelet gives smaller wave length, the graphs of these results are presented.

  2. Effect of the selected seismic energy dissipation capacity on the materials quantity for reinforced concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Benjumea Royero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regarding their design of reinforced concrete structural walls, the Colombian seismic design building code allows the engineer to select one of the three seismic energy dissipation capacity (ordinary, moderate, and special depending on the seismic hazard of the site. Despite this, it is a common practice to choose the minor requirement for the site because it is thought that selecting a higher requirement will lead to larger structural materials amounts and, therefore, cost increments.  Method: In this work, an analytical study was performed in order to determine the effect of the selected energy dissipation capacity on the quantity of materials and ductility displacement capacity of R/C walls. The study was done for a region with low seismic hazard, mainly because this permitted to explore and compare the use of the three seismic energy dissipations capacities. The effect of different parameters such as the wall total height and thickness, the tributary loaded area, and the minimum volumetric steel ratio were studied. Results: The total amount of steel required for the walls with moderate and special energy dissipation capacity corresponds, on average, to 77% and 89%, respectively, of the quantity required for walls with minimum capacity. Conclusions: it is possible to achieve reductions in the total steel required weight when adopting either moderated or special seismic energy dissipation instead of the minimum capacity.  Additionally, a significant increment in the seismic ductility displacements capacity of the wall was obtained.

  3. Reduction of computing time for seismic applications based on the Helmholtz equation by Graphics Processing Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knibbe, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas industry makes use of computational intensive algorithms to provide an image of the subsurface. The image is obtained by sending wave energy into the subsurface and recording the signal required for a seismic wave to reflect back to the surface from the Earth interfaces that may have

  4. Probabilistic Design of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferreira, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Wave energy has a large potential for contributing significantly to production of renewable energy. However, the wave energy sector is still not able to deliver cost competitive and reliable solutions. But the sector has already demonstrated several proofs of concepts. The design of wave energy...... devices is a new and expanding technical area where there is no tradition for probabilistic design—in fact very little full scale devices has been build to date, so it can be said that no design tradition really exists in this area. For this reason it is considered to be of great importance to develop...... and advocate for a probabilistic design approach, as it is assumed (in other areas this has been demonstrated) that this leads to more economical designs compared to designs based on deterministic methods. In the present paper a general framework for probabilistic design and reliability analysis of wave energy...

  5. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  6. Evidence of Apulian crustal structures related to low energy seismicity (Murge, Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gaudio, V.; Ripa, R. R.; Iurilli, V.; Moretti, M.; Pieri, P. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Geologia e Geofisica; Festa, V. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. Geomineralogico; Pierri, P. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Osservatorio Sismologico; Calcagnile, G. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Geologia e Geofisica; Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Osservatorio Sismologico; Tropeano, M [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche

    2001-12-01

    The discovery of recent co-seismic sedimentary structures and the detection of low energy seismic activity in the Murgian plateau (Apulia, Southern Italy) motivated a more detailed examination of the tectonics in this part of the Apulian plate commonly believed to be aseismic. In particular, it was examined the north-western zone where a seismic sequence with maximum magnitude 3.2 and tensional focal mechanism occurred in 1991. The analysis of the existing gravimetric data, integrated by three new profiles carried out across the epicentral area, disclosed an anomaly possibly due to an old tensional tectonic structure located within the upper crust. Even though the depth and the age hypothesised for the anomaly source would exclude a direct causal connection with the observed seismicity, this structure could be a shallower expression of a tectonic structure extending down to the crystalline basement: it could represent a zone of relative weakness where the regional stress, due to the interactions between Apennines and Apulian plate, encounters conditions facilitating the release of seismic energy.

  7. Poisson's ratio model derived from P- and S-wave reflection seismic data at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilecke, Thies; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Tanner, David C.; Ziesch, Jennifer; Research Group Protect

    2014-05-01

    Compressional wave (P-wave) reflection seismic field measurements are a standard tool for subsurface exploration. 2-D seismic measurements are often used for overview measurements, but also as near-surface supplement to fill gaps that often exist in 3-D seismic data sets. Such supplementing 2-D measurements are typically simple with respect to field layout. This is an opportunity for the use of shear waves (S-waves). Within the last years, S-waves have become more and more important. One reason is that P- and S-waves are differently sensitive to fluids and pore fill so that the additional S-wave information can be used to enhance lithological studies. Another reason is that S-waves have the advantage of higher spatial resolution. Within the same signal bandwidth they typically have about half the wavelength of P-waves. In near-surface unconsolidated sediments they can even enhance the structural resolution by one order of magnitude. We make use of these capabilities within the PROTECT project. In addition to already existing 2-D P-wave data, we carried out a near surface 2-D S-wave field survey at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, close to Warrnambool, Australia in November 2013. The combined analysis of P-wave and S-wave data is used to construct a Poisson's Ratio 2-D model down to roughly 600 m depth. The Poisson's ratio values along a 1 km long profile at the site are surprisingly high, ranging from 0.47 in the carbonate-dominated near surface to 0.4 at depth. In the literature, average lab measurements of 0.22 for unfissured carbonates and 0.37 for fissured examples have been reported. The high values that we found may indicate areas of rather unconsolidated or fractured material, or enhanced fluid contents, and will be subject of further studies. This work is integrated in a larger workflow towards prediction of CO2 leakage and monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general. Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored in part by the Australian

  8. Thermal regime of the lithosphere and prediction of seismic hazard in the Caspian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, L.E.; Solodilov, L.N.; Kondorskaya, N.V.; Gasanov, A.G; Panahi, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Prediction of seicmicity is one of elements of ecology hazard warning. In this collective research, it is elaborated in three directions : quantitative estimate of regional faults by level of seismic activity; ascertainment of space position of earthquake risk zones, determination of high seismic potential sites for the period of the next 3-5 years. During elaboration of prediction, it takes into account that peculiar feature all over the is determined by relationship of about 90 percent of earthquake hypocenters and released energy of seismic waves with elactic-brittle ayer of the lithosphere. Concetration of earthquakes epicenters is established predominantly in zones of complex structure of elastic-brittle layer where gradient of it thickness is 20-30 km. Directions of hypocenters migration in the plastic-viscous layer reveal a space position of seismic dangerous zones. All this provides a necessity for generalization of data on location of earthquakes epicenters; determination of their magnitudes, space position of regional faults and heat flow with calculation of thermal regime being made for clarification of the lithosphere and elastic-brittle thickness variations separately. General analysis includes a calculation of released seismic wave energy and determination of peculiar features of its distribution in the entire region and also studies of hypocenters migration in the plastic-viscous layer of the litosphere in time.

  9. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

    2016-11-01

    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  10. Towards a quantitative interpretation of global seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trampert, Jeannot; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2005-01-01

    We review the success of seismic tomography in delineating spatial variations in the propagation speed of seismic waves on length scales from several hundreds to many thousands of kilometers. In most interpretations these wave speed variations are thought to reflect variations in temperature.

  11. Numerical simulations (2D) on the influence of pre-existing local structures and seismic source characteristics in earthquake-volcano interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Cristian; Galván, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake triggering of hydrothermal and volcanic systems is ubiquitous, but the underlying processes driving these systems are not well-understood. We numerically investigate the influence of seismic wave interaction with volcanic systems simulated as a trapped, high-pressure fluid reservoir connected to a fluid-filled fault system in a 2-D poroelastic medium. Different orientations and earthquake magnitudes are studied to quantify dynamic and static stress, and pore pressure changes induced by a seismic event. Results show that although the response of the system is mainly dominated by characteristics of the radiated seismic waves, local structures can also play an important role on the system dynamics. The fluid reservoir affects the seismic wave front, distorts the static overpressure pattern induced by the earthquake, and concentrates the kinetic energy of the incoming wave on its boundaries. The static volumetric stress pattern inside the fault system is also affected by the local structures. Our results show that local faults play an important role in earthquake-volcanic systems dynamics by concentrating kinetic energy inside and acting as wave-guides that have a breakwater-like behavior. This generates sudden changes in pore pressure, volumetric expansion, and stress gradients. Local structures also influence the regional Coulomb yield function. Our results show that local structures affect the dynamics of volcanic and hydrothermal systems, and should be taken into account when investigating triggering of these systems from nearby or distant earthquakes.

  12. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  13. Clustering of cycloidal wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G.

    2016-03-29

    A wave energy conversion system uses a pair of wave energy converters (WECs) on respective active mountings on a floating platform, so that the separation of the WECs from each other or from a central WEC can be actively adjusted according to the wavelength of incident waves. The adjustable separation facilitates operation of the system to cancel reactive forces, which may be generated during wave energy conversion. Modules on which such pairs of WECs are mounted can be assembled with one or more central WECs to form large clusters in which reactive forces and torques can be made to cancel. WECs of different sizes can be employed to facilitate cancelation of reactive forces and torques.

  14. Structural analysis of S-wave seismics around an urban sinkhole: evidence of enhanced dissolution in a strike-slip fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja H.; Tanner, David C.; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-12-01

    In November 2010, a large sinkhole opened up in the urban area of Schmalkalden, Germany. To determine the key factors which benefited the development of this collapse structure and therefore the dissolution, we carried out several shear-wave reflection-seismic profiles around the sinkhole. In the seismic sections we see evidence of the Mesozoic tectonic movement in the form of a NW-SE striking, dextral strike-slip fault, known as the Heßleser Fault, which faulted and fractured the subsurface below the town. The strike-slip faulting created a zone of small blocks ( sinkholes and dissolution-induced depressions. Since the processes are still ongoing, the occurrence of a new sinkhole cannot be ruled out. This case study demonstrates how S-wave seismics can characterize a sinkhole and, together with geological information, can be used to study the processes that result in sinkhole formation, such as a near-surface fault zone located in soluble rocks. The more complex the fault geometry and interaction between faults, the more prone an area is to sinkhole occurrence.

  15. Energy in one-dimensional linear waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, C E; Roatta, A; Welti, R J

    2011-01-01

    This work is based on propagation phenomena that conform to the classical wave equation. General expressions of power, the energy conservation equation in continuous media and densities of the kinetic and potential energies are presented. As an example, we study the waves in a string and focused attention on the case of standing waves. The treatment is applicable to introductory science textbooks. (letters and comment)

  16. Controller for a wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes...

  18. Application of Rudoe’s Formula in Long Seismic Surface Wave Paths Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm to compute accurate distances over grid cells crossed by seismic surface wave paths by Rudoe’s formula is proposed. The intersection coordinates between paths and the geodetic grid are also computed, which data are exhibited in an azimuthal equidistant projection to check the results. GRS-80 is the adopted ellipsoidal Earth model. The algorithm computes the intermediate intersections, from both forward and reciprocal normal sections given by Rudoe’s method, which separation may be greater than the cell size. It was tested on a data set including 3,269 source-station paths, which seismic events were recorded at 23 IRIS stations. The epicentral distances range from 1,634 km to 16,400 km, which the grid spreads over 149°E x 21°W, and 50°N x 90°S. The results show that the estimated intersections accuracy depends on the path azimuth and latitude, which influence may be significative for very long distances as in teleseismic applications, which argues for the algorithm application.

  19. Seismic surface-wave prospecting methods for sinkhole hazard assessment along the Dead Sea shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezersky, M.; Bodet, L.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.-Y.; Keydar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Dead Sea's coastal areas have been dramatically hit by sinkholes occurrences since around 1990 and there is an obvious potential for further collapse beneath main highways, agricultural lands and other populated places. The sinkhole hazard in this area threatens human lives and compromise future economic developments. The understanding of such phenomenon is consequently of great importance in the development of protective solutions. Several geological and geophysical studies tend to show that evaporite karsts, caused by slow salt dissolution, are linked to the mechanism of sinkhole formation along both Israel and Jordan shorelines. The continuous drop of the Dead Sea level, at a rate of 1m/yr during the past decade, is generally proposed as the main triggering factor. The water table lowering induces the desaturation of shallow sediments overlying buried cavities in 10 to 30 meters thick salt layers, at depths from 25 to 50 meters. Both the timing and location of sinkholes suggest that: (1) the salt weakens as result of increasing fresh water circulation, thus enhancing the karstification process; (2) sinkholes appear to be related to the decompaction of the sediments above karstified zones. The location, depth, thickness and weakening of salt layers along the Dead Sea shorelines, as well as the thickness and mechanical properties of the upper sedimentary deposits, are thus considered as controlling factors of this ongoing process. Pressure-wave seismic methods are typically used to study sinkhole developments in this area. P-wave refraction and reflection methods are very useful to delineate the salt layers and to determine the thickness of overlying sediments. But the knowledge of shear-wave velocities (Vs) should add valuable insights on their mechanical properties, more particularly when the groundwater level plays an important role in the process. However, from a practical point of view, the measurement of Vs remains delicate because of well-known shear

  20. MIGRATIONS OF RELEASED SEISMIC ENERGY IN VARIOUS GEODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Novopashina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of slow seismic activity migration have been revealed by the space-time analysis of the total earthquake energy (LgEsum. Our study of seismic activity covers the fragments of  the Central Asian, Pacific and Alpine seismic belts: the Baikal rift system (BRS, Russia, the San Andreas fault zone (California, USA, the Christchurch fault (New Zealand, the North and East Anatolian faults (Turkey, the Philippine subduction zone, and the central fragment of the Mid-Atlantic oceanic ridge. The chains of LgEsum clusters mark the propagation of the maximum stresses front in the weaker crust areas, the zones of fault dynamic influence, and the regions of conjugated tectonic structures. The migration process is characterized by a periodicity, changes in direction, and similar modular values of the migration rates within a single fault segment (or a fault zone, which is probably related to the mechanical and rheological crust and upper mantle properties. The data analysis shows that a strong earthquake source may occur at a location wherein the front of seismic activity propagates with periodical changes in direction, and such a source can develop within a period that is multiple of the migration fluctuations, probably associated with the influence of external periodic factors. The main periods of migration fluctuations (2–4 years, and 9–13 years, in different ratios are present in the seismic regimes of different seismic belts. The migration rate, as well as the propagation velocity of the maximum stresses front, directly depends on the velocity of movements between the plates in the region.

  1. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  2. Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.

  3. Levelized Cost of Energy of the Weptos wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the cost of energy calculations of a wave energy array of 90 MW, consisting of 25 x 3.6 MW Weptos wave energy converters. The calculation has been made in analogy with a publically available document presented by the UK government, covering the case of a similar size wind...

  4. Seismic Imaging of the Source Physics Experiment Site with the Large-N Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. The goal of SPE is to understand seismic wave generation and propagation from these explosions. To achieve this goal, we need an accurate geophysical model of the SPE site. A Large-N seismic array that was deployed at the SPE site during one of the chemical explosions (SPE-5) helps us construct high-resolution local geophysical model. The Large-N seismic array consists of 996 geophones, and covers an area of approximately 2 × 2.5 km. The array is located in the northern end of the Yucca Flat basin, at a transition from Climax Stock (granite) to Yucca Flat (alluvium). In addition to the SPE-5 explosion, the Large-N array also recorded 53 weight drops. Using the Large-N seismic array recordings, we perform body wave and surface wave velocity analysis, and obtain 3D seismic imaging of the SPE site for the top crust of approximately 1 km. The imaging results show clear variation of geophysical parameter with local geological structures, including heterogeneous weathering layer and various rock types. The results of this work are being incorporated in the larger 3D modeling effort of the SPE program to validate the predictive models developed for the site.

  5. Investigation of geophysical methods for assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams : a study of through-dam seismic testing at WAC Bennett Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffran, P.; Jeffries, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-15

    Crosshole tomography is used to establish the distribution of seismic velocity between drill holes. The through-dam mode takes advantage of the triangular cross-section of earth embankments, obviating the need for drill holes. Seismic energy, generated on one face of the dam, passes underneath the crest and is detected by sensors arrayed on the opposite face. The sinkholes discovered at WAC Bennett Dam in 1996 provided an opportunity to test the procedure. Using p-wave energy, two series of measurements were conducted, notably one immediately before remediation of one sinkhole, and a second one shortly after the sinkhole was repaired. The known defect was successfully imaged by the first round of measurements. This report presented the results of an investigation of the through-dam seismic method using propagation of seismic waves through a dam from upstream to downstream, or vice-versa. The purpose of the study was to determine if this procedure could characterize the distribution of seismic velocity within a dam in an accurate and cost effective manner. The report presented the methods of velocity testing such as crosshole and downhole, and tomography; and through-dam measurements. Background to the Bennett Dam studies was also provided, with particular reference to the Bennett Dam sinkholes; sinkhole investigations; working hypothesis for sinkhole development; sinkhole number one characterization; and sinkhole remediation. An analysis of compression wave testing at Bennett Dam and shear wave testing was then offered. Other topics that were discussed included field test procedures; methodologies for data processing; p-waves versus s-waves; applicability of the research; and costs of through-dam surveys. It was concluded that under the right circumstances, through-dam seismic testing was capable of detecting changed conditions in an embankment dam. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 41 figs., 1 appendix.

  6. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  7. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  8. Seismic study of soil dynamics at Garner Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archuleta, R.J.; Seale, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Garner Valley downhole array (GVDA) of force-balanced accelerometers was designed to determine the effect that near-surface soil layers have on surface ground motion by measuring in situ seismic waves at various depths. Although there are many laboratory, theoretical and numerical studies that are used to predict the effects that local site geology might have on seismic waves, there are very few direct measurements that can be used to confirm the predictions made by these methods. The effects of local site geology on seismic ground motions are critical for estimating the base motion of structures. The variations in site amplifications at particular periods can range over a factor of 20 or more in comparing amplitude spectra from rock and soil sites, e.g., Mexico City (1985) or San Francisco (1989). The basic phenomenon of nonlinear soil response, and by inference severe attenuation of seismic waves, has rarely been measured although it is commonly observed in laboratory experiments. The basic question is whether or not the local site geology amplifies are attenuates the seismic ground motion. Because the answer depends on the interaction between the local site geology and the amplitude as well as the frequency content of the incoming seismic waves, the in situ measurements must sample the depth variations of the local structure as well as record seismic waves over as wide a range as possible in amplitude and frequency

  9. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research

  10. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... power outputs of three wave energy technologies in the Danish North Sea are examined. The simultaneous and co-located forecast and buoy-measured wave parameters at Hanstholm, Denmark, during a non-consecutive autumn and winter 3-month period form the basis of the investigation. The objective...

  11. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  12. Sloshing of coolant in a seismically isolated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.S.; Guildys, J.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    During a seismic event, the liquid coolant inside the reactor vessel has sloshing motion which is a low-frequency phenomenon. In a reactor system incorporated with seismic isolation, the isolation frequency usually is also very low. There is concern on the potential amplification of sloshing motion of the liquid coolant. This study investigates the effects of seismic isolation on the sloshing of liquid coolant inside the reactor vessel of a liquid metal cooled reactor. Based on a synthetic ground motion whose response spectra envelop those specified by the NRC Regulator Guide 1.60, it is found that the maximum sloshing wave height increases from 18 in. to almost 30 in. when the system is seismically isolated. Since higher sloshing wave may introduce severe impact forces and thermal shocks to the reactor closure and other components within the reactor vessel, adequate design considerations should be made either to suppress the wave height or to reduce the effects caused by high waves

  13. Advances in crosshole seismic instrumentation for dam safety monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, G.; Anderlini, C. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Taylor, R. [RST Instruments Ltd., Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since 1996, crosshole shear wave velocity measurements have been performed annually at the WAC Bennett Dam in order to monitor the performance of the dam core and integrity of the 1997 sinkhole repairs. As the testing showed to be responsive to embankment conditions and capable of detecting subtle changes, the testing program was expanded to include the development of an electrical shear wave source capable of carrying out crosshole seismic testing in Mica and Revelstoke Dams over distances of 100 metres and depths of 250 metres. This paper discussed the development and capabilities of the crosshole seismic instrumentation and presented preliminary results obtained during initial testing. Specific topics that were discussed included conventional crosshole seismic equipment; design basics; description of new crosshole seismic equipment; and automated in-situ crosshole seismic system (ACSS) system description and operation. It was concluded that the ACSS and accompanying electrical shear wave source, developed as part of the project, has advanced and improved on traditional crosshole seismic equipment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E.; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D.; Ruckelshaus, Marry H.; Arkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Beck, Michael W.; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M. A.; Levin, Phil S.; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824

  15. Catching the right wave: evaluating wave energy resources and potential compatibility with existing marine and coastal uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Marry H; Arkema, Katie K; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pinsky, Malin L; Beck, Michael W; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M A; Levin, Phil S; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses.

  16. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozger, M.; Altunkaynak, A.; Sen, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S. (author)

  17. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezger, Mehmet; Altunkaynak, Abduesselam; Sen, Zekai

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S

  18. Earthquake source studies and seismic imaging in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, C.; Silwal, V.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska is one of the world's most seismically and tectonically active regions. Its enhanced seismicity, including slab seismicity down to 180 km, provides opportunities (1) to characterize pervasive crustal faulting and slab deformation through the estimation of moment tensors and (2) to image subsurface structures to help understand the tectonic evolution of Alaska. Most previous studies of earthquakes and seismic imaging in Alaska have emphasized earthquake locations and body-wave travel-time tomography. In the past decade, catalogs of seismic moment tensors have been established, while seismic surface waves, active-source data, and potential field data have been used to improve models of seismic structure. We have developed moment tensor catalogs in the regions of two of the largest sedimentary basins in Alaska: Cook Inlet forearc basin, west of Anchorage, and Nenana basin, west of Fairbanks. Our moment tensor solutions near Nenana basin suggest a transtensional tectonic setting, with the basin developing in a stepover of a left-lateral strike-slip fault system. We explore the effects of seismic wave propagation from point-source and finite-source earthquake models by performing three-dimensional wavefield simulations using seismic velocity models that include major sedimentary basins. We will use our catalog of moment tensors within an adjoint-based, iterative inversion to improve the three-dimensional tomographic model of Alaska.

  19. Excitation of seismic waves by a tornado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovcin, A.; Tanimoto, T.; Twardzik, C.

    2016-12-01

    Tornadoes are among the most common natural disasters to occur in the United States. Various methods are currently used in tornado forecasting, including surface weather stations, weather balloons and satellite and Doppler radar. These methods work for detecting possible locations of tornadoes and funnel clouds, but knowing when a tornado has touched down still strongly relies on reports from spotters. Studying tornadoes seismically offers an opportunity to know when a tornado has touched down without requiring an eyewitness report. With the installation of Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA), there have been an increased number of tornadoes that have come within close range of seismometers. We have identified seismic signals corresponding to three tornadoes that occurred in 2011 in the central US. These signals were recorded by the TA station closest to each of the tornado tracks. For each tornado, the amplitudes of the seismic signals increase when the storm is in contact with the ground, and continue until the tornado lifts off some time later. This occurs at both high and low frequencies. In this study we will model the seismic signal generated by a tornado at low frequencies (below 0.1 Hz). We will begin by modeling the signal from the Joplin tornado, an EF5 rated tornado which occurred in Missouri on May 22, 2011. By approximating the tornado as a vertical force, we model the generated signal as the tornado moves along its track and changes in strength. By modeling the seismic waveform generated by a tornado, we can better understand the seismic-excitation process. It could also provide a way to quantitatively compare tornadoes. Additional tornadoes to model include the Calumet-El Reno-Piedmont-Guthrie (CEPG) and Chickasa-Blanchard-Newcastle (CBN) tornadoes, both of which occurred on May 24, 2011 in Oklahoma.

  20. Joint Inversion of Surface Waves Dispersion and Receiver Function at Cuba Seismic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2010-06-01

    Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions have been used to estimate the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances between 30 o and 90 o and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion have been taken from a surface-wave tomography study of the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (around 27 km) is found at Cascorro (CCC), Soroa (SOR), Moa (MOA) and Maisi (MAS) stations while the thinnest crust (around 18 km) is found at stations Rio Carpintero (RCC) and Guantanamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. The inversion shows a crystalline crust with S-wave velocity between 2.9 km/s and 3.9 km/s and at the crust-mantle transition zone the shear wave velocity varies from 3.9 km/s and 4.3 km/s. The lithospheric thickness varies from 74 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to 200 km in the middle of the Cuban island. Evidences of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate are present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY and a thicker slab is present below the SOR station. (author)

  1. Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Bae; Horton, W.

    1990-05-01

    Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. 16 refs., 1 tab

  2. Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changbae Kim; Horton, W.

    1991-01-01

    Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. (author)

  3. Waves energy comes to surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The wave- or thalasso-energy, potentially as promising as wind energy, have started to develop in Europe. Great Britain has already a good experience in this domain but France shows also ambitions in this beginning industry with several projects in progress. This article makes an overview of the existing tide-, current- and wave-powered generators: tide mills, underwater hydro-turbines, immersed linear generators, air-compression systems, buoy systems, etc. (J.S.)

  4. Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the power performance results of the experimental study of the WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC). This novel device combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with an adjustable structure that can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer...... the absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...

  5. Time-averaged and time-dependent energy-related quantities of harmonic waves in inhomogeneous viscoelastic anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2007), s. 1253-1261 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : inhomogeneous media * seismic anisotropy * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2007

  6. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  7. Preliminary Analysis of a Submerged Wave Energy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. R.; Wagner, J. J.; Hayatdavoodi, M.; Ertekin, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Preliminary analysis of a submerged wave energy harvesting device is presented. The device is composed of a thin, horizontally submerged plate that is restricted to heave oscillations under the influence of surface waves. The submerged plate is oscillating, and it can be attached to a fixed rotor, or a piston, to harvest the wave energy. A fully submerged wave energy converter is preferred over a surface energy convertor due to its durability and less visual and physical distractions it presents. In this study, the device is subject to nonlinear shallow-water waves. Wave loads on the submerged oscillating plate are obtained via the Level I Green-Naghdi equations. The unsteady motion of the plate is obtained by solving the nonlinear equations of motion. The results are obtained for a range of waves with varying heights and periods. The amplitude and period of plate oscillations are analyzed as functions of the wave parameters and plate width. Particular attention is given to the selection of the site of desired wave field. Initial estimation on the amount of energy extraction from the device, located near shore at a given site, is provided.

  8. SeismicWaveTool: Continuous and discrete wavelet analysis and filtering for multichannel seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Rosa-Herranz, J. L.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; Martinez-Espla, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    A MATLAB-based computer code has been developed for the simultaneous wavelet analysis and filtering of multichannel seismic data. The considered time-frequency transforms include the continuous wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet transform and the discrete wavelet packet transform. The developed approaches provide a fast and precise time-frequency examination of the seismograms at different frequency bands. Moreover, filtering methods for noise, transients or even baseline removal, are implemented. The primary motivation is to support seismologists with a user-friendly and fast program for the wavelet analysis, providing practical and understandable results. Program summaryProgram title: SeismicWaveTool Catalogue identifier: AENG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 611072 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688355 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) version 7.8.0.347 (R2009a) or higher. Wavelet Toolbox is required. Computer: Developed on a MacBook Pro. Tested on Mac and PC. No computer-specific optimization was performed. Operating system: Any supporting MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) v7.8.0.347 (R2009a) or higher. Tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8, Windows XP and Vista. Classification: 13. Nature of problem: Numerous research works have developed a great number of free or commercial wavelet based software, which provide specific solutions for the analysis of seismic data. On the other hand, standard toolboxes, packages or libraries, such as the MathWorks' Wavelet Toolbox for MATLAB, offer command line functions and interfaces for the wavelet analysis of one-component signals. Thus, software usually is focused on very specific problems

  9. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  10. Explosion Generated Seismic Waves and P/S Methods of Discrimination from Earthquakes with Insights from the Nevada Source Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.; Pyle, M. L.; Pasyanos, M.; Mellors, R. J.; Dodge, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The relative amplitudes of seismic P-waves to S-waves are effective at identifying underground explosions among a background of natural earthquakes. These P/S methods appear to work best at frequencies above 2 Hz and at regional distances ( >200 km). We illustrate this with a variety of historic nuclear explosion data as well as with the recent DPRK nuclear tests. However, the physical basis for the generation of explosion S-waves, and therefore the predictability of this P/S technique as a function of path, frequency and event properties such as size, depth, and geology, remains incompletely understood. A goal of current research, such as the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to improve our physical understanding of the mechanisms of explosion S-wave generation and advance our ability to numerically model and predict them. The SPE conducted six chemical explosions between 2011 and 2016 in the same borehole in granite in southern Nevada. The explosions were at a variety of depths and sizes, ranging from 0.1 to 5 tons TNT equivalent yield. The largest were observed at near regional distances, with P/S ratios comparable to much larger historic nuclear tests. If we control for material property effects, the explosions have very similar P/S ratios independent of yield or magnitude. These results are consistent with explosion S-waves coming mainly from conversion of P- and surface waves, and are inconsistent with source-size based models. A dense sensor deployment for the largest SPE explosion allowed this conversion to be mapped in detail. This is good news for P/S explosion identification, which can work well for very small explosions and may be ultimately limited by S-wave detection thresholds. The SPE also showed explosion P-wave source models need to be updated for small and/or deeply buried cases. We are developing new P- and S-wave explosion models that better match all the empirical data. Historic nuclear explosion seismic data shows that the media in which

  11. Practical performances of MPC for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Tetu, Amelie; Hals, J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximising the efficiency of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is one of the important tasks toward the exploitation of the wave energy resource. Along with a proper design of the device, an important way to achieve better energy performances is to improve the wave-body interaction by applying an appro...

  12. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetschny, S.; Bohlen, T.; Nil, D. D.; Giese, R.

    2007-12-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. Within the \\it OnSite project founded by the BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) within \\it GeoTechnologien a new forward looking seismic imaging technique is developed to e.g. determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of \\it tunnel surface waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the front face they generate body waves (mainly S-waves) propagating further ahead. Reflected S-waves are back- converted into tunnel surface waves. For a theoretical description of the conversion process and for finding optimal acquisition geometries it is of importance to study the propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves. 3D seismic finite difference modeling and analytic solutions of the wave equation in cylindric coordinates revealed that at higher frequencies, i.e. if the tunnel diameter is significantly larger than the wavelength of S-waves, these surface waves can be regarded as Rayleigh-waves circulating the tunnel. For smaller frequencies, i.e. when the S-wavelength approaches the tunnel diameter, the propagation characteristics of these surface waves are then similar to S- waves. Field measurements performed by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany at the Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland) show both effects, i.e. the propagation of Rayleigh- and body-wave like waves along the tunnel. To enhance our understanding of the excitation and propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves the transition of Rayleigh to tube-waves waves is investigated both analytically and by numerical simulations.

  13. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Chen, Yi-Leng

    2011-01-01

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  14. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Alex; White, N. J.; Caulfield, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1,000 m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1,171 reflections, each of which is greater than 2 km in length. Power spectra of the horizontal gradient of isopycnal displacement, ϕξx, are calculated from these tracked reflections. At low horizontal wave numbers (kxcpm), ϕξx∝kx-0.2±0.6, in agreement with hydrographic observations of the internal wave field. The turbulent spectral subrange is rarely observed. Diapycnal diffusivity, K, is estimated from the observed internal wave spectral subrange of each tracked reflection using a fine-scale parametrization of turbulent mixing. Calculated values of K vary between 10-8 and 10-4 m2 s-1 with a mean value of K˜4×10-6 m2 s-1. The spatial distribution of turbulent mixing shows that K˜10-7 m2 s-1 away from the shelf edge in the upper 300 m where stratification is strong. Mixing is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude adjacent to the shoaling bathymetry of the continental slope. This overall pattern matches that determined by analyzing nearby suites of CTD casts. However, the range of values recovered by spectral analysis of the seismic image is greater as a consequence of significantly better horizontal resolution.

  15. Seismic Signals of the 2014 Landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, K.; Moran, S. C.; Malone, S. D.; Iverson, R. M.; George, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The 22 March 2014 landslide near Oso, Washington rapidly moved a large volume of material (~8 million m^3), resulting in the efficient generation of seismic waves that were recorded over 350 km away. Analysis of these seismic signals significantly improves our understanding of the dynamics and timing of events. In contrast to the double couple mechanism of earthquakes, at long periods, the equivalent mechanism of a landslide is a single force. Inversion of the long-period waves for the forces exerted on the earth by the landslide yields a time-series that peaks at nearly 10^10 N and lasts ~1.5 minutes. This result, when combined with higher-frequency wave analysis, eyewitness reports, and field observations, implies a complex failure sequence. The earliest force pulses begin before the buildup in high-frequency energy, suggesting the slide began coherently before transitioning within a minute into the highly disrupted and destructive debris-avalanche flow that killed 43 people. This transition may have been due to a collapse of additional material that loaded the material downslope. Seismically observable "aftershock" landslides continued for weeks. The first and largest occurred a few minutes after the main failure sequence, and was followed by 15 more over the next ~4 hours that were observable at the closest seismic station (11 km away). Three USGS "spiders" equipped with GPS and seismic sensors were deployed by helicopter 10 days later as part of a monitoring effort. Due to their proximity, these seismometers detected signals from even minor collapses, some visually identified by human observers. This augmented network revealed interesting temporal patterns in the post-slide activity, which was dominated by sloughing of material from the headscarp, but also creep of the upper block of the failure mass at a rate of about 1 cm/day. This study shows the value of seismic analysis in landslide investigations to provide timing constraints and help improve our

  16. Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhof Armando Luis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A geophysical survey involving seismic refraction tomography (SRT for mapping 'P' waves was carried out in Sierra Santa Clara, San Juan Province, Argentina in July 2009. The purpose of the geophysical survey was to determine the degree of fracturing and the rigidity of the rock mass through which it is planned to build a 290 m long road tunnel traversing the mountain almost perpendicular to the axis thereof, at around 100 m depth from the summit.

    Several difficulties arose from the operational point of view which made it almost impossible to conduct fieldwork in normal circumstances. Firstly, the topography had almost 45° slopes and 100 m research depths which would have involved having had to use explosives to generate seismic waves reaching sensors which had sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for distinguishing them. Legal restrictions regarding the use of explosives on the one hand and insufficient power when using hammer blows on the other made it necessary to design and build a gas-powered gun to achieve the minimum energy (2 kJ required for detecting seismic signals.

    Secondly, using conventional interpretation methods involving layered models was inoperable in such geological structures; seismic tomography methods were thus used which make use of the velocity gradient concept (both lateral and in-depth. This allowed mapping subsurface velocity variations in the form of velocity contour lines.

    The methodology used with the new seismic waves' source generator, as well as SRT application in this type of geological structure, demonstrated that satisfactory results could be obtained for this kind of geophysical study for geotechnical purposes.

    A geophysical survey involving seismic refraction tomography (SRT for mapping 'P' waves was

  17. Spectral element modelling of seismic wave propagation in visco-elastoplastic media including excess-pore pressure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Elif; Gélis, Céline; Bonilla, Luis Fabián; Delavaud, Elise

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation, considering soil nonlinearity, has become a major topic in seismic hazard studies when strong shaking is involved under particular soil conditions. Indeed, when strong ground motion propagates in saturated soils, pore pressure is another important parameter to take into account when successive phases of contractive and dilatant soil behaviour are expected. Here, we model 1-D seismic wave propagation in linear and nonlinear media using the spectral element numerical method. The study uses a three-component (3C) nonlinear rheology and includes pore-pressure excess. The 1-D-3C model is used to study the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake (ML 6.6), which was recorded at the Wildlife Refuge Liquefaction Array, USA. The data of this event present strong soil nonlinearity involving pore-pressure effects. The ground motion is numerically modelled for different assumptions on soil rheology and input motion (1C versus 3C), using the recorded borehole signals as input motion. The computed acceleration-time histories show low-frequency amplification and strong high-frequency damping due to the development of pore pressure in one of the soil layers. Furthermore, the soil is found to be more nonlinear and more dilatant under triaxial loading compared to the classical 1C analysis, and significant differences in surface displacements are observed between the 1C and 3C approaches. This study contributes to identify and understand the dominant phenomena occurring in superficial layers, depending on local soil properties and input motions, conditions relevant for site-specific studies.

  18. KMAH index and separation of PSP-waves from streamer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Georgy; Priimenko, Viatcheslav

    2017-08-01

    The presence of triplications (caustics) can be a serious problem in seismic data processing and analysis. The travel-time curve becomes multi-valued and the geometrical spreading correction factor tends to zero due to energy focusing. To select the regions of possible triplications (caustics) of travel-times, which can arise during the propagation of reflected seismic waves, we use the Keller-Maslov-Arnol'd-Hörmander (KMAH) index. The identification of such regions improves the selection of signals associated with target reflecting horizons and their use in solving various inverse dynamic problems, including amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) and full-waveform inversions. The importance of the KMAH index increases in 4D surveys when the structure of the model is already known, and it is necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of the shapes of seismic signals with increasing accuracy when solving inverse seismic problems. In addition, this index can be valuable when solving various marine seismic problems associated with single and converted waves, in particular with PSP-waves. The present work is dedicated to the separation of signals associated with this type of wave using surface marine seismic data. However, the proposed algorithm has a wider application. It is based on: (i) a priori information on the medium under study; (ii) ray tracing method. The ray tracing method enables the identification of the corresponding signals and the determination of the time and space intervals, in which such signals are most accurately traced. These intervals are used in the selection of target signals, particularly signals related to PSP-waves. In order to select optimal areas of observation with higher amplitudes of target signals, we use the τ -p transform. To improve the stability of the signal separation, KMAH index is used. This approach allows the elimination of possible triplications (caustics) in the travel-time curve from the selected intervals.

  19. Accuracy of finite-difference modeling of seismic waves : Simulation versus laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntsen, B.

    2017-12-01

    The finite-difference technique for numerical modeling of seismic waves is still important and for some areas extensively used.For exploration purposes is finite-difference simulation at the core of both traditional imaging techniques such as reverse-time migration and more elaborate Full-Waveform Inversion techniques.The accuracy and fidelity of finite-difference simulation of seismic waves are hard to quantify and meaningfully error analysis is really onlyeasily available for simplistic media. A possible alternative to theoretical error analysis is provided by comparing finite-difference simulated data with laboratory data created using a scale model. The advantage of this approach is the accurate knowledge of the model, within measurement precision, and the location of sources and receivers.We use a model made of PVC immersed in water and containing horizontal and tilted interfaces together with several spherical objects to generateultrasonic pressure reflection measurements. The physical dimensions of the model is of the order of a meter, which after scaling represents a model with dimensions of the order of 10 kilometer and frequencies in the range of one to thirty hertz.We find that for plane horizontal interfaces the laboratory data can be reproduced by the finite-difference scheme with relatively small error, but for steeply tilted interfaces the error increases. For spherical interfaces the discrepancy between laboratory data and simulated data is sometimes much more severe, to the extent that it is not possible to simulate reflections from parts of highly curved bodies. The results are important in view of the fact that finite-difference modeling is often at the core of imaging and inversion algorithms tackling complicatedgeological areas with highly curved interfaces.

  20. Numerical Modeling of 3D Seismic Wave Propagation around Yogyakarta, the Southern Part of Central Java, Indonesia, Using Spectral-Element Method on MPI-GPU Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmaji; Rudianto, Indra; Eka Nurcahya, Budi

    2018-04-01

    A strong tectonic earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 Richter scale has been occurred in Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 26, 2006. The earthquake has caused severe damage in Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java, Indonesia. The understanding of seismic response of earthquake among ground shaking and the level of building damage is important. We present numerical modeling of 3D seismic wave propagation around Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java using spectral-element method on MPI-GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computer cluster to observe its seismic response due to the earthquake. The homogeneous 3D realistic model is generated with detailed topography surface. The influences of free surface topography and layer discontinuity of the 3D model among the seismic response are observed. The seismic wave field is discretized using spectral-element method. The spectral-element method is solved on a mesh of hexahedral elements that is adapted to the free surface topography and the internal discontinuity of the model. To increase the data processing capabilities, the simulation is performed on a GPU cluster with implementation of MPI (Message Passing Interface).

  1. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  2. Specification of Instrumentation of Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the exp......Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based...

  3. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  4. Fractal and chaotic laws on seismic dissipated energy in an energy system of engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Hong; Nie, Yong-An; Yan, Zong-Da; Wu, Guo-You

    1998-09-01

    Fractal and chaotic laws of engineering structures are discussed in this paper, it means that the intrinsic essences and laws on dynamic systems which are made from seismic dissipated energy intensity E d and intensity of seismic dissipated energy moment I e are analyzed. Based on the intrinsic characters of chaotic and fractal dynamic system of E d and I e, three kinds of approximate dynamic models are rebuilt one by one: index autoregressive model, threshold autoregressive model and local-approximate autoregressive model. The innate laws, essences and systematic error of evolutional behavior I e are explained over all, the short-term behavior predictability and long-term behavior probability of which are analyzed in the end. That may be valuable for earthquake-resistant theory and analysis method in practical engineering structures.

  5. The Global Detection Capability of the IMS Seismic Network in 2013 Inferred from Ambient Seismic Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, P. J.; Ceranna, L.

    2016-12-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection thresholdcan be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  6. Continental lithospheric subduction and intermediate-depth seismicity: Constraints from S-wave velocity structures in the Pamir and Hindu Kush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Yun; Yuan, Xiaohui; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Fu, Bihong

    2018-01-01

    The Pamir has experienced more intense deformation and shortening than Tibet, although it has a similar history of terrane accretion. Subduction as a primary way to accommodate lithospheric shortening beneath the Pamir has induced the intermediate-depth seismicity, which is rare in Tibet. Here we construct a 3D S-wave velocity model of the lithosphere beneath the Pamir by surface wave tomography using data of the TIPAGE (Tien Shan-Pamir Geodynamic program) and other seismic networks in the area. We imaged a large-scale low velocity anomaly in the crust at 20-50 km depth in the Pamir overlain by a high velocity anomaly at a depth shallower than 15 km. The high velocity anomalies colocate with exposed gneiss domes, which may imply a similar history of crustal deformation, partial melting and exhumation in the hinterland, as has occurred in the Himalaya/Tibet system. At mantle depths, where the intermediate-depth earthquakes are located, a low velocity zone is clearly observed extending to about 180 km and 150 km depth in the Hindu Kush and eastern Pamir, respectively. Moreover, the geometry of the low-velocity anomaly suggests that lower crustal material has been pulled down into the mantle by the subducting Asian and Indian lithospheric mantle beneath the Pamir and Hindu Kush, respectively. Metamorphic processes in the subducting lower crust may cause the intermediate-depth seismicity down to 150-180 km depth beneath the Pamir and Hindu Kush. We inverted focal mechanisms in the seismic zone for the stress field. Differences in the stress field between the upper and lower parts of the Indian slab imply that subduction and detachment of the Indian lithosphere might cause intense seismicity associated with the thermal shear instability in the deep Hindu Kush.

  7. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  8. The seismic signatures of the 2009 Shiaolin landslide in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Feng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Shiaolin landslide occurred on 9 August 2009 after Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan, claiming over 400 lives. The seismic signals produced by the landslide were recorded by broadband seismic stations in Taiwan. The time-frequency spectra for these signals were obtained by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT and were analyzed to obtain the seismic characteristics of the landslide. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was applied to differentiate weak surface-wave signals from noise and to estimate the surface-wave velocities in the region. The surface-wave velocities were estimated using the fifth intrinsic mode function (IMF 5 obtained from the EMD. The spectra of the earthquake data were compared. The main frequency content of the seismic waves caused by the Shiaolin landslide were in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. This frequency range is smaller than the frequency ranges of other earthquakes. The spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW method is suggested for characterizing the shear-wave velocities of the strata in the region.

  9. 100 years of seismic research on the Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodehl, Claus; Kennett, Brian; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The detection of a seismic boundary, the “Moho”, between the outermost shell of the Earth, the Earth's crust, and the Earth's mantle by A. Mohorovičić was the consequence of increased insight into the propagation of seismic waves caused by earthquakes. This short history of seismic research on the Moho is primarily based on the comprehensive overview of the worldwide history of seismological studies of the Earth's crust using controlled sources from 1850 to 2005, by Prodehl and Mooney (2012). Though the art of applying explosions, so-called “artificial events”, as energy sources for studies of the uppermost crustal layers began in the early 1900s, its effective use for studying the entire crust only began at the end of World War II. From 1945 onwards, controlled-source seismology has been the major approach to study details of the crust and underlying crust-mantle boundary, the Moho. The subsequent description of history of controlled-source crustal seismology and its seminal results is subdivided into separate chapters for each decade, highlighting the major advances achieved during that decade in terms of data acquisition, processing technology, and interpretation methods. Since the late 1980s, passive seismology using distant earthquakes has played an increasingly important role in studies of crustal structure. The receiver function technique exploiting conversions between P and SV waves at discontinuities in seismic wavespeed below a seismic station has been extensively applied to the increasing numbers of permanent and portable broad-band seismic stations across the globe. Receiver function studies supplement controlled source work with improved geographic coverage and now make a significant contribution to knowledge of the nature of the crust and the depth to Moho.

  10. Near shore seismic movements induced by seaquakes using the boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Carbajal-Romero; Norberto Flores-Guzmán; J.Efraín Rodríguez-Sánchez; Andriy Kryvko

    2017-01-01

    This study quantifies seismic amplifications in near-shore arising from seaquakes.Within the Boundary Element Method,boundary elements are used to irradiate waves and force densities obtained for each element.Huygens Principle is implemented since the diffracted waves are constructed at the boundary from which they are radiated,which is equivalent to Somigliana's theorem.Application of boundary conditions leads to a system of integral equations of the Fredholm type of second kind and zero order.Several numerical configurations are analyzed:The first is used to verify the present formulation with ideal sea floor configurations to estimate seismic amplifications.With the formulation verified,simple slope configurations are studied to estimate spectra of seismic motions.It is found that P-waves can produce seismic amplifications from 1.2 to 3.9 times the amplitude of the incident wave.SV-waves can generate seismic amplifications up to 4.5 times the incident wave.Another relevant finding is that the highest amplifications are at the shore compared to the ones at the sea floor.

  11. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it

  12. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  13. Wave Dissipation on Low- to Super-Energy Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are valuable, complex and bio-diverse ecosystems and are also known to be one of the most effective barriers to swell events in coastal environments. Previous research has found coral reefs to be remarkably efficient in removing most of the wave energy during the initial breaking and transformation on the reef flats. The rate of dissipation is so rapid that coral reefs have been referred to as rougher than any known coastal barrier. The dissipation of wave energy across reef flats is crucial in maintaining the relatively low-energy conditions in the back reef and lagoonal environments providing vital protection to adjacent beach or coastal regions from cyclone and storm events. A shift in the regulation of wave energy by reef flats could have catastrophic consequences ecologically, socially, and economically. This study examined the dissipation of wave energy during two swell events in Tahiti and Moorea, French Polyesia. Field sites were chosen in varying degrees of exposure and geomorphology from low-energy protected sites (Tiahura, Moorea) to super-energy sites (Teahupo'o, Tahiti). Waves were measured during two moderate to large swell events in cross reef transects using short-term high-resolution pressure transducers. Wave conditions were found to be similar in all back reef locations despite the very different wave exposure at each reef site. However, wave conditions on the reef flats were different and mirrored the variation in wave exposure with depth over the reef flat the primary regulator of reef flat wave height. These results indicate that coral reef flats evolve morphodynamically with the wave climate, which creates coral reef geomorphologies capable of dissipating wave energy that results in similar back reef wave conditions regardless of the offshore wave climate.

  14. Pn-waves Travel-time Anomaly beneath Taiwan from Dense Seismic Array Observations and its Possible Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Ma, K. F.; Hsieh, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated travel times of Pn waves, which are of great important for understanding the Moho structure in Taiwan region. Although several high quality tomographic studies had been carried out, observations of Pn waves are still the most comprehensive way to elucidate the Moho structure. Mapping the Moho structure of Taiwan had been a challenging due to the small spatial dimension of Taiwan island with two subduction systems. To decipher the tectonic structure and understanding of earthquake hazard, the island of Taiwan have been implemented by several high density seismic stations, including 71 short-period stations of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and 42 broardband stations of Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). High quality seismic records of these stations would be used to identify precise Pn-wave arrival times. After station-elevation correction, we measure the difference between the observed and theoretical Pn arrivals from the IASPI 91 model for each station. For correcting uncertainties of earthquake location and origin time, we estimate relative Pn anomaly, ΔtPn , between each station and a reference station. The pattern of ΔtPn reflects the depth anomaly of Moho beneath Taiwan. In general, Pn waves are commonly observed from shallow earthquake at epicentral distance larger than 120 km. We search the global catalog since 2005 and the criteria are M > 5.5, focal depth 150 km. The 12 medium earthquakes from north Luzon are considered for analysis. We choose a station, TWKB, in the most southern point of Taiwan as the reference station due to that all events are from the south. The results indicate obvious different patterns of ΔtPn from different back-azimuths. The ΔtPn pattern of the events in the first group from the south south-east indicates that the Pn arrivals delay suddenly when the Pn waves pass through the Central Range, suggesting the Moho becomes deep rapidly. However, we cannot recognize the same pattern when

  15. Sub-crustal seismic activity beneath Klyuchevskoy Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. J.; Droznina, S.; Levin, V. L.; Senyukov, S.

    2013-12-01

    events observed at a site closest to the epicenter to delay times of Ps phases in RFs that we associate with the crust-mantle transition. Both observations are essentially differences between travel times of S and P waves originating at the same place, and traversing the same velocity structure. Consequently, the uncertainty of the velocity structure beneath the KVG does not influence the comparison. For all events nominally located at 28-30 km beneath KVG the S-P time at the nearest site (CIR) significantly exceeds 4 seconds. Given that crust-mantle boundary Ps times at nearby sites are ~3 s, these earthquakes take place in the upper mantle. Both recent RFs and wide-angle reflection (Deep Seismic Sounding) studies in the late 1970s identified additional boundaries beneath KVG at depths in excess of 40 km. The nature of these boundaries is unclear, however their sharpness suggests chemical changes or the presence of fluids or melts. Chemistry of Klyuchevskoy lavas suggests sub-crustal origin with no clear magma chamber within the crust. Sub-crustal earthquakes we describe show that processes in the magma conduit at the base of the crust beneath KVG are vigorous enough to promote brittle failure in the surrounding mantle rock. The complex seismic structure of the uppermost mantle beneath KVG may reflect a history of magma injection that is accompanied by seismic energy release.

  16. Hydraulic Evaluation of the Crest Wing Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC). The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave to generate power. Model tests have been performed using a scale...... model (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Frigaard et al., 2008......). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate total power take off....

  17. The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnini, Luca; Herrmann, Robert B.; Munafò, Irene; Buttinelli, Mauro; Anselmi, Mario; Akinci, Aybige; Boschi, E.

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to understand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02-0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earthquakes (5.6 ≥ MW ≥ 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated.

  18. Sensitivity of wave energy to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gareth; Wallace, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Wave energy will have a key role in meeting renewable energy targets en route to a low carbon economy. However, in common with other renewables, it may be sensitive to changes in climate resulting from rising carbon emissions. Changes in wind patterns are widely anticipated and this will ultimately alter wave regimes. Indeed, evidence indicates that wave heights have been changing over the last 40 years, although there is no proven link to global warming. Changes in the wave climate will impa...

  19. Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...

  20. Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...

  1. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  2. The Indian wave energy programme- an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, M.; Jayashankar, V.; Jalihal, P.; Pathak, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Indian wave energy plant at Vizhinjam, Kerala has demonstrated that energy from a random source such as waves can be harnessed as electrical energy and exported via the local grid. This plant is based on the oscillating water column (OWC) principle. The research on wave energy in India has achieved a commendable status within a decade. A caisson was constructed in December 1990 at Vizhinjam and two generations of power modules have been tested as of today. The physical processes in the energy conversion are understood to a much greater extent, leading to a threefold increase in absolute power from the plant. Efforts are on to make the technology cost-effective

  3. Long Period Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Geoffsica, TPHM. No. 5 , p. 161. Vargas, Freddy (To he published in 1976) 1 .-DTSCRP1TNACTON DE EVENTO«; NATHDALE«; Y ARTTFTCT ALES. 2.- CALCULO DEL...seismic risk, bv de - fininn relative weiqht of maximum MM intensity at a pivon distance ponulation density, area feolupy and attenuation of intensity wit...Population densitv, area peolopv and attenuation of intensitv with distance, is presented topether with a map anplvinp theorv to Bo- livia. ^«^a

  4. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  5. Dynamics of the Oso-Steelhead landslide from broadband seismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Stark, C. P.; Ekström, G.

    2015-06-01

    We carry out a combined analysis of the short- and long-period seismic signals generated by the devastating Oso-Steelhead landslide that occurred on 22 March 2014. The seismic records show that the Oso-Steelhead landslide was not a single slope failure, but a succession of multiple failures distinguished by two major collapses that occurred approximately 3 min apart. The first generated long-period surface waves that were recorded at several proximal stations. We invert these long-period signals for the forces acting at the source, and obtain estimates of the first failure runout and kinematics, as well as its mass after calibration against the mass-centre displacement estimated from remote-sensing imagery. Short-period analysis of both events suggests that the source dynamics of the second event is more complex than the first. No distinct long-period surface waves were recorded for the second failure, which prevents inversion for its source parameters. However, by comparing the seismic energy of the short-period waves generated by both events we are able to estimate the volume of the second. Our analysis suggests that the volume of the second failure is about 15-30% of the total landslide volume, giving a total volume mobilized by the two events between 7 × 106 and 10 × 106 m3, in agreement with estimates from ground observations and lidar mapping.

  6. Characterization of the seismic environment at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, J; Dorsher, S; Kandhasamy, S; Mandic, V [University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Acernese, F; Barone, F [Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Bartos, I; Marka, S [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Beker, M; Van den Brand, J F J; Rabeling, D S [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Christensen, N; Coughlin, M [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); DeSalvo, R [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Heise, J; Trancynger, T [Sanford Underground Laboratory, 630 East Summit Street, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Mueller, G [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Naticchioni, L [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); O' Keefe, T [Saint Louis University, 3450 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Sajeva, A, E-mail: janosch@caltech.ed [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-11-21

    An array of seismometers is being developed at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, the former Homestake mine, in South Dakota to study the properties of underground seismic fields and Newtonian noise, and to investigate the possible advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. Seismic data were analyzed to characterize seismic noise and disturbances. External databases were used to identify sources of seismic waves: ocean-wave data to identify sources of oceanic microseisms and surface wind-speed data to investigate correlations with seismic motion as a function of depth. In addition, sources of events contributing to the spectrum at higher frequencies are characterized by studying the variation of event rates over the course of a day. Long-term observations of spectral variations provide further insight into the nature of seismic sources. Seismic spectra at three different depths are compared, establishing the 4100 ft level as a world-class low seismic-noise environment.

  7. An effective absorbing layer for the boundary condition in acoustic seismic wave simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; da Silva, Nuno V.; Wu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Efficient numerical simulation of seismic wavefields generally involves truncating the Earth model in order to keep computing time and memory requirements down. Absorbing boundary conditions, therefore, are applied to remove the boundary reflections caused by this truncation, thereby allowing for accurate modeling of wavefields. In this paper, we derive an effective absorbing boundary condition for both acoustic and elastic wave simulation, through the simplification of the damping term of the split perfectly matched layer (SPML) boundary condition. This new boundary condition is accurate, cost-effective, and easily implemented, especially for high-performance computing. Stability analysis shows that this boundary condition is effectively as stable as normal (non-absorbing) wave equations for explicit time-stepping finite differences. We found that for full-waveform inversion (FWI), the strengths of the effective absorbing layer—a reduction of the computational and memory cost coupled with a simplistic implementation—significantly outweighs the limitation of incomplete absorption of outgoing waves relative to the SPML. More importantly, we demonstrate that this limitation can easily be overcome through the use of two strategies in FWI, namely variable cell size and model extension thereby fully compensating for the imperfectness of the proposed absorbing boundary condition.

  8. A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an

  9. Energy Capture Optimization for an Adaptive Wave Energy Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Meijer, Harmen; van Rooij, Marijn; Clemente Pinol, Silvia; Galvan Garcia, Bruno; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy has great potential as a renewable energy source, and can therefore contribute significantly to the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This is especially important since energy mixes with high renewable penetration have become a worldwide priority. One solution to

  10. Seismic Responses of Shot Span Bridge under Three Different Patterns of Earthquake Excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Daochuan; Chen Guorong; Lu Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of three different types of seismic input methods on the longitudinal seismic response of a short, three-span, variable cross-section, reinforced concrete bridge. Research progress of the seismic model is introduced briefly. Finite element model is created for the bridge and time history analysis conducted. Three different types of illustrative excitations are considered: 1) the EI-Centro seismic wave is used as uniform excitations at all bridge supports; 2) fixed apparent wave velocity is used for response analysis of traveling wave excitations on the bridge; 3) conforming to a selected coherency model, the multiple seismic excitation time histories considering spatially variable effects are generated. The contrast study of the response analysis result under the three different seismic excitations is conducted and the influence of different seismic input methods is studied. The comparative analysis of the bridge model shows that the uniform ground motion input can not provide conservative seismic demands-in a number of cases it results in lower response than that predicted by multiple seismic excitations. The result of uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation shows very small difference. Consequently, multiple seismic excitations needs to be applied at the bridge supports for response analysis of short span bridge.

  11. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  12. Imaging near-subsurface subrosion structures and faults using SH-wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Subrosion is a term for underground leaching of soluble rocks and is a global phenomenon. It involves dissolution of evaporites due to the presence of unsaturated water, fractures and faults. Fractures and faults are pathways for water to circulate and to generate subsurface cavities. Depending on the leached material and the parameters of the generation process, especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. Subrosion is a natural process, but it can be enhanced by anthropogenic factors like manipulation of the aquifer system and groundwater flow and by e.g. extraction of saline water. The formation of sinkholes and depressions are a dangerous geohazard, especially if they occur in urban areas, which often leads to building and infrastructural damage and life-threatening situations. For this reason investigations of the processes that induce subrosion and a detailed analysis of the resulting structures are of importance. To develop a comprehensive model of near-subsurface subrosion structures, reflection seismics is one of the methods used by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics. The study area is located in the city of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by Permian deposits. Bad Frankenhausen is situated directly south of the Kyffhäuser mountain range at the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault. This major fault is one of the main pathways for the circulating ground- and meteoric waters that leach the Permian deposits, especially the Leine-, Staßfurt- and Werra Formations. 2014 and 2015 eight shear wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen and three profiles in the countrified surroundings. Altogether ca. 3.6 km were surveyed using a landstreamer as receiver and an electro-dynamic vibrator as source. The surveys were

  13. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  14. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  15. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  16. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  17. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  18. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  19. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  20. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  1. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to

  2. Upper mantle seismic structure beneath southwest Africa from finite-frequency P- and S-wave tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tilmann, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We present a 3D high-resolution seismic model of the southwestern Africa region from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S- wave data recorded by the amphibious WALPASS network. We used 40 temporary stations in southwestern Africa with records for a period of 2 years (the OBS operated...... for 1 year), between November 2010 and November 2012. The array covers a surface area of approximately 600 by 1200 km and is located at the intersection of the Walvis Ridge, the continental margin of northern Namibia, and extends into the Congo craton. Major questions that need to be understood......, probably related to surficial suture zones and the presence of fertile material. A shallower depth extent of the lithospheric plate of ∼100 km was observed beneath the ocean, consistent with plate-cooling models. In addition to tomographic images, the seismic anisotropy measurements within the upper mantle...

  3. An innovative approach for energy generation from waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Habaibeh, A. [Advanced Design and Manufacturing Engineering Centre, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom); Su, D. [School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom); McCague, J. [Technical Director, Ocean Navitas Ltd., Lincolnshire (United Kingdom); Knight, A. [Marketing and Communications Manager, Ocean Navitas Ltd., Lincolnshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Sustainable energy generation is becoming increasingly important due to the expected limitations in current energy resources and to reduce pollution. Wave energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This paper describes an innovative system for generating energy from wave power. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, electrical system, simulation techniques and expected power output of the system. The results from the hydraulic linear wave simulator, using a real wave profiles captured at a location in the UK using an ultrasound system, it was seen that a {+-}0.8 m wave at 10 s time period, produced a conditioned power output of approximately 22 kW at optimum load conditions for the tested 3-phase 44 kW permanent magnet generator type STK500. The results indicate that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from waves. (author)

  4. An innovative approach for energy generation from waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Habaibeh, A.; Su, D.; McCague, J.; Knight, A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy generation is becoming increasingly important due to the expected limitations in current energy resources and to reduce pollution. Wave energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This paper describes an innovative system for generating energy from wave power. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, electrical system, simulation techniques and expected power output of the system. The results from the hydraulic linear wave simulator, using a real wave profiles captured at a location in the UK using an ultrasound system, it was seen that a ±0.8 m wave at 10 s time period, produced a conditioned power output of approximately 22 kW at optimum load conditions for the tested 3-phase 44 kW permanent magnet generator type STK500. The results indicate that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from waves.

  5. Interactive seismic interpretation with piecewise global energy minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas; Beyer, Johanna; Gschwantner, Fritz M.; Muigg, Philipp; Doleisch, Helmut; Heinemann, Gabor F.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands in world-wide energy consumption and oil depletion of large reservoirs have resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir valorization usually starts with creating a model of the subsurface structures, including seismic faults and horizons. However, seismic interpretation and horizon tracing is a difficult and error-prone task, often resulting in hours of work needing to be manually repeated. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive workflow for horizon interpretation based on well positions, which include additional geological and geophysical data captured by actual drillings. Instead of interpreting the volume slice-by-slice in 2D, we propose 3D seismic interpretation based on well positions. We introduce a combination of 2D and 3D minimal cost path and minimal cost surface tracing for extracting horizons with very little user input. By processing the volume based on well positions rather than slice-based, we are able to create a piecewise optimal horizon surface at interactive rates. We have integrated our system into a visual analysis platform which supports multiple linked views for fast verification, exploration and analysis of the extracted horizons. The system is currently being evaluated by our collaborating domain experts. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Interactive seismic interpretation with piecewise global energy minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Increasing demands in world-wide energy consumption and oil depletion of large reservoirs have resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir valorization usually starts with creating a model of the subsurface structures, including seismic faults and horizons. However, seismic interpretation and horizon tracing is a difficult and error-prone task, often resulting in hours of work needing to be manually repeated. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive workflow for horizon interpretation based on well positions, which include additional geological and geophysical data captured by actual drillings. Instead of interpreting the volume slice-by-slice in 2D, we propose 3D seismic interpretation based on well positions. We introduce a combination of 2D and 3D minimal cost path and minimal cost surface tracing for extracting horizons with very little user input. By processing the volume based on well positions rather than slice-based, we are able to create a piecewise optimal horizon surface at interactive rates. We have integrated our system into a visual analysis platform which supports multiple linked views for fast verification, exploration and analysis of the extracted horizons. The system is currently being evaluated by our collaborating domain experts. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Space-time analysis of the Seismic Waves propagation and World Wide Lightning Location Network data association with the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, L.

    2017-01-01

    The natural high intensity sub-millisecond electromagnetic pulses associated with seismic waves from earthquakes can trigger +CG, -CG and IC lightning discharges, transient luminous events (TLEs) and non luminous events as TGFS. The lightning discharges with higher peak currents are more probable during the moments when seismic waves from earthquakes pass through a place of lightning. Huge charge transfer of triggered +CG, -CG and IC lightning discharges can radiate powerful electromagnetic emission. Space-time analysis of the seismic wave’s propagation and WWLLN data was done together with the second Fermi GBM Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGF) Catalog. A total number of 1203 events from the WWLLN associations table were associated with the entrance the exact seismic waves from earthquakes in the place of lightning. Only 11 events from 1214 associations were rejected. After that the full list of 1049 TGFs has been checked out. As the result the 1038 TGFS has been associated with earthquakes. Among them 42 events with time difference exceeding ±100 sec were found. As the result 996 events get inside the time interval for the space-time analysis ±100 sec, they correspond to 95% from the total number of 1049 TGFS. The probability density function for the Time difference data was calculated and more preferably can be explained by the probability density functions of Cauchy distribution. The Phases of Seismic Waves and earthquakes magnitude associated with selected 996 TGFS from WWLLN associations table were studied. (author)

  8. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....

  9. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  10. Seismic signal of near steady uniform flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, A.; Bachelet, V.; Toussaint, R.; de Rosny, J.

    2017-12-01

    The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity. A major challenge in this domain is to retrieve the dynamic properties of the flow from the emitted seismic signal. In this study, we propose laboratory experiments where the dynamic properties of the flow (velocity, granular temperature, density, etc.) are measured together with the generated seismic signal. We investigate near steady uniform flows made of glass beads of 2mm diameter, flowing throughout a thin rectangular channel of 10 cm width, with tunable tilt angle and height flow, thanks to an adjustable opening gate. The flow is monitored from the spine with a fast camera (5000 fps), and the emitted waves are recorded by accelerometers (10Hz - 54 kHz), stuck on the back side of the bottom of the channel. Among others, three seismic parameters are analyzed: the power radiated by the flow, the mean frequency of the signal, and the modulation of its amplitude. We show that they are linked to three dynamical properties: the mean kinetic energy of the flow, the speed of collisions between beads and the vertical oscillation of the beads, respectively.

  11. Reliability Study of Energy Harvesting from Sea Waves by Piezoelectric Patches Consideraing Random JONSWAP Wave Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ettefagh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices employed in the sea, is using of mechanical energies of sea waves. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on not implementing the battery charging system. Although, many studies have been done about energy harvesting from sea waves, energy harvesting with considering random JONWSAP wave theory is not fully studied up to now. The random JONSWAP wave model is a more realistic approximation of sea waves in comparison of Airy wave model. Therefore, in this paper a vertical beam with the piezoelectric patches, which is fixed to the seabed, is considered as energy harvester system. The energy harvesting system is simulated by MATLAB software, and then the vibration response of the beam and consequently the generated power is obtained considering the JONWSAP wave theory. In addition, the reliability of the system and the effect of piezoelectric patches uncertainties on the generated power are studied by statistical method. Furthermore, the failure possibility of harvester based on violation criteria is investigated.  

  12. Elements of seismic imaging and velocity analysis – Forward modeling and diffraction analysis of conventional seismic data from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    comprises important oil and gas reservoirs. By application of well-established conventional velocity analysis methods and high-quality diffraction imaging techniques, this study aims to increase the resolution and the image quality of the seismic data. In order to analyze seismic wave propagation......-outs and salt delineations, which can be extracted from the diffractions. The potential of diffraction imaging techniques was studied for 2D seismic stacked data from the North Sea. In this approach, the applied plane-wave destruction method was successful in order to suppress the reflections from the stacked....... This improved seismic imaging is demonstrated for a salt structure as well as for Overpressured Shale structures and the Top Chalk of the North Sea....

  13. ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Soler, R. [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: tom.vandoorsselaere@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.

  14. High frequency measurement of P- and S-wave velocities on crystalline rock massif surface - methodology of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Slavík, Lubomír

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of non-destructive monitoring of rock properties in the underground excavation it is possible to perform repeated high-accuracy P- and S-wave velocity measurements. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained during the preparation of micro-seismic long-term monitoring system. The field velocity measurements were made by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock outcrop (granite) in Bedrichov gallery (northern Bohemia). The gallery at the experimental site was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) and it is used for drinking water supply, which is conveyed in a pipe. The stable measuring system and its automatic operation lead to the use of piezoceramic transducers both as a seismic source and as a receiver. The length of measuring base at gallery wall was from 0.5 to 3 meters. Different transducer coupling possibilities were tested namely with regard of repeatability of velocity determination. The arrangement of measuring system on the surface of the rock massif causes better sensitivity of S-transducers for P-wave measurement compared with the P-transducers. Similarly P-transducers were found more suitable for S-wave velocity determination then P-transducers. The frequency dependent attenuation of fresh rock massif results in limited frequency content of registered seismic signals. It was found that at the distance between the seismic source and receiver from 0.5 m the frequency components above 40 kHz are significantly attenuated. Therefore for the excitation of seismic wave 100 kHz transducers are most suitable. The limited frequency range should be also taken into account for the shape of electric impulse used for exciting of piezoceramic transducer. The spike pulse generates broad-band seismic signal, short in the time domain. However its energy after low-pass filtration in the rock is significantly lower than the energy of seismic signal generated by square wave pulse. Acknowledgments: This work was partially

  15. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating that the coordinated control of wave energy converters is an effective way to improve the energy production of wave energy farm in harmonic waves.

  16. Wave-Particle Energy Exchange Directly Observed in a Kinetic Alfven-Branch Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F-Vinas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Boardsen, Scott A. (Inventor); Avanov, Levon A.; Bellan, Paul M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Alfven waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres, and astrophysical systems, but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earths magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfven wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via non-linear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.

  17. Prospects and applicability of wave energy for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2018-03-01

    Renewable energy offers significant opportunities for electricity diversification. South Africa belongs to the group of developing nations and encompasses a lot of potential for renewable energy developments. Currently, the majority of its electricity production originates from fossil fuels; however, incorporation of clean coal technologies will aid in reaching the assigned targets. This study offers a long-term wave power quantification analysis with a numerical wave model. The investigation includes long-term resource assessment in the region, variability, seasonal and monthly wave energy content. Locations with high-energy content but low variability pose an opportunity that can contribute in the alleviation of energy poverty. Application of wave converters depends on the combination of complex terms. The study presents resource levels and the joint distributions, which indicate suitability for converter selection. Depending on the region of interest, these characteristics change. Thus, this resource assessment adds knowledge on wave power and optimal consideration for wave energy applicability.

  18. Numerical study on design for wave energy generation of a floater for energy absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kui Ming; Parthasarathy, Nanjundan; Choi, Yoon Hwan; Lee, Yeon Won

    2012-01-01

    In order to design a wave energy generating system of a floater type, a 6 DOF motion technique was applied to the three Dimensional CFD analysis on a floating body and the behavior was interpreted according to the nature of the incoming waves. Waves in a tank model were generated using a single floater comparing with that of a Pelamis wave energy converter. In this paper, we focus on four variables, namely the wave height, angular velocity, diameter and length of the floater. The process was carried out in three stages and it was found that there are energy absorption differences in different parameters of wave height, length and the diameter of a floater during simulation, thus leading for the necessity of an optimal design for wave energy generation

  19. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Weisz, A.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC). It focused mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device, including investigations of the following issues: Scaling ratiosPTO loadingWave...... height and wave period dependencyOblique incoming waves and directional spreading of waves (3D waves)Damping platesMooring forces and fixed structure setupPitch, surge and heave motion During the study the model supplied by the client (Langlee Wave Power AS) has been heavily instrumented - up to 23...... different instruments was deployed to measure and record data. Tests were performed at scales of 1:30 and 1:20 based on the realized reference wave states....

  20. Characteristics of Helicopter-Generated and Volcano-Related Seismic Tremor Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher J.; Akerlie, Eggert; Vogfjörd, Kristin S.

    2017-04-01

    In volcanic environments it is crucial to distinguish between man-made seismic signals and signals created by the volcano. We compare volcanic, seismic signals with helicopter generated, seismic signals recorded in the last 2.5 years in Iceland. In both cases a long-lasting, emergent seismic signal, that can be referred to as seismic tremor, was generated. In the case of a helicopter, the rotating blades generate pressure pulses that travel through the air and excite Rayleigh waves at up to 40 km distance depending on wind speed, wind direction and topographic features. The longest helicopter related seismic signal we recorded was at the order of 40 minutes long. The tremor usually has a fundamental frequency of more than 10 Hz and overtones at integers of the fundamental frequency. Changes in distance lead to either increases or decreases of the frequency due to the Doppler Effect and are strongest for small source-receiver distances. The volcanic tremor signal was recorded during the Bardarbunga eruption at Holuhraun in 2014/15. For volcano-related seismic signals it is usually more difficult to determine the source process that generated the tremor. The pre-eruptive tremor persists for 2 weeks, while the co-eruptive tremor lasted for 6 months. We observed no frequency changes, most energy between 1 and 2 Hz and no or very little energy above 5 Hz. We compare the different characteristics of helicopter-related and volcano-related seismic signals and discuss how they can be distinguished. In addition we discuss how we can determine if a frequency change is related to a moving source or change in repeat time or a change in the geometry of the resonating body.

  1. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  2. Evidence of Enhanced Subrosion in a Fault Zone and Characterization of Hazard Zones with Elastic Parameters derived from SH-wave reflection Seismics and VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, S. H.; Tanner, D. C.; Tschache, S.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Subrosion, the dissolution of soluble rocks, e.g., sulfate, salt, or carbonate, requires unsaturated water and fluid pathways that enable the water to flow through the subsurface and generate cavities. Over time, different structures can occur that depend on, e.g., rock solubility, flow rate, and overburden type. The two main structures are sinkholes and depressions. To analyze the link between faults, groundwater flow, and soluble rocks, and to determine parameters that are useful to characterize hazard zones, several shear-wave (SH) reflection seismic profiles were surveyed in Thuringia in Germany, where Permian sulfate rocks and salt subcrop close to the surface. From the analysis of the seismic sections we conclude that areas affected by tectonic deformation phases are prone to enhanced subrosion. The deformation of fault blocks leads to the generation of a damage zone with a dense fracture network. This increases the rock permeability and thus serves as a fluid pathway for, e.g., artesian-confined groundwater. The more complex the fault geometry and the more interaction between faults, the more fractures are generated, e.g., in a strike slip-fault zone. The faults also act as barriers for horizontal groundwater flow perpendicular to the fault surfaces and as conduits for groundwater flow along the fault strike. In addition, seismic velocity anomalies and attenuation of seismic waves are observed. Low velocities high attenuation may indicate areas affected by subrosion. Other parameters that characterize the underground stability are the shear modulus and the Vp/Vs ratio. The data revealed zones of low shear modulus high Vp/Vs ratio >2.5, which probably indicate unstable areas due to subrosion. Structural analysis of S-wave seismics is a valuable tool to detect near-surface faults in order to determine whether or not an area is prone to subrosion. The recognition of even small fault blocks can help to better understand the hydrodynamic groundwater conditions

  3. Innovative Approaches for Seismic Studies of Mars (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, B.

    2010-12-01

    In addition to its intrinsic interest, Mars is particularly well-suited for studying the full range of processes and phenomena related to early terrestrial planet evolution, from initial differentiation to the start of plate tectonics. It is large and complex enough to have undergone most of the processes that affected early Earth but, unlike the Earth, has apparently not undergone extensive plate tectonics or other major reworking that erased the imprint of early events (as evidenced by the presence of cratered surfaces older than 4 Ga). The martian mantle should have Earth-like polymorphic phase transitions and may even support a perovskite layer near the core (depending on the actual core radius), a characteristic that would have major implications for core cooling and mantle convection. Thus even the most basic measurements of planetary structure, such as crustal thickness, core radius and state (solid/liquid), and gross mantle velocity structure would provide invaluable constraints on models of early planetary evolution. Despite this strong scientific motivation (and several failed attempts), Mars remains terra incognita from a seismic standpoint. This is due to an unfortunate convergence of circumstances, prominent among which are our uncertainty in the level of seismic activity and the relatively high cost of landing multiple long-lived spacecraft on Mars to comprise a seismic network for body-wave travel-time analysis; typically four to ten stations are considered necessary for this type of experiment. In this presentation I will address both of these issues. In order to overcome the concern about a possible lack of marsquakes with which to work, it is useful to identify alternative methods for using seismic techniques to probe the interior. Seismology without quakes can be accomplished in a number of ways. “Unconventional” sources of seismic energy include meteorites (which strike the surface of Mars at a relatively high rate), artificial projectiles

  4. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Nicholas; White, Nicholas Jeremiah; Caulfield, Colm-cille Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1000~m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1171 reflections, each of which is greater th...

  5. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  6. Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.

  7. A 1.8 trillion degrees-of-freedom, 1.24 petaflops global seismic wave simulation on the K computer

    KAUST Repository

    Tsuboi, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    We present high-performance simulations of global seismic wave propagation with an unprecedented accuracy of 1.2 s seismic period for a realistic three-dimensional Earth model using the spectral element method on the K computer. Our seismic simulations use a total of 665.2 billion grid points and resolve 1.8 trillion degrees of freedom. To realize these large-scale computations, we optimize a widely used community software code to efficiently address all hardware parallelization, especially thread-level parallelization to solve the bottleneck of memory usage for coarse-grained parallelization. The new code exhibits excellent strong scaling for the time stepping loop, that is, parallel efficiency on 82,134 nodes relative to 36,504 nodes is 99.54%. Sustained performance of these computations on the K computer is 1.24 petaflops, which is 11.84% of its peak performance. The obtained seismograms with an accuracy of 1.2 s for the entire globe should help us to better understand rupture mechanisms of devastating earthquakes.

  8. A 1.8 trillion degrees-of-freedom, 1.24 petaflops global seismic wave simulation on the K computer

    KAUST Repository

    Tsuboi, Seiji; Ando, Kazuto; Miyoshi, Takayuki; Peter, Daniel; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    We present high-performance simulations of global seismic wave propagation with an unprecedented accuracy of 1.2 s seismic period for a realistic three-dimensional Earth model using the spectral element method on the K computer. Our seismic simulations use a total of 665.2 billion grid points and resolve 1.8 trillion degrees of freedom. To realize these large-scale computations, we optimize a widely used community software code to efficiently address all hardware parallelization, especially thread-level parallelization to solve the bottleneck of memory usage for coarse-grained parallelization. The new code exhibits excellent strong scaling for the time stepping loop, that is, parallel efficiency on 82,134 nodes relative to 36,504 nodes is 99.54%. Sustained performance of these computations on the K computer is 1.24 petaflops, which is 11.84% of its peak performance. The obtained seismograms with an accuracy of 1.2 s for the entire globe should help us to better understand rupture mechanisms of devastating earthquakes.

  9. Open Source Seismic Software in NOAA's Next Generation Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, S. B.; Baker, B. I.; Hagerty, M. T.; Leifer, J. M.; Lisowski, S.; Thies, D. A.; Donnelly, B. K.; Griffith, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a project spearheaded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to update the United States' Tsunami Warning System software currently employed at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Eva Beach, Hawaii) and the National Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska). This entirely open source software project will integrate various seismic processing utilities with the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office's core software, AWIPS2. For the real-time and near real-time seismic processing aspect of this project, NOAA has elected to integrate the open source portions of GFZ's SeisComP 3 (SC3) processing system into AWIPS2. To provide for better tsunami threat assessments we are developing open source tools for magnitude estimations (e.g., moment magnitude, energy magnitude, surface wave magnitude), detection of slow earthquakes with the Theta discriminant, moment tensor inversions (e.g. W-phase and teleseismic body waves), finite fault inversions, and array processing. With our reliance on common data formats such as QuakeML and seismic community standard messaging systems, all new facilities introduced into AWIPS2 and SC3 will be available as stand-alone tools or could be easily integrated into other real time seismic monitoring systems such as Earthworm, Antelope, etc. Additionally, we have developed a template based design paradigm so that the developer or scientist can efficiently create upgrades, replacements, and/or new metrics to the seismic data processing with only a cursory knowledge of the underlying SC3.

  10. Mitigation of seismic hazard of a megacity: the case of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Panza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic ground motion of a test area in the eastern district of Naples was computed with a hybrid technique based on the rnode surnrnation and the finite difference methods. This technique allowed the realistic modelling of source and propagation effects, including local soil conditions. In the modelling, as seismic source we considered the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, a good example of strong shaking for the area of Naples, located about 90 km from the source. Along a profile through Naples, trencling N86°W, the subsoil is mainly formed by alluvial (ash, stratified sand and peat and pyroclastic materials overlying a pyroclastic rock (yellow Neapolitan tuff representing the Neapolitan bedrock. The detailed information available on the subsoil mechanical properties and its geometry warrants the application of the sophisticated hybrid technique. For SH waves, a comparison was made between a realistic 2-D seismic response and a standard I-D response, based on the vertical propagation of waves in a plane layered structure. As expected the sedimentary cover caused an increase in the signal's amplitudes and duration. If a thin uniform peat layer is present, the amplification effects are reduced, and the peak ground accelerations are similar to those observed for the bedrock model. This can be explained by the backscattering of wave energy at such a laqer. The discrepancies evidenced between the l -D and the 2-D seismic response suggest that serious caution must be taken in the formulation of seismic regulations. This is particularly true in the presence of the thin peat laqer where the misinatch between the l -D and the 2-D amplification functions is particularly evident in correspondence of the dominant peak and of the second significant peak.

  11. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  12. Post-seismic relaxation from geodetic and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Rodkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the aftershock sequence and the post-seismic deformation process of the Parkfield earthquake (2004, M = 6, California, USA source area using GPS data. This event was chosen because of the possibility of joint analysis of data from the rather dense local GPS network (from SOPAC Internet archive and of the availability of the rather detailed aftershock sequence data (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html. The relaxation process of post-seismic deformation prolongs about the same 400 days as the seismic aftershock process does. Thus, the aftershock process and the relaxation process in deformation could be the different sides of the same process. It should be noted that the ratio of the released seismic energy and of the GPS obtained deformation is quite different for the main shock and for the aftershock stage. The ratio of the released seismic energy to the deformation value decreases essentially for the post-shock process. The similar change in the seismic energy/deformation value ratio is valid in a few other strong earthquakes. Thus, this decrease seems typical of aftershock sequences testifying for decrease of ratio of elastic to inelastic deformation in the process of post-shock relaxation when the source area appears to be mostly fractured after the main shock occurs, but the healing process had no yet sufficient time to develop.

  13. Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.

  14. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    International Nuclear Informatio