WorldWideScience

Sample records for segment specific aims

  1. Locally specific measures for employment aimed at regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development

  2. Segment-Specific Adhesion as a Driver of Convergent Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent extension, the simultaneous extension and narrowing of tissues, is a crucial event in the formation of the main body axis during embryonic development. It involves processes on multiple scales: the sub-cellular, cellular and tissue level, which interact via explicit or intrinsic feedback mechanisms. Computational modelling studies play an important role in unravelling the multiscale feedbacks underlying convergent extension. Convergent extension usually operates in tissue which has been patterned or is currently being patterned into distinct domains of gene expression. How such tissue patterns are maintained during the large scale tissue movements of convergent extension has thus far not been investigated. Intriguingly, experimental data indicate that in certain cases these tissue patterns may drive convergent extension rather than requiring safeguarding against convergent extension. Here we use a 2D Cellular Potts Model (CPM) of a tissue prepatterned into segments, to show that convergent extension tends to disrupt this pre-existing segmental pattern. However, when cells preferentially adhere to cells of the same segment type, segment integrity is maintained without any reduction in tissue extension. Strikingly, we demonstrate that this segment-specific adhesion is by itself sufficient to drive convergent extension. Convergent extension is enhanced when we endow our in silico cells with persistence of motion, which in vivo would naturally follow from cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, we extend our model to confirm the generality of our results. We demonstrate a similar effect of differential adhesion on convergent extension in tissues that can only extend in a single direction (as often occurs due to the inertia of the head region of the embryo), and in tissues prepatterned into a sequence of domains resulting in two opposing adhesive gradients, rather than alternating segments. PMID:25706823

  3. Memory colour segmentation and classification using class-specific eigenregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clement; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image regions that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction-or rendering-tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than for other regions in an image. There are various schemes and attributes to detect memory colours, but the preferred method remains to segment the images into meaningful regions, a...

  4. Modelling of subject specific based segmental dynamics of knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. H. M.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Huq, M. S.; Ahmad, M. K. I.

    2017-09-01

    This study determines segmental dynamics parameters based on subject specific method. Five hemiplegic patients participated in the study, two men and three women. Their ages ranged from 50 to 60 years, weights from 60 to 70 kg and heights from 145 to 170 cm. Sample group included patients with different side of stroke. The parameters of the segmental dynamics resembling the knee joint functions measured via measurement of Winter and its model generated via the employment Kane's equation of motion. Inertial parameters in the form of the anthropometry can be identified and measured by employing Standard Human Dimension on the subjects who are in hemiplegia condition. The inertial parameters are the location of centre of mass (COM) at the length of the limb segment, inertia moment around the COM and masses of shank and foot to generate accurate motion equations. This investigation has also managed to dig out a few advantages of employing the table of anthropometry in movement biomechanics of Winter's and Kane's equation of motion. A general procedure is presented to yield accurate measurement of estimation for the inertial parameters for the joint of the knee of certain subjects with stroke history.

  5. Automatic prostate MR image segmentation with sparse label propagation and domain-specific manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Yinghuan; Yousuf, Ambereen; Karademir, Ibrahim; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Automatic prostate segmentation in MR images plays an important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. However, there are two main challenges: (1) Large inter-subject prostate shape variations; (2) Inhomogeneous prostate appearance. To address these challenges, we propose a new hierarchical prostate MR segmentation method, with the main contributions lying in the following aspects: First, the most salient features are learnt from atlases based on a subclass discriminant analysis (SDA) method, which aims to find a discriminant feature subspace by simultaneously maximizing the inter-class distance and minimizing the intra-class variations. The projected features, instead of only voxel-wise intensity, will be served as anatomical signature of each voxel. Second, based on the projected features, a new multi-atlases sparse label fusion framework is proposed to estimate the prostate likelihood of each voxel in the target image from the coarse level. Third, a domain-specific semi-supervised manifold regularization method is proposed to incorporate the most reliable patient-specific information identified by the prostate likelihood map to refine the segmentation result from the fine level. Our method is evaluated on a T2 weighted prostate MR image dataset consisting of 66 patients and compared with two state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Experimental results show that our method consistently achieves the highest segmentation accuracies than other methods under comparison.

  6. Scan-rescan reproducibility of segmental aortic wall shear stress as assessed by phase-specific segmentation with 4D flow MRI in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Palen, Roel L F; Roest, Arno A W; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; de Roos, Albert; Blom, Nico A; Westenberg, Jos J M

    2018-05-26

    The aim was to investigate scan-rescan reproducibility and observer variability of segmental aortic 3D systolic wall shear stress (WSS) by phase-specific segmentation with 4D flow MRI in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy volunteers (age 26.5 ± 2.6 years) underwent aortic 4D flow MRI twice. Maximum 3D systolic WSS (WSSmax) and mean 3D systolic WSS (WSSmean) for five thoracic aortic segments over five systolic cardiac phases by phase-specific segmentations were calculated. Scan-rescan analysis and observer reproducibility analysis were performed. Scan-rescan data showed overall good reproducibility for WSSmean (coefficient of variation, COV 10-15%) with moderate-to-strong intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 0.63-0.89). The variability in WSSmax was high (COV 16-31%) with moderate-to-good ICC (0.55-0.79) for different aortic segments. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was good-to-excellent for regional aortic WSSmax (ICC ≥ 0.78; COV ≤ 17%) and strong-to-excellent for WSSmean (ICC ≥ 0.86; COV ≤ 11%). In general, ascending aortic segments showed more WSSmax/WSSmean variability compared to aortic arch or descending aortic segments for scan-rescan, intraobserver and interobserver comparison. Scan-rescan reproducibility was good for WSSmean and moderate for WSSmax for all thoracic aortic segments over multiple systolic phases in healthy volunteers. Intra/interobserver reproducibility for segmental WSS assessment was good-to-excellent. Variability of WSSmax is higher and should be taken into account in case of individual follow-up or in comparative rest-stress studies to avoid misinterpretation.

  7. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  8. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  9. The Monte Carlo performance benchmark test - AIMS, specifications and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J. Eduard, E-mail: j.e.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Martin, William R., E-mail: wrm@umich.edu [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Petrovic, Bojan, E-mail: Bojan.Petrovic@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Monte Carlo performance benchmark for detailed power density calculation in a full-size reactor core is organized under the auspices of the OECD NEA Data Bank. It aims at monitoring over a range of years the increase in performance, measured in terms of standard deviation and computer time, of Monte Carlo calculation of the power density in small volumes. A short description of the reactor geometry and composition is discussed. One of the unique features of the benchmark exercise is the possibility to upload results from participants at a web site of the NEA Data Bank which enables online analysis of results and to graphically display how near we are at the goal of doing a detailed power distribution calculation with acceptable statistical uncertainty in an acceptable computing time. First results are discussed which show that 10 to 100 billion histories must be simulated to reach a standard deviation of a few percent in the estimated power of most of the requested the fuel zones. Even when using a large supercomputer, a considerable speedup is still needed to reach the target of 1 hour computer time. An outlook is given of what to expect from this benchmark exercise over the years. Possible extensions of the benchmark for specific issues relevant in current Monte Carlo calculation for nuclear reactors are also discussed. (author)

  10. The Monte Carlo performance benchmark test - AIMS, specifications and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J. Eduard; Martin, William R.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    The Monte Carlo performance benchmark for detailed power density calculation in a full-size reactor core is organized under the auspices of the OECD NEA Data Bank. It aims at monitoring over a range of years the increase in performance, measured in terms of standard deviation and computer time, of Monte Carlo calculation of the power density in small volumes. A short description of the reactor geometry and composition is discussed. One of the unique features of the benchmark exercise is the possibility to upload results from participants at a web site of the NEA Data Bank which enables online analysis of results and to graphically display how near we are at the goal of doing a detailed power distribution calculation with acceptable statistical uncertainty in an acceptable computing time. First results are discussed which show that 10 to 100 billion histories must be simulated to reach a standard deviation of a few percent in the estimated power of most of the requested the fuel zones. Even when using a large supercomputer, a considerable speedup is still needed to reach the target of 1 hour computer time. An outlook is given of what to expect from this benchmark exercise over the years. Possible extensions of the benchmark for specific issues relevant in current Monte Carlo calculation for nuclear reactors are also discussed. (author)

  11. Specifics of marketing strategy in the segment of high fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Butigan, Ružica; Grilec Kaurić, Alica; Ujević, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The success of high fashion designers is not only in a specificity of the products but also in specific and very well executed marketing strategy. Emphasis is placed on the design of very specific marketing program and marketing strategies that must concider all the characteristics of the high fashion market. Therefore, a scientific research problem is defined as follows: although the market of high fashion at first glance does not imply a completely different marketing approach than other fa...

  12. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  13. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  14. Segment-specific terminal sequences of Bunyamwera bunyavirus regulate genome replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, John N.; Elliott, Richard M.; Dunn, Ewan F.; Wertz, Gail W.

    2003-01-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative sense RNA viruses. The tripartite BUNV genome consists of small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments that are transcribed to give a single mRNA and replicated to generate an antigenome that is the template for synthesis of further genomic RNA strands. We modified an existing cDNA-derived RNA synthesis system to allow identification of BUNV RNA replication and transcription products by direct metabolic labeling. Direct RNA analysis allowed us to distinguish between template activities that affected either RNA replication or mRNA transcription, an ability that was not possible using previous reporter gene expression assays. We generated genome analogs containing the entire nontranslated terminal sequences of the S, M, and L BUNV segments surrounding a common sequence. Analysis of RNAs synthesized from these templates revealed that the relative abilities of BUNV segments to perform RNA replication was M > L > S. Exchange of segment-specific terminal nucleotides identified a 12-nt region located within both the 3' and 5' termini of the M segment that correlated with its high replication ability

  15. Spatially adapted augmentation of age-specific atlas-based segmentation using patch-based priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Harrylock, Lisa; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Van; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Studholme, Colin

    2014-03-01

    One of the most common approaches to MRI brain tissue segmentation is to employ an atlas prior to initialize an Expectation- Maximization (EM) image labeling scheme using a statistical model of MRI intensities. This prior is commonly derived from a set of manually segmented training data from the population of interest. However, in cases where subject anatomy varies significantly from the prior anatomical average model (for example in the case where extreme developmental abnormalities or brain injuries occur), the prior tissue map does not provide adequate information about the observed MRI intensities to ensure the EM algorithm converges to an anatomically accurate labeling of the MRI. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic segmentation of such cases. This approach augments the atlas-based EM segmentation by exploring methods to build a hybrid tissue segmentation scheme that seeks to learn where an atlas prior fails (due to inadequate representation of anatomical variation in the statistical atlas) and utilize an alternative prior derived from a patch driven search of the atlas data. We describe a framework for incorporating this patch-based augmentation of EM (PBAEM) into a 4D age-specific atlas-based segmentation of developing brain anatomy. The proposed approach was evaluated on a set of MRI brain scans of premature neonates with ages ranging from 27.29 to 46.43 gestational weeks (GWs). Results indicated superior performance compared to the conventional atlas-based segmentation method, providing improved segmentation accuracy for gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal CSF regions.

  16. Automated segmentation of tumors on bone scans using anatomy-specific thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Gjertson, David; Poon, Cheryce; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew S.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of overall tumor area on bone scans may be a potential biomarker for treatment response assessment and has, to date, not been investigated. Segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans is a fundamental step for this response marker. In this paper, we propose a fully automated computerized method for the segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans, taking into account characteristics of different anatomic regions. A scan is first segmented into anatomic regions via an atlas-based segmentation procedure, which involves non-rigidly registering a labeled atlas scan to the patient scan. Next, an intensity normalization method is applied to account for varying levels of radiotracer dosing levels and scan timing. Lastly, lesions are segmented via anatomic regionspecific intensity thresholding. Thresholds are chosen by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis against manual contouring by board certified nuclear medicine physicians. A leave-one-out cross validation of our method on a set of 39 bone scans with metastases marked by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians yielded a median sensitivity of 95.5%, and specificity of 93.9%. Our method was compared with a global intensity thresholding method. The results show a comparable sensitivity and significantly improved overall specificity, with a p-value of 0.0069.

  17. Development of inter-specific chromosomes segment substitution libraries (CSSL) in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six libraries of inter-specific Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs) of rice are being developed as pre-breeding materials and genetic stocks. Three accessions of O. rufipogon were selected as donors, based on phylogenetic, geographical and morphological divergence, and crossed with two rec...

  18. On the importance of FIB-SEM specific segmentation algorithms for porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzer, Martin, E-mail: martin.salzer@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Stochastics, Faculty of Mathematics and Economics, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Thiele, Simon, E-mail: simon.thiele@imtek.uni-freiburg.de [Laboratory for MEMS Applications, IMTEK, Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Zengerle, Roland, E-mail: zengerle@imtek.uni-freiburg.de [Laboratory for MEMS Applications, IMTEK, Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Schmidt, Volker, E-mail: volker.schmidt@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Stochastics, Faculty of Mathematics and Economics, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    A new algorithmic approach to segmentation of highly porous three dimensional image data gained by focused ion beam tomography is described which extends the key-principle of local threshold backpropagation described in Salzer et al. (2012). The technique of focused ion beam tomography has shown to be capable of imaging the microstructure of functional materials. In order to perform a quantitative analysis on the corresponding microstructure a segmentation task needs to be performed. However, algorithmic segmentation of images obtained with focused ion beam tomography is a challenging problem for highly porous materials if filling the pore phase, e.g. with epoxy resin, is difficult. The gray intensities of individual voxels are not sufficient to determine the phase represented by them and usual thresholding methods are not applicable. We thus propose a new approach to segmentation that pays respect to the specifics of the imaging process of focused ion beam tomography. As an application of our approach, the segmentation of three dimensional images for a cathode material used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed. We show that our approach preserves significantly more of the original nanostructure than a thresholding approach. - Highlights: • We describe a new approach to the segmentation of FIB-SEM images of porous media. • The first and last occurrences of structures are detected by analysing the z-profiles. • The algorithm is validated by comparing it to a manual segmentation. • The new approach shows significantly less artifacts than a thresholding approach. • A structural analysis also shows improved results for the obtained microstructure.

  19. A prosthesis-specific multi-link segment model of lower-limb amputee sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Stacey M; Simmons, Anne; Kark, Lauren

    2016-10-03

    Lower-limb amputees commonly utilize non-articulating energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses for high impact activities such as sprinting. Despite these prostheses lacking an articulating ankle joint, amputee gait analysis conventionally features a two-link segment model of the prosthetic foot. This paper investigated the effects of the selected link segment model׳s marker-set and geometry on a unilateral amputee sprinter׳s calculated lower-limb kinematics, kinetics and energetics. A total of five lower-limb models of the Ottobock ® 1E90 Sprinter were developed, including two conventional shank-foot models that each used a different version of the Plug-in-Gait (PiG) marker-set to test the effect of prosthesis ankle marker location. Two Hybrid prosthesis-specific models were then developed, also using the PiG marker-sets, with the anatomical shank and foot replaced by prosthesis-specific geometry separated into two segments. Finally, a Multi-link segment (MLS) model was developed, consisting of six segments for the prosthesis as defined by a custom marker-set. All full-body musculoskeletal models were tested using four trials of experimental marker trajectories within OpenSim 3.2 (Stanford, California, USA) to find the affected and unaffected hip, knee and ankle kinematics, kinetics and energetics. The geometry of the selected lower-limb prosthesis model was found to significantly affect all variables on the affected leg (p prosthesis-specific spatial, inertial and elastic properties from full-body models significantly affects the calculated amputee gait characteristics, and we therefore recommend the implementation of a MLS model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Affinity imaging mass spectrometry (AIMS): high-throughput screening for specific small molecule interactions with frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, T; Kawabata, S; Taira, S; Okuno, A; Mikawa, R; Murayama, S; Tanaka, K; Takikawa, O

    2015-11-07

    A novel screening system, using affinity imaging mass spectrometry (AIMS), has been developed to identify protein aggregates or organ structures in unfixed human tissue. Frozen tissue sections are positioned on small (millimetre-scale) stainless steel chips and incubated with an extensive library of small molecules. Candidate molecules showing specific affinity for the tissue section are identified by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). As an example application, we screened over a thousand compounds against Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue and identified several compounds with high affinity for AD brain sections containing tau deposits compared to age-matched controls. It should also be possible to use AIMS to isolate chemical compounds with affinity for tissue structures or components that have been extensively modified by events such as oxidation, phosphorylation, acetylation, aggregation, racemization or truncation, for example, due to aging. It may also be applicable to biomarker screening programs.

  1. Segmenting CT prostate images using population and patient-specific statistics for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qianjin; Foskey, Mark; Chen Wufan; Shen Dinggang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the segmentation of sequential treatment-time CT prostate images acquired in image-guided radiotherapy, accurately capturing the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy is more important than capturing interpatient variation. However, using the traditional deformable-model-based segmentation methods, it is difficult to capture intrapatient variation when the number of samples from the same patient is limited. This article presents a new deformable model, designed specifically for segmenting sequential CT images of the prostate, which leverages both population and patient-specific statistics to accurately capture the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy. Methods: The novelty of the proposed method is twofold: First, a weighted combination of gradient and probability distribution function (PDF) features is used to build the appearance model to guide model deformation. The strengths of each feature type are emphasized by dynamically adjusting the weight between the profile-based gradient features and the local-region-based PDF features during the optimization process. An additional novel aspect of the gradient-based features is that, to alleviate the effect of feature inconsistency in the regions of gas and bone adjacent to the prostate, the optimal profile length at each landmark is calculated by statistically investigating the intensity profile in the training set. The resulting gradient-PDF combined feature produces more accurate and robust segmentations than general gradient features. Second, an online learning mechanism is used to build shape and appearance statistics for accurately capturing intrapatient variation. Results: The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 306 images of the 24 patients. Compared to traditional gradient features, the proposed gradient-PDF combination features brought 5.2% increment in the success ratio of segmentation (from 94.1% to 99.3%). To evaluate the effectiveness of online

  2. Segmenting CT prostate images using population and patient-specific statistics for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Qianjin; Foskey, Mark; Chen Wufan; Shen Dinggang [Biomedical Engineering College, South Medical University, Guangzhou (China) and Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Biomedical Engineering College, South Medical University, Guangzhou 510510 (China); Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: In the segmentation of sequential treatment-time CT prostate images acquired in image-guided radiotherapy, accurately capturing the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy is more important than capturing interpatient variation. However, using the traditional deformable-model-based segmentation methods, it is difficult to capture intrapatient variation when the number of samples from the same patient is limited. This article presents a new deformable model, designed specifically for segmenting sequential CT images of the prostate, which leverages both population and patient-specific statistics to accurately capture the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy. Methods: The novelty of the proposed method is twofold: First, a weighted combination of gradient and probability distribution function (PDF) features is used to build the appearance model to guide model deformation. The strengths of each feature type are emphasized by dynamically adjusting the weight between the profile-based gradient features and the local-region-based PDF features during the optimization process. An additional novel aspect of the gradient-based features is that, to alleviate the effect of feature inconsistency in the regions of gas and bone adjacent to the prostate, the optimal profile length at each landmark is calculated by statistically investigating the intensity profile in the training set. The resulting gradient-PDF combined feature produces more accurate and robust segmentations than general gradient features. Second, an online learning mechanism is used to build shape and appearance statistics for accurately capturing intrapatient variation. Results: The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 306 images of the 24 patients. Compared to traditional gradient features, the proposed gradient-PDF combination features brought 5.2% increment in the success ratio of segmentation (from 94.1% to 99.3%). To evaluate the effectiveness of online

  3. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  4. Nephron segment specific microRNA biomarkers of pre-clinical drug-induced renal toxicity: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassirpour, Rounak, E-mail: Rounak.nassirpour@pfizer.com [Drug Safety, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, 1 Burtt Rd, Andover, MA 01810 (United States); Ramaiah, Shashi K. [Drug Safety, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, 610 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Whiteley, Laurence O. [Drug Safety, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, 1 Burtt Rd, Andover, MA 01810 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a common drug development complication for pharmaceutical companies. Sensitive, specific, translatable and non-invasive biomarkers of renal toxicity are urgently needed to diagnose nephron segment specific injury. The currently available gold standard biomarkers for nephrotoxicity are not kidney-specific, lack sensitivity for early detection, and are not suitable for renal damage localization (glomerular vs tubulointerstitial injury). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly gaining momentum as promising biomarkers of various organ toxicities, including drug induced renal injury. This is mostly due to their stability in easily accessible biofluids, ease of developing nucleic acids detection compared to protein detection assays, as well as their interspecies translatability. Increasing concordance of miRNA findings by standardizing methodology most suitable for their detection and quantitation, as well as characterization of their expression pattern in a cell type specific manner, will accelerate progress toward validation of these miRNAs as biomarkers in pre-clinical, and clinical settings. This review aims to highlight the current pre-clinical findings surrounding miRNAs as biomarkers in two important segments of the nephron, the glomerulus and tubules. - Highlights: • miRNAs are promising biomarkers of drug-induced kidney injury. • Summarized pre-clinical miRNA biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. • Described the strengths and challenges associated with miRNAs as biomarkers.

  5. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  6. Sport-Specific Training Targeting the Proximal Segments and Throwing Velocity in Collegiate Throwing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L.; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E.; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Context The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. Objective To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory and gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Intervention(s) Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability–training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. Results The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P < .001) and muscle power outputs for the chop (ET group = 0.22 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.3 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW; P < .001) and lift (ET group = 0.59 ± 0.67 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.4 ± 0.87 W/kg of BW; P < .001) tests were higher at postintervention in the PT than in the ET group. Conclusions An improvement in throwing velocity occurred simultaneously with measures of muscular endurance and power after a sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments

  7. Segment-specific responses of intestinal epithelium transcriptome to in-feed antibiotics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaifan; Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-10-01

    Despite widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of human diseases and promotion of growth of agricultural animals, our understanding of their effects on the host is still very limited. We used a model in which pigs were fed with or without a cocktail of antibiotics and found, based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns, that the fecal bacteria from the treatment and control animals were distinct. Furthermore, the total bacterial population in the feces tended to be decreased by the antibiotic treatment ( P = 0.07), and the counts of Lactobacillus and Clostridium XIVa were significantly reduced ( P epithelium, we assessed gene expression profiles of the jejunum and ileum and their response to antibiotic administration. The results indicate that in-feed antibiotics increased expression of genes involved in immune functions in both the jejunum and ileum, some of which were clustered in the coexpression network. Gene ontology terms of metabolic processes were altered predominantly in the jejunum but not in the ileum. Notably, antibiotics diminished intestinal segment-specific transcriptional changes, especially for genes associated with metabolic functions. This study reveals segment-specific responses of host intestinal epithelium to in-feed antibiotics, which can be a valuable resource for deciphering antibiotic-microbiota-host interactions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac anatomy and pathology from in vivo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringenberg, Jordan; Deo, Makarand; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ibañez, Borja; Berenfeld, Omer; Boyers, Pamela; Gold, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an automated method to segment left ventricle (LV) tissues from functional and delayed-enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a sequential multi-step approach. First, a region of interest (ROI) is computed to create a subvolume around the LV using morphological operations and image arithmetic. From the subvolume, the myocardial contours are automatically delineated using difference of Gaussians (DoG) filters and GSV snakes. These contours are used as a mask to identify pathological tissues, such as fibrosis or scar, within the DE-MRI. The presented automated technique is able to accurately delineate the myocardium and identify the pathological tissue in patient sets. The results were validated by two expert cardiologists, and in one set the automated results are quantitatively and qualitatively compared with expert manual delineation. Furthermore, the method is patient-specific, performed on an entire patient MRI series. Thus, in addition to providing a quick analysis of individual MRI scans, the fully automated segmentation method is used for effectively tagging regions in order to reconstruct computerized patient-specific 3D cardiac models. These models can then be used in electrophysiological studies and surgical strategy planning. (paper)

  9. Host-Specific and Segment-Specific Evolutionary Dynamics of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses: A Systematic Review

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kiyeon

    2016-01-13

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza viruses is essential to control both avian and human influenza. Here, we analyze host-specific and segment-specific Tajima’s D trends of influenza A virus through a systematic review using viral sequences registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. To avoid bias from viral population subdivision, viral sequences were stratified according to their sampling locations and sampling years. As a result, we obtained a total of 580 datasets each of which consists of nucleotide sequences of influenza A viruses isolated from a single population of hosts at a single sampling site within a single year. By analyzing nucleotide sequences in the datasets, we found that Tajima’s D values of viral sequences were different depending on hosts and gene segments. Tajima’s D values of viruses isolated from chicken and human samples showed negative, suggesting purifying selection or a rapid population growth of the viruses. The negative Tajima’s D values in rapidly growing viral population were also observed in computer simulations. Tajima’s D values of PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of the viruses circulating in wild mallards were close to zero, suggesting that these genes have undergone neutral selection in constant-sized population. On the other hand, Tajima’s D values of HA and NA genes of these viruses were positive, indicating HA and NA have undergone balancing selection in wild mallards. Taken together, these results indicated the existence of unknown factors that maintain viral subtypes in wild mallards.

  10. Host-Specific and Segment-Specific Evolutionary Dynamics of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses: A Systematic Review

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kiyeon; Omori, Ryosuke; Ueno, Keisuke; Iida, Sayaka; Ito, Kimihito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza viruses is essential to control both avian and human influenza. Here, we analyze host-specific and segment-specific Tajima’s D trends of influenza A virus through a systematic review using viral sequences registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. To avoid bias from viral population subdivision, viral sequences were stratified according to their sampling locations and sampling years. As a result, we obtained a total of 580 datasets each of which consists of nucleotide sequences of influenza A viruses isolated from a single population of hosts at a single sampling site within a single year. By analyzing nucleotide sequences in the datasets, we found that Tajima’s D values of viral sequences were different depending on hosts and gene segments. Tajima’s D values of viruses isolated from chicken and human samples showed negative, suggesting purifying selection or a rapid population growth of the viruses. The negative Tajima’s D values in rapidly growing viral population were also observed in computer simulations. Tajima’s D values of PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of the viruses circulating in wild mallards were close to zero, suggesting that these genes have undergone neutral selection in constant-sized population. On the other hand, Tajima’s D values of HA and NA genes of these viruses were positive, indicating HA and NA have undergone balancing selection in wild mallards. Taken together, these results indicated the existence of unknown factors that maintain viral subtypes in wild mallards.

  11. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  12. Bayesian longitudinal segmentation of hippocampal substructures in brain MRI using subject-specific atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Augustinack, Jean; Insausti, Ricardo; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The hippocampal formation is a complex, heterogeneous structure that consists of a number of distinct, interacting subregions. Atrophy of these subregions is implied in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, most prominently in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thanks to the increasing resolution of MR images and computational atlases, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subregions is becoming feasible in MRI scans. Here we introduce a generative model for dedicated longitudinal segmentation that relies on subject-specific atlases. The segmentations of the scans at the different time points are jointly computed using Bayesian inference. All time points are treated the same to avoid processing bias. We evaluate this approach using over 4700 scans from two publicly available datasets (ADNI and MIRIAD). In test-retest reliability experiments, the proposed method yielded significantly lower volume differences and significantly higher Dice overlaps than the cross-sectional approach for nearly every subregion (average across subregions: 4.5% vs. 6.5%, Dice overlap: 81.8% vs. 75.4%). The longitudinal algorithm also demonstrated increased sensitivity to group differences: in MIRIAD (69 subjects: 46 with AD and 23 controls), it found differences in atrophy rates between AD and controls that the cross sectional method could not detect in a number of subregions: right parasubiculum, left and right presubiculum, right subiculum, left dentate gyrus, left CA4, left HATA and right tail. In ADNI (836 subjects: 369 with AD, 215 with early cognitive impairment - eMCI - and 252 controls), all methods found significant differences between AD and controls, but the proposed longitudinal algorithm detected differences between controls and eMCI and differences between eMCI and AD that the cross sectional method could not find: left presubiculum, right subiculum, left and right parasubiculum, left and right HATA. Moreover, many of the differences that the cross-sectional method already found

  13. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Evokes Unique Segment-Specific Vasoconstriction of the Renal Microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Sean T.; Cook, Anthony K.; Hobbs, Janet L.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Inscho, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, has been implicated in regulating vascular tone and participating in chronic and acute kidney injury. However, little is known about the role of S1P in the renal microcirculation. Here, we directly assessed the vasoresponsiveness of preglomerular and postglomerular microvascular segments to exogenous S1P using the in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Superfusion of S1P (0.001–10 μM) evoked concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in preglomerular microvessels, predominantly afferent arterioles. After administration of 10 μM S1P, the diameter of afferent arterioles decreased to 35%±5% of the control diameter, whereas the diameters of interlobular and arcuate arteries declined to 50%±12% and 68%±6% of the control diameter, respectively. Notably, efferent arterioles did not respond to S1P. The S1P receptor agonists FTY720 and FTY720-phosphate and the specific S1P1 receptor agonist SEW2871 each evoked modest afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Conversely, S1P2 receptor inhibition with JTE-013 significantly attenuated S1P-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Moreover, blockade of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels with diltiazem or nifedipine attenuated S1P-mediated vasoconstriction. Intravenous injection of S1P in anesthetized rats reduced renal blood flow dose dependently. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed S1P1 and S1P2 receptor expression in isolated preglomerular microvessels and microvascular smooth muscle cells. These data demonstrate that S1P evokes segmentally distinct preglomerular vasoconstriction via activation of S1P1 and/or S1P2 receptors, partially via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Accordingly, S1P may have a novel function in regulating afferent arteriolar resistance under physiologic conditions. PMID:24578134

  14. Automatic segmentation of thoracic and pelvic CT images for radiotherapy planning using implicit anatomic knowledge and organ-specific segmentation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, B; Coradi, T; Scholz, M; Kunz, P; Huber, M; Oppitz, U; Andre, L; Lengkeek, V; Huyskens, D; Esch, A van; Reddick, R

    2008-01-01

    structures on the scale 1-excellent (no corrections necessary, maximum time saving), 2-good (corrections necessary for up to 1/3 of slices), 3-acceptable (major corrections necessary, but still time saving), 4-not acceptable (manual redrawing more efficient, no time saving). A rating ≤ 3 indicates a time saving in the treatment planning process and was given for pelvis segmentation in 70% (I) and 68% (II) of the cases, with average ratings 2.9 (I) and 2.6 (II). For the thorax, a rating ≤ 3 was given in 94% and 91% of the cases, with average ratings 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. For quantitative validation, automatically generated structures were compared geometrically in 2D and 3D to manually drawn structures created by experts on seven randomly selected cases. The quantitative validation was limited to pelvis structures. The results indicate that the accuracy of the algorithms is within the bandwidth of manual segmentation by experts, except for specific erroneous situations. Even though manual review and corrections of automatically segmented structures are still mandatory, it can be expected that due to the speed of the presented software and the quality of its results, its introduction in the radiotherapy treatment planning process will lead to a considerable amount of time being saved

  15. EFFECTS OF PARENT ARTERY SEGMENTATION AND ANEURISMALWALL ELASTICITY ON PATIENT-SPECIFIC HEMODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-liang; DING Guang-hong; YANG Xin-jian; LI Hai-yun

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that hemodynamics and wall tension play an important role in the formation,growth and rupture of aneurysms.In the present study,the authors investigated the influence of parent artery segmentation and aneurismal-wall elasticity on patient-specific hemodynamic simulations with two patient-specific eases of cerebral aneurysms.Realistic models of the aneurysms were constructed from 3-D angiography images and blood flow dynamics was studied under physiologically representative waveform of inflow.For each aneurysm three computational models were constructed:Model 1 with more extensive upstream parent artery with the rigid arterial and aneurismal wall,Model 2 with the partial upstream parent artery with the elastic arterial and aneurismal wall,Model 3 with more extensive upstream parent artery with the rigid wall for arterial wall far from the aneurysm and the elastic wall for arterial wall near the aneurysm.The results show that Model 1 could predict complex intra-aneurismal flow patterns and wall shear stress distribution in the aneurysm,but is unable to give aneurismal wall deformation and tension,Model 2 demonstrates aneurismal wall deformation and tension,but fails to properly model inflow pattern contributed by the upstream parent artery,resulting in local misunderstanding Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distribution,Model 3 can overcome limitations of the former two models,and give an overall and accurate analysis on intra-aneurismal flow patterns,wall shear stress distribution,aneurismal-wall deformation and tension.Therefore we suggest that the proper length of extensive upstream parent artery and aneuri-smal-wall elasticity should be considered carefully in establishing computational model to predict the intra-aneurismal hemodynamic and wall tension.

  16. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments.

  17. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Byrne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports. The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015. The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods.

  18. Toward Patient Specific Long Lasting Metallic Implants for Mandibular Segmental Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges

    Mandibular defects may result from tumor resection, trauma, or inflammation. The goals of mandibular reconstruction surgeries are to restore mandible function and aesthetics. To this end, surgeons use a combination of bone grafts and metallic implants. These implants have drastically different mechanical properties than the surrounding bone. As a result, the stress distribution in the mandible changes after surgery. The long-term abnormal stress/strain distribution may lead to either graft failure due to bone resorption as a result of stress shielding, or hardware failure due to stress concentrations. During the healing period of six to nine months it is important that complete immobilization, bringing mandibular micro-motion down to the level of 200-500 mum during chewing, is achieved. After this period it is desired that bone undergo normal stress for long-term success of the treatment. Although current high stiffness fixation hardware accomplishes this immobilization during the healing period, the hardware continues to alter the normal stress-strain trajectory seen during chewing once the engrafted bone heals. Over the long-term, the immobilized and stress-shielded engrafted bone tends to resorb. On the other hand, hardware fracturing or/and screw loosening is observed as the stress is concentrated at certain locations on the hardware. Equally as important is the permanent loss of chewing power due to the altered stress-strain relationships. The first stage of this research is to study the problems encountered following a mandibular segmental defect reconstructive surgery. To this end, we constructed a finite element model of a healthy mandible, which includes cortical and cancellous bone, teeth (enamel and dentin components), and the periodontal ligament. Using this model, we studied a healthy adult mandible under maximum molar bite force for stress, strain, displacement, and reaction force distribution. For mandibular segmental defect reconstruction the

  19. Multi-criteria media mix decision model for advertising multiple product with segment specific and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Aggarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicious media planning decisions are crucial for successful advertising of products. Media planners extensively use mathematical models supplemented with market research and expert opinion to devise the media plans. Media planning models discussed in the literature largely focus on single products with limited studies related to the multi-product media planning. In this paper we propose a media planning model to allocate limited advertising budget among multiple products advertised in a segmented market and determine the number of advertisements to be given in different media. The proposed model is formulated considering both segment specific and mass media vehicles to maximize the total advertising reach for each product. The model also incorporates the cross product effect of advertising of one product on the other. The proposed formulation is a multi-objective linear integer programming model and interactive linear integer goal programming is discussed to solve the model. A real life case study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed model.

  20. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  1. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  2. Colorimetric Detection of Specific DNA Segments Amplified by Polymerase Chain Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David J.; Smith, Donald B.; Foote, Simon J.; Samaras, N.; Peterson, M. Gregory

    1989-04-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure has many potential applications in mass screening. We describe here a general assay for colorimetric detection of amplified DNA. The target DNA is first amplified by PCR, and then a second set of oligonucleotides, nested between the first two, is incorporated by three or more PCR cycles. These oligonucleotides bear ligands: for example, one can be biotinylated and the other can contain a site for a double-stranded DNA-binding protein. After linkage to an immobilized affinity reagent (such as a cloned DNA-binding protein, which we describe here) and labeling with a second affinity reagent (for example, avidin) linked to horseradish peroxidase, reaction with a chromogenic substrate allows detection of the amplified DNA. This amplified DNA assay (ADA) is rapid, is readily applicable to mass screening, and uses routine equipment. We show here that it can be used to detect human immunodeficiency virus sequences specifically against a background of human DNA.

  3. Segmentation of electric energy customers by specific niches; Segmentacao de clientes de energia eletrica por nichos especiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Lucia Rodrigues da; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jannuzzi@fen.unicamp.br

    2009-04-15

    The article presents the classic segmentation used in electric energy industry for large customers. The paper argues the limitations of this classification, as well as, the potentialities to classify customers for specific niches, the example of that already occurs in other competitive sectors of the economy. Twelve potential forms for classifying large customers in electricity industry are presented: geographic localization; value of the invoice; sector of productive activity; types of share holding composition and enterprise management; forms and characteristics of the use of the electric energy in the final units; degree of technological sophistication; client relation cost benefit; common factors in energy process of purchase; brand associated with the customer; extraordinary factors, such as, urgency, application and volume of energy; personal characteristics of the purchaser in charge of the operation; former-customers who moved from the captive market to the free market and vice versa. The article concludes proposing a new methodology to identify the specific niches of customers in the electric sector, as well as the inductive and restrictive factors of this methodology. (author)

  4. A distance measurement between specific sites on the cytoplasmic surface of bovine rhodopsin in rod outer segment disk membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A D; Watts, A; Spooner, P; Groebner, G; Young, J; Yeagle, P L

    1997-08-14

    Structural information on mammalian integral membrane proteins is scarce. As part of work on an alternative approach to the structure of bovine rhodopsin, a method was devised to obtain an intramolecular distance between two specific sites on rhodopsin while in the rod outer segment disk membrane. In this report, the distance between the rhodopsin kinase phosphorylation site(s) on the carboxyl terminal and the top of the third transmembrane helix was measured on native rhodopsin. Rhodopsin was labeled with a nuclear spin label (31P) by limited phosphorylation with rhodopsin kinase. Major phosphorylation occurs at serines 343 and 338 on the carboxyl terminal. The phosphorylated rhodopsin was then specifically labeled on cysteine 140 with an electron spin label. Magic angle spinning 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the resonance arising from the phosphorylated protein. The enhancement of the transverse relaxation of this resonance by the paramagnetic spin label was observed. The strength of this perturbation was used to determine the through-space distance between the phosphorylation site(s) and the spin label position. A distance of 18 +/- 3 A was obtained.

  5. Computed tomography landmark-based semi-automated mesh morphing and mapping techniques: generation of patient specific models of the human pelvis without segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Wright, David; Whyne, Cari Marisa

    2015-04-13

    Current methods for the development of pelvic finite element (FE) models generally are based upon specimen specific computed tomography (CT) data. This approach has traditionally required segmentation of CT data sets, which is time consuming and necessitates high levels of user intervention due to the complex pelvic anatomy. The purpose of this research was to develop and assess CT landmark-based semi-automated mesh morphing and mapping techniques to aid the generation and mechanical analysis of specimen-specific FE models of the pelvis without the need for segmentation. A specimen-specific pelvic FE model (source) was created using traditional segmentation methods and morphed onto a CT scan of a different (target) pelvis using a landmark-based method. The morphed model was then refined through mesh mapping by moving the nodes to the bone boundary. A second target model was created using traditional segmentation techniques. CT intensity based material properties were assigned to the morphed/mapped model and to the traditionally segmented target models. Models were analyzed to evaluate their geometric concurrency and strain patterns. Strains generated in a double-leg stance configuration were compared to experimental strain gauge data generated from the same target cadaver pelvis. CT landmark-based morphing and mapping techniques were efficiently applied to create a geometrically multifaceted specimen-specific pelvic FE model, which was similar to the traditionally segmented target model and better replicated the experimental strain results (R(2)=0.873). This study has shown that mesh morphing and mapping represents an efficient validated approach for pelvic FE model generation without the need for segmentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  7. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  8. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  9. Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J R; Norris, S J

    1998-08-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlsE) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. Segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlsE cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. Despite promiscuous recombination within the vlsE cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlsE that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation during these recombination events. The segments of the silent vls cassettes recombine in the vlsE cassette region through a unidirectional process such that the sequence and organization of the silent vls loci are not affected. As a result of recombination, the previously expressed segments are replaced by incoming segments and apparently degraded. These results provide evidence for a gene conversion mechanism in VlsE antigenic variation.

  10. Site-specific deletions of chromosomally located DNA segments with the multimer resolution system of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Claus; Eberl, Leo; Sanchezromero, Juan M.

    1995-01-01

    The multimer resolution system (mrs) of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4 has been exploited to develop a general method that permits the precise excision of chromosomal segments in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. The procedure is based on the site-specific recombination between two directly ...

  11. Micro-segmental hair analysis for proving drug-facilitated crimes: Evidence that a victim ingested a sleeping aid, diphenhydramine, on a specific day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Nariai, Maika; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Segawa, Hiroki; Abe, Hiroko; Iwase, Hirotaro; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2018-07-01

    Sleeping aids are often abused in the commission of drug-facilitated crimes. Generally, there is little evidence that a victim ingested a spiked drink unknowingly because the unconscious victim cannot report the situation to the police immediately after the crime occurred. Although conventional segmental hair analysis can estimate the number of months since a targeted drug was ingested, this analysis cannot determine the specific day of ingestion. We recently developed a method of micro-segmental hair analysis using internal temporal markers (ITMs) to estimate the day of drug ingestion. This method was based on volunteer ingestion of ITMs to determine a timescale within individual hair strands, by segmenting a single hair strand at 0.4-mm intervals, corresponding to daily hair growth. This study assessed the ability of this method to estimate the day of ingestion of an over-the-counter sleeping aid, diphenhydramine, which can be easily abused. To model ingestion of a diphenhydramine-spiked drink unknowingly, each subject ingested a dose of diphenhydramine, followed by ingestion of two doses of the ITM, chlorpheniramine, 14days apart. Several hair strands were collected from each subject's scalp several weeks after the second ITM ingestion. Diphenhydramine and ITM were detected at specific regions within individual hair strands. The day of diphenhydramine ingestion was estimated from the distances between the regions and the days of ITM ingestion. The error between estimated and actual ingestion day ranged from -0.1 to 1.9days regardless of subjects and hair collection times. The total time required for micro-segmental analysis of 96 hair segments (hair length: 3.84cm) was approximately 2days and the cost was almost the same as in general drug analysis. This procedure may be applicable to the investigation of crimes facilitated by various drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  13. The effectiveness of endobronchial therapy in patients with chemo-resistant tuberculosis when specific process is localized in the lungs apical segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Khlystun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to study the effectiveness of the additional methods of endobronchial pathology treatment in patients with chemo-resistant tuberculosis (CRTB of lungs, that aimed to treat a specific process in bronchi when destructions are localized in the apical segments (S1+2 of lungs. Materials and methods. In order to investigate effectiveness of the additional methods of endobronchial pathology treatment of bronchial mucosa 79 patients with CRTB of lungs were examined. They were divided into 3 groups: basic 1 group, which included 27 patients who were treated by using antimycobacterial drugs endobronchial introduction to S1+2 with further implementation of intraorganic electrophoresis in S1+2 zone in combination with systemic receiving of antimycobacterial drugs; the comparison basic 2 group 27 patients who were treated with systemic antimycobacterial therapy in combination with antituberculosis drugs inhalations; and the group included – 25 patients who received only systemic antimycobacterial therapy. Groups were compared by the severity of the process, age and gender. Tracheobronchial tree fiber-bronchoscopy in patients with CRTB of lungs was carried out on the basis of phthisiology and pulmonology department of ZSMU in communal institution "Zaporizhzhia regional antituberculosis dispensary", by the author on their own. Character of bronchial mucosa was examined under anesthesia by fiber-bronchoscopes of company "Olympus" (Japan. Bronchial tree pathology was described according to N. V. Shesterynoy, A. N. Kaliuk (1975 classification. Results of the study were processed with modern methods of analysis on a personal computer with using the Statistical Package license software Statistica® for Windows 6.0 (StatSoft Inc., № AXXR712 D833214FAN5. Results. The use of antimycobacterial drugs endobronchial introduction to S1+2 with further implementation of intraorganic electrophoresis in S1+2 zone contributed significantly increase the

  14. What are Segments in Google Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segments find all sessions that meet a specific condition. You can then apply this segment to any report in Google Analytics (GA). Segments are a way of identifying sessions and users while filters identify specific events, like pageviews.

  15. ENTERPRISE RESTRUCTURING AIM AND TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Baranenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise restructuring is aimed at adapting it to market conditions and improving its competitiveness through selection of most effective model of using material, technical, technological, organizational, commercial, economical, financial, tax-related and other resources with due account of the demand. Restructuring classification signs and types as well as restructuring aims specific for industrial enterprises are provided for.

  16. SAAS-CNV: A Joint Segmentation Approach on Aggregated and Allele Specific Signals for the Identification of Somatic Copy Number Alterations with Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity.

  17. Axodendritic sorting and pathological missorting of Tau are isoform-specific and determined by axon initial segment architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempel, Hans; Dennissen, Frank J A; Kumar, Yatender; Luedtke, Julia; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2017-07-21

    Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS, but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau diffusion barrier (TDB), located within the axon initial segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau. Tau isoforms without the N-terminal inserts were sorted efficiently into the axon. However, the longest isoform (2N4R-Tau) was partially retained in cell bodies and dendrites, where it accelerated spine and dendrite growth. The TDB (located within the AIS) was impaired when AIS components (ankyrin G, EB1) were knocked down or when glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β; an AD-associated kinase tethered to the AIS) was overexpressed. Using superresolution nanoscopy and live-cell imaging, we observed that microtubules within the AIS appeared highly dynamic, a feature essential for the TDB. Pathomechanistically, amyloid-β insult caused cofilin activation and F-actin remodeling and decreased microtubule dynamics in the AIS. Concomitantly with these amyloid-β-induced disruptions, the AIS/TDB sorting function failed, causing AD-like Tau missorting. In summary, we provide evidence that the human and rodent Tau isoforms differ in axodendritic sorting and amyloid-β-induced missorting and that the axodendritic distribution of Tau depends on AIS integrity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    chose CHOP as our primary target for drug development. Currently, we are in the process of screening a library of 1274 drugs, all of which are already used in human subjects, for CHOP inhibitors. The last topic of our discussion is future possibilities for glaucoma management. First, we discuss the development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities that allow detailed description of pathomechanisms of this multifactorial disease, glaucoma. The purpose of this research was to improve the efficacy of glaucoma diagnosis and to visualize its pathology at a cellular/molecular level and develop molecule-specific therapies. Currently available visual field tests are subjective, since they rely on a determination of the threshold of light perception, and are affected by poor reproducibility. The current dependence on visual field tests to ascertain the progression of glaucoma is thus a serious limitation on an important task of ophthalmologists. We, therefore, turned our focus to the establishment of an in vivo imaging method to detect dying retinal ganglion cells, which would highlight the pathologic state of glaucoma with high sensitivity. To this end, we used confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy to assess the usefulness of SYTOX Orange as a cell death probe. Our results showed that this probe could reveal dying retinal ganglion cells clearly, quickly and with high sensitivity. We, therefore, believe that the clinical application of probes that can sensitively detect dying retinal ganglion cells is a highly promising approach. This also applies to the use of molecular tools that can provide information on the molecular pathology of glaucoma. Finally, we would like to introduce our national collaborative work on the analysis of "big-data". The project aims to collect as wide a range of data as possible at an unprecedented scale. The data to be registered ranges from basic glaucoma data, such as IOP and visual field test results, to data from the most sophisticated

  19. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-05-15

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  1. Dynamic multi-segmental postural control in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain compared to pain-free controls: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Michael A; Wirth, Brigitte; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    Reduced postural control is thought to contribute to the development and persistence of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP). It is therefore frequently assessed in affected patients and commonly reported as the average amount of postural sway while standing upright under a variety of sensory conditions. These averaged linear outcomes, such as mean centre of pressure (CP) displacement or mean CP surface areas, may not reflect the true postural status. Adding nonlinear outcomes and multi-segmental kinematic analysis has been reported to better reflect the complexity of postural control and may detect subtler postural differences. In this cross-sectional study, a combination of linear and nonlinear postural parameters were assessed in patients with CNLBP (n = 24, 24-75 years, 9 females) and compared to symptom-free controls (CG, n = 34, 22-67 years, 11 females). Primary outcome was postural control measured by variance of joint configurations (uncontrolled manifold index, UI), confidence ellipse surface areas (CEA) and approximate entropy (ApEn) of CP dispersion during the response phase of a perturbed postural control task on a swaying platform. Secondary outcomes were segment excursions and clinical outcome correlates for pain and function. Non-parametric tests for group comparison with P-adjustment for multiple comparisons were conducted. Principal component analysis was applied to identify patterns of segmental contribution in both groups. CNLBP and CG performed similarly with respect to the primary outcomes. Comparison of joint kinematics revealed significant differences of hip (P postural differences in CNLBP patients with low to moderate pain status.

  2. AIM Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scholz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM Data Services as a virtual facility provides virtual 3D reference tracks for simulation applications in the domain of automotive and railway systems. It offers tools for management and analysis of experiment data and a platform for survey and processing of vehicle data in the public transport domain. Collected spatial data is bundled in a database cluster and published through common web mapping interfaces.

  3. Side chain requirements for affinity and specificity in D5, an HIV-1 antibody derived from the VH1-69 germline segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alex; Harrison, Joseph S; Regula, Lauren K; Lai, Jonathan R

    2013-04-08

    Analysis of factors contributing to high affinity antibody-protein interactions provides insight into natural antibody evolution, and guides the design of antibodies with new or enhanced function. We previously studied the interaction between antibody D5 and its target, a designed protein based on HIV-1 gp41 known as 5-Helix, as a model system [Da Silva, G. F.; Harrison, J. S.; Lai, J. R., Biochemistry, 2010, 49, 5464-5472]. Antibody D5 represents an interesting case study because it is derived from the VH1-69 germline segment; this germline segment is characterized by a hydrophobic second heavy chain complementarity determining region (HCDR2) that constitutes the major functional paratope in D5 and several antibodies derived from the same progenitor. Here we explore side chain requirements for affinity and specificity in D5 using phage display. Two D5-based libraries were prepared that contained diversity in all three light chain complementarity determining regions (LCDRs 1-3), and in the third HCDR (HCDR3). The first library allowed residues to vary among a restricted set of six amino acids (Tyr/Ala/Asp/Ser/His/Pro; D5-Lib-I). The second library was designed based on a survey of existing VH1-69 antibody structures (D5-Lib-II). Both libraries were subjected to multiple rounds of selection against 5-Helix, and individual clones characterized. We found that selectants from D5-Lib-I generally had moderate affinity and specificity, while many clones from D5-Lib-II exhibited D5-like properties. Additional analysis of the D5-Lib-II functional population revealed position-specific biases for particular amino acids, many that differed from the identity of those side chains in D5. Together these results suggest that there is some permissiveness for alternative side chains in the LCDRs and HCDR3 of D5, but that replacement with a minimal set of residues is not tolerated in this scaffold for 5-Helix recognition. This work provides novel information about this high

  4. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  5. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    that the Danes are encouraged to be alert to still earlier and vaguer bodily signs of potential cancer and seek care ‘in time’. With biomedical constructions such as ‘cancer awareness’ and ‘alarm symptoms of cancer’ and the retrospectively oriented definition of life before symptoms-based healthcare seeking...... and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... on a continuum between what is locally considered ordinary and extraordinary. Overall, the dissertation argues that inquiries into morality and potentiality provide valuable insights into healthcare seeking practices and the making and management of symptoms in everyday life. The dissertation is based on 18...

  6. Specification of a Human Reliability Data Bank for conducting HRA segments of PRAs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Donovan, M.D.

    1985-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and General Physics Corporation have conducted a research program to develop a Human Reliability Data Bank for nuclear power industry probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As part of this program, a survey of existing human reliability data banks from other industries was conducted and a concept of a Data Bank for the nuclear industry was developed. The results of these efforts were published in the two volumes of NUREG/CR-2744: ''Human Reliability Data Bank for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Volume 1, A Review of Existing Human Reliability Data Banks, and Volume 2, A Data Bank Concept and System Description.'' This document, NUREG/CR-4010, is the revised technical specification for the Human Reliability Data Bank. The organization of the Data Bank and a description of a data publication, the Human Reliability Data Manual, are provided. Details of the administration and operation of the Data Bank are discussed. Appendices present the detailed procedures for processing data, revising the Data Manual, operating the Data Bank, and reviewing data for the Data Bank. The final appendix is a skeleton version (structure only) of the Data Manual

  7. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  8. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of nearest neighbors to specific fluorescently tagged ligands in rod outer segment and lymphocyte plasma membranes by photosensitization of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviv, Y.; Bercovici, T.; Gitler, C.; Salomon, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lima bean agglutinin-fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate conjugate (FluNCS-lima bean lectin) interacts with specific receptor molecules on membranes both from the rod outer segment (ROS) of the frog retina and from S49 mouse lymphoma cells. When [125I]-5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (125I-INA), which freely and randomly partitions into the lipid bilayer, is added to membranes and the suspension is irradiated at 480 nm, the FluNCS-conjugated lectin photosensitizes the [125I]INA but only at discrete sites. This results in the selective labeling of specific proteins: an 88-kDa protein on ROS membranes and a 56-kDa protein on S49 plasma membranes. Labeling is dependent upon the interaction of the FluNCS-lectin with glycosylated receptor sites, since N-acetylgalactosamine, but not methyl alpha-mannoside, blocked labeling of the 56-kDa protein on S49 membranes. In contrast, a random labeling pattern of membrane proteins was observed upon irradiation at 480 nm using other fluorescein conjugates, such as FluNCS-bovine serum albumin (FluNCS-BSA) or FluNCS-soybean trypsin inhibitor (FluNCS-STI), which interact with cell membranes in a nonselective manner, or with N-(fluorescein-5-thiocarbamoyl)-n-undecyclamine (FluNCS-NHC11), which is freely miscible in the membrane lipid. Random labeling was also obtained by direct photoexcitation of [125I]INA at 314 nm, with no distinct labeling of the 88- and 56-kDa proteins in the respective membranes. These results suggest that protein ligands can be used to guide sensitizers to discrete receptor sites and lead to their selective labeling by photosensitized activation of [125I]INA

  10. Effect of sedentary behaviour and vigorous physical activity on segment-specific carotid wall thickness and its progression in a healthy population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether sedentary behaviour and different activity levels have an independent association with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and with the 3-year IMT progression in different carotid segments.

  11. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  12. Identification and differentiation of the twenty six bluetongue virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender S Maan

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is an arthropod-borne viral disease, which primarily affects ruminants in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Twenty six bluetongue virus (BTV serotypes have been recognised worldwide, including nine from Europe and fifteen in the United States. Identification of BTV serotype is important for vaccination programmes and for BTV epidemiology studies. Traditional typing methods (virus isolation and serum or virus neutralisation tests (SNT or VNT are slow (taking weeks, depend on availability of reference virus-strains or antisera and can be inconclusive. Nucleotide sequence analyses and phylogenetic comparisons of genome segment 2 (Seg-2 encoding BTV outer-capsid protein VP2 (the primary determinant of virus serotype were completed for reference strains of BTV-1 to 26, as well as multiple additional isolates from different geographic and temporal origins. The resulting Seg-2 database has been used to develop rapid (within 24 h and reliable RT-PCR-based typing assays for each BTV type. Multiple primer-pairs (at least three designed for each serotype were widely tested, providing an initial identification of serotype by amplification of a cDNA product of the expected size. Serotype was confirmed by sequencing of the cDNA amplicons and phylogenetic comparisons to previously characterised reference strains. The results from RT-PCR and sequencing were in perfect agreement with VNT for reference strains of all 26 BTV serotypes, as well as the field isolates tested. The serotype-specific primers showed no cross-amplification with reference strains of the remaining 25 serotypes, or multiple other isolates of the more closely related heterologous BTV types. The primers and RT-PCR assays developed in this study provide a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the twenty-six BTV serotypes, and will be updated periodically to maintain their relevance to current BTV distribution and

  13. Advantage of whole exome sequencing over allele-specific and targeted segment sequencing in detection of novel TULP1 mutation in leber congenital amaurosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yiran; Prokudin, Ivan; Yu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    by targeted segment sequencing of 61 regions in 14 causative genes was performed. Subsequently, exome sequencing was undertaken in the proband, unaffected consanguineous parents and two unaffected siblings. Bioinformatic analysis used two independent pipelines, BWA-GATK and SOAP, followed by Annovar and Snp...

  14. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  15. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  16. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  17. Segmenting Chinese Tourists by the Expected Experience at Theme Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an experiential approach to tourist segmentation aimed at overcoming the limits of both socio-demographic and context-specific approaches widely adopted in the literature and in practice. In this study, segmentation is carried out based upon the expected experiences of Chinese tourists at the Shanghai World Exposition. The segmentation reveals four tourist clusters with different interests in relation to their experiences in visiting the World Exposition. The clusters showed insignificant differences in the demographics but proved to be powerfully discriminant in determining tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty, which affirms the potential of the tourist experience being a segmenting variable. Moreover, thanks to the analysis, an evaluation of the Shanghai World Exposition’s success in terms of visitors’ satisfaction is provided.

  18. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  19. Produtividade de madeira do eucalipto correlacionada com atributos do solo visando ao mapeamento de zonas específicas de manejo Eucalyptus wood productivity correlated with soil attributes aiming the mapping of management specifics regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel de Passos e Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A correta intervenção espacial na administração da lavoura, decorrente das zonas específicas de manejo do solo, aumenta a produtividade e a lucratividade agrícola. No ano de 2010, em Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long. foram empregadas correlações, espaciais e de Pearson, entre dados da planta de eucalipto e alguns atributos físico-químicos do solo, visando encontrar aquele que se correlacionasse bem com a produtividade de madeira. Para tanto, instalou-se uma rede geoestatística para a coleta de dados de solo e planta, com 120 pontos amostrais, num talhão de Eucalyptus camaldulensis de 2 anos. O solo foi um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Haplic Acrustox com declive de 0,025m m-1. O diâmetro basal da copa e a densidade do solo, por resultarem estreitas correlações com o volume de madeira, evidenciaram zonas específicas de manejo do solo intimamente associadas à produção de madeira do eucalipto.The perfect spatial intervention to manage the cultivation of the land, deriving from specific regions of the soil mapping, increases the agricultural productivity, as well as its clear gain. The relationships, spatial and Pearson, between eucalyptus data plant with some physical and chemical attributes of soil, in the growing season of 2011, in Selviria County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long., were studied in order to obtain the one that could have the best relationship in order to improve the wood productivity. Thus, a geostatistical grid was installed for the soil and plant data collection, it contained 120 sample points, in plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis of 2 years old. The soil was a Dystrophic Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox whit slope of 0.025m m-1. Due to their excellent relationship with wood productivity, the basis diameter of the crown and the bulk density showed management specific regions of soil whit high relation to eucalyptus wood productivity.

  20. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  2. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  3. CLG for Automatic Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christo Ananth; S.Santhana Priya; S.Manisha; T.Ezhil Jothi; M.S.Ramasubhaeswari

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method which effectively combines Active Contour Model, Live Wire method and Graph Cut approach (CLG). The aim of Live wire method is to provide control to the user on segmentation process during execution. Active Contour Model provides a statistical model of object shape and appearance to a new image which are built during a training phase. In the graph cut technique, each pixel is represented as a node and the distance between those nodes is rep...

  4. Strategically Assessing International Business Course-Specific Learning Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlak, Roger; Lorenzi, Peter; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there have been calls for universities and business schools to internationalize curriculum, students and faculty. As most U.S. business schools have added international components to their respective programs, the assessment of these programs was subsequently recommended from accreditation and competitive perspectives. To…

  5. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  6. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  7. H-Ransac a Hybrid Point Cloud Segmentation Combining 2d and 3d Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A.; Chatzilari, E.; Nikolopoulos, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel 3D segmentation approach operating on point clouds generated from overlapping images. The aim of the proposed hybrid approach is to effectively segment co-planar objects, by leveraging the structural information originating from the 3D point cloud and the visual information from the 2D images, without resorting to learning based procedures. More specifically, the proposed hybrid approach, H-RANSAC, is an extension of the well-known RANSAC plane-fitting algorithm, incorporating an additional consistency criterion based on the results of 2D segmentation. Our expectation that the integration of 2D data into 3D segmentation will achieve more accurate results, is validated experimentally in the domain of 3D city models. Results show that HRANSAC can successfully delineate building components like main facades and windows, and provide more accurate segmentation results compared to the typical RANSAC plane-fitting algorithm.

  8. Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.

  9. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  10. Storing tooth segments for optimal esthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzuner, T.; Turgut, S.; Özen, B.; Kılınç, H.; Bagis, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A fractured whole crown segment can be reattached to its remnant; crowns from extracted teeth may be used as pontics in splinting techniques. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions on tooth segment optical properties after different durations. Study design: Sixty

  11. Scale selection for supervised image segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Tax, David M J; Loog, Marco

    2012-01-01

    schemes are usually unsupervised, as they do not take into account the actual segmentation problem at hand. In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting scales, which aims at an optimal discrimination between user-defined classes in the segmentation. We show the deficiency of the classical...

  12. Adaptation of the Maracas algorithm for carotid artery segmentation and stenosis quantification on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria A Zuluaga; Maciej Orkisz; Edgar J F Delgado; Vincent Dore; Alfredo Morales Pinzon; Marcela Hernandez Hoyos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the adaptations of Maracas algorithm to the segmentation and quantification of vascular structures in CTA images of the carotid artery. The maracas algorithm, which is based on an elastic model and on a multi-scale Eigen-analysis of the inertia matrix, was originally designed to segment a single artery in MRA images. The modifications are primarily aimed at addressing the specificities of CT images and the bifurcations. The algorithms implemented in this new version are classified into two levels. 1. The low-level processing (filtering of noise and directional artifacts, enhancement and pre-segmentation) to improve the quality of the image and to pre-segment it. These techniques are based on a priori information about noise, artifacts and typical gray levels ranges of lumen, background and calcifications. 2. The high-level processing to extract the centerline of the artery, to segment the lumen and to quantify the stenosis. At this level, we apply a priori knowledge of shape and anatomy of vascular structures. The method was evaluated on 31 datasets from the carotid lumen segmentation and stenosis grading grand challenge 2009. The segmentation results obtained an average of 80:4% dice similarity score, compared to reference segmentation, and the mean stenosis quantification error was 14.4%.

  13. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  14. Pavement management segment consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...

  15. Image Segmentation Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.

  16. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  17. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  18. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-03-08

    The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be identified for social marketing

  19. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Travis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%; At Risk (22%; Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%; Getting Best Results (13%; and Doing OK (12%. Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8% compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%. Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct

  20. A shape-optimized framework for kidney segmentation in ultrasound images using NLTV denoising and DRLSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-assisted surgical navigation aims to provide surgeons with anatomical target localization and critical structure observation, where medical image processing methods such as segmentation, registration and visualization play a critical role. Percutaneous renal intervention plays an important role in several minimally-invasive surgeries of kidney, such as Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL and Radio-Frequency Ablation (RFA of kidney tumors, which refers to a surgical procedure where access to a target inside the kidney by a needle puncture of the skin. Thus, kidney segmentation is a key step in developing any ultrasound-based computer-aided diagnosis systems for percutaneous renal intervention. Methods In this paper, we proposed a novel framework for kidney segmentation of ultrasound (US images combined with nonlocal total variation (NLTV image denoising, distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE and shape prior. Firstly, a denoised US image was obtained by NLTV image denoising. Secondly, DRLSE was applied in the kidney segmentation to get binary image. In this case, black and white region represented the kidney and the background respectively. The last stage is that the shape prior was applied to get a shape with the smooth boundary from the kidney shape space, which was used to optimize the segmentation result of the second step. The alignment model was used occasionally to enlarge the shape space in order to increase segmentation accuracy. Experimental results on both synthetic images and US data are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results We applied our segmentation framework on synthetic and real US images to demonstrate the better segmentation results of our method. From the qualitative results, the experiment results show that the segmentation results are much closer to the manual segmentations. The sensitivity (SN, specificity (SP and positive predictive value

  1. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Brunner, Thomas A.; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  2. CONSUMER SEGMENTATION OF REFILLED DRINKING WATER IN PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awisal Fasyni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze consumer segmentation of refilled drinking water based on their behavior and to recommend strategies for increased sales of Salju depot. The study was conducted using a survey of family and non-family consumers in Nanggalo, North Padang, West and East Padang. The respondent selection technique is using a convenience sampling, which is based on the availability of elements and easiness of obtaining these samples. The analysis used for segmentation is cluster analysis and CHAID. The results showed that there were five segments in family consumer and four segments in non-family consumer. Each family segment was different in terms of usage and consumption level, while non-family segments differ in terms of consumption duration and consumption level. Salju depot could aim market segments that provide benefits, specifically segments with high consumption levels both in family and nonfamily consumers, maintain the price and quality of the product and show the best performance in serving customers, set the open hours and optimize the messaging services.Keywords: refilled drinking water, segmentation, Padang, CHAIDABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis segmentasi konsumen air minum isi ulang berdasarkan perilakunya dan merekomendasikan strategi peningkatan penjualan bagi depot Salju. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei terhadap konsumen keluarga dan konsumen nonkeluarga di Kecamatan Nanggalo, Kecamatan Padang Utara, Kecamatan Padang Barat dan Kecamatan Padang Timur Kota Padang. Teknik pemilihan responden menggunakan convenience sampling, yaitu berdasarkan ketersediaan elemen dan kemudahan mendapatkan sampel tersebut. Analisis yang digunakan untuk segmentasi adalah analisis cluster dan CHAID Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat lima segmen konsumen keluarga dan empat segmen konsumen nonkeluarga. Masing-masing segmen keluarga berbeda dalam hal penggunaan dan tingkat konsumsi, sedangkan segmen

  3. CT image segmentation methods for bone used in medical additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijnatten, Maureen; van Dijk, Roelof; Dobbe, Johannes; Streekstra, Geert; Koivisto, Juha; Wolff, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The accuracy of additive manufactured medical constructs is limited by errors introduced during image segmentation. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on different image segmentation methods used in medical additive manufacturing. Thirty-two publications that reported on the accuracy of bone segmentation based on computed tomography images were identified using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The advantages and disadvantages of the different segmentation methods used in these studies were evaluated and reported accuracies were compared. The spread between the reported accuracies was large (0.04 mm - 1.9 mm). Global thresholding was the most commonly used segmentation method with accuracies under 0.6 mm. The disadvantage of this method is the extensive manual post-processing required. Advanced thresholding methods could improve the accuracy to under 0.38 mm. However, such methods are currently not included in commercial software packages. Statistical shape model methods resulted in accuracies from 0.25 mm to 1.9 mm but are only suitable for anatomical structures with moderate anatomical variations. Thresholding remains the most widely used segmentation method in medical additive manufacturing. To improve the accuracy and reduce the costs of patient-specific additive manufactured constructs, more advanced segmentation methods are required. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Joint Segmentation of Multiple Thoracic Organs in CT Images with Two Collaborative Deep Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trullo, Roger; Petitjean, Caroline; Nie, Dong; Shen, Dinggang; Ruan, Su

    2017-09-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is the standard imaging technique for radiotherapy planning. The delineation of Organs at Risk (OAR) in thoracic CT images is a necessary step before radiotherapy, for preventing irradiation of healthy organs. However, due to low contrast, multi-organ segmentation is a challenge. In this paper, we focus on developing a novel framework for automatic delineation of OARs. Different from previous works in OAR segmentation where each organ is segmented separately, we propose two collaborative deep architectures to jointly segment all organs, including esophagus, heart, aorta and trachea. Since most of the organ borders are ill-defined, we believe spatial relationships must be taken into account to overcome the lack of contrast. The aim of combining two networks is to learn anatomical constraints with the first network, which will be used in the second network, when each OAR is segmented in turn. Specifically, we use the first deep architecture, a deep SharpMask architecture, for providing an effective combination of low-level representations with deep high-level features, and then take into account the spatial relationships between organs by the use of Conditional Random Fields (CRF). Next, the second deep architecture is employed to refine the segmentation of each organ by using the maps obtained on the first deep architecture to learn anatomical constraints for guiding and refining the segmentations. Experimental results show superior performance on 30 CT scans, comparing with other state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Image segmentation with a novel regularized composite shape prior based on surrogate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Tingting, E-mail: tingtingzhao@mednet.ucla.edu; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Incorporating training into image segmentation is a good approach to achieve additional robustness. This work aims to develop an effective strategy to utilize shape prior knowledge, so that the segmentation label evolution can be driven toward the desired global optimum. Methods: In the variational image segmentation framework, a regularization for the composite shape prior is designed to incorporate the geometric relevance of individual training data to the target, which is inferred by an image-based surrogate relevance metric. Specifically, this regularization is imposed on the linear weights of composite shapes and serves as a hyperprior. The overall problem is formulated in a unified optimization setting and a variational block-descent algorithm is derived. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme is assessed in both corpus callosum segmentation from an MR image set and clavicle segmentation based on CT images. The resulted shape composition provides a proper preference for the geometrically relevant training data. A paired Wilcoxon signed rank test demonstrates statistically significant improvement of image segmentation accuracy, when compared to multiatlas label fusion method and three other benchmark active contour schemes. Conclusions: This work has developed a novel composite shape prior regularization, which achieves superior segmentation performance than typical benchmark schemes.

  6. Image segmentation with a novel regularized composite shape prior based on surrogate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Incorporating training into image segmentation is a good approach to achieve additional robustness. This work aims to develop an effective strategy to utilize shape prior knowledge, so that the segmentation label evolution can be driven toward the desired global optimum. Methods: In the variational image segmentation framework, a regularization for the composite shape prior is designed to incorporate the geometric relevance of individual training data to the target, which is inferred by an image-based surrogate relevance metric. Specifically, this regularization is imposed on the linear weights of composite shapes and serves as a hyperprior. The overall problem is formulated in a unified optimization setting and a variational block-descent algorithm is derived. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme is assessed in both corpus callosum segmentation from an MR image set and clavicle segmentation based on CT images. The resulted shape composition provides a proper preference for the geometrically relevant training data. A paired Wilcoxon signed rank test demonstrates statistically significant improvement of image segmentation accuracy, when compared to multiatlas label fusion method and three other benchmark active contour schemes. Conclusions: This work has developed a novel composite shape prior regularization, which achieves superior segmentation performance than typical benchmark schemes.

  7. Possibilities of segmentation variables in relation with advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Erbanová, Nela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to capture significant segmentation variables that shape marketing communication with an emphasis on advertising. The theoretical part deals with the concepts of market segmentation, segmentation variables, marketing communication, advertising and research. The practical part is focused on the realization of the actual research using a questionnaire survey and the evaluation of questions from Market Media Lifestyle. Only traditional descriptive segmentation variables...

  8. Balancing the fit and logistics costs of market segmentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix

  9. New developments in segment ancillary logic for FASTBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Bertolucci, B.

    1983-01-01

    Segment Ancillary Logic hardware for FASTBUS systems provides logical functions required in common by all devices attached to a segment. It controls the execution of arbitration cycles, and geographical address cycles, and generates the system handshake responses for broadcast operations. The mandatory requirements for Segment Ancillary Logic in the FASTBUS specifications are reviewed. A detailed implementation based on ECL logic is described, and the hardware to be used on an ECL cable segment for an experimental FASTBUS system at SLAC is shown

  10. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  11. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  12. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SEGMENTATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the World has shown increased concern for climate change and energy security. The emergence of these issues has pushed many nations to pursue the development of clean domestic electricity production via renewable energy (RE technologies. However, RE also comes with a higher production and investment cost, compared to most conventional fossil fuel based technologies. In order to analyse exactly how Romanian electricity consumers feel about the advantages and the disadvantages of RE, we have decided to perform a comprehensive study, which will constitute the core of a doctoral thesis regarding the Romanian energy sector and household consumers’ willingness to pay for the positive attributes of RE. The current paper represents one step toward achieving the objectives of the above mentioned research, specifically dealing with the issue of segmenting household energy consumers given the context of the Romanian energy sector. It is an argumentative literature review, which seeks to critically assess the methodology used for customer segmentation in general and for household energy users in particular. Building on the experience of previous studies, the paper aims to determine the most adequate segmentation procedure given the context and the objectives of the overall doctoral research. After assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, a psychographic segmentation of household consumers based on general life practices is chosen, mainly because it provides more insights into consumers compared to traditional socio-demographic segmentation by focusing on lifestyles and not external characteristics, but it is also realistically implementable compared to more complex procedures such as the standard AIO. However, the life practice scale developed by Axsen et al. (2012 will need to be properly adapted to the specific objectives of the study and to the context of the Romanian energy sector. All modifications

  14. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  15. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...

  16. Diagnostic usefulness of segmental and linear enhancement in dynamic breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morakkabati-Spitz, N.; Leutner, C.; Schild, H.; Traeber, F.; Kuhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the diagnostic usefulness of ductal or segmental enhancement in dynamic breast MRI. Segmental and ductal enhancement have been established as the breast MRI hallmarks of intraductal breast cancer (DCIS); however, the positive predictive value of this imaging finding is still unknown. In our study, we analysed the overall prevalence of a segmental or a linear enhancement pattern on breast MRI for an unselected cohort of patients. The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of segmental or linear enhancement. Second, we asked whether biopsy was necessary also in the absence of mammographic findings suggestive of DCIS. Prospective, consecutive evaluation of 1,003 patients undergoing bilateral dynamic breast MRI. Studies were interpreted by two experienced breast radiologists. A diagnostic or screening two-view mammogram was available for all patients. Biopsy or short-term breast MRI follow-up was recommended for patients showing a segmental or a linear enhancement pattern on breast MRI. The patients' final diagnoses were established by imaging guided excisional or core biopsy or by clinical plus conventional imaging follow-up for a period of 2 years. The prevalence of segmental or linear enhancement was determined for patients with a final diagnosis of benign breast disease compared with those with a diagnosis of breast cancer. One hundred twenty patients had invasive breast cancer, 24 patients had DCIS and 859 patients had unsuspicious breast MRI or benign breast disease. A segmental or a linear enhancement pattern was found for 50/1,003 (5%) patients (17 DCIS, 33 benign breast diseases). Accordingly, the positive predictive value of segmental and linear enhancement is 34% (17/50); the specificity of this criterion is 96% (826/859). For 4/24 (17%) patients, DCIS was visible as segmental or linear enhancement on dynamic breast MRI, whereas no abnormalities were visible on the corresponding mammogram. The overall

  17. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  18. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  19. Segmental tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.

  20. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  1. Fluence map segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  2. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  3. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  4. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Elena; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gómez, Marisol; Pagola, Miguel; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18 F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools. (paper)

  5. An unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Rodríguez1, Rubén Hernández21Digital Signal Processing Group, Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics, Havana, Cuba; 2Interdisciplinary Professional Unit of Engineering and Advanced Technology, IPN, MexicoAbstract: Many segmentation techniques have been published, and some of them have been widely used in different application problems. Most of these segmentation techniques have been motivated by specific application purposes. Unsupervised methods, which do not assume any prior scene knowledge can be learned to help the segmentation process, and are obviously more challenging than the supervised ones. In this paper, we present an unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation using an algorithm based on recursively applying mean shift filtering, where entropy is used as a stopping criterion. This strategy is proven with many real images, and a comparison is carried out with manual segmentation. With the proposed strategy, errors less than 20% for false positives and 0% for false negatives are obtained.Keywords: segmentation, mean shift, unsupervised segmentation, entropy

  6. Deformable segmentation via sparse shape representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-01-01

    Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies.

  7. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  8. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  9. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  10. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate r...

  11. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  12. Database on Aims and Visions in the COINCO Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    This database contains aims and visions regarding overall regional development as well as more specific aims and visions related to transport and infrastructure in the Corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The sources used for this database are the most essential planning documents from Denmark...

  13. A JOINT FRAMEWORK FOR 4D SEGMENTATION AND ESTIMATION OF SMOOTH TEMPORAL APPEARANCE CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Prastawa, Marcel; Styner, Martin; Piven, Joseph; Gerig, Guido

    2014-04-01

    Medical imaging studies increasingly use longitudinal images of individual subjects in order to follow-up changes due to development, degeneration, disease progression or efficacy of therapeutic intervention. Repeated image data of individuals are highly correlated, and the strong causality of information over time lead to the development of procedures for joint segmentation of the series of scans, called 4D segmentation. A main aim was improved consistency of quantitative analysis, most often solved via patient-specific atlases. Challenging open problems are contrast changes and occurance of subclasses within tissue as observed in multimodal MRI of infant development, neurodegeneration and disease. This paper proposes a new 4D segmentation framework that enforces continuous dynamic changes of tissue contrast patterns over time as observed in such data. Moreover, our model includes the capability to segment different contrast patterns within a specific tissue class, for example as seen in myelinated and unmyelinated white matter regions in early brain development. Proof of concept is shown with validation on synthetic image data and with 4D segmentation of longitudinal, multimodal pediatric MRI taken at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, but the methodology is generic w.r.t. different application domains using serial imaging.

  14. Fully automatic segmentation of left atrium and pulmonary veins in late gadolinium-enhanced MRI: Towards objective atrial scar assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Ipek, Esra Gucuk; Shahzad, Rahil; Berendsen, Floris F; Nazarian, Saman; van der Geest, Rob J

    2016-08-01

    To realize objective atrial scar assessment, this study aimed to develop a fully automatic method to segment the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PV) from late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent and distribution of atrial scar, visualized by LGE-MRI, provides important information for clinical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Forty-six AF patients (age 62 ± 8, 14 female) who underwent cardiac MRI prior to RF ablation were included. A contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) sequence was acquired for anatomy assessment followed by an LGE sequence for LA scar assessment. A fully automatic segmentation method was proposed consisting of two stages: 1) global segmentation by multiatlas registration; and 2) local refinement by 3D level-set. These automatic segmentation results were compared with manual segmentation. The LA and PVs were automatically segmented in all subjects. Compared with manual segmentation, the method yielded a surface-to-surface distance of 1.49 ± 0.65 mm in the LA region when using both MRA and LGE, and 1.80 ± 0.93 mm when using LGE alone (P automatic and manual segmentation was comparable to the interobserver difference (P = 0.8 in LA region and P = 0.7 in PV region). We developed a fully automatic method for LA and PV segmentation from LGE-MRI, with comparable performance to a human observer. Inclusion of an MRA sequence further improves the segmentation accuracy. The method leads to automatic generation of a patient-specific model, and potentially enables objective atrial scar assessment for AF patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:346-354. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Correlation of Leukocyte Count and Percentage of Segmented Neutrophils with Pathohistological Findings of Appendix in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Baskovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAppendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency operation in children's age. Although none of the laboratory values has not high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of appendicitis, leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils are most commonly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils compared to the pathohistological finding of appendix in children. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the data in the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016. The analysis was made on 211 patients. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs was calculated. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils used in the calculation of Alvorado and Pediatric Appendicitis score.ResultsThe results of the research have shown that the correlation between leukocyte count and the pathohistological findings is weak (rs = 0.29, p = 3.61*10-8, while there is no correlation between the percentage of segmented neutrophils and pathohistological findings (rs = 0.18, p = 7.08 *10-5. The sensitivity of leukocyte count is 93% and the specificity is 30%, while the sensitivity to the percentage of segmented neutrophils is 71% and the specificity is 50%. ROC analysis for leukocytes shows area under the curve of 0.648, while for segmented neutrophils of 0.574.ConclusionGiven the correlation results obtained, the clinical experience of physicians will still have one of the leading roles in diagnosing acute appendicitis in children.

  16. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  17. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  18. AIM: An Integrated Approach to Organizational Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper is based on the new problem-solving model of Blended Leadership called Alloy Improvement Model (AIM. This model consists of an integration of change theory, leadership theory, and democratic principles and practices to form a comprehensive problem-solving strategy for organizational leaders. The utilization of AIM will assist leaders in moving from problems to solutions while engaging stakeholders in a comprehensive, efficient, inclusive, informative, integrated and transparent process.

  19. SVM Pixel Classification on Colour Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barui, Subhrajit; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of image segmentation is to simplify the representation of an image with the help of cluster pixels into something meaningful to analyze. Segmentation is typically used to locate boundaries and curves in an image, precisely to label every pixel in an image to give each pixel an independent identity. SVM pixel classification on colour image segmentation is the topic highlighted in this paper. It holds useful application in the field of concept based image retrieval, machine vision, medical imaging and object detection. The process is accomplished step by step. At first we need to recognize the type of colour and the texture used as an input to the SVM classifier. These inputs are extracted via local spatial similarity measure model and Steerable filter also known as Gabon Filter. It is then trained by using FCM (Fuzzy C-Means). Both the pixel level information of the image and the ability of the SVM Classifier undergoes some sophisticated algorithm to form the final image. The method has a well developed segmented image and efficiency with respect to increased quality and faster processing of the segmented image compared with the other segmentation methods proposed earlier. One of the latest application result is the Light L16 camera.

  20. Process Segmentation Typology in Czech Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucek David

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes process segmentation typology during business process management implementation in Czech companies. Process typology is important for a manager’s overview of process orientation as well as for a manager’s general understanding of business process management. This article provides insight into a process-oriented organizational structure. The first part analyzes process segmentation typology itself as well as some original results of quantitative research evaluating process segmentation typology in the specific context of Czech company strategies. Widespread data collection was carried out in 2006 and 2013. The analysis of this data showed that managers have more options regarding process segmentation and its selection. In terms of practicality and ease of use, the most frequently used method of process segmentation (managerial, main, and supportive stems directly from the requirements of ISO 9001. Because of ISO 9001:2015, managers must now apply risk planning in relation to the selection of processes that are subjected to process management activities. It is for this fundamental reason that this article focuses on process segmentation typology.

  1. Segmentation in cinema perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M; Bever, T G

    1976-03-12

    Viewers perceptually segment moving picture sequences into their cinematically defined units: excerpts that follow short film sequences are recognized faster when the excerpt originally came after a structural cinematic break (a cut or change in the action) than when it originally came before the break.

  2. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  3. Unsupervised Image Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf

  4. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  5. To Conclude: India can aim big

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Transmission and Distribution Losses. If 100 million middle class homes deploy 1 kW on rooftops. 100 GW peak power capacity added at homes alone; 40% of current peak power installed in India today. India must aim by 2030. To have 50% of its electric power from SOLAR; To have 50% of vehicles as Electric Vehicles ...

  6. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  7. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  8. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS FOR DERMOSCOPIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Haseena Thasneem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares different algorithms for the segmentation of skin lesions in dermoscopic images. The basic segmentation algorithms compared are Thresholding techniques (Global and Adaptive, Region based techniques (K-means, Fuzzy C means, Expectation Maximization and Statistical Region Merging, Contour models (Active Contour Model and Chan - Vese Model and Spectral Clustering. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Border error, Hammoude distance, Hausdorff distance, MSE, PSNR and elapsed time metrices were used to evaluate various segmentation techniques.

  9. Structural determinants of alpha-bungarotoxin binding to the sequence segment 181-200 of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α subunit: Effects of cysteine/cystine modification and species-specific amino acid substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, K.E.; Wu, Xiadong; Diethelm, B.; Conti-Tronconi, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    The sequence segment 181-200 of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) αsubunit forms a binding site for α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX). Synthetic peptides corresponding to the homologous sequences of human, calf, mouse, chicken, frog, and cobra muscle nAChR α1 subunits were tested for their ability to bind 125 I-α-BTX, and differences in α-BTX affinity were determined by using solution (IC 50 s) and solid-phase (K d s) assays. Panels of overlapping peptides corresponding to the complete α1 subunit of mouse and human were also tested for α-BTX binding, but other sequence segments forming the α-BTX site were not consistently detectable. The role of a putative vicinal disulfide bound between Cys-192 and -193, relative to the Torpedo sequence, was determined by modifying the peptides with sulfhydryl reagents. Reduction and alkylation of the peptides decreased α-BTX binding, whereas oxidation of the peptides had little effect. These results indicate that while the adjacent cysteines are likely to be involved in forming the toxin/α1-subunit interface a vicinal disulfide bound was not required for α-BTX binding

  10. Tutorial: Asteroseismic Stellar Modelling with AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Reese, Daniel R.

    The goal of aims (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) is to estimate stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of asteroseismic frequency data and so-called classical constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency, it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm—interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modelling consist of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classical spectroscopic constraints. aims is mostly written in Python with a modular structure to facilitate contributions from the community. Only a few computationally intensive parts have been rewritten in Fortran in order to speed up calculations.

  11. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  12. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, D.; Schier, H.

    1979-05-01

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  13. Delphi definition of the EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boccardi, M.; Bocchetta, M.; Apostolova, L.G.; Barnes, J.; Bartzokis, G.; Corbetta, G.; deCarli, C.; DeToledo-Morrell, L.; Firbank, M.; Ganzola, R.; Gerritsen, L.; Henneman, W.; Killiany, R.J.; Malykhin, N.; Pasqualetti, P.; Pruessner, J.C.; Redolfi, A.; Robitaille, N.; Soininen, H.; Tolomeo, D.; Wang, L.; Watson, C.; Wolf, H; Duvernoy, H.; Duchesne, S.; Jack, C.R.; Frisoni, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to have international experts converge on a harmonized definition of whole hippocampus boundaries and segmentation procedures, to define standard operating procedures for magnetic resonance (MR)-based manual hippocampal segmentation. Methods: The panel received a

  14. Language-universal constraints on speech segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.; McQueen, J.M.; Cutler, A.; Butterfield, S.; Kearns, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments are reported that examine whether the Possible-Word Constraint (PWC; Norris, McQueen, Cutler & Butterfield, 1997) is a language-specific or language-universal strategy for the segmentation of continuous speech. The PWC disfavors parses which leave an impossible residue

  15. The Regional MBA: Distinct Segments, Wants, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passyn, Kirsten; Diriker, Memo

    2011-01-01

    MBA Programs in top-tier school differ greatly from those in regional schools. A survey that aimed at assessing segmentation, pedagogy, and satisfaction in regional MBA programs was developed and administered in three universities of the Mid Atlantic, Midwest, and Southern regions. The results show four clearly distinguished segments that…

  16. Classifier Directed Data Hybridization for Geographic Sample Supervised Segment Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoff Fourie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality segment generation is a well-known challenge and research objective within Geographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA. Although methodological avenues within GEOBIA are diverse, segmentation commonly plays a central role in most approaches, influencing and being influenced by surrounding processes. A general approach using supervised quality measures, specifically user provided reference segments, suggest casting the parameters of a given segmentation algorithm as a multidimensional search problem. In such a sample supervised segment generation approach, spatial metrics observing the user provided reference segments may drive the search process. The search is commonly performed by metaheuristics. A novel sample supervised segment generation approach is presented in this work, where the spectral content of provided reference segments is queried. A one-class classification process using spectral information from inside the provided reference segments is used to generate a probability image, which in turn is employed to direct a hybridization of the original input imagery. Segmentation is performed on such a hybrid image. These processes are adjustable, interdependent and form a part of the search problem. Results are presented detailing the performances of four method variants compared to the generic sample supervised segment generation approach, under various conditions in terms of resultant segment quality, required computing time and search process characteristics. Multiple metrics, metaheuristics and segmentation algorithms are tested with this approach. Using the spectral data contained within user provided reference segments to tailor the output generally improves the results in the investigated problem contexts, but at the expense of additional required computing time.

  17. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape-location and unsupervised intensity priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape-location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape-location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. Copyright © 2015

  18. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  19. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  20. Rifkin takes aim at USDA animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey L

    1984-10-19

    Jeremy Rifkin has filed a lawsuit to block U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) experiments involving the transfer of human growth hormone genes into sheep and pigs, which he rejects on environmental, economic, and ethical grounds. His real target is the Department's animal breeding program; his ultimate aim is "to establish the principle that there should be no crossing of species barriers in animals." USDA officials have not yet responded to the lawsuit but they intend to continue the experiments, which they consider crucial to the progress of research, until told to stop.

  1. The aims of transfer prices formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two-thirds of today's world trade comprises of transactions between related legal persons. Prices for the above-mentioned transactions within legal person or group of related legal persons are called transfer pricing. The aim of this paper is to present the transfer prices as well as the main objectives of transfer pricing. Also, this paper explains application of transfer pricing in the Republic of Serbia and the normative rules that cover the issue of transfer pricing, their determination and their application in the calculation. Overall, there has been a great deal of attention paid to the transfer pricing in national and international levels.

  2. Performance of an open-source heart sound segmentation algorithm on eight independent databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Springer, David; Clifford, Gari D

    2017-08-01

    Heart sound segmentation is a prerequisite step for the automatic analysis of heart sound signals, facilitating the subsequent identification and classification of pathological events. Recently, hidden Markov model-based algorithms have received increased interest due to their robustness in processing noisy recordings. In this study we aim to evaluate the performance of the recently published logistic regression based hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) heart sound segmentation method, by using a wider variety of independently acquired data of varying quality. Firstly, we constructed a systematic evaluation scheme based on a new collection of heart sound databases, which we assembled for the PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2016. This collection includes a total of more than 120 000 s of heart sounds recorded from 1297 subjects (including both healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients) and comprises eight independent heart sound databases sourced from multiple independent research groups around the world. Then, the HSMM-based segmentation method was evaluated using the assembled eight databases. The common evaluation metrics of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, as well as the [Formula: see text] measure were used. In addition, the effect of varying the tolerance window for determining a correct segmentation was evaluated. The results confirm the high accuracy of the HSMM-based algorithm on a separate test dataset comprised of 102 306 heart sounds. An average [Formula: see text] score of 98.5% for segmenting S1 and systole intervals and 97.2% for segmenting S2 and diastole intervals were observed. The [Formula: see text] score was shown to increases with an increases in the tolerance window size, as expected. The high segmentation accuracy of the HSMM-based algorithm on a large database confirmed the algorithm's effectiveness. The described evaluation framework, combined with the largest collection of open access heart sound data, provides essential resources for

  3. Strategies for regular segmented reductions on GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Wriedt; Henriksen, Troels

    2017-01-01

    We present and evaluate an implementation technique for regular segmented reductions on GPUs. Existing techniques tend to be either consistent in performance but relatively inefficient in absolute terms, or optimised for specific workloads and thereby exhibiting bad performance for certain input...... is in the context of the Futhark compiler, the implementation technique is applicable to any library or language that has a need for segmented reductions. We evaluate the technique on four microbenchmarks, two of which we also compare to implementations in the CUB library for GPU programming, as well as on two...

  4. Aims and methods of education: A recapitulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of principal distinction between the aims of the so-called "traditional" and "progressive" education and respective pedagogies associated with each. The term "traditional" education is used to denote the kind of education that prepares people for their role in society as it is, while the term "progressive" is used for education that aspires to equip mankind with capacity to shape the change of society. The paper raises some critical questions about the role of pedagogy in achieving the aims of the progressive model, arguing that the employment of "progressive" methods does not necessarily guarantee the achievement of the commonly professed purposes of progressive education. This is illustrated in the paper by the results of a study in English schools showing how despite the claim of progressive methods, teachers tend to retain traditional attitudes and on the other hand, how even traditional teaching methods can serve the progressive purpose. This is not to advocate for the traditional pedagogy, but to suggest that it might be something other than pedagogy that makes a critical difference in educating liberal-minded citizens of the future. In this sense the paper explores the role of other factors that make a difference towards progressive education, such as democratization of human relations in school ethos and respect for children's freedom.

  5. Video segmentation using keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2018-04-01

    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  6. An LG-graph-based early evaluation of segmented images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsoulis, Athanasios; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the first important parts of image analysis and understanding. Evaluation of image segmentation, however, is a very difficult task, mainly because it requires human intervention and interpretation. In this work, we propose a blind reference evaluation scheme based on regional local–global (RLG) graphs, which aims at measuring the amount and distribution of detail in images produced by segmentation algorithms. The main idea derives from the field of image understanding, where image segmentation is often used as a tool for scene interpretation and object recognition. Evaluation here derives from summarization of the structural information content and not from the assessment of performance after comparisons with a golden standard. Results show measurements for segmented images acquired from three segmentation algorithms, applied on different types of images (human faces/bodies, natural environments and structures (buildings)). (paper)

  7. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed.

  8. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  9. Cochlea Segmentation using Iterated Random Walks with Shape Prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Pujadas, Esmeralda; Kjer, Hans Martin; Vera, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implants can restore hearing to deaf or partially deaf patients. In order to plan the intervention, a model from high resolution μCT images is to be built from accurate cochlea segmentations and then, adapted to a patient-specific model. Thus, a precise segmentation is required to build...

  10. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  11. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  12. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  13. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  14. Plasma health care - Aims, constraints and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Zimmerman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Health Care covers three areas of interest for cold atmospheric pressure plasmas: Cosmetics, Hygiene and Medicine. These areas can be subdivided into personal and professional care. In this review will concentrate on Hygiene and Medicine. In professional hygiene the most important plasma contribution is sterilization, decontamination and disinfection. The main aim is the prevention of diseases or their containment. Progress in the development of efficient bactericidal plasma sources has been rapid, so that it appears realistic to use plasmas to combat nosocomial infections as well as community associated infections in the not too distant future. The advantages of plasma devices – they use air and electricity only, there are no waste products, they are inexpensive to manufacture and operate, easy to transport and install, and bactericidal effects are fast (seconds). Plasmas can efficiently kill resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA) and tests have shown no resistance build-up so far. With an estimated 2 Million hospital induced infections each year in the US alone, and about 100.000 resulting deaths, very efficient, safe and fast hospital plasma hygiene devices would appear to be a very important weapon to help contain the spread of infectious diseases. In Medicine there are a number of ambitious ideas and aims. Plasmas can be “designed” to some extent. They can include different active species that can have an effect at the cellular level. There are ionic atoms and molecules, whose medical use need to be evaluated – the vision is that a new area of “plasma pharmacy” could develop. First steps are currently being taken in biological studies. Also the excited atoms in cold atmospheric plasmas may make cell walls more permeable for such species. (author)

  15. Depression in focal, segmental and generalized dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Butler, A; Jahanshahi, M

    2008-11-01

    Dystonia causes body disfigurement in the majority of those affected. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem resulting from the sense of disfigurement is an important component of self-reported depression in focal, segmental and generalized dystonia. Questionnaires to assess self-reported depression, self-esteem, body concept, disfigurement, disability and quality of life were completed by 329 community based dystonia patients. Moderate to severe depression was reported by 30 %. Self-reported depression had a strong somatic component, but patients also showed a specific concern with self-image. Extent of dystonia, body parts affected and marital status influenced self-reported depression in dystonia. Self esteem, body concept, disfigurement and quality of life emerged as factors which accounted for the variance of self-reported depression in dystonia. These results suggest that in dystonia, disfigurement, negative body concept, low self-esteem, and the impact of the disease on quality of life make important contributions to depression. However, longitudinal followup is required to firmly establish the direction of causality between depression and these psychosocial variables in dystonia.

  16. Interactive vs. automatic ultrasound image segmentation methods for staging hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Gert; Starke, Alexander; Haudum, Alois; Thijssen, Johan M; Rehage, Jürgen; De Korte, Chris L

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that automatic segmentation of vessels in ultrasound (US) images can produce similar or better results in grading fatty livers than interactive segmentation. A study was performed in postpartum dairy cows (N=151), as an animal model of human fatty liver disease, to test this hypothesis. Five transcutaneous and five intraoperative US liver images were acquired in each animal and a liverbiopsy was taken. In liver tissue samples, triacylglycerol (TAG) was measured by biochemical analysis and hepatic diseases other than hepatic lipidosis were excluded by histopathologic examination. Ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) parameters--Mean echo level, standard deviation (SD) of echo level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), residual attenuation coefficient (ResAtt) and axial and lateral speckle size--were derived using a computer-aided US (CAUS) protocol and software package. First, the liver tissue was interactively segmented by two observers. With increasing fat content, fewer hepatic vessels were visible in the ultrasound images and, therefore, a smaller proportion of the liver needed to be excluded from these images. Automatic-segmentation algorithms were implemented and it was investigated whether better results could be achieved than with the subjective and time-consuming interactive-segmentation procedure. The automatic-segmentation algorithms were based on both fixed and adaptive thresholding techniques in combination with a 'speckle'-shaped moving-window exclusion technique. All data were analyzed with and without postprocessing as contained in CAUS and with different automated-segmentation techniques. This enabled us to study the effect of the applied postprocessing steps on single and multiple linear regressions ofthe various UTC parameters with TAG. Improved correlations for all US parameters were found by using automatic-segmentation techniques. Stepwise multiple linear-regression formulas where derived and used

  17. On correlations in IMRT planning aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head‐and‐neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de. PMID:27929480

  18. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  19. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  20. An Algorithm to Automate Yeast Segmentation and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncic, Andreas; Eser, Umut; Atay, Oguzhan; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of dynamic cellular processes has been greatly enhanced by rapid advances in quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Imaging single cells has emphasized the prevalence of phenomena that can be difficult to infer from population measurements, such as all-or-none cellular decisions, cell-to-cell variability, and oscillations. Examination of these phenomena requires segmenting and tracking individual cells over long periods of time. However, accurate segmentation and tracking of cells is difficult and is often the rate-limiting step in an experimental pipeline. Here, we present an algorithm that accomplishes fully automated segmentation and tracking of budding yeast cells within growing colonies. The algorithm incorporates prior information of yeast-specific traits, such as immobility and growth rate, to segment an image using a set of threshold values rather than one specific optimized threshold. Results from the entire set of thresholds are then used to perform a robust final segmentation. PMID:23520484

  1. An algorithm to automate yeast segmentation and tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Doncic

    Full Text Available Our understanding of dynamic cellular processes has been greatly enhanced by rapid advances in quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Imaging single cells has emphasized the prevalence of phenomena that can be difficult to infer from population measurements, such as all-or-none cellular decisions, cell-to-cell variability, and oscillations. Examination of these phenomena requires segmenting and tracking individual cells over long periods of time. However, accurate segmentation and tracking of cells is difficult and is often the rate-limiting step in an experimental pipeline. Here, we present an algorithm that accomplishes fully automated segmentation and tracking of budding yeast cells within growing colonies. The algorithm incorporates prior information of yeast-specific traits, such as immobility and growth rate, to segment an image using a set of threshold values rather than one specific optimized threshold. Results from the entire set of thresholds are then used to perform a robust final segmentation.

  2. Noise destroys feedback enhanced figure-ground segmentation but not feedforward figure-ground segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, August; Arall, Marina; Supèr, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground (FG) segmentation is the separation of visual information into background and foreground objects. In the visual cortex, FG responses are observed in the late stimulus response period, when neurons fire in tonic mode, and are accompanied by a switch in cortical state. When such a switch does not occur, FG segmentation fails. Currently, it is not known what happens in the brain on such occasions. A biologically plausible feedforward spiking neuron model was previously devised that performed FG segmentation successfully. After incorporating feedback the FG signal was enhanced, which was accompanied by a change in spiking regime. In a feedforward model neurons respond in a bursting mode whereas in the feedback model neurons fired in tonic mode. It is known that bursts can overcome noise, while tonic firing appears to be much more sensitive to noise. In the present study, we try to elucidate how the presence of noise can impair FG segmentation, and to what extent the feedforward and feedback pathways can overcome noise. We show that noise specifically destroys the feedback enhanced FG segmentation and leaves the feedforward FG segmentation largely intact. Our results predict that noise produces failure in FG perception. PMID:22934028

  3. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  4. Review methods for image segmentation from computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamat, Nurwahidah; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Soh, Shaharuddin Cik; Mahmud, Rozi

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation is a challenging process in order to get the accuracy of segmentation, automation and robustness especially in medical images. There exist many segmentation methods that can be implemented to medical images but not all methods are suitable. For the medical purposes, the aims of image segmentation are to study the anatomical structure, identify the region of interest, measure tissue volume to measure growth of tumor and help in treatment planning prior to radiation therapy. In this paper, we present a review method for segmentation purposes using Computed Tomography (CT) images. CT images has their own characteristics that affect the ability to visualize anatomic structures and pathologic features such as blurring of the image and visual noise. The details about the methods, the goodness and the problem incurred in the methods will be defined and explained. It is necessary to know the suitable segmentation method in order to get accurate segmentation. This paper can be a guide to researcher to choose the suitable segmentation method especially in segmenting the images from CT scan

  5. Unsupervised motion-based object segmentation refined by color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Matthijs C.; Braspenning, Ralph; Varekamp, Chris

    2003-06-01

    . The presented method has no problems with bifurcations. For the pixel resolution segmentation itself we reclassify pixels such that we optimize an error norm which favour similarly coloured regions and straight edges. SEGMENTATION MEASURE To assist in the evaluation of the proposed algorithm we developed a quality metric. Because the problem does not have an exact specification, we decided to define a ground truth output which we find desirable for a given input. We define the measure for the segmentation quality as being how different the segmentation is from the ground truth. Our measure enables us to evaluate oversegmentation and undersegmentation seperately. Also, it allows us to evaluate which parts of a frame suffer from oversegmentation or undersegmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several typical sequences. CONCLUSIONS In this abstract we presented a new video segmentation method which performs well in the segmentation of multiple independently moving foreground objects from each other and the background. It combines the strong points of both colour and motion segmentation in the way we expected. One of the weak points is that the segmentation method suffers from undersegmentation when adjacent objects display similar motion. In sequences with detailed backgrounds the segmentation will sometimes display noisy edges. Apart from these results, we think that some of the techniques, and in particular the K-regions technique, may be useful for other two-dimensional data segmentation problems.

  6. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  7. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    OpenAIRE

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were prec...

  8. Intracranial aneurysm segmentation in 3D CT angiography: Method and quantitative validation with and without prior noise filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, Rashindra; Flach, Zwenneke H.; Risselada, Roelof; Kooten, Fop van; Sturkenboom, Miriam C.J.M.; Lugt, Aad van der; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm volume and shape are important factors for predicting rupture risk, for pre-surgical planning and for follow-up studies. To obtain these parameters, manual segmentation can be employed; however, this is a tedious procedure, which is prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. Therefore there is a need for an automated method, which is accurate, reproducible and reliable. This study aims to develop and validate an automated method for segmenting intracranial aneurysms in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) data. Also, it is investigated whether prior smoothing improves segmentation robustness and accuracy. The proposed segmentation method is implemented in the level set framework, more specifically Geodesic Active Surfaces, in which a surface is evolved to capture the aneurysmal wall via an energy minimization approach. The energy term is composed of three different image features, namely; intensity, gradient magnitude and intensity variance. The method requires minimal user interaction, i.e. a single seed point inside the aneurysm needs to be placed, based on which image intensity statistics of the aneurysm are derived and used in defining the energy term. The method has been evaluated on 15 aneurysms in 11 CTA data sets by comparing the results to manual segmentations performed by two expert radiologists. Evaluation measures were Similarity Index, Average Surface Distance and Volume Difference. The results show that the automated aneurysm segmentation method is reproducible, and performs in the range of inter-observer variability in terms of accuracy. Smoothing by nonlinear diffusion with appropriate parameter settings prior to segmentation, slightly improves segmentation accuracy.

  9. Name segmentation using hidden Markov models and its application in record linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Braga Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the use of hidden Markov models (HMM for the segmentation of person names and its influence on record linkage. A HMM was applied to the segmentation of patient’s and mother’s names in the databases of the Mortality Information System (SIM, Information Subsystem for High Complexity Procedures (APAC, and Hospital Information System (AIH. A sample of 200 patients from each database was segmented via HMM, and the results were compared to those from segmentation by the authors. The APAC-SIM and APAC-AIH databases were linked using three different segmentation strategies, one of which used HMM. Conformity of segmentation via HMM varied from 90.5% to 92.5%. The different segmentation strategies yielded similar results in the record linkage process. This study suggests that segmentation of Brazilian names via HMM is no more effective than traditional segmentation approaches in the linkage process.

  10. Superiority Of Graph-Based Visual Saliency GVS Over Other Image Segmentation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umu Lamboi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although inherently tedious the segmentation of images and the evaluation of segmented images are critical in computer vision processes. One of the main challenges in image segmentation evaluation arises from the basic conflict between generality and objectivity. For general segmentation purposes the lack of well-defined ground-truth and segmentation accuracy limits the evaluation of specific applications. Subjectivity is the most common method of evaluation of segmentation quality where segmented images are visually compared. This is daunting task however limits the scope of segmentation evaluation to a few predetermined sets of images. As an alternative supervised evaluation compares segmented images against manually-segmented or pre-processed benchmark images. Not only good evaluation methods allow for different comparisons but also for integration with target recognition systems for adaptive selection of appropriate segmentation granularity with improved recognition accuracy. Most of the current segmentation methods still lack satisfactory measures of effectiveness. Thus this study proposed a supervised framework which uses visual saliency detection to quantitatively evaluate image segmentation quality. The new benchmark evaluator uses Graph-based Visual Saliency GVS to compare boundary outputs for manually segmented images. Using the Berkeley Segmentation Database the proposed algorithm was tested against 4 other quantitative evaluation methods Probabilistic Rand Index PRI Variation of Information VOI Global Consistency Error GSE and Boundary Detection Error BDE. Based on the results the GVS approach outperformed any of the other 4 independent standard methods in terms of visual saliency detection of images.

  11. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Fahrettin Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  12. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Arslan, Salim; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  13. Phasing multi-segment undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs

  14. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  15. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  16. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  17. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  18. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  19. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yading; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm 3 , whereas it was 1719 cm 3 for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also clearly demonstrated

  20. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  1. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  2. ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACHES: RELATED LITERATURE AT A GLANCE AND SUGGESSTIONS FOR GLOBAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nacar, Ramazan; Uray, Nimet

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing role of globalization, international market segmentation has become a critical success factor for global companies, which aim for international market expansion. Despite the practice of numerous methods and bases for international market segmentation, international market segmentation is still a complex and an under-researched area. By considering all these issues, underdeveloped and under-researched international market segmentation bases such as social, cultural, psychol...

  3. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo-Tsung Chen; Tzung-Dau Wang; Wen-Jeng Lee; Tsai-Wei Huang; Pei-Kai Hung; Cheng-Yu Wei; Chung-Ming Chen; Woon-Man Kung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband c...

  4. Document flow segmentation for business applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Hani; Belaïd, Abdel

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a document flow supervised segmentation approach applied to real world heterogeneous documents. Our algorithm treats the flow of documents as couples of consecutive pages and studies the relationship that exists between them. At first, sets of features are extracted from the pages where we propose an approach to model the couple of pages into a single feature vector representation. This representation will be provided to a binary classifier which classifies the relationship as either segmentation or continuity. In case of segmentation, we consider that we have a complete document and the analysis of the flow continues by starting a new document. In case of continuity, the couple of pages are assimilated to the same document and the analysis continues on the flow. If there is an uncertainty on whether the relationship between the couple of pages should be classified as a continuity or segmentation, a rejection is decided and the pages analyzed until this point are considered as a "fragment". The first classification already provides good results approaching 90% on certain documents, which is high at this level of the system.

  5. Variational segmentation problems using prior knowledge in imaging and vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundana, Ketut

    This dissertation addresses variational formulation of segmentation problems using prior knowledge. Variational models are among the most successful approaches for solving many Computer Vision and Image Processing problems. The models aim at finding the solution to a given energy functional defined......, prior knowledge is needed to obtain the desired solution. The introduction of shape priors in particular, has proven to be an effective way to segment objects of interests. Firstly, we propose a prior-based variational segmentation model to segment objects of interest in image sequences, that can deal....... Many objects have high variability in shape and orientation. This often leads to unsatisfactory results, when using a segmentation model with single shape template. One way to solve this is by using more sophisticated shape models. We propose to incorporate shape priors from a shape sub...

  6. Segmentation in sport services: a typology of fitness customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Voráček

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers customer typology in fitness centres. The main aim of our survey is to state the basic segments of fitness customers and create their typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. The results of our research are as follows: we identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male (we called them student, shark, mature and three are female (manager, hunter, and student. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres.

  7. Word segmentation with universal prosodic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Hauser, Marc D

    2010-09-01

    When listening to speech from one's native language, words seem to be well separated from one another, like beads on a string. When listening to a foreign language, in contrast, words seem almost impossible to extract, as if there was only one bead on the same string. This contrast reveals that there are language-specific cues to segmentation. The puzzle, however, is that infants must be endowed with a language-independent mechanism for segmentation, as they ultimately solve the segmentation problem for any native language. Here, we approach the acquisition problem by asking whether there are language-independent cues to segmentation that might be available to even adult learners who have already acquired a native language. We show that adult learners recognize words in connected speech when only prosodic cues to word-boundaries are given from languages unfamiliar to the participants. In both artificial and natural speech, adult English speakers, with no prior exposure to the test languages, readily recognized words in natural languages with critically different prosodic patterns, including French, Turkish and Hungarian. We suggest that, even though languages differ in their sound structures, they carry universal prosodic characteristics. Further, these language-invariant prosodic cues provide a universally accessible mechanism for finding words in connected speech. These cues may enable infants to start acquiring words in any language even before they are fine-tuned to the sound structure of their native language. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Automatic liver volume segmentation and fibrosis classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Evgeny; Klang, Eyal; Amitai, Michal; Greenspan, Hayit

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present an automatic method for liver segmentation and fibrosis classification in liver computed-tomography (CT) portal phase scans. The input is a full abdomen CT scan with an unknown number of slices, and the output is a liver volume segmentation mask and a fibrosis grade. A multi-stage analysis scheme is applied to each scan, including: volume segmentation, texture features extraction and SVM based classification. Data contains portal phase CT examinations from 80 patients, taken with different scanners. Each examination has a matching Fibroscan grade. The dataset was subdivided into two groups: first group contains healthy cases and mild fibrosis, second group contains moderate fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. Using our automated algorithm, we achieved an average dice index of 0.93 ± 0.05 for segmentation and a sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.81for classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first end to end automatic framework for liver fibrosis classification; an approach that, once validated, can have a great potential value in the clinic.

  9. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  10. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A; Meng, Jihong

    2014-08-30

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11-21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1-5 and 51-100 contain epitopes shared with human coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human echovirus 6 (E-6). The N-terminal truncated protein of VP1, VP₁₆₋₄₃, exhibited good stability and was recognized by anti-EV-71 specific rabbit sera. Alignment analysis showed that VP₁₆₋₄₃ is highly conserved among EV-71 strains from different genotypes but was heterologous among other enteroviruses. When the GST-VP₁₆₋₄₃ fusion protein was incorporated as antibody-capture agent in a WB assay and an ELISA for detecting anti-EV-71 IgM in human sera, sensitivities of 91.7% and 77.8% were achieved, respectively, with 100% specificity for both. The characterized EV-71 VP1 protein truncated to positions 6-43 aa has potential as an antigen for detection of anti-EV-71 IgM for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection in a WB format. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy using segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was use a simple and rapid procedure, called segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (SD-QF-PCR, for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. This method is based on the co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of fluorescent primers. The PCR products of different sizes were subsequently analyzed through capillary electrophoresis, and the aneuploidies were determined based on the relative dosage between the two chromosomes. Each primer set, containing five pairs of primers, was designed to simultaneously detect aneuploidies located on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y in a single reaction. We applied these two primer sets to DNA samples isolated from individuals with trisomy 21 (n = 36; trisomy 18 (n = 6; trisomy 13 (n = 4; 45, X (n = 5; 47, XXX (n = 3; 48, XXYY (n = 2; and unaffected controls (n = 40. We evaluated the performance of this method using the karyotyping results. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, was achieved for clinical samples examined. Thus, the present study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR is a robust, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and these analyses can be performed in less than 4 hours for a single sample, providing a competitive alternative for routine use.

  13. Segmentation of medical images using explicit anatomical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laurie S.; Brown, Stephen; Brown, Matthew S.; Young, Jeanne; Li, Rongxin; Luo, Suhuai; Brandt, Lee

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge-based image segmentation is defined in terms of the separation of image analysis procedures and representation of knowledge. Such architecture is particularly suitable for medical image segmentation, because of the large amount of structured domain knowledge. A general methodology for the application of knowledge-based methods to medical image segmentation is described. This includes frames for knowledge representation, fuzzy logic for anatomical variations, and a strategy for determining the order of segmentation from the modal specification. This method has been applied to three separate problems, 3D thoracic CT, chest X-rays and CT angiography. The application of the same methodology to such a range of applications suggests a major role in medical imaging for segmentation methods incorporating representation of anatomical knowledge.

  14. Especificidades de usuários(as de drogas visando uma assistência baseada na heterogeneidade Especificidades de usuários (as de drogas visando una asistencia basada en la heterogeneidad Drug users' specifics aiming the assistance based in the heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Freitas de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    deals with the issue of heterogeneity in drug addicted groups/people, emphasizing women's specifics. A concise survey of the literature on drugs phenomenon and health of works reporting the use of gender as an empiric variable is presented. Differences were found in drug consumption habits between men and women. Moreover, women's habits were shown to be influenced by specifics regarding both epidemiologic aspects and socio cultural elements. The main gender differences were observed on consumption rate, kind of drug, age, mortality and comorbidity. Concerning women groups, the main differences were found relating both kind of drug versus age and treatment seek versus kind of activity developed in the health unit. Examination of the data leads to the conclusion that assistance to drug users should take specifics of groups/people into account.

  15. Segmental volvulus in the neonate: A particular clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Beaudoin, Sylvie; Marion, Blandine; Rousseau, Véronique; Giuseppi, Agnes; Nicloux, Muriel; Grevent, David; Salomon, Laurent J; Aigrain, Yves; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Sarnacki, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Complete intestinal volvulus is mainly related to congenital anomalies of the so-called intestinal malrotation, whereas segmental volvulus appears as a distinct entity, mostly observed during the perinatal period. Because these two situations are still lumped together, the aim of this study was to describe the particular condition of neonatal segmental volvulus. We analyzed the circumstances of diagnosis and management of 17 consecutives neonates operated for segmental volvulus more than a 10-year period in a single institution. During the same period, 19 cases of neonatal complete midgut volvulus were operated. Prenatal US exam anomalies were observed in 16/17 (94%) of segmental volvulus, significantly more frequently than in complete volvulus (p=0.003). Intestinal malposition was described peroperatively in all cases of complete volvulus, but also in 4/17 segmental volvulus (23%). Intestinal resection was performed in 88% of segmental volvulus when only one extensive intestinal necrosis was observed in complete volvulus. Parenteral nutrition was required in all patients with segmental volvulus with a median duration of 50days (range 5-251). Segmental volvulus occurs mainly prenatally and leads to fetal ultrasound anomalies. This situation, despite a limited length of intestinal loss, is associated to significant postnatal morbidity. Treatment study. Level IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decomposing the Hounsfield unit: probabilistic segmentation of brain tissue in computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmling, A; Wersching, H; Berger, K; Knecht, S; Groden, C; Nölte, I

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a standardized technique for brain segmentation of cranial computed tomography (CT) using probabilistic partial volume tissue maps based on a database of high resolution T1 magnetic resonance images (MRI). Probabilistic tissue maps of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were derived from 600 normal brain MRIs (3.0 Tesla, T1-3D-turbo-field-echo) of 2 large community-based population studies (BiDirect and SEARCH Health studies). After partial tissue segmentation (FAST 4.0), MR images were linearly registered to MNI-152 standard space (FLIRT 5.5) with non-linear refinement (FNIRT 1.0) to obtain non-binary probabilistic volume images for each tissue class which were subsequently used for CT segmentation. From 150 normal cerebral CT scans a customized reference image in standard space was constructed with iterative non-linear registration to MNI-152 space. The inverse warp of tissue-specific probability maps to CT space (MNI-152 to individual CT) was used to decompose a CT image into tissue specific components (GM, WM, CSF). Potential benefits and utility of this novel approach with regard to unsupervised quantification of CT images and possible visual enhancement are addressed. Illustrative examples of tissue segmentation in different pathological cases including perfusion CT are presented. Automated tissue segmentation of cranial CT images using highly refined tissue probability maps derived from high resolution MR images is feasible. Potential applications include automated quantification of WM in leukoaraiosis, CSF in hydrocephalic patients, GM in neurodegeneration and ischemia and perfusion maps with separate assessment of GM and WM.

  17. Proposal of a segmentation procedure for skid resistance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda, S. V.; Tampier, Hernan de Solominihac; Navarro, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Skin resistance of pavements presents a high spatial variability along a road. This pavement characteristic is directly related to wet weather accidents; therefore, it is important to identify and characterize the skid resistance of homogeneous segments along a road in order to implement proper road safety management. Several data segmentation methods have been applied to other pavement characteristics (e.g. roughness). However, no application to skin resistance data was found during the literature review for this study. Typical segmentation methods are rather too general or too specific to ensure a detailed segmentation of skid resistance data, which can be used for managing pavement performance. The main objective of this paper is to propose a procedure for segmenting skid resistance data, based on existing data segmentation methods. The procedure needs to be efficient and to fulfill road management requirements. The proposed procedure considers the Leverage method to identify outlier data, the CUSUM method to accomplish initial data segmentation and a statistical method to group consecutive segments that are statistically similar. The statistical method applies the Student's t-test of mean equities, along with analysis of variance and the Tuckey test for the multiple comparison of means. The proposed procedure was applied to a sample of skid resistance data measured with SCRIM (Side Force Coefficient Routine Investigatory Machine) on a 4.2 km section of Chilean road and was compared to conventional segmentation methods. Results showed that the proposed procedure is more efficient than the conventional segmentation procedures, achieving the minimum weighted sum of square errors (SSEp) with all the identified segments statistically different. Due to its mathematical basis, proposed procedure can be easily adapted and programmed for use in road safety management. (author)

  18. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  19. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  20. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  1. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  2. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  3. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  4. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  5. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  6. White matter hyperintensity and stroke lesion segmentation and differentiation using convolutional neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available White matter hyperintensities (WMH are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e.g. a trained image analyst or radiologist. The problem of WMH delineation is further complicated by the fact that other pathological features (i.e. stroke lesions often also appear as hyperintense regions. Recently, several automated methods aiming to tackle the challenges of WMH segmentation have been proposed. Most of these methods have been specifically developed to segment WMH in MRI but cannot differentiate between WMHs and strokes. Other methods, capable of distinguishing between different pathologies in brain MRI, are not designed with simultaneous WMH and stroke segmentation in mind. Therefore, a task specific, reliable, fully automated method that can segment and differentiate between these two pathological manifestations on MRI has not yet been fully identified. In this work we propose to use a convolutional neural network (CNN that is able to segment hyperintensities and differentiate between WMHs and stroke lesions. Specifically, we aim to distinguish between WMH pathologies from those caused by stroke lesions due to either cortical, large or small subcortical infarcts. The proposed fully convolutional CNN architecture, called uResNet, that comprised an analysis path, that gradually learns low and high level features, followed by a synthesis path, that gradually combines and up-samples the low and high level features into a class likelihood semantic segmentation. Quantitatively, the proposed CNN

  7. Multi-segmental movement patterns reflect juggling complexity and skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Pacifici, Ilaria; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Federolf, Peter Andreas; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    The juggling action of six experts and six intermediates jugglers was recorded with a motion capture system and decomposed into its fundamental components through Principal Component Analysis. The aim was to quantify trends in movement dimensionality, multi-segmental patterns and rhythmicity as a function of proficiency level and task complexity. Dimensionality was quantified in terms of Residual Variance, while the Relative Amplitude was introduced to account for individual differences in movement components. We observed that: experience-related modifications in multi-segmental actions exist, such as the progressive reduction of error-correction movements, especially in complex task condition. The systematic identification of motor patterns sensitive to the acquisition of specific experience could accelerate the learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring tourist satisfaction: a factor-cluster segmentation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andriotis, Konstantinos; Agiomirgianakis, George; Mihiotis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Tourist satisfaction has been considered as a tool for increasing destination competitiveness. In an attempt to gain a better understanding of tourists’ satisfaction in an island mass destination this study has taken Crete as a case with the aim to identify the underlying dimensions of tourists’ satisfaction, to investigate whether tourists could be grouped into distinct segments and to examine the significant difference between the segments and sociodemographic and travel arrangement charact...

  9. Segmental vitiligo with segmental morphea: An autoimmune link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.

  10. Segmentation and packaging reactor vessels internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text follows: With more than 25 years of experience in the development of reactor vessel internals and reactor vessel segmentation and packaging technology, Westinghouse has accumulated significant know-how in the reactor dismantling market. The primary challenges of a segmentation and packaging project are to separate the highly activated materials from the less-activated materials and package them into appropriate containers for disposal. Since disposal cost is a key factor, it is important to plan and optimize waste segmentation and packaging. The choice of the optimum cutting technology is also important for a successful project implementation and depends on some specific constraints. Detailed 3-D modeling is the basis for tooling design and provides invaluable support in determining the optimum strategy for component cutting and disposal in waste containers, taking account of the radiological and packaging constraints. The usual method is to start at the end of the process, by evaluating handling of the containers, the waste disposal requirements, what type and size of containers are available for the different disposal options, and working backwards to select a cutting method and finally the cut geometry required. The 3-D models can include intelligent data such as weight, center of gravity, curie content, etc, for each segmented piece, which is very useful when comparing various cutting, handling and packaging options. The detailed 3-D analyses and thorough characterization assessment can draw the attention to material potentially subject to clearance, either directly or after certain period of decay, to allow recycling and further disposal cost reduction. Westinghouse has developed a variety of special cutting and handling tools, support fixtures, service bridges, water filtration systems, video-monitoring systems and customized rigging, all of which are required for a successful reactor vessel internals

  11. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çağrı

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Fetal endoscopic myelomeningocele closure preserves segmental neurological function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Renate J.; Heep, Axel; Maurits, Natalia M.; Cremer, Reinhold; Hoving, Eelco W.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM:   Our aim was to compare the effect of prenatal endoscopic with postnatal myelomeningocele closure (fetally operated spina bifida aperta [fSBA]) versus neonatally operated spina bifida aperta [nSBA]) on segmental neurological leg condition. METHOD:   Between 2003 and 2009, the fetal surgical

  13. MARKET SEGMENTATION PRACTICES OF RETAIL CROP INPUT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer

    2007-01-01

    While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...

  14. Supply chain segmentation in the sporting goods industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roscoe, S.; Baker, P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence supply chain segmentation when selling to consumers through retail chains. The initial research is based on a review of supply chain segmentation literature and the application of relevant parameters to a specific case study, comprising two major brands in the sporting goods industry. The empirical research itself comprises semi-structured interviews, covering demand planning, sales, marketing and supply chain managers, suppor...

  15. Tissues segmentation based on multi spectral medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Each band image contains the most obvious tissue feature according to the optical characteristics of different tissues in different specific bands for multispectral medical images. In this paper, the tissues were segmented by their spectral information at each multispectral medical images. Four Local Binary Patter descriptors were constructed to extract blood vessels based on the gray difference between the blood vessels and their neighbors. The segmented tissue in each band image was merged to a clear image.

  16. Cyanide sulphur transferase from the gut and body segments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results show total rhodanese activities of 1434.50 RU and 2274.28 RU and specific activities of 108.01 RUmg-1 and 83.1901 RUmg-1 in the gut and body segments of H. africanus respectively. The optimum temperature of 25 °C and optimum pH of 10.5 were obtained for both the gut and body segments enzymes.

  17. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  18. Formation Features of the Customer Segments for the Network Organizations in the Smart Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Yaroshenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern network society is based on the advances of information era of Smart, connecting information and communication technologies, intellectual resources and new forms of managing in the global electronic space. It leads to domination of network forms of the organization of economic activity. Many experts prove the importance of segmentation process of consumers when developing competitive strategy of the organization. Every company needs a competent segmentation of the customer base, allowing to concentrate the attention on satisfaction of requirements of the most perspective client segments. The network organizations have specific characteristics; therefore, it is important to understand how they can influence on the formation of client profiles. It causes the necessity of the network organizations’ research in terms of management of high-profitable client segments.The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the market segmentation and to choose the key customers for the network organizations. This purpose has defined the statement and the solution of the following tasks: to explore characteristic features of the network forms of the organization of economic activity of the companies, their prospects, Smart technologies’ influence on them; to reveal the work importance with different client profiles; to explore the existing methods and tools of formation of key customer segments; to define criteria for selection of key groups; to reveal the characteristics of customer segments’ formation for the network organizations.In the research process, methods of the system analysis, a method of analogies, methods of generalizations, a method of the expert evaluations, methods of classification and clustering were applied.This paper explores the characteristics and principles of functioning of network organizations, the appearance of which is directly linked with the development of Smart society. It shows the influence on the

  19. A segment of the apospory-specific genomic region is highly microsyntenic not only between the apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass, but also with a rice chromosome 11 centromeric-proximal genomic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Gustavo; Conner, Joann A; Morishige, Daryl T; Moore, L David; Mullet, John E; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), isolated with the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) marker ugt197, were assembled into contigs that were extended by chromosome walking. Gene-like sequences from contigs were identified by shotgun sequencing and BLAST searches, and used to isolate orthologous rice contigs. Additional gene-like sequences in the apomicts' contigs were identified by bioinformatics using fully sequenced BACs from orthologous rice contigs as templates, as well as by interspecies, whole-contig cross-hybridizations. Hierarchical contig orthology was rapidly assessed by constructing detailed long-range contig molecular maps showing the distribution of gene-like sequences and markers, and searching for microsyntenic patterns of sequence identity and spatial distribution within and across species contigs. We found microsynteny between P. squamulatum and buffelgrass contigs. Importantly, this approach also enabled us to isolate from within the rice (Oryza sativa) genome contig Rice A, which shows the highest microsynteny and is most orthologous to the ugt197-containing C1C buffelgrass contig. Contig Rice A belongs to the rice genome database contig 77 (according to the current September 12, 2003, rice fingerprint contig build) that maps proximal to the chromosome 11 centromere, a feature that interestingly correlates with the mapping of ASGR-linked BACs proximal to the centromere or centromere-like sequences. Thus, relatedness between these two orthologous contigs is supported both by their molecular microstructure and by their centromeric-proximal location. Our discoveries promote the use of a microsynteny-based positional-cloning approach using the rice genome as a template to aid in constructing the ASGR toward the isolation of genes underlying apospory.

  20. A Segment of the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region Is Highly Microsyntenic Not Only between the Apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and Buffelgrass, But Also with a Rice Chromosome 11 Centromeric-Proximal Genomic Region1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Gustavo; Conner, Joann A.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Moore, L. David; Mullet, John E.; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from apomicts Pennisetum squamulatum and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), isolated with the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) marker ugt197, were assembled into contigs that were extended by chromosome walking. Gene-like sequences from contigs were identified by shotgun sequencing and BLAST searches, and used to isolate orthologous rice contigs. Additional gene-like sequences in the apomicts' contigs were identified by bioinformatics using fully sequenced BACs from orthologous rice contigs as templates, as well as by interspecies, whole-contig cross-hybridizations. Hierarchical contig orthology was rapidly assessed by constructing detailed long-range contig molecular maps showing the distribution of gene-like sequences and markers, and searching for microsyntenic patterns of sequence identity and spatial distribution within and across species contigs. We found microsynteny between P. squamulatum and buffelgrass contigs. Importantly, this approach also enabled us to isolate from within the rice (Oryza sativa) genome contig Rice A, which shows the highest microsynteny and is most orthologous to the ugt197-containing C1C buffelgrass contig. Contig Rice A belongs to the rice genome database contig 77 (according to the current September 12, 2003, rice fingerprint contig build) that maps proximal to the chromosome 11 centromere, a feature that interestingly correlates with the mapping of ASGR-linked BACs proximal to the centromere or centromere-like sequences. Thus, relatedness between these two orthologous contigs is supported both by their molecular microstructure and by their centromeric-proximal location. Our discoveries promote the use of a microsynteny-based positional-cloning approach using the rice genome as a template to aid in constructing the ASGR toward the isolation of genes underlying apospory. PMID:16415213

  1. Accounting for segment correlations in segmented gamma-ray scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, G.A.; Prettyman, T.H.; Piquette, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    In a typical segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS), the detector's field of view is collimated so that a complete horizontal slice or segment of the desired thickness is visible. Ordinarily, the collimator is not deep enough to exclude gamma rays emitted from sample volumes above and below the segment aligned with the collimator. This can lead to assay biases, particularly for certain radioactive-material distributions. Another consequence of the collimator's low aspect ratio is that segment assays at the top and bottom of the sample are biased low because the detector's field of view is not filled. This effect is ordinarily countered by placing the sample on a low-Z pedestal and scanning one or more segment thicknesses below and above the sample. This takes extra time, however, We have investigated a number of techniques that both account for correlated segments and correct for end effects in SGS assays. Also, we have developed an algorithm that facilitates estimates of assay precision. Six calculation methods have been compared by evaluating the results of thousands of simulated, assays for three types of gamma-ray source distribution and ten masses. We will report on these computational studies and their experimental verification

  2. The Collaborative Lithium Trials (CoLT: specific aims, methods, and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Stephen R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lithium is a benchmark treatment for bipolar illness in adults. However, there has been relatively little methodologically stringent research regarding the use of lithium in youth suffering from bipolarity. Methods Under the auspices of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA, a Written Request (WR pertaining to the study of lithium in pediatric mania was issued by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD in 2004. Accordingly, the NICHD issued a Request for Proposals (RFP soliciting submissions to pursue this research. Subsequently, the NICHD awarded a contract to a group of investigators in order to conduct these studies. Results The Collaborative Lithium Trials (CoLT investigators, the BPCA-Coordinating Center, and the NICHD developed protocols to provide data that will: (1 establish evidence-based dosing strategies for lithium; (2 characterize the pharmacokinetics and biodisposition of lithium; (3 examine the acute efficacy of lithium in pediatric bipolarity; (4 investigate the long-term effectiveness of lithium treatment; and (5 characterize the short- and long-term safety of lithium. By undertaking two multi-phase trials rather than multiple single-phase studies (as was described in the WR, the feasibility of the research to be undertaken was enhanced while ensuring all the data outlined in the WR would be obtained. The first study consists of: (1 an 8-week open-label, randomized, escalating dose Pharmacokinetic Phase; (2 a 16-week Long-Term Effectiveness Phase; (3 a 28-week double-blind Discontinuation Phase; and (4 an 8-week open-label Restabilization Phase. The second study consists of: (1 an 8-week, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled Efficacy Phase; (2 an open-label Long-Term Effectiveness lasting either 16 or 24 weeks (depending upon blinded treatment assignment during the Efficacy Phase; (3 a 28-week double-blind Discontinuation Phase; and (4 an 8-week open-label Restabilization Phase. In December of 2006, enrollment into the first of these studies began across seven sites. Conclusion These innovative studies will not only provide data to inform the labeling of lithium in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, but will also enhance clinical decision-making regarding the use of lithium treatment in pediatric bipolar illness. Trial Registration NCT00442039

  3. General and Specific Culture Learning in EFL Textbooks Aimed at Adult Learners in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Antonio R. Raigón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since language teaching in modern-day society is closely linked to cultural instruction, this study employs the model of a cultural learning analysis based on the earlier work of Paige and Lee. Using this model, the authors analysed the cultural content of six B1 and B2-level textbooks for teaching English to adults in Spain, and carried out a comparative study of the results, contrasting the two levels. Findings show that the subjective aspects of culture receive less coverage in textbooks, despite being fundamental to an understanding of the values of a society. Regarding the comparison between B1 and B2 levels, the data indicate that the number of big “C” Culture occurrences is similar for both levels, although there are differences in other cultural aspects. So, for example, culture in general is dealt with more at the B1 level, whereas small “c” culture is dealt with more at the B2 level.

  4. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  5. Automated bone segmentation from dental CBCT images using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Liao, Shu; Li, Gang [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Chen, Ken Chung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Stomatology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan 70403 (China); Shen, Steve G. F.; Yan, Jin [Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery and Science, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University College of Medicine, Shanghai, China 200011 (China); Lee, Philip K. M.; Chow, Ben [Hong Kong Dental Implant and Maxillofacial Centre, Hong Kong, China 999077 (China); Liu, Nancy X. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China 100050 (China); Xia, James J. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Surgery (Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery), Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery and Science, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University College of Medicine, Shanghai, China 200011 (China); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate three-dimensional (3D) models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the poor image quality, including very low signal-to-noise ratio and the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening, and inhomogeneity, it is challenging to segment the CBCT images. In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment CBCT images, the authors propose a new method for fully automated CBCT segmentation by using patch-based sparse representation to (1) segment bony structures from the soft tissues and (2) further separate the mandible from the maxilla. Specifically, a region-specific registration strategy is first proposed to warp all the atlases to the current testing subject and then a sparse-based label propagation strategy is employed to estimate a patient-specific atlas from all aligned atlases. Finally, the patient-specific atlas is integrated into amaximum a posteriori probability-based convex segmentation framework for accurate segmentation. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on a dataset with 15 CBCT images. The effectiveness of the proposed region-specific registration strategy and patient-specific atlas has been validated by comparing with the traditional registration strategy and population-based atlas. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the best segmentation accuracy by comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Conclusions: The authors have proposed a new CBCT segmentation method by using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization, which can achieve considerably accurate segmentation results in CBCT

  6. Automated bone segmentation from dental CBCT images using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Liao, Shu; Li, Gang; Chen, Ken Chung; Shen, Steve G. F.; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K. M.; Chow, Ben; Liu, Nancy X.; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate three-dimensional (3D) models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the poor image quality, including very low signal-to-noise ratio and the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening, and inhomogeneity, it is challenging to segment the CBCT images. In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment CBCT images, the authors propose a new method for fully automated CBCT segmentation by using patch-based sparse representation to (1) segment bony structures from the soft tissues and (2) further separate the mandible from the maxilla. Specifically, a region-specific registration strategy is first proposed to warp all the atlases to the current testing subject and then a sparse-based label propagation strategy is employed to estimate a patient-specific atlas from all aligned atlases. Finally, the patient-specific atlas is integrated into amaximum a posteriori probability-based convex segmentation framework for accurate segmentation. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on a dataset with 15 CBCT images. The effectiveness of the proposed region-specific registration strategy and patient-specific atlas has been validated by comparing with the traditional registration strategy and population-based atlas. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the best segmentation accuracy by comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Conclusions: The authors have proposed a new CBCT segmentation method by using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization, which can achieve considerably accurate segmentation results in CBCT

  7. Skip segment Hirschsprung's disease: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical

  8. Dissociated effects of distractors on saccades and manual aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert D; Buonocore, Antimo

    2012-08-01

    The remote distractor effect (RDE) is a robust phenomenon whereby target-directed saccades are delayed by the appearance of a distractor. This effect persists even when the target location is perfectly predictable. The RDE has been studied extensively in the oculomotor domain but it is unknown whether it generalises to other spatially oriented responses. In three experiments, we tested whether the RDE generalises to manual aiming. Experiment 1 required participants to move their hand or eyes to predictable targets presented alone or accompanied by a distractor in the opposite hemifield. The RDE was observed for the eyes but not for the hand. Experiment 2 replicated this dissociation in a more naturalistic task in which eye movements were not constrained during manual aiming. Experiment 3 confirmed the lack of manual RDE across a wider range of distractor delays (0, 50, 100, and 150 ms). Our data imply that the RDE is specific to the oculomotor system, at least for non-foveal distractors. We suggest that the oculomotor RDE reflects competitive interactions between target and distractor representations in the superior colliculus, which are not necessarily shared by manual aiming.

  9. Precision segmented reflectors for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, David H.; Pawlik, Eugene V.; Meinel, Aden B.; Fichter, W. B.

    1990-08-01

    A project to develop precision segmented reflectors (PSRs) which operate at submillimeter wavelengths is described. The development of a light efficient means for the construction of large-aperture segmented reflecting space-based telescopes is the primary aim of the project. The 20-m Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) telescope is being developed for a survey mission, and it will make use of the reflector panels and materials, structures, and figure control being elaborated for the PSR. The surface accuracy of a 0.9-m PSR panel is shown to be 1.74-micron RMS, the goal of 100-micron RMS positioning accuracy has been achieved for a 4-m erectable structure. A voice-coil actuator for the figure control system architecture demonstrated 1-micron panel control accuracy in a 3-axis evaluation. The PSR technology is demonstrated to be of value for several NASA projects involving optical communications and interferometers as well as missions which make use of large-diameter segmented reflectors.

  10. Medical image segmentation using improved FCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XiaoFeng; ZHANG CaiMing; TANG WenJing; WEI ZhenWen

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important problems in medical image processing,and the existence of partial volume effect and other phenomena makes the problem much more complex. Fuzzy Cmeans,as an effective tool to deal with PVE,however,is faced with great challenges in efficiency.Aiming at this,this paper proposes one improved FCM algorithm based on the histogram of the given image,which will be denoted as HisFCM and divided into two phases.The first phase will retrieve several intervals on which to compute cluster centroids,and the second one will perform image segmentation based on improved FCM algorithm.Compared with FCM and other improved algorithms,HisFCM is of much higher efficiency with satisfying results.Experiments on medical images show that HisFCM can achieve good segmentation results in less than 0.1 second,and can satisfy real-time requirements of medical image processing.

  11. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  12. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous

  13. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  14. Market segmentation of mobile communications in SEE region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Anto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the focus of all activities are customers of mobile services on mobile communications market. As the basis of telecommunication network and services development, as also for creating an optimal marketing-mix from mobile operators' side, we have investigated the needs, motivations and customer behavior and have made analysis mobile communication customers on the SEE Region market. The aim of this analysis is identification of the regional segments and following their growth, size and profitability. At the end, we have contributed the suggestions for creating the marketing-mix using a strategy of marketing differentiation, which implicit optimal combination of all marketing-mix elements for each regional segment separately. For identified segments we have set up an estimation model of significant key factors on the particular segments, because of more efficient creation of marketing instruments.

  15. FBIH financial market segmentation on the basis of image factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnela Bevanda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to recognize, single out and define market segments useful for future marketing strategies, using certain statistical techniques on the basis of influence of various image factors of financial institutions. The survey included a total of 500 interviewees: 250 bank clients and 250 clients of insurance companies. Starting from the problem area and research goal, the following hypothesis has been formulated: Basic preferences of clients in regard of image factors while selecting financial institutions are different enough to be used as such for differentiating significant market segments of clients. Two segments have been singled out by cluster analysis and named, respectively, traditionalists and visualists. Results of the research confirmed the established hypothesis and pointed to the fact that managers in the financial institutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH must undertake certain corrective actions, especially when planning and implementing communication strategies, if they wish to maintain their competitiveness in serving both selected segments.

  16. Segmental torso masses in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Bethany E; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Labrom, Robert D; Pettet, Graeme J; Pearcy, Mark J; Adam, Clayton J

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity whose aetiology remains unclear. Studies suggest that gravitational forces in the standing position play an important role in scoliosis progression, therefore anthropometric data is required to develop biomechanical models of the deformity. Few studies have analysed the trunk by vertebral level and none have performed investigations of the scoliotic trunk. The aim of this study was to determine the centroid, thickness, volume and estimated mass, for sections of the scoliotic trunk. Existing low-dose CT scans were used to estimate vertebral level-by-level torso masses for 20 female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. ImageJ processing software was used to analyse the CT images and enable estimation of the segmental torso mass corresponding to each vertebral level. The patients' mean age was 15.0 (SD 2.7) years with mean major Cobb angle of 52 (SD 5.9)° and mean patient weight of 58.2 (SD 11.6) kg. The magnitude of torso segment mass corresponding to each vertebral level increased by 150% from 0.6kg at T1 to 1.5kg at L5. Similarly, segmental thickness from T1-L5 increased inferiorly from a mean 18.5 (SD 2.2) mm at T1 to 32.8 (SD 3.4) mm at L5. The mean total trunk mass, as a percentage of total body mass, was 27.8 (SD 0.5) % which was close to values reported in previous literature. This study provides new anthropometric reference data on segmental (vertebral level-by-level) torso mass in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, useful for biomechanical models of scoliosis progression and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PTBS segmentation scheme for synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Noah S.; Rothwell, Brian J.

    1995-07-01

    The Image Understanding Group at Martin Marietta Technologies in Denver, Colorado has developed a model-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) system using an integrated resource architecture (IRA). IRA, an adaptive Markov random field (MRF) environment, utilizes information from image, model, and neighborhood resources to create a discrete, 2D feature-based world description (FBWD). The IRA FBWD features are peak, target, background and shadow (PTBS). These features have been shown to be very useful for target discrimination. The FBWD is used to accrue evidence over a model hypothesis set. This paper presents the PTBS segmentation process utilizing two IRA resources. The image resource (IR) provides generic (the physics of image formation) and specific (the given image input) information. The neighborhood resource (NR) provides domain knowledge of localized FBWD site behaviors. A simulated annealing optimization algorithm is used to construct a `most likely' PTBS state. Results on simulated imagery illustrate the power of this technique to correctly segment PTBS features, even when vehicle signatures are immersed in heavy background clutter. These segmentations also suppress sidelobe effects and delineate shadows.

  18. OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation, with applications to multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Shinohara, Russell T; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J; Chudgar, Avni A; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Calabresi, Peter A; Pham, Dzung L; Reich, Daniel S; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect lesions in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is essential for diagnosing the disease and monitoring its progression. In practice, lesion load is often quantified by either manual or semi-automated segmentation of MRI, which is time-consuming, costly, and associated with large inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation (OASIS), an automated statistical method for segmenting MS lesions in MRI studies. We use logistic regression models incorporating multiple MRI modalities to estimate voxel-level probabilities of lesion presence. Intensity-normalized T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and proton density volumes from 131 MRI studies (98 MS subjects, 33 healthy subjects) with manual lesion segmentations were used to train and validate our model. Within this set, OASIS detected lesions with a partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for clinically relevant false positive rates of 1% and below of 0.59% (95% CI; [0.50%, 0.67%]) at the voxel level. An experienced MS neuroradiologist compared these segmentations to those produced by LesionTOADS, an image segmentation software that provides segmentation of both lesions and normal brain structures. For lesions, OASIS out-performed LesionTOADS in 74% (95% CI: [65%, 82%]) of cases for the 98 MS subjects. To further validate the method, we applied OASIS to 169 MRI studies acquired at a separate center. The neuroradiologist again compared the OASIS segmentations to those from LesionTOADS. For lesions, OASIS ranked higher than LesionTOADS in 77% (95% CI: [71%, 83%]) of cases. For a randomly selected subset of 50 of these studies, one additional radiologist and one neurologist also scored the images. Within this set, the neuroradiologist ranked OASIS higher than LesionTOADS in 76% (95% CI: [64%, 88%]) of cases, the neurologist 66% (95% CI: [52%, 78

  19. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, A.; Yang, Z.; Engstrom, C.; Xia, Y.; Strudwick, M. W.; Chandra, S. S.; Crozier, S.; Fripp, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from MR imaging is not at the same level compared to the weight-bearing knee and hip joint cartilages despite the potential applications with respect to clinical investigation of shoulder disorders. In this work, the authors present a fully automated segmentation method for the glenohumeral cartilages using MR images of healthy shoulders. Methods: The method involves automated segmentation of the humerus and scapula bones using 3D active shape models, the extraction of the expected bone–cartilage interface, and cartilage segmentation using a graph-based method. The cartilage segmentation uses localization, patient specific tissue estimation, and a model of the cartilage thickness variation. The accuracy of this method was experimentally validated using a leave-one-out scheme on a database of MR images acquired from 44 asymptomatic subjects with a true fast imaging with steady state precession sequence on a 3 T scanner (Siemens Trio) using a dedicated shoulder coil. The automated results were compared to manual segmentations from two experts (an experienced radiographer and an experienced musculoskeletal anatomist) using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean absolute surface distance (MASD) metrics. Results: Accurate and precise bone segmentations were achieved with mean DSC of 0.98 and 0.93 for the humeral head

  20. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, A., E-mail: ales.neubert@csiro.au [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia and The Australian E-Health Research Centre, CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Brisbane 4029 (Australia); Yang, Z. [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia and Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Engstrom, C. [School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Xia, Y.; Strudwick, M. W.; Chandra, S. S.; Crozier, S. [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Fripp, J. [The Australian E-Health Research Centre, CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Brisbane, 4029 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues. Automatic segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages from MR imaging is not at the same level compared to the weight-bearing knee and hip joint cartilages despite the potential applications with respect to clinical investigation of shoulder disorders. In this work, the authors present a fully automated segmentation method for the glenohumeral cartilages using MR images of healthy shoulders. Methods: The method involves automated segmentation of the humerus and scapula bones using 3D active shape models, the extraction of the expected bone–cartilage interface, and cartilage segmentation using a graph-based method. The cartilage segmentation uses localization, patient specific tissue estimation, and a model of the cartilage thickness variation. The accuracy of this method was experimentally validated using a leave-one-out scheme on a database of MR images acquired from 44 asymptomatic subjects with a true fast imaging with steady state precession sequence on a 3 T scanner (Siemens Trio) using a dedicated shoulder coil. The automated results were compared to manual segmentations from two experts (an experienced radiographer and an experienced musculoskeletal anatomist) using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean absolute surface distance (MASD) metrics. Results: Accurate and precise bone segmentations were achieved with mean DSC of 0.98 and 0.93 for the humeral head

  1. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.

  2. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    a microscope and we show how the method can handle transparent particles with significant glare point. The method generalizes to other problems. THis is illustrated by applying the method to camera calibration images and MRI of the midsagittal plane for gray and white matter separation and segmentation......We propose a novel and efficient way of performing local image segmentation. For many applications a threshold of pixel intensities is sufficient but determine the appropriate threshold value can be difficult. In cases with large global intensity variation the threshold value has to be adapted...... locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...

  3. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok

    2000-03-01

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary

  4. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. The authors have developed a novel two-stage atlas

  5. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Tingting, E-mail: tingtingzhao@mednet.ucla.edu; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors

  6. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors

  7. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  9. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica R. Gross

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  10. U.S. Army Custom Segmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    segmentation is individual or intergroup differences in response to marketing - mix variables. Presumptions about segments: •different demands in a...product or service category, •respond differently to changes in the marketing mix Criteria for segments: •The segments must exist in the environment

  11. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Erica R.; Geddes, Gabrielle C.; McCarrier, Julie A.; Jarzembowski, Jason A.; Arca, Marjorie J.

    2015-01-01

    Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  12. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  13. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analysed to review their attitude towards the use of Twitter for educational purposes and for their future teaching and professional development. The conclusions indicate the need to conduct different educational activities in which Twitter is used in various ways. In addition, conclusions reflect on the real impact of Twitter on students’ learning enhancement, in order to improve student teachers’ attitudes towards social media in education. Therefore, this article contributes to the body of existing research on the use of technology in education, specifically to the possibilities of the use of social media and microblogging in Teacher Education.

  14. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  15. SEGMENTAL EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA FOR INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidanand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidural anaesthesia is suitable as a sole agent for lower abdominal surgery and surgery on lower limbs. It has some definite advantages over spinal anaesthesia like avoidance of post spinal headache, minimal chances of meningitis, and minimal chances of nausea and vomiting in postoperative period. But administration of conventional dosage of local epidural anaesthetics (15ml and above for surgical anaesthesia frequently results in multiple hemodynamic changes, including decreases in chronotropism, inotro pism, dromotropism, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and myocardial oxygen consumption. The segmental epidural block denotes the use of a small volume enough to block only the segments involved in the field of surgery. AIM: To study the effect iveness of segmental epidural anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair. DESIGN: R andomized control study. METHODS: 100 pts belonging to ASA PS I & II posted for inguinal hernia repair given 5ml of 0.5% bupivacaine through epidural route at L1 - L2 level and a fter conforming the adequacy and level of analgesia, the surgery was commenced. If the patient complained of pain during needle prick, then injected local anaesthetic (0.5% Bupivacaine with an incremental dosage of 1ml at a time, till the complete onset o f analgesia Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure were recorded at an interval of 1 minute for first 5 minutes and then every 5 minutes till the end of the surgery. Oxygen saturation and ECG monitoring was done continuously. Onset of analgesia, level of analgesia ( P re & post operatively, duration of analgesia, total dosage of local anaesthetic used were recorded. Complications like bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, shivering, nausea and vomiting, sweating and inadvertent dural puncture were recorde d. RESULTS: 53% of patients had excellent quality of analgesia and relaxation. 34% patients had good quality analgesia and relaxation, mild discomfort while handling sac

  16. Evaluation of segmental left ventricular wall motion by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, D; Janowitz, W R; Holmes, D R; Cohen, H A

    1979-01-01

    The ability of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography to detect segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities was determined in 26 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Multiple gated studies obtained in 30 degrees right anterior oblique and 45 degrees left anterior oblique projections, played back in a movie format, were compared to the corresponding LV ventriculograms. The LV wall in the two projections was divided into eight segments. Each segment was graded as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic, or indeterminate. Thirteen percent of the segments in the gated images were indeterminate; 24 out of 27 of these were proximal or distal inferior wall segments. There was exact agreement in 86% of the remaining segments. The sensitivity of the radionuclide technique for detecting normal versus any abnormal wall motion was 71%, with a specificity of 99%. Equilibrium gated ventriculography is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating segmental LV wall motion. It is least reliable in assessing the proximal inferior wall and interventricular septum.

  17. Summation and Cancellation Effects on QRS and ST-Segment Changes Induced by Simultaneous Regional Myocardial Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives-Borrás, Miquel; Jorge, Esther; Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Millán, Xavier; Arzamendi, Dabit; Cinca, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous ischemia in two myocardial regions is a potentially lethal clinical condition often unrecognized whose corresponding electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns have not yet been characterized. Thus, this study aimed to determine the QRS complex and ST-segment changes induced by concurrent ischemia in different myocardial regions elicited by combined double occlusion of the three main coronary arteries. For this purpose, 12 swine were randomized to combination of 5-min single and double coronary artery occlusion: Group 1: left Circumflex (LCX) and right (RCA) coronary arteries ( n = 4); Group 2: left anterior descending artery (LAD) and LCX ( n = 4) and; Group 3: LAD and RCA ( n = 4). QRS duration and ST-segment displacement were measured in 15-lead ECG. As compared with single occlusion, double LCX+RCA blockade induced significant QRS widening of about 40 ms in nearly all ECG leads and magnification of the ST-segment depression in leads V1-V3 (maximal 228% in lead V3, p ST-segment elevation in precordial leads (maximal attenuation of 60% in lead V3 in LAD+LCX and 86% in lead V5 in LAD+RCA, p ST-segment elevation in leads V7-V9 was a specific sign of single LCX occlusion. In conclusion, concurrent infero-lateral ischemia was associated with a marked summation effect of the ECG changes previously elicited by each single ischemic region. By contrast, a cancellation effect on ST-segment changes with no QRS widening was observed when the left anterior descending artery was involved.

  18. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  19. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  20. Intercalary bone segment transport in treatment of segmental tibial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Amin, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications of intercalary bone segment transport in the treatment of segmental tibial defects. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with segmental tibial defects who were treated with intercalary bone segment transport method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from September 1997 to April 2001. Subjects and methods: Thirteen patients were included in the study who had developed tibial defects either due to open fractures with bone loss or subsequent to bone debridement of infected non unions. The mean bone defect was 6.4 cms and there were eight associated soft tissue defects. Locally made unilateral 'Naseer-Awais' (NA) fixator was used for bone segment transport. The distraction was done at the rate of 1mm/day after 7-10 days of osteotomy. The patients were followed-up fortnightly during distraction and monthly thereafter. The mean follow-up duration was 18 months. Results: The mean time in external fixation was 9.4 months. The m ean healing index' was 1.47 months/cm. Satisfactory union was achieved in all cases. Six cases (46.2%) required bone grafting at target site and in one of them grafting was required at the level of regeneration as well. All the wounds healed well with no residual infection. There was no residual leg length discrepancy of more than 20 mm nd one angular deformity of more than 5 degrees. The commonest complication encountered was pin track infection seen in 38% of Shanz Screws applied. Loosening occurred in 6.8% of Shanz screws, requiring re-adjustment. Ankle joint contracture with equinus deformity and peroneal nerve paresis occurred in one case each. The functional results were graded as 'good' in seven, 'fair' in four, and 'poor' in two patients. Overall, thirteen patients had 31 (minor/major) complications with a ratio of 2.38 complications per patient. To treat the bone defects and associated complications, a mean of

  1. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  2. Lung tumor segmentation in PET images using graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Fulham, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of segmentation of tumor regions in positron emission tomography (PET) is to provide more accurate measurements of tumor size and extension into adjacent structures, than is possible with visual assessment alone and hence improve patient management decisions. We propose a segmentation energy function for the graph cuts technique to improve lung tumor segmentation with PET. Our segmentation energy is based on an analysis of the tumor voxels in PET images combined with a standardized uptake value (SUV) cost function and a monotonic downhill SUV feature. The monotonic downhill feature avoids segmentation leakage into surrounding tissues with similar or higher PET tracer uptake than the tumor and the SUV cost function improves the boundary definition and also addresses situations where the lung tumor is heterogeneous. We evaluated the method in 42 clinical PET volumes from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our method improves segmentation and performs better than region growing approaches, the watershed technique, fuzzy-c-means, region-based active contour and tumor customized downhill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrophilic segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) and monodisperse amide segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) flexible segments and monodisperse crystallizable bisester tetra-amide segments were made via a polycondensation reaction. The molecular weight of the PEO segments varied from 600 to 4600 g/mol and a bisester tetra-amide segment (T6T6T)

  4. Proposition Analysis of Fixed Broadband Services Based on Product Segmentation And Purchasing Power of Urban Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono Budi Santoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tight competition in the broadband industry has forced the provider to have a good product propotition and strategy in the market, including market segmentation and type of services delivered based on customer’s expextation and intention to buy. This research aims to make a product proposition based on two major criteries in fixed broadband service, which are speed and price of the product, by looking into the competition in existing market (competitor’s product. As many players in Indonesia have created very tight situation, the will be launched product should have an attractive matter or differentiation in order to compete and get a “buy in” of the customer. In the research, some analysis was conducted across all the propositions by spreading questionnaires to respondents in urban area especially in Jakarta and Bandung, thus the provider can create product with an appropriate specifications to answer the needs of customers on their affordable price to buy. Some close-ended questions in the questionairres were scaled and performed by basic statistical approach methods. The result shows that product with affordable price is still become the choice of respondents in each segment (low, medium and high income. Price list per speed which is fitted to any segments is also suggested in this research. The result of the research can also be used to develop the product as a differentiation to be the choices and preferencesof customers.

  5. STRATEGI SEGMENTING, TARGETING, POSITIONING SERTA STRATEGI HARGA PADA PERUSAHAAN KECAP BLEKOK DI CILACAP

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Hari; Sirine, Hani

    2017-01-01

    To win the market competition, companies must have segmenting, targeting, positioning strategy and pricing strategy. This study aims to determine segmenting, targeting, positioning strategy as well as the company's pricing strategies on Kecap Blekok Company in Cilacap. Methods of data collection in this study using interviews and documentation. The analysis technique used is descriptive analysis techniques. The results showed market segment of Kecap Blekok Company is the lower middle class, t...

  6. Determining the proportion of coronary segments assessable on 16-slice CT coronary angiography: a brief report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, K. H.; Cox, N.; Eccleston, D.; Lim, Y.; Chaitowitz, I.; Bell, K. W.; Kelly, A-M.

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CT-CA) is becoming a popular non-invasive coronary imaging method. We aimed to determine the proportion of coronary segments assessable on a 16-slice CT in comparison with conventional selective coronary angiography (SCA). We identified all patients who had both 16-slice CT-CA and recent SCA (less than 12 months) from March 2004 to July 2005. Two CT reporters blinded to SCA independently classified coronary segment assessability on CT-CA. A cardiologist blinded to CT findings classified assess-ability of coronary segments on SCA. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and proportion of agreement. Ninety-five study pairs were included in the analysis. Of those, 1161 coronary segments were deemed assessable on SCA and 1103 segments (95%) were also assessable on CT-CA. Nonassessable segments on CT-CA were predominantly in the distal segments and branches of coronary arteries. Reasons for nonassessability were small calibre (48.3%), motion artefacts (20.7%) and poorly reconstructed segments (22.4%). The 16-slice CT was able to assess a high proportion of but not all coronary segments. Nonassessable segments were predominantly distal segments or branches of coronary arteries. Motion artefacts due to heart-rate changes, small calibre and poorly reconstructed images were main causes of nonassessability on 16-slice CT-CA

  7. Segmentation of nodules on chest computed tomography for growth assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, William; Betke, Margrit; Wang Jingbin; Ko, Jane P.

    2004-01-01

    Several segmentation methods to evaluate growth of small isolated pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) are presented. The segmentation methods are based on adaptively thresholding attenuation levels and use measures of nodule shape. The segmentation methods were first tested on a realistic chest phantom to evaluate their performance with respect to specific nodule characteristics. The segmentation methods were also tested on sequential CT scans of patients. The methods' estimation of nodule growth were compared to the volume change calculated by a chest radiologist. The best method segmented nodules on average 43% smaller or larger than the actual nodule when errors were computed across all nodule variations on the phantom. Some methods achieved smaller errors when examined with respect to certain nodule properties. In particular, on the phantom individual methods segmented solid nodules to within 23% of their actual size and nodules with 60.7 mm3 volumes to within 14%. On the clinical data, none of the methods examined showed a statistically significant difference in growth estimation from the radiologist

  8. Segmentation of fluorescence microscopy cell images using unsupervised mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xian; Dua, Sumeet

    2010-05-28

    The accurate measurement of cell and nuclei contours are critical for the sensitive and specific detection of changes in normal cells in several medical informatics disciplines. Within microscopy, this task is facilitated using fluorescence cell stains, and segmentation is often the first step in such approaches. Due to the complex nature of cell issues and problems inherent to microscopy, unsupervised mining approaches of clustering can be incorporated in the segmentation of cells. In this study, we have developed and evaluated the performance of multiple unsupervised data mining techniques in cell image segmentation. We adapt four distinctive, yet complementary, methods for unsupervised learning, including those based on k-means clustering, EM, Otsu's threshold, and GMAC. Validation measures are defined, and the performance of the techniques is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively using synthetic and recently published real data. Experimental results demonstrate that k-means, Otsu's threshold, and GMAC perform similarly, and have more precise segmentation results than EM. We report that EM has higher recall values and lower precision results from under-segmentation due to its Gaussian model assumption. We also demonstrate that these methods need spatial information to segment complex real cell images with a high degree of efficacy, as expected in many medical informatics applications.

  9. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  10. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...

  11. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  12. Segmental Colitis Complicating Diverticular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ma Van Rosendaal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.

  13. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  14. Segmentation of urinary bladder in CT Urography (CTU) using CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Law, Yuen; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cho, Hyun-Chong; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CTU, as a critical component for computer aided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for bladder segmentation is the presence of regions without contrast (NC) and filled with IV contrast (C). We are developing a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) specifically for this application. CLASS performs a series of image processing tasks: preprocessing, initial segmentation, and 3D and 2D level set segmentation and post-processing, designed according to the characteristics of the bladder in CTU. The NC and the C regions of the bladder were segmented separately in CLASS. The final contour is obtained in the post-processing stage by the union of the NC and C contours. Seventy bladders (31 containing lesions, 24 containing wall thickening, and 15 normal) were segmented. The performance of CLASS was assessed by rating the quality of the contours on a 5-point scale (1= "very poor", 3= "fair", 5 = "excellent"). For the 53 partially contrast-filled bladders, the average quality ratings for the 53 NC and 53 C regions were 4.0+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.0, respectively. 46 NC and 41 C regions were given quality ratings of 4 or above. Only 2 NC and 5 C regions had ratings under 3. The average quality ratings for the remaining 12 completely no contrast (NC) and 5 completely contrast-filled (C) bladder contours were 3.3+/-1.0 and 3.4+/-0.5, respectively. After combining the NC and C contours for each of the 70 bladders, 46 had quality ratings of 4 or above. Only 4 had ratings under 3. The average quality rating was 3.8+/-0.7. The results demonstrate the potential of CLASS for automated segmentation of the bladder.

  15. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a favourable prognosis in untreated patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegens, J.K.J.; Assmann, K.J.M.; Steenbergen, E.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Gerlag, P.G.G.; Jansen, J.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are considered to have a poor prognosis and spontaneous remissions are seldom reported. However, FSGS is not a single disease entity. Our aim was to describe the clinical course in initially untreated patients with recently

  16. Segmented arch or continuous arch technique? A rational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo Caldas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at revising the biomechanical principles of the segmented archwire technique as well as describing the clinical conditions in which the rational use of scientific biomechanics is essential to optimize orthodontic treatment and reduce the side effects produced by the straight wire technique.

  17. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ildeu

    2017-02-01

    Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  18. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Andrade Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  19. Correlates between kinematics and baropodometric measurements for an integrated in-vivo assessment of the segmental foot function in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Leardini, Alberto; Caravaggi, Paolo

    2014-08-22

    Baropodometry and multi-segmental foot kinematics are frequently employed to obtain insight into the mechanics of the foot-ground interaction in both basic research and clinical settings. However, nothing hitherto has been reported on the full integration of kinematics with baropodometric parameters, and only a few studies have addressed the association between intersegmental kinematics and plantar loading within specific foot regions. The aim of this study was to understanding the relationships between foot joint mobility and plantar loading by focusing on the correlation between these two measures. An integrated pressure-force-kinematics system was used to measure plantar pressure and rotations between foot segments during the stance phase of walking in 10 healthy subjects. An anatomically-based mask was applied to each footprint to obtain six regions according to the position of the markers; hence each kinematic segment was paired with a corresponding area of the plantar surface. Relationships between segmental motion and relevant baropodometric data were explored by means of correlation analysis. Negative, weak-to-moderate correlations (R(2)plantar pressure in almost all regions. The study helps improve our understanding of the relationship between joint mobility and plantar loading in the healthy foot and represents a critical preliminary analysis before addressing possible clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  1. Relations between segmental and motor variability in prosodically complex nonword sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Lisa; Gerken, Louann; Lucchesi, Julie

    2007-04-01

    To assess how prosodic prominence and hierarchical foot structure influence segmental and articulatory aspects of speech production, specifically segmental accuracy and variability, and oral movement trajectory variability. Thirty individuals participated: 10 young adults, 10 children who are normally developing, and 10 children diagnosed with specific language impairment. Segmental error and segmental variability and movement trajectory variability were compared in low and high prosodic prominence conditions (i.e., strong and weak syllables) and in different prosodic foot structures. Between-participants findings were that both groups of children showed more segmental error and segmental variability and more movement trajectory variability than did adults. A similar within-participant pattern of results was observed for all 3 groups. Prosodic prominence influenced both segmental and motor levels of analysis, with weak syllables produced less accurately and with more lip and jaw movement trajectory variability than strong syllables. However, hierarchical foot structure affected segmental but not motor measures of speech production accuracy and variability. Motor and segmental variables were not consistently aligned. This pattern of results has clinical implications because inferences about motor variability may not directly follow from observations of segmental variability.

  2. Joint shape segmentation with linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qixing

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  3. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  4. HealthStyles: a new psychographic segmentation system for health care marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, K W; Wintz, J C

    1988-01-01

    HealthStyles is a new psychographic segmentation system specifically designed for the health care industry. This segmentation system goes beyond traditional geographic and demographic analysis and examines health-related consumer attitudes and behaviors. Four statistically distinct "styles" of consumer health care preferences have been identified. The profiles of the four groups have substantial marketing implications in terms of design and promotion of products and services. Each segment of consumers also has differing expectations of physician behavior.

  5. Stochastic Modelling as a Tool for Seismic Signals Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kucharczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model nonstationary real-world processes one can find appropriate theoretical model with properties following the analyzed data. However in this case many trajectories of the analyzed process are required. Alternatively, one can extract parts of the signal that have homogenous structure via segmentation. The proper segmentation can lead to extraction of important features of analyzed phenomena that cannot be described without the segmentation. There is no one universal method that can be applied for all of the phenomena; thus novel methods should be invented for specific cases. They might address specific character of the signal in different domains (time, frequency, time-frequency, etc.. In this paper we propose two novel segmentation methods that take under consideration the stochastic properties of the analyzed signals in time domain. Our research is motivated by the analysis of vibration signals acquired in an underground mine. In such signals we observe seismic events which appear after the mining activity, like blasting, provoked relaxation of rock, and some unexpected events, like natural rock burst. The proposed segmentation procedures allow for extraction of such parts of the analyzed signals which are related to mentioned events.

  6. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  7. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  8. Novel Music Segmentation Interface and the Jazz Tune Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; Bountouridis, D.; Volk, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present MOSSA, an easy-to-use interface for mobile devices, developed to annotate the segment structure of music. Moreover, we present the jazz tune collection (JTC), a database of 125 Jazz melodies annotated using MOSSA, and developed specifically for benchmarking of computational

  9. Elephant: Sequence Labeling for Word and Sentence Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evang, Kilian; Basile, Valerio; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Bos, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Tokenization is widely regarded as a solved problem due to the high accuracy that rule-based tokenizers achieve. But rule-based tokenizers are hard to maintain and their rules language specific. We show that high-accuracy word and sentence segmentation can be achieved by using supervised sequence

  10. Targeting Political Communications: A Problem in Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwart, Richard I.

    Political campaigns are major, high-budget marketing efforts, but because they are usually managed by people with little training in either marketing or communications, they fail to persuade voters to vote in the desired way. Political targeting can be treated as a segmentation problem, one of identifying and responding to the specific qualities…

  11. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Vebrová; Kateřina Venclová; Stanislav Rojík

    2016-01-01

    Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary ...

  12. Auto-Segmentation of Head and Neck Cancer using Textural features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Højgaard, Liselotte

    - and intra observer variability. Several automatic segmentation methods have been developed using positron emission tomography (PET) and/or computerised tomography (CT). The aim of the present study is to develop a model for 3-dimensional auto-segmentation, the level set method, to contour gross tumour...

  13. Interactive vs. automatic ultrasound image segmentation methods for staging hepatic lipidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, G.; Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.; Korte, C.L. de

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that automatic segmentation of vessels in ultrasound (US) images can produce similar or better results in grading fatty livers than interactive segmentation. A study was performed in postpartum dairy cows (N=151), as an animal model of human fatty

  14. Functional transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels along different segments of the renal vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L; Kaßmann, M; Sendeski, M

    2015-01-01

    with functional TRPV1 having a narrow, discrete distribution in the resistance vasculature and TRPV4 having more universal, widespread distribution along different vascular segments. We suggest that TRPV1/4 channels are potent therapeutic targets for site-specific vasodilation in the kidney.......AIM: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channels have been recently identified to promote endothelium-dependent relaxation of mouse mesenteric arteries. However, the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in the renal vasculature is largely unknown. We hypothesized...... that TRPV1/4 plays a role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation of renal blood vessels. METHODS: We studied the distribution of functional TRPV1/4 along different segments of the renal vasculature. Mesenteric arteries were studied as control vessels. RESULTS: The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin relaxed mouse...

  15. Automated segmentation of murine lung tumors in x-ray micro-CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swee, Joshua K. Y.; Sheridan, Clare; de Bruin, Elza; Downward, Julian; Lassailly, Francois; Pizarro, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen micro-CT emerge as a means of providing imaging analysis in pre-clinical study, with in-vivo micro-CT having been shown to be particularly applicable to the examination of murine lung tumors. Despite this, existing studies have involved substantial human intervention during the image analysis process, with the use of fully-automated aids found to be almost non-existent. We present a new approach to automate the segmentation of murine lung tumors designed specifically for in-vivo micro-CT-based pre-clinical lung cancer studies that addresses the specific requirements of such study, as well as the limitations human-centric segmentation approaches experience when applied to such micro-CT data. Our approach consists of three distinct stages, and begins by utilizing edge enhancing and vessel enhancing non-linear anisotropic diffusion filters to extract anatomy masks (lung/vessel structure) in a pre-processing stage. Initial candidate detection is then performed through ROI reduction utilizing obtained masks and a two-step automated segmentation approach that aims to extract all disconnected objects within the ROI, and consists of Otsu thresholding, mathematical morphology and marker-driven watershed. False positive reduction is finally performed on initial candidates through random-forest-driven classification using the shape, intensity, and spatial features of candidates. We provide validation of our approach using data from an associated lung cancer study, showing favorable results both in terms of detection (sensitivity=86%, specificity=89%) and structural recovery (Dice Similarity=0.88) when compared against manual specialist annotation.

  16. A fuzzy feature fusion method for auto-segmentation of gliomas with multi-modality diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance images in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Wang, Ping; Sun, Ranran; Yang, Chengwen; Zhang, Ning; Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming

    2018-02-19

    The diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide functional information about tumour and enable more sensitive detection of the tumour extent. We aimed to develop a fuzzy feature fusion method for auto-segmentation of gliomas in radiotherapy planning using multi-parametric functional MR images including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV). For each functional modality, one histogram-based fuzzy model was created to transform image volume into a fuzzy feature space. Based on the fuzzy fusion result of the three fuzzy feature spaces, regions with high possibility belonging to tumour were generated automatically. The auto-segmentations of tumour in structural MR images were added in final auto-segmented gross tumour volume (GTV). For evaluation, one radiation oncologist delineated GTVs for nine patients with all modalities. Comparisons between manually delineated and auto-segmented GTVs showed that, the mean volume difference was 8.69% (±5.62%); the mean Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.88 (±0.02); the mean sensitivity and specificity of auto-segmentation was 0.87 (±0.04) and 0.98 (±0.01) respectively. High accuracy and efficiency can be achieved with the new method, which shows potential of utilizing functional multi-parametric MR images for target definition in precision radiation treatment planning for patients with gliomas.

  17. Metabolically active tumour volume segmentation from dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET studies in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, Lieke L; Frings, Virginie; Hoekstra, Otto S; Kenny, Laura M; Aboagye, Eric O; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) can be used to assess tumour proliferation. A kinetic-filtering (KF) classification algorithm has been suggested for segmentation of tumours in dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate KF segmentation and its test-retest performance in [(18)F]FLT PET in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Nine NSCLC patients underwent two 60-min dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET scans within 7 days prior to treatment. Dynamic scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) as well as with ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM). Twenty-eight lesions were identified by an experienced physician. Segmentation was performed using KF applied to the dynamic data set and a source-to-background corrected 50% threshold (A50%) was applied to the sum image of the last three frames (45- to 60-min p.i.). Furthermore, several adaptations of KF were tested. Both for KF and A50% test-retest (TRT) variability of metabolically active tumour volume and standard uptake value (SUV) were evaluated. KF performed better on OSEM- than on FBP-reconstructed PET images. The original KF implementation segmented 15 out of 28 lesions, whereas A50% segmented each lesion. Adapted KF versions, however, were able to segment 26 out of 28 lesions. In the best performing adapted versions, metabolically active tumour volume and SUV TRT variability was similar to those of A50%. KF misclassified certain tumour areas as vertebrae or liver tissue, which was shown to be related to heterogeneous [(18)F]FLT uptake areas within the tumour. For [(18)F]FLT PET studies in NSCLC patients, KF and A50% show comparable tumour volume segmentation performance. The KF method needs, however, a site-specific optimisation. The A50% is therefore a good alternative for tumour segmentation in NSCLC [(18)F]FLT PET studies in multicentre studies. Yet, it was observed that KF has the potential to subsegment

  18. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  19. Compliance with Segment Disclosure Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... by increasing transparency and leveling the playing field. However, our analysis also demonstrates that in the long run, if firms are unable to use discretion in reporting to maintain their competitive edge, they may seek more destructive alternatives. Accounting for such concerns, in the long run, voluntary...

  20. Segmental osteotomies of the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H M

    1989-10-01

    Multiple segment Le Fort I osteotomies provide the maxillofacial surgeon with the capabilities to treat complex dentofacial deformities existing in all three planes of space. Sagittal, vertical, and transverse maxillomandibular discrepancies as well as three-dimensional abnormalities within the maxillary arch can be corrected simultaneously. Accordingly, optimal aesthetic enhancement of the facial skeleton and a functional, healthy occlusion can be realized. What may be perceived as elaborate treatment plans are in reality conservative in terms of osseous stability and treatment time required. The close cooperation of an orthodontist well-versed in segmental orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is critical to the success of such surgery. With close attention to surgical detail, the complication rate inherent in such surgery can be minimized and the treatment goals achieved in a timely and predictable fashion.

  1. Particular Results of a Research Aimed at Curricula Design of Teacher Training in the Area of Didactic Technological Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Záhorec

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents particular results of the first phase of a research aimed at improving pre-graduate teacher training in the area of didactic technological competences. The main goal of the prepared research is to modernize and optimize relevant parts of study programs of teacher trainees at Slovak higher education institutions (inclusion and structure the relevant subjects in the study programs, their content and time assignment. The results are related to a questionnaire survey of the current state and perspectives of the continuing professional development of primary and secondary school teachers contributing to their didactic technological competences improvement and development. Main attention is paid to an analysis of the selected questionnaire items in which the respondents assessed significance of the use of various interactive educational activities and digital means in teaching process to inrease efficiency of selected specific aspects of education. The presented analysis is based on the segmentation of the respondents on the factor of the category and sub-category of the teaching staff the respondents belong to.

  2. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  3. Segmented fuel and moderator rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator

  4. Segmentation of sows in farrowing pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described...

  5. The Teacher Is a Learner: Dewey on Aims in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harðarson, Atli

    2018-01-01

    In Chapter VIII of "Democracy and Education", Dewey objects to all three of the following propositions: (1) education serves predefined aims; (2) Education serves aims that are external to the process of education; and (3) Education serves aims that are imposed by authority. From the vantage point of policy-makers and authors of…

  6. The strategic marketing planning – General Framework for Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena OPRESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Any approach that involves the use of strategic resources of an organisation requires a responsible approach, a behaviour that enables it to properly integrate itself into the dynamic of the business environment. This articles addresses in a synthetic manner, the issues of specific integration efforts for customers’ segmentation in the strategic marketing planning. The essential activity for any organisation wishing to optimise its response to the market, the customer segmentation will fully benefit from the framework provided by the strategic marketing planning. Being a sequential process, it not only allows time optimisation of the entire marketing activity but it also leads to accuracy of the strategic planning and its stages.

  7. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  8. Validating PET segmentation of thoracic lesions-is 4D PET necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. S.; Carl, J.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory-induced motions are prone to degrade the positron emission tomography (PET) signal with the consequent loss of image information and unreliable segmentations. This phantom study aims to assess the discrepancies relative to stationary PET segmentations, of widely used semiautomatic PET...... segmentation methods on heterogeneous target lesions influenced by motion during image acquisition. Three target lesions included dual F-18 Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) tracer concentrations as high-and low tracer activities relative to the background. Four different tracer concentration arrangements were...... segmented using three SUV threshold methods (Max40%, SUV40% and 2.5SUV) and a gradient based method (GradientSeg). Segmentations in static 3D-PET scans (PETsta) specified the reference conditions for the individual segmentation methods, target lesions and tracer concentrations. The motion included PET...

  9. Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT) II: component systems update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Helmbrecht, Michael A.; Petrone, Peter; Burke, Elliot; Corsetti, James; Dillon, Thomas; Lea, Andrew; Pellicori, Samuel; Sheets, Teresa; Shiri, Ron; Agolli, Jack; DeVries, John; Eberhardt, Andrew; McCabe, Tyler

    2017-09-01

    This work presents updates to the coronagraph and telescope components of the Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT). The project pairs an actively-controlled macro-scale segmented mirror with the Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) towards demonstrating capabilities for the future space observatories needed to directly detect and characterize a significant sample of Earth-sized worlds around nearby stars in the quest for identifying those which may be habitable and possibly harbor life. Efforts to improve the VNC wavefront control optics and mechanisms towards repeating narrowband results are described. A narrative is provided for the design of new optical components aimed at enabling broadband performance. Initial work with the hardware and software interface for controlling the segmented telescope mirror is also presented.

  10. Image Mosaic Method Based on SIFT Features of Line Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  11. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  12. Understanding the market for geographic information: A market segmentation and characteristics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, William S.; Mick, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    Findings and results from a marketing research study are presented. The report identifies market segments and the product types to satisfy demand in each. An estimate of market size is based on the specific industries in each segment. A sample of ten industries was used in the study. The scientific study covered U.S. firms only.

  13. Roentgenological diagnoss of central segmental lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.A.; Fedchenko, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of clinicoroentgenological examination of 268 patments roentgenological semiotics of segmental lung cancer is presented. Some peculiarities of the X-ray picture of cancer of different segments of the lungs were revealed depending on tumor site and growth type. For the syndrome of segmental darkening the comprehensive X-ray methods where the chief method is tomography of the segmental bronchi are proposed

  14. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...

  15. Interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision

  16. Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petzold, Axel; Balcer, Laura J; Calabresi, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural retinal imaging biomarkers are important for early recognition and monitoring of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. With the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), supervised automated segmentation of individual retinal...... layers is possible. We aimed to investigate which retinal layers show atrophy associated with neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis when measured with SD-OCT. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies in which SD-OCT was used to look at the retina in people...... with multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between Nov 22, 1991, and April 19, 2016. Data were taken from cross-sectional cohorts and from one timepoint from longitudinal studies (at least 3 months after onset in studies of optic neuritis). We classified...

  17. Topology and robustness in the Drosophila segment polarity network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Ingolia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A complex hierarchy of genetic interactions converts a single-celled Drosophila melanogaster egg into a multicellular embryo with 14 segments. Previously, von Dassow et al. reported that a mathematical model of the genetic interactions that defined the polarity of segments (the segment polarity network was robust (von Dassow et al. 2000. As quantitative information about the system was unavailable, parameters were sampled randomly. A surprisingly large fraction of these parameter sets allowed the model to maintain and elaborate on the segment polarity pattern. This robustness is due to the positive feedback of gene products on their own expression, which induces individual cells in a model segment to adopt different stable expression states (bistability corresponding to different cell types in the segment polarity pattern. A positive feedback loop will only yield multiple stable states when the parameters that describe it satisfy a particular inequality. By testing which random parameter sets satisfy these inequalities, I show that bistability is necessary to form the segment polarity pattern and serves as a strong predictor of which parameter sets will succeed in forming the pattern. Although the original model was robust to parameter variation, it could not reproduce the observed effects of cell division on the pattern of gene expression. I present a modified version that incorporates recent experimental evidence and does successfully mimic the consequences of cell division. The behavior of this modified model can also be understood in terms of bistability in positive feedback of gene expression. I discuss how this topological property of networks provides robust pattern formation and how large changes in parameters can change the specific pattern produced by a network.

  18. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  19. Parallel fuzzy connected image segmentation on GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuge, Ying; Cao, Yong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Miller, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Image segmentation techniques using fuzzy connectedness (FC) principles have shown their effectiveness in segmenting a variety of objects in several large applications. However, one challenge in these algorithms has been their excessive computational requirements when processing large image datasets. Nowadays, commodity graphics hardware provides a highly parallel computing environment. In this paper, the authors present a parallel fuzzy connected image segmentation algorithm impleme...

  20. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  1. The Process of Marketing Segmentation Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.

  2. A Benchmark for Endoluminal Scene Segmentation of Colonoscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss rate and the inability to perform visual assessment of polyp malignancy. These drawbacks can be reduced by designing decision support systems (DSS aiming to help clinicians in the different stages of the procedure by providing endoluminal scene segmentation. Thus, in this paper, we introduce an extended benchmark of colonoscopy image segmentation, with the hope of establishing a new strong benchmark for colonoscopy image analysis research. The proposed dataset consists of 4 relevant classes to inspect the endoluminal scene, targeting different clinical needs. Together with the dataset and taking advantage of advances in semantic segmentation literature, we provide new baselines by training standard fully convolutional networks (FCNs. We perform a comparative study to show that FCNs significantly outperform, without any further postprocessing, prior results in endoluminal scene segmentation, especially with respect to polyp segmentation and localization.

  3. Image Segmentation of Cattle Muzzle Using Region Merging Statistical Technic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullend Gatc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Making an identification system that able to assist in obtaining, recording and organizing information is the first step in developing any kind of recording system. Nowadays, many recording systems were developed with artificial markers although it has been proved that it has many limitations. Biometrics use of animals provides a solution to these restrictions. On a cattle, biometric features contained in the cattle muzzle that can be used as a pattern recognition sample. Pattern recognition methods can be used for the development of cattle identification system utilizing biometric found on the cattle muzzle using digital image processing techniques. In this study, we proposed cattle muzzle identification method using segmentation Statistical Region Merging (SRM. This method aims to identify specific patterns found on the cattle muzzle by separating the object pattern (foreground from unnecessary information (background This method is able to identified individual cattle based on the pattern of it muzzle. Based on our evaluation, this method can provide good performance results. This method good performance can be seen from the precision and recall : 87% and the value of ROC : 0.976. Hopefully this research can be used to help identify cattle accurately on the recording process.

  4. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  5. Segmentation of radiologic images with self-organizing maps: the segmentation problem transformed into a classification task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Erich; Vogelsang, Frank; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1996-04-01

    The texture-based segmentation of x-ray images of focal bone lesions using topological maps is introduced. Texture characteristics are described by image-point correlation of feature images to feature vectors. For the segmentation, the topological map is labeled using an improved labeling strategy. Results of the technique are demonstrated on original and synthetic x-ray images and quantified with the aid of quality measures. In addition, a classifier-specific contribution analysis is applied for assessing the feature space.

  6. Automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir Hossein; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-10-01

    As the panoramic x-ray is the most common extraoral radiography in dentistry, segmentation of its anatomical structures facilitates diagnosis and registration of dental records. This study presents a fast and accurate method for automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-rays. In the proposed four-step algorithm, a superior border is extracted through horizontal integral projections. A modified Canny edge detector accompanied by morphological operators extracts the inferior border of the mandible body. The exterior borders of ramuses are extracted through a contour tracing method based on the average model of mandible. The best-matched template is fetched from the atlas of mandibles to complete the contour of left and right processes. The algorithm was tested on a set of 95 panoramic x-rays. Evaluating the results against manual segmentations of three expert dentists showed that the method is robust. It achieved an average performance of [Formula: see text] in Dice similarity, specificity, and sensitivity.

  7. Japanese migration in contemporary Japan: economic segmentation and interprefectural migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the economic segmentation model in explaining 1985-86 Japanese interregional migration. The analysis takes advantage of statistical graphic techniques to illustrate the following substantive issues of interregional migration: (1) to examine whether economic segmentation significantly influences Japanese regional migration and (2) to explain socioeconomic characteristics of prefectures for both in- and out-migration. Analytic techniques include a latent structural equation (LISREL) methodology and statistical residual mapping. The residual dispersion patterns, for instance, suggest the extent to which socioeconomic and geopolitical variables explain migration differences by showing unique clusters of unexplained residuals. The analysis further points out that extraneous factors such as high residential land values, significant commuting populations, and regional-specific cultures and traditions need to be incorporated in the economic segmentation model in order to assess the extent of the model's reliability in explaining the pattern of interprefectural migration.

  8. Polarization image segmentation of radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    Full Text Available Optical polarimetry has previously imaged the spatial extent of a typical radiofrequency ablated (RFA lesion in myocardial tissue, exhibiting significantly lower total depolarization at the necrotic core compared to healthy tissue, and intermediate values at the RFA rim region. Here, total depolarization in ablated myocardium was used to segment the total depolarization image into three (core, rim and healthy zones. A local fuzzy thresholding algorithm was used for this multi-region segmentation, and then compared with a ground truth segmentation obtained from manual demarcation of RFA core and rim regions on the histopathology image. Quantitative comparison of the algorithm segmentation results was performed with evaluation metrics such as dice similarity coefficient (DSC = 0.78 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.02, sensitivity (Sn = 0.83 ± 0.10 and 0.91 ± 0.08, specificity (Sp = 0.76 ± 0.17 and 0.72 ± 0.17 and accuracy (Acc = 0.81 ± 0.09 and 0.71 ± 0.10 for RFA core and rim regions, respectively. This automatic segmentation of parametric depolarization images suggests a novel application of optical polarimetry, namely its use in objective RFA image quantification.

  9. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of remodelling and reference segment plaque burden in type-2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Mintz, Gary S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assesses arterial remodelling by comparing the lesion external elastic membrane (EEM) with the reference segments; however, reference segments are rarely disease-free. The aim was to assess lesion and reference segment remodelling and plaque burden in patients...... with type-2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pre-intervention IVUS to study 62 de novo lesions in 43 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The lesion site was the image slice with the smallest lumen cross-sectional area (CSA). The proximal and distal reference segments were the most normal...... size [slope = -0.12 (95% CI -0.17 to -0.07); P type-2 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: Lesions in type-2 diabetic patients are different from previous reports in non-diabetics. Lesions in type-2 diabetics are characterized by a large reference segment plaque burden...

  10. Segmentation Scheme for Safety Enhancement of Engineered Safety Features Component Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangseok; Sohn, Kwangyoung; Lee, Junku; Park, Geunok

    2013-01-01

    Common Caused Failure (CCF) or undetectable failure would adversely impact safety functions of ESF-CCS in the existing nuclear power plants. We propose the segmentation scheme to solve these problems. Main function assignment to segments in the proposed segmentation scheme is based on functional dependency and critical function success path by using the dependency depth matrix. The segment has functional independence and physical isolation. The segmentation structure is that prohibit failure propagation to others from undetectable failures. Therefore, the segmentation system structure has robustness to undetectable failures. The segmentation system structure has functional diversity. The specific function in the segment defected by CCF, the specific function could be maintained by diverse control function that assigned to other segments. Device level control signals and system level control signals are separated and also control signal and status signals are separated due to signal transmission paths are allocated independently based on signal type. In this kind of design, single device failure or failures on signal path in the channel couldn't result in the loss of all segmented functions simultaneously. Thus the proposed segmentation function is the design scheme that improves availability of safety functions. In conventional ESF-CCS, the single controller generates the signal to control the multiple safety functions, and the reliability is achieved by multiplication within the channel. This design has a drawback causing the loss of multiple functions due to the CCF (Common Cause Failure) and single failure Heterogeneous controller guarantees the diversity ensuring the execution of safety functions against the CCF and single failure, but requiring a lot of resources like manpower and cost. The segmentation technology based on the compartmentalization and functional diversification decreases the CCF and single failure nonetheless the identical types of controllers

  11. Segmentation Scheme for Safety Enhancement of Engineered Safety Features Component Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangseok; Sohn, Kwangyoung [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junku; Park, Geunok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Common Caused Failure (CCF) or undetectable failure would adversely impact safety functions of ESF-CCS in the existing nuclear power plants. We propose the segmentation scheme to solve these problems. Main function assignment to segments in the proposed segmentation scheme is based on functional dependency and critical function success path by using the dependency depth matrix. The segment has functional independence and physical isolation. The segmentation structure is that prohibit failure propagation to others from undetectable failures. Therefore, the segmentation system structure has robustness to undetectable failures. The segmentation system structure has functional diversity. The specific function in the segment defected by CCF, the specific function could be maintained by diverse control function that assigned to other segments. Device level control signals and system level control signals are separated and also control signal and status signals are separated due to signal transmission paths are allocated independently based on signal type. In this kind of design, single device failure or failures on signal path in the channel couldn't result in the loss of all segmented functions simultaneously. Thus the proposed segmentation function is the design scheme that improves availability of safety functions. In conventional ESF-CCS, the single controller generates the signal to control the multiple safety functions, and the reliability is achieved by multiplication within the channel. This design has a drawback causing the loss of multiple functions due to the CCF (Common Cause Failure) and single failure Heterogeneous controller guarantees the diversity ensuring the execution of safety functions against the CCF and single failure, but requiring a lot of resources like manpower and cost. The segmentation technology based on the compartmentalization and functional diversification decreases the CCF and single failure nonetheless the identical types of

  12. Functional measurements based on feature tracking of cine magnetic resonance images identify left ventricular segments with myocardial scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Eva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to perform a feature tracking analysis on cine magnetic resonance (MR images to elucidate if functional measurements of the motion of the left ventricular wall may detect scar defined with gadolinium enhanced MR. Myocardial contraction can be measured in terms of the velocity, displacement and local deformation (strain of a particular myocardial segment. Contraction of the myocardial wall will be reduced in the presence of scar and as a consequence of reduced myocardial blood flow. Methods Thirty patients (3 women and 27 men were selected based on the presence or absence of extensive scar in the anteroseptal area of the left ventricle. The patients were investigated in stable clinical condition, 4-8 weeks post ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Seventeen had a scar area >75% in at least one anteroseptal segment (scar and thirteen had scar area Results In the scar patients, segments with scar showed lower functional measurements than remote segments. Radial measurements of velocity, displacement and strain performed better in terms of receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC than the corresponding longitudinal measurements. The best area-under-curve was for radial strain, 0.89, where a cut-off value of 38.8% had 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity for the detection of a segment with scar area >50%. As a percentage of the mean, intraobserver variability was 16-14-26% for radial measurements of displacement-velocity-strain and corresponding interobserver variability was 13-12-18%. Conclusion Feature tracking analysis of cine-MR displays velocity, displacement and strain in the radial and longitudinal direction and may be used for the detection of transmural scar. The accuracy and repeatability of the radial functional measurements is satisfactory and global measures agree.

  13. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  14. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  15. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  16. Adductor magnus: An EMG investigation into proximal and distal portions and direction specific action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Matthew L; Pizzari, Tania; Rath, Leanne; Tucker, Kylie; Semciw, Adam I

    2018-05-01

    Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of 12 healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45°, and 90° hip flexion). Median activity within each action (normalized to peak) was compared between segments using repeated measures nonparametric tests (α = 0.05). An effect size (ES = z-score/√sample size) was calculated to determine the magnitude of difference between muscle segments. The relative contribution of each muscle segment differed significantly during internal rotation (P magnus has at least two functionally unique regions. Differences were most evident during rotation. The different direction-specific actions may imply that each segment performs separate roles in hip stability and movement. These findings may have implications on injury prevention and rehabilitation for adductor-related groin injuries, hamstring strain injury, and hip pathology. Clin. Anat. 31:535-543, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reconstituted AIM2 inflammasome in cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoe; Ito, Yuki; Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Kawakami, Atsushi; Morikawa, Shinnosuke; Mokuda, Sho; Kurata, Mie; Masumoto, Junya

    2015-11-01

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an intracellular pattern-recognition receptor, which is a member of the PYHIN protein family, consisting of a PYD domain and an IFN-inducible nuclear localization (HIN) domain. AIM2 is reported to oligomerize with adaptor protein ASC upon sensing bacterial and viral cytosolic DNA in order to form the AIM2 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 leading to IL-1β secretion. Dysregulation of AIM2 inflammasome is supposed to result in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Thus, the development of new targeted drugs against AIM2 inflammasome would be important for the treatment of these diseases. However, since AIM2 inflammasome is an intracellular receptor, enforced internalization of both ligands and candidate molecules is necessary for the screening of AIM2-inflammasome-targeted molecules. We developed a reconstituted AIM2 inflammasome in a cell-free system with amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (Alpha). Strong Alpha signal was detected upon incubation with poly-deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic acid, poly(dA:dT), whereas no Alpha signal was detected upon incubation with muramyl dipeptide, one of the NLR ligands of Nod2 ligand. The interaction between AIM2 and ASC was disrupted by an anti-human ASC monoclonal antibody, CRID3, a class of diarylsulfonylurea-containing compounds, and glycyrrhizin, a substance found in liquorice root. Thus, the reconstituted AIM2 inflammasome in a cell-free system is useful for screening AIM2-inflammasome-targeted therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrier Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study of unsupervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. These evaluation criteria compute some statistics for each region or class in a segmentation result. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for different applications: the comparison of segmentation results, the automatic choice of the best fitted parameters of a segmentation method for a given image, or the definition of new segmentation methods by optimization. We first present the state of art of unsupervised evaluation, and then, we compare six unsupervised evaluation criteria. For this comparative study, we use a database composed of 8400 synthetic gray-level images segmented in four different ways. Vinet's measure (correct classification rate is used as an objective criterion to compare the behavior of the different criteria. Finally, we present the experimental results on the segmentation evaluation of a few gray-level natural images.

  19. Efficient graph-cut tattoo segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.

  20. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  1. A contrario line segment detection

    CERN Document Server

    von Gioi, Rafael Grompone

    2014-01-01

    The reliable detection of low-level image structures is an old and still challenging problem in computer vision. This?book leads a detailed tour through the LSD algorithm, a line segment detector designed to be fully automatic. Based on the a contrario framework, the algorithm works efficiently without the need of any parameter tuning. The design criteria are thoroughly explained and the algorithm's good and bad results are illustrated on real and synthetic images. The issues involved, as well as the strategies used, are common to many geometrical structure detection problems and some possible

  2. Did Globalization Lead to Segmentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Enflo, Kerstin Sofia

    Economic historians have stressed that income convergence was a key feature of the 'OECD-club' and that globalization was among the accelerating forces of this process in the long-run. This view has however been challenged, since it suffers from an ad hoc selection of countries. In the paper......, a mixture model is applied to a sample of 64 countries to endogenously analyze the cross-country growth behavior over the period 1870-2003. Results show that growth patterns were segmented in two worldwide regimes, the first one being characterized by convergence, and the other one denoted by divergence...

  3. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  4. The Logic of Deferral: Educational Aims and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    The educational aims described by educational philosophers rarely embrace the full range of differences in intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, or communication that children exhibit. Because envisioned educational aims have significant consequences for how educational practices, pedagogy, and curricula are conceptualized, the failure to…

  5. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  6. The compatibility between extension aims of staff and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot investigation was done to investigate the compatibility between extension aims of extension staff and those of their employer. It shows that only 50 percent of respondents have an acceptable understanding of the official aims (vision), and that none of the components of the official vision has sufficient compatibility ...

  7. PREPAID TELECOM CUSTOMERS SEGMENTATION USING THE K-MEAN ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marar Liviu Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of relationship marketing is to retain customers and win their loyalty. This can be achieved if the companies’ products and services are developed and sold considering customers’ demands. Fulfilling customers’ demands, taken as the starting point of relationship marketing, can be obtained by acknowledging that the customers’ needs and wishes are heterogeneous. The segmentation of the customers’ base allows operators to overcome this because it illustrates the whole heterogeneous market as the sum of smaller homogeneous markets. The concept of segmentation relies on the high probability of persons grouped into segments based on common demands and behaviours to have a similar response to marketing strategies. This article focuses on the segmentation of a telecom customer base according to specific and noticeable criteria of a certain service. Although the segmentation concept is widely approached in professional literature, articles on the segmentation of a telecom customer base are very scarce, due to the strategic nature of this information. Market segmentation is carried out based on how customers spent their money on credit recharging, on making calls, on sending SMS and on Internet navigation. The method used for customer segmentation is the K-mean cluster analysis. To assess the internal cohesion of the clusters we employed the average sum of squares error indicator, and to determine the differences among the clusters we used the ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey tests. The analyses revealed seven customer segments with different features and behaviours. The results enable the telecom company to conceive marketing strategies and planning which lead to better understanding of its customers’ needs and ultimately to a more efficient relationship with the subscribers and enhanced customer satisfaction. At the same time, the results enable the description and characterization of expenditure patterns

  8. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R Theodore; Laine, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12-21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of pathological images still remains an unsolved problem. In this paper we leverage the watershed transform and generalized non-linear gradient operators for interactive segmentation and present an intuitive and simple approach for geographic atrophy segmentation. We compare our approach with the state of the art random walker [5] algorithm for interactive segmentation using ROC statistics. Quantitative evaluation experiments on 100 FAF images show a mean sensitivity/specificity of 98.3/97.7% for our approach and a mean sensitivity/specificity of 88.2/96.6% for the random walker algorithm.

  9. TOURISM SEGMENTATION BASED ON TOURISTS PREFERENCES: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, tourism became one of the most important sectors of the international economy. Specifically in Portugal and Brazil, its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP and job creation is quite relevant. In this sense, to follow a strong marketing approach on the management of tourism resources of a country comes to be paramount. Such an approach should be based on innovations which help unveil the preferences of tourists with accuracy, turning it into a competitive advantage. In this context, the main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance and benefits associated with the use of multivariate methodologies for market segmentation. Another objective of this work is to illustrate on the importance of a post hoc segmentation. In this work, the authors applied a Cluster Analysis, with a hierarchical method followed by an  optimization method. The main results of this study allow the identification of five clusters that are distinguished by assigning special importance to certain tourism attributes at the moment of choosing a specific destination. Thus, the authors present the advantages of post hoc segmentation based on tourists’ preferences, in opposition to an a priori segmentation based on socio-demographic characteristics.

  10. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBeare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation, which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks’ gestation acquired at 30 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5, coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5 and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5. The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks’ gestation acquired shortly after birth (n= 12, preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n= 12, and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks’ gestation acquired within the first nine days of life (n= 12. For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for

  11. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  12. NeuroBlocks – Visual Tracking of Segmentation and Proofreading for Large Connectomics Projects

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali; Beyer, Johanna; Haehn, Daniel; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    set, providing crucial support for the management, provenance, accountability, and auditing of large-scale segmentations. We describe the design of NeuroBlocks, starting with an analysis of the domain-specific tasks, their inherent challenges, and our

  13. Novel techniques for enhancement and segmentation of acne vulgaris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A S; Humayun, J; Kamel, N; Yap, F B-B

    2014-08-01

    More than 99% acne patients suffer from acne vulgaris. While diagnosing the severity of acne vulgaris lesions, dermatologists have observed inter-rater and intra-rater variability in diagnosis results. This is because during assessment, identifying lesion types and their counting is a tedious job for dermatologists. To make the assessment job objective and easier for dermatologists, an automated system based on image processing methods is proposed in this study. There are two main objectives: (i) to develop an algorithm for the enhancement of various acne vulgaris lesions; and (ii) to develop a method for the segmentation of enhanced acne vulgaris lesions. For the first objective, an algorithm is developed based on the theory of high dynamic range (HDR) images. The proposed algorithm uses local rank transform to generate the HDR images from a single acne image followed by the log transformation. Then, segmentation is performed by clustering the pixels based on Mahalanobis distance of each pixel from spectral models of acne vulgaris lesions. Two metrics are used to evaluate the enhancement of acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., contrast improvement factor (CIF) and image contrast normalization (ICN). The proposed algorithm is compared with two other methods. The proposed enhancement algorithm shows better result than both the other methods based on CIF and ICN. In addition, sensitivity and specificity are calculated for the segmentation results. The proposed segmentation method shows higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods. This article specifically discusses the contrast enhancement and segmentation for automated diagnosis system of acne vulgaris lesions. The results are promising that can be used for further classification of acne vulgaris lesions for final grading of the lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  15. A label field fusion bayesian model and its penalized maximum rand estimator for image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignotte, Max

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a novel segmentation approach based on a Markov random field (MRF) fusion model which aims at combining several segmentation results associated with simpler clustering models in order to achieve a more reliable and accurate segmentation result. The proposed fusion model is derived from the recently introduced probabilistic Rand measure for comparing one segmentation result to one or more manual segmentations of the same image. This non-parametric measure allows us to easily derive an appealing fusion model of label fields, easily expressed as a Gibbs distribution, or as a nonstationary MRF model defined on a complete graph. Concretely, this Gibbs energy model encodes the set of binary constraints, in terms of pairs of pixel labels, provided by each segmentation results to be fused. Combined with a prior distribution, this energy-based Gibbs model also allows for definition of an interesting penalized maximum probabilistic rand estimator with which the fusion of simple, quickly estimated, segmentation results appears as an interesting alternative to complex segmentation models existing in the literature. This fusion framework has been successfully applied on the Berkeley image database. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient in terms of visual evaluation and quantitative performance measures and performs well compared to the best existing state-of-the-art segmentation methods recently proposed in the literature.

  16. Population segmentation: an approach to reducing childhood obesity inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hashum; Lowe, Susan

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study are threefold: (1) to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (inequality) and childhood obesity prevalence within Birmingham local authority, (2) to identify any change in childhood obesity prevalence between deprivation quintiles and (3) to analyse individualised Birmingham National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data using a population segmentation tool to better inform obesity prevention strategies. Data from the NCMP for Birmingham (2010/2011 and 2014/2015) were analysed using the deprivation scores from the Income Domain Affecting Children Index (IDACI 2010). The percentage of children with excess weight was calculated for each local deprivation quintile. Population segmentation was carried out using the Experian's Mosaic Public Sector 6 (MPS6) segmentation tool. Childhood obesity levels have remained static at the national and Birmingham level. For Year 6 pupils, obesity levels have increased in the most deprived deprivation quintiles for boys and girls. The most affluent quintile shows a decreasing trend of obesity prevalence for boys and girls in both year groups. For the middle quintiles, the results show fluctuating trends. This research highlighted the link in Birmingham between obesity and socio-economic factors with the gap increasing between deprivation quintiles. Obesity is a complex problem that cannot simply be addressed through targeting most deprived populations, rather through a range of effective interventions tailored for the various population segments that reside within communities. Using population segmentation enables a more nuanced understanding of the potential barriers and levers within populations on their readiness for change. The segmentation of childhood obesity data will allow utilisation of social marketing methodology that will facilitate identification of suitable methods for interventions and motivate individuals to sustain behavioural change. Sequentially, it will also inform

  17. Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D

    2008-09-11

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment (LLNL 2007). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment are shown in the B695 Segment DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained waste. Furthermore, a Waste Packaging Unit will be permitted to treat hazardous and mixed waste. RHWM generally processes LLW with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (i.e., much less than 100 n

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycak, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment (LLNL 2007). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment are shown in the B695 Segment DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained waste. Furthermore, a Waste Packaging Unit will be permitted to treat hazardous and mixed waste. RHWM generally processes LLW with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (i.e., much less than 100 n

  19. Brain Tumor Image Segmentation in MRI Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peni Agustin Tjahyaningtijas, Hapsari

    2018-04-01

    Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Treatment of patients with brain tumors is highly dependent on early detection of these tumors. Early detection of brain tumors will improve the patient’s life chances. Diagnosis of brain tumors by experts usually use a manual segmentation that is difficult and time consuming because of the necessary automatic segmentation. Nowadays automatic segmentation is very populer and can be a solution to the problem of tumor brain segmentation with better performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. There are number of existing review papers, focusing on traditional methods for MRI-based brain tumor image segmentation. this paper, we focus on the recent trend of automatic segmentation in this field. First, an introduction to brain tumors and methods for brain tumor segmentation is given. Then, the state-of-the-art algorithms with a focus on recent trend of full automatic segmentaion are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the current state is presented and future developments to standardize MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods into daily clinical routine are addressed.

  20. A new framework for interactive images segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Sarim, M.; Shaikh, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation has become a widely studied research problem in image processing. There exist different graph based solutions for interactive image segmentation but the domain of image segmentation still needs persistent improvements. The segmentation quality of existing techniques generally depends on the manual input provided in beginning, therefore, these algorithms may not produce quality segmentation with initial seed labels provided by a novice user. In this work we investigated the use of cellular automata in image segmentation and proposed a new algorithm that follows a cellular automaton in label propagation. It incorporates both the pixel's local and global information in the segmentation process. We introduced the novel global constraints in automata evolution rules; hence proposed scheme of automata evolution is more effective than the automata based earlier evolution schemes. Global constraints are also effective in deceasing the sensitivity towards small changes made in manual input; therefore proposed approach is less dependent on label seed marks. It can produce the quality segmentation with modest user efforts. Segmentation results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the earlier segmentation techniques. (author)

  1. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  2. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  3. Toolkit for local decision makers aims to strengthen environmental sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas were involved in a meeting aimed at the development of a toolkit towards improved integration of climate change into local government's integrated development planning (IDP) process....

  4. AIM analysis, synthetic, kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis (NPA), atoms in molecules (AIM) methods and CHelpG keyword. ... obtained from studies of the effect of solvent, structure of reactions (different alkyl groups within the dialkyl ...... compounds) have provided useful evidence for steps 1.

  5. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  6. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  7. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  8. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Hinge Segment of Human NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Conformational Switching: The Critical Role of Ionic Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Campelo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR is a redox partner of microsomal cytochromes P450 and is a prototype of the diflavin reductase family. CPR contains 3 distinct functional domains: a FMN-binding domain (acceptor reduction, a linker (hinge, and a connecting/FAD domain (NADPH oxidation. It has been demonstrated that the mechanism of CPR exhibits an important step in which it switches from a compact, closed conformation (locked state to an ensemble of open conformations (unlocked state, the latter enabling electron transfer to redox partners. The conformational equilibrium between the locked and unlocked states has been shown to be highly dependent on ionic strength, reinforcing the hypothesis of the presence of critical salt interactions at the interface between the FMN and connecting FAD domains. Here we show that specific residues of the hinge segment are important in the control of the conformational equilibrium of CPR. We constructed six single mutants and two double mutants of the human CPR, targeting residues G240, S243, I245 and R246 of the hinge segment, with the aim of modifying the flexibility or the potential ionic interactions of the hinge segment. We measured the reduction of cytochrome c at various salt concentrations of these 8 mutants, either in the soluble or membrane-bound form of human CPR. All mutants were found capable of reducing cytochrome c yet with different efficiency and their maximal rates of cytochrome c reduction were shifted to lower salt concentration. In particular, residue R246 seems to play a key role in a salt bridge network present at the interface of the hinge and the connecting domain. Interestingly, the effects of mutations, although similar, demonstrated specific differences when present in the soluble or membrane-bound context. Our results demonstrate that the electrostatic and flexibility properties of the hinge segment are critical for electron transfer from CPR to its redox partners.

  10. Fully convolutional neural networks improve abdominal organ segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Meg F.; Bao, Shunxing; Huo, Yuankai; Yao, Yuang; Virostko, Jack; Plassard, Andrew J.; Lyu, Ilwoo; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G.; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Yet, deep learning approaches have not been applied to whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Herein, we evaluate the applicability of an existing fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) designed for CT imaging to segment abdominal organs on T2 weighted (T2w) MRI's with two examples. In the primary example, we compare a classical multi-atlas approach with FCNN on forty-five T2w MRI's acquired from splenomegaly patients with five organs labeled (liver, spleen, left kidney, right kidney, and stomach). Thirty-six images were used for training while nine were used for testing. The FCNN resulted in a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.930 in spleens, 0.730 in left kidneys, 0.780 in right kidneys, 0.913 in livers, and 0.556 in stomachs. The performance measures for livers, spleens, right kidneys, and stomachs were significantly better than multi-atlas (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In a secondary example, we compare the multi-atlas approach with FCNN on 138 distinct T2w MRI's with manually labeled pancreases (one label). On the pancreas dataset, the FCNN resulted in a median DSC of 0.691 in pancreases versus 0.287 for multi-atlas. The results are highly promising given relatively limited training data and without specific training of the FCNN model and illustrate the potential of deep learning approaches to transcend imaging modalities. 1

  11. Segmentation of dance movement: Effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina E. Bläsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise

  12. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

  13. A systematic review of definitions and classification systems of adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G; Hashimoto, Robin; Lee, Michael J; Anderson, Paul A; Chapman, Jens R; Raich, Annie; Norvell, Daniel C

    2012-10-15

    Systematic review. To undertake a systematic review to determine how "adjacent segment degeneration," "adjacent segment disease," or clinical pathological processes that serve as surrogates for adjacent segment pathology are classified and defined in the peer-reviewed literature. Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease are terms referring to degenerative changes known to occur after reconstructive spine surgery, most commonly at an immediately adjacent functional spinal unit. These can include disc degeneration, instability, spinal stenosis, facet degeneration, and deformity. The true incidence and clinical impact of degenerative changes at the adjacent segment is unclear because there is lack of a universally accepted classification system that rigorously addresses clinical and radiological issues. A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken and articles were classified using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Seven classification systems of spinal degeneration, including degeneration at the adjacent segment, were identified. None have been evaluated for reliability or validity specific to patients with degeneration at the adjacent segment. The ways in which terms related to adjacent segment "degeneration" or "disease" are defined in the peer-reviewed literature are highly variable. On the basis of the systematic review presented in this article, no formal classification system for either cervical or thoracolumbar adjacent segment disorders currently exists. No recommendations regarding the use of current classification of degeneration at any segments can be made based on the available literature. A new comprehensive definition for adjacent segment pathology (ASP, the now preferred terminology) has been proposed in this Focus Issue, which reflects the diverse pathology observed at functional spinal units adjacent to previous spinal reconstruction and balances

  14. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-10

    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  15. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  16. Robust generative asymmetric GMM for brain MR image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zexuan; Xia, Yong; Zheng, Yuhui

    2017-11-01

    Accurate segmentation of brain tissues from magnetic resonance (MR) images based on the unsupervised statistical models such as Gaussian mixture model (GMM) has been widely studied during last decades. However, most GMM based segmentation methods suffer from limited accuracy due to the influences of noise and intensity inhomogeneity in brain MR images. To further improve the accuracy for brain MR image segmentation, this paper presents a Robust Generative Asymmetric GMM (RGAGMM) for simultaneous brain MR image segmentation and intensity inhomogeneity correction. First, we develop an asymmetric distribution to fit the data shapes, and thus construct a spatial constrained asymmetric model. Then, we incorporate two pseudo-likelihood quantities and bias field estimation into the model's log-likelihood, aiming to exploit the neighboring priors of within-cluster and between-cluster and to alleviate the impact of intensity inhomogeneity, respectively. Finally, an expectation maximization algorithm is derived to iteratively maximize the approximation of the data log-likelihood function to overcome the intensity inhomogeneity in the image and segment the brain MR images simultaneously. To demonstrate the performances of the proposed algorithm, we first applied the proposed algorithm to a synthetic brain MR image to show the intermediate illustrations and the estimated distribution of the proposed algorithm. The next group of experiments is carried out in clinical 3T-weighted brain MR images which contain quite serious intensity inhomogeneity and noise. Then we quantitatively compare our algorithm to state-of-the-art segmentation approaches by using Dice coefficient (DC) on benchmark images obtained from IBSR and BrainWeb with different level of noise and intensity inhomogeneity. The comparison results on various brain MR images demonstrate the superior performances of the proposed algorithm in dealing with the noise and intensity inhomogeneity. In this paper, the RGAGMM

  17. Communication with market segments - travel agencies' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Bašan; Jasmina Dlačić; Željko Trezner

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the travel agencies’ communication with market segments. Communication with market segments takes into account marketing communication means as well as the implementation of different business orientations. Design – Special emphasis is placed on the use of different marketing communication means and their efficiency. Research also explores business orientation adaptation when approaching different market segments. Methodology – In explo...

  18. Distance measures for image segmentation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Fernando C.; Campilho, Aurélio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of evaluation measures that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. Despite significant advances in image segmentation techniques, evaluation of these techniques thus far has been largely subjective. Typically, the effectiveness of a new algorithm is demonstrated only by the presentation of a few segmented images and is otherwise left to subjective evaluation by the reader. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for differ...

  19. IFRS 8 Operating Segments - A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2008-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard 8 Operating Segments. Segment information is one of the most vital aspects of financial reporting for investors and other users. The IFRS 8 requires an entity to adopt the ‘management approach’ to reporting on the financial performance of its operating segments. This article presents a closer look of the standard (objective, scope, and disclosures).

  20. MRI Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gursangeet, Kaur; Jyoti, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Medical image processing and its segmentation is an active and interesting area for researchers. It has reached at the tremendous place in diagnosing tumors after the discovery of CT and MRI. MRI is an useful tool to detect the brain tumor and segmentation is performed to carry out the useful portion from an image. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different image segmentation methods like watershed algorithm, morphological operations, neutrosophic sets, thresholding, K-...

  1. Speaker Segmentation and Clustering Using Gender Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    used in the first stages of segmentation forder information in the clustering of the opposite-gender speaker diarization of news broadcasts. files, the...AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0026 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Speaker Segmentation and Clustering Using Gender Information Brian M. Ore General Dynamics...COVERED (From - To) February 2006 ProceedinLgs 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Speaker Segmentation and Clustering Using Gender Information 5b

  2. Benchmarking of Remote Sensing Segmentation Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2015), s. 2240-2248 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : benchmark * remote sensing segmentation * unsupervised segmentation * supervised segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0445995.pdf

  3. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  4. Holistic segmentation of the lung in cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, William; Hsieh, Nathan; Roth, Holger; Nnamdi-Emeratom, Chioma; Bandettini, W Patricia; Arai, Andrew; Mankodi, Ami; Summers, Ronald M; Yao, Jianhua

    2017-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a childhood-onset neuromuscular disease that results in the degeneration of muscle, starting in the extremities, before progressing to more vital areas, such as the lungs. Respiratory failure and pneumonia due to respiratory muscle weakness lead to hospitalization and early mortality. However, tracking the disease in this region can be difficult, as current methods are based on breathing tests and are incapable of distinguishing between muscle involvements. Cine MRI scans give insight into respiratory muscle movements, but the images suffer due to low spatial resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, a robust lung segmentation method is required for accurate analysis of the lung and respiratory muscle movement. We deployed a deep learning approach that utilizes sequence-specific prior information to assist the segmentation of lung in cine MRI. More specifically, we adopt a holistically nested network to conduct image-to-image holistic training and prediction. One frame of the cine MRI is used in the training and applied to the remainder of the sequence ([Formula: see text] frames). We applied this method to cine MRIs of the lung in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. Characteristic lung motion patterns during the breathing cycle were then derived from the segmentations and used for diagnosis. Our data set consisted of 31 young boys, age [Formula: see text] years, 15 of whom suffered from DMD. The remaining 16 subjects were age-matched healthy volunteers. For validation, slices from inspiratory and expiratory cycles were manually segmented and compared with results obtained from our method. The Dice similarity coefficient for the deep learning-based method was [Formula: see text] for the sagittal view, [Formula: see text] for the axial view, and [Formula: see text] for the coronal view. The holistic neural network approach was compared with an approach using Demon's registration and showed superior performance. These

  5. Neutral-beam aiming and calorimetry for MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, A.I.; Margolies, D.

    1981-01-01

    The vessel for the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will have up to eleven 0.5-s-duration neutral-beam injectors for the initial heating of the MFTF-B plasma. Knowing the exact alignment of the beams and their total power is critical to the performance of the experiment. Using prototype aiming and calorimetry systems on the High Voltage Test Stand (HVTS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we hope to prove our ability to obtain an aiming accuracy of +-1 cm at the plasma and a calorimetric accuracy of +-5% of the actual total beam energy

  6. S3T working group. Report 1: group aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouey, M.

    1983-04-01

    The work group S3T which is aimed to designing and developing devices using unconventional holographic optics is presented. These devices find applications that are classified here in four items high resolution spectrometers, high definition imaging, high flux devices, metrology and interferometry. The problems to solve and the aims of the group in each of these cases are presented. Three synthesis of lectures are in this report. The main one concerns stigmatism conditions of concave holographic gratings used in normal incidence. This new process of focusing is very interesting for hot plasma diagnostics [fr

  7. Track segment synthesis method for NTA film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Shigeru

    1980-03-01

    A method is presented for synthesizing track segments extracted from a gray-level digital picture of NTA film in automatic counting system. In order to detect each track in an arbitrary direction, even if it has some gaps, as a set of the track segments, the method links extracted segments along the track, in succession, to the linked track segments, according to whether each extracted segment bears a similarity of direction to the track or not and whether it is connected with the linked track segments or not. In the case of a large digital picture, the method is applied to each subpicture, which is a strip of the picture, and then concatenates subsets of track segments linked at each subpicture as a set of track segments belonging to a track. The method was applied to detecting tracks in various directions over the eight 364 x 40-pixel subpictures with the gray scale of 127/pixel (picture element) of the microphotograph of NTA film. It was proved to be able to synthesize track segments correctly for every track in the picture. (author)

  8. Segmenting hospitals for improved management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, N K

    1989-09-01

    The author presents a conceptual framework for the a priori and clustering-based approaches to segmentation and evaluates them in the context of segmenting institutional health care markets. An empirical study is reported in which the hospital market is segmented on three state-of-being variables. The segmentation approach also takes into account important organizational decision-making variables. The sophisticated Thurstone Case V procedure is employed. Several marketing implications for hospitals, other health care organizations, hospital suppliers, and donor publics are identified.

  9. Prototype implementation of segment assembling software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Đorđe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IT education is very important and a lot of effort is put into the development of tools for helping students to acquire programming knowledge and for helping teachers in automating the examination process. This paper describes a prototype of the program segment assembling software used in the context of making tests in the field of algorithmic complexity. The proposed new program segment assembling model uses rules and templates. A template is a simple program segment. A rule defines combining method and data dependencies if they exist. One example of program segment assembling by the proposed system is given. Graphical user interface is also described.

  10. Probabilistic Segmentation of Folk Music Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciril Bohak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel method for automatic segmentation of folk music field recordings. The method is based on a distance measure that uses dynamic time warping to cope with tempo variations and a dynamic programming approach to handle pitch drifting for finding similarities and estimating the length of repeating segment. A probabilistic framework based on HMM is used to find segment boundaries, searching for optimal match between the expected segment length, between-segment similarities, and likely locations of segment beginnings. Evaluation of several current state-of-the-art approaches for segmentation of commercial music is presented and their weaknesses when dealing with folk music are exposed, such as intolerance to pitch drift and variable tempo. The proposed method is evaluated and its performance analyzed on a collection of 206 folk songs of different ensemble types: solo, two- and three-voiced, choir, instrumental, and instrumental with singing. It outperforms current commercial music segmentation methods for noninstrumental music and is on a par with the best for instrumental recordings. The method is also comparable to a more specialized method for segmentation of solo singing folk music recordings.

  11. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step of the segmentation process with equal treatment. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold. First, a snapshot of the segmentation process in a step-by-step fashion will be provided. Second, each step (where possible will be evaluated on chosen criteria by means of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis of 32 academic papers and 13 commercial typology systems. Ultimately, the segmentation stages will be discussed with empirical findings prevalent in the segmentation studies and last but not least suggestions calling for further investigation will be presented. This seven-step-framework may assist when segmenting in practice allowing for more confidential targeting which in turn might prepare grounds for creating of a differential advantage.

  12. Interactive segmentation techniques algorithms and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jia; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on interactive segmentation techniques, which have been extensively studied in recent decades. Interactive segmentation emphasizes clear extraction of objects of interest, whose locations are roughly indicated by human interactions based on high level perception. This book will first introduce classic graph-cut segmentation algorithms and then discuss state-of-the-art techniques, including graph matching methods, region merging and label propagation, clustering methods, and segmentation methods based on edge detection. A comparative analysis of these methods will be provided

  13. Automatic comic page image understanding based on edge segment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Li, Luyuan; Gao, Liangcai

    2013-12-01

    Comic page image understanding aims to analyse the layout of the comic page images by detecting the storyboards and identifying the reading order automatically. It is the key technique to produce the digital comic documents suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic page image understanding method based on edge segment analysis. First, we propose an efficient edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input comic page image; second, we propose a top-down scheme to detect line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we develop a novel method to detect the storyboards by selecting the border lines and further identify the reading order of these storyboards. The proposed method is performed on a data set consisting of 2000 comic page images from ten printed comic series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves satisfactory results on different comics and outperforms the existing methods.

  14. The use of ileocolic segment for esophageal replacement in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshjeet Singh Bal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate and describe the procedure and outcome of ileocolic replacement of esophagus. Materials and Methods: We review 7 children with esophageal injuries, who underwent esophageal replacement using ileocolic segment in Christian Medical College, Vellore, India between 2006 and 2014. Results: The ileocolic segment was used in 7 children with scarred or inadequate esophagus. There were 4 girls and 3 boys, who underwent esophageal replacement using isoperistaltic ileocolic segment in this period. Age at presentation varied from 1 month to 14 years with an average of 4.6 years. The indications for ileocolic replacements were corrosive strictures in 5, failed esophageal atresia repair in one and gastric volvulus related esophageal stricture in another. The average follow-up duration was 37 months. One child with corrosive stricture lost to follow-up and died 2 years later in another center. Other 6 children were free of dysphagia till the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although the ileocolic segment is not commonly used for esophageal substitution, it can be useful in special situations where the substitution needs to reach the high cervical esophagus and also where the stomach is scarred and not suitable for gastric pull-up.

  15. Multifrequency right-side, localized and segmental BIA obtained with different bioimpedance analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogónez-Franco, P; McAdams, E; Nescolarde, L; Rosell-Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two commercial bioimpedance analysers, BioparHom Z-Métrix and Impedimed SFB7, measuring the impedance of three different body segments. The segments measured were ‘right-side’ (or ‘whole-body’), ‘segmental right-lower limb’ and ‘localized longitudinal right-quadriceps’. The comparison was made on electrical models of each segment, including electrode–skin impedance, and in vivo on nine healthy volunteers. Both devices are designed to measure right-side impedances and, in the present study, as the length of the segment investigated decreased, the accuracy of the impedance measured was found to decrease. The accuracy of the devices was calculated via measurements performed on RC networks of known values. It was found that adding electrode–skin contact impedances in the electrical model affected the accuracy by both devices. (paper)

  16. Radiological features of epiploic appendagitis and segmental omental infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Mark J.; Khalili, Korosh; Sarrazin, Josee; Hanbidge, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis and segmental omental infarction are more frequently encountered with the increased use of abdominal ultrasound and Computed tomography (CT) in the radiological assessment of the patient who presents clinically with acute abdominal pain. Recognition of specific imaging abnormalities enables the radiologist to make the correct diagnosis. This is important, as the appropriate management of both conditions is often conservative. Follow-up imaging features correlate with clinical improvement. McClure, M.J. et al. (2001)

  17. Modal Damping Ratio and Optimal Elastic Moduli of Human Body Segments for Anthropometric Vibratory Model of Standing Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.

  18. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  19. Refractive aim and visual outcome after phacoemulsification: A 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... was met, 21 eyes (14.3%) did not meet their refractive aim, 20 eyes (12.7%) were ... countries, where blindness is associated with considerable ... and better, the total range of refractive errors postoperatively ... required intraocular lenses (IOL), medical record efficiency, ..... problem that can be alleviated.

  20. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  1. Anxiety and ironic effects in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Binsch, O.

    2011-01-01

    In far aiming the negative intention not to miss may ironically increase the tendency to do precisely that. Although cognitive constraints enhance the occurrence of ironic effects in the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such effects has rarely been investigated while anxiety

  2. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Eric V; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Russell, David W; Cyster, Jason G

    2017-11-16

    Type I interferon restrains interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-driven inflammation in macrophages by upregulating cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and repressing SREBP transcription factors. However, the molecular links between lipid metabolism and IL-1β production remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). We find that in response to bacterial infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages upregulate Ch25h to maintain repression of SREBP2 activation and cholesterol synthesis. Increasing macrophage cholesterol content is sufficient to trigger IL-1β release in a crystal-independent but AIM2-dependent manner. Ch25h deficiency results in cholesterol-dependent reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and release of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. AIM2 deficiency rescues the increased inflammasome activity observed in Ch25h -/- . Therefore, activated macrophages utilize 25-HC in an anti-inflammatory circuit that maintains mitochondrial integrity and prevents spurious AIM2 inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  4. Ecological radiation monotoring in NPP region, aims and tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.

    1986-01-01

    Aims and tasks of ecological radiation monitoring in the NPP region are discussed. The aims of monitoring are: to determine possible sequences of NPP radioactive release effects on ecosystems, taking place on the background of chemical and thermal pollution to develop standard of radiation effect on ecosystems; the aims includes also obtaining of information for forecasting and evaluating long-term radiation effects, establishment of factors characterizing the ecosystem state, establishment of a combined effect of radioactive wastes with chemical and thermal ones. Finally, the aim of monitoring consists in providing the natural object conservation in the NPP region under optimal operation conditions. Thus it is necessary to solve the following problems: to observe systematically release, transport and transformation, when transporting radioactive and chemical contaminants in terrestial and aquatic biocenoses, as well as injection and transport in them of waste heat; to observe systematically the natural physico-chemical, chemico-biological processes affecting the injection and transport of contaminants in ecosystem components; to observe systematically the natural and, probably, antropogenic processes; to carry out systematically observations of the ecosystem state in the NPP region and eco-systems-monitors

  5. Student Aims Performance in a Predominately Hispanic District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebultz, Lance

    2012-01-01

    School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). Expectations were established for all students, varying by group of students based on grade, special education status, free/reduced…

  6. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  7. Multi-atlas segmentation for abdominal organs with Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid / gray matter / white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation.

  8. Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) second generation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, J.L.; Baumann, M.J.; Fox, L.J.; Jenkins, C.D.; Perlinsk, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is in the final stages of developing a Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS). When completed, AIMS will provide applicable agencies in the US government, and those in the International arena, with a secure and convenient method of monitoring the physical status of selected items. The benefit derived from this development activity will be the commercial availability of an item monitoring system with the capability for ''quick set-up'' monitoring, as well as long-term unattended monitoring. The AIMS includes a variety of sensors, a robust and authenticated radio frequency (RF) communication link, a Receiver Processing Unit (RPU), and an inspector-friendly personal computer (PC) interface for collecting, sorting, viewing and archiving pertinent event histories. The system will provide the capability to monitor selected items in a real-time mode, a remotely interrogated mode, and a stand-alone, unattended data collection mode. The sensor suite under development includes advanced motion sensors, interior volumetric intrusion sensors, Re-usable, In-situ Verifiable Authenticated (RIVA) fiber-optic seal sensors, generic utility sensors (to accommodate contact closure inputs), and radiation and environmental sensors. A new generation authentication algorithm recently has been developed that provides a high degree of system security 121. The AIMS has potential safeguards applications in the areas of arms control and treaty verification military asset control, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom safeguards verification activities, as well as domestic nuclear safeguard activities. Commercial applications could include high-value inventory control and security systems. This paper describes the second-generation AIMS along with its recently expanded sensor suite and enhanced data collection capabilities

  9. A Dataset and Benchmarks for Segmentation and Recognition of Gestures in Robotic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmidi, Narges; Tao, Lingling; Sefati, Shahin; Gao, Yixin; Lea, Colin; Haro, Benjamin Bejar; Zappella, Luca; Khudanpur, Sanjeev; Vidal, Rene; Hager, Gregory D

    2017-09-01

    State-of-the-art techniques for surgical data analysis report promising results for automated skill assessment and action recognition. The contributions of many of these techniques, however, are limited to study-specific data and validation metrics, making assessment of progress across the field extremely challenging. In this paper, we address two major problems for surgical data analysis: First, lack of uniform-shared datasets and benchmarks, and second, lack of consistent validation processes. We address the former by presenting the JHU-ISI Gesture and Skill Assessment Working Set (JIGSAWS), a public dataset that we have created to support comparative research benchmarking. JIGSAWS contains synchronized video and kinematic data from multiple performances of robotic surgical tasks by operators of varying skill. We address the latter by presenting a well-documented evaluation methodology and reporting results for six techniques for automated segmentation and classification of time-series data on JIGSAWS. These techniques comprise four temporal approaches for joint segmentation and classification: hidden Markov model, sparse hidden Markov model (HMM), Markov semi-Markov conditional random field, and skip-chain conditional random field; and two feature-based ones that aim to classify fixed segments: bag of spatiotemporal features and linear dynamical systems. Most methods recognize gesture activities with approximately 80% overall accuracy under both leave-one-super-trial-out and leave-one-user-out cross-validation settings. Current methods show promising results on this shared dataset, but room for significant progress remains, particularly for consistent prediction of gesture activities across different surgeons. The results reported in this paper provide the first systematic and uniform evaluation of surgical activity recognition techniques on the benchmark database.

  10. Multivariate analysis for customer segmentation based on RFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Julio Cuadros López

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: To build a successful relationship management (CRM, companies must start with the identification of the true value of customers, as this provides basic information to implement more targeted and customized marketing strategies. The RFM methodology, a classic analysis tool that uses three evaluation parameters, allows companies to understand customer behavior, and to establish customer segments. The addition of a new parameter in the traditional technique is an opportunity to refine the possible outcomes of a customer segmentation since it not only provides a new element of evaluation to identify the most valuable customers, but it also makes it possible to differentiate and get to know customers even better. Method: The article presents a methodology that allows to establish customer segments using an extended RFM method with new variables, selected through multivariate analysis..  Results: The proposed implementation was applied in a company in which variables such as profit, profit percentage, and billing due date were tested. Therefore, it was possible to establish a more detailed customer segmentation than with the classic RFM. Conclusions: the RFM analysis is a method widely used in the industry for its easy understanding and applicability. However, it can be improved with the use of statistical procedures and new variables, which will allow companies to have deeper information about the behavior of the clients, and will facilitate the design of specific marketing strategies.

  11. Selecting salient frames for spatiotemporal video modeling and segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaomu; Fan, Guoliang

    2007-12-01

    We propose a new statistical generative model for spatiotemporal video segmentation. The objective is to partition a video sequence into homogeneous segments that can be used as "building blocks" for semantic video segmentation. The baseline framework is a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based video modeling approach that involves a six-dimensional spatiotemporal feature space. Specifically, we introduce the concept of frame saliency to quantify the relevancy of a video frame to the GMM-based spatiotemporal video modeling. This helps us use a small set of salient frames to facilitate the model training by reducing data redundancy and irrelevance. A modified expectation maximization algorithm is developed for simultaneous GMM training and frame saliency estimation, and the frames with the highest saliency values are extracted to refine the GMM estimation for video segmentation. Moreover, it is interesting to find that frame saliency can imply some object behaviors. This makes the proposed method also applicable to other frame-related video analysis tasks, such as key-frame extraction, video skimming, etc. Experiments on real videos demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. A novel infrastructure modularity index for the segmentation of water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolisi, O.; Ridolfi, L.

    2014-10-01

    The search for suitable segmentations is a challenging and urgent issue for the analysis, planning and management of complex water distribution networks (WDNs). In fact, complex and large size hydraulic systems require the division into modules in order to simplify the analysis and the management tasks. In the complex network theory, modularity index has been proposed as a measure of the strength of the network division into modules and its maximization is used in order to identify community of nodes (i.e., modules) which are characterized by strong interconnections. Nevertheless, modularity index needs to be revised considering the specificity of the hydraulic systems as infrastructure systems. To this aim, the classic modularity index has been recently modified and tailored for WDNs. Nevertheless, the WDN-oriented modularity is affected by the resolution limit stemming from classic modularity index. Such a limit hampers the identification/design of small modules and this is a major drawback for technical tasks requiring a detailed resolution of the network segmentation. In order to get over this problem, we propose a novel infrastructure modularity index that is not affected by the resolution limit of the classic one. The rationale and good features of the proposed index are theoretically demonstrated and discussed using two real hydraulic networks.

  13. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  14. Figure-ground segmentation based on class-independent shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Guojun; Guo, Maozu

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method to generate figure-ground segmentation by incorporating shape priors into the graph-cuts algorithm. Given an image, we first obtain a linear representation of an image and then apply directional chamfer matching to generate class-independent, nonparametric shape priors, which provide shape clues for the graph-cuts algorithm. We then enforce shape priors in a graph-cuts energy function to produce object segmentation. In contrast to previous segmentation methods, the proposed method shares shape knowledge for different semantic classes and does not require class-specific model training. Therefore, the approach obtains high-quality segmentation for objects. We experimentally validate that the proposed method outperforms previous approaches using the challenging PASCAL VOC 2010/2012 and Berkeley (BSD300) segmentation datasets.

  15. Fluid region segmentation in OCT images based on convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Xiaoming; Fu, Tianyu; Yang, Zhou

    2017-07-01

    In the retinal image, characteristics of fluid have great significance for diagnosis in eye disease. In the clinical, the segmentation of fluid is usually conducted manually, but is time-consuming and the accuracy is highly depend on the expert's experience. In this paper, we proposed a segmentation method based on convolution neural network (CNN) for segmenting the fluid from fundus image. The B-scans of OCT are segmented into layers, and patches from specific region with annotation are used for training. After the data set being divided into training set and test set, network training is performed and a good segmentation result is obtained, which has a significant advantage over traditional methods such as threshold method.

  16. A general system for automatic biomedical image segmentation using intensity neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Ozolek, John A; Wang, Wei; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2011-01-01

    Image segmentation is important with applications to several problems in biology and medicine. While extensively researched, generally, current segmentation methods perform adequately in the applications for which they were designed, but often require extensive modifications or calibrations before being used in a different application. We describe an approach that, with few modifications, can be used in a variety of image segmentation problems. The approach is based on a supervised learning strategy that utilizes intensity neighborhoods to assign each pixel in a test image its correct class based on training data. We describe methods for modeling rotations and variations in scales as well as a subset selection for training the classifiers. We show that the performance of our approach in tissue segmentation tasks in magnetic resonance and histopathology microscopy images, as well as nuclei segmentation from fluorescence microscopy images, is similar to or better than several algorithms specifically designed for each of these applications.

  17. Automatic segmentation of closed-contour features in ophthalmic images using graph theory and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie J.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized framework for segmenting closed-contour anatomical and pathological features using graph theory and dynamic programming (GTDP). More specifically, the GTDP method previously developed for quantifying retinal and corneal layer thicknesses is extended to segment objects such as cells and cysts. The presented technique relies on a transform that maps closed-contour features in the Cartesian domain into lines in the quasi-polar domain. The features of interest are then segmented as layers via GTDP. Application of this method to segment closed-contour features in several ophthalmic image types is shown. Quantitative validation experiments for retinal pigmented epithelium cell segmentation in confocal fluorescence microscopy images attests to the accuracy of the presented technique. PMID:22567602

  18. Efficacy of CTA portography for preoperatively determining the segmental location of focal hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Chemzmar, J.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Using cross-sectional images to localize tumors to specific hepatic segments before resection might be difficult because the transverse scissura, an important segmental landmark, is approximately parallel to the axial plane. Since this plane is parallel to the main right and left portal pedicles, the authors postulated that they could localize lesions above this plane to segments 2,4A,7, or 8, and below this plane to segments 3, 4B,5, or 6. The authors have retrospectively evaluated, in a blinded fashion, 24 hepatic masses in 13 patients who underwent CTA-portography and subsequent tumor resection. Using this scheme, they have accurately predicted the primary segmental location in 22 (92%) of 24 surgically confirmed lesions

  19. A General System for Automatic Biomedical Image Segmentation Using Intensity Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is important with applications to several problems in biology and medicine. While extensively researched, generally, current segmentation methods perform adequately in the applications for which they were designed, but often require extensive modifications or calibrations before being used in a different application. We describe an approach that, with few modifications, can be used in a variety of image segmentation problems. The approach is based on a supervised learning strategy that utilizes intensity neighborhoods to assign each pixel in a test image its correct class based on training data. We describe methods for modeling rotations and variations in scales as well as a subset selection for training the classifiers. We show that the performance of our approach in tissue segmentation tasks in magnetic resonance and histopathology microscopy images, as well as nuclei segmentation from fluorescence microscopy images, is similar to or better than several algorithms specifically designed for each of these applications.

  20. Simultaneous Whole-Brain Segmentation and White Matter Lesion Detection Using Contrast-Adaptive Probabilistic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new generative model for simultaneous brain parcellation and white matter lesion segmentation from multi-contrast magnetic resonance images. The method combines an existing whole-brain segmentation technique with a novel spatial lesion model based on a convolutional...... restricted Boltzmann machine. Unlike current state-of-the-art lesion detection techniques based on discriminative modeling, the proposed method is not tuned to one specific scanner or imaging protocol, and simultaneously segments dozens of neuroanatomical structures. Experiments on a public benchmark dataset...... in multiple sclerosis indicate that the method’s lesion segmentation accuracy compares well to that of the current state-of-the-art in the field, while additionally providing robust whole-brain segmentations....

  1. Segmentation of liver tumors on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescia, D.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to 3D segmentation of liver tumors in CT images. This is a task of great clinical interest since it allows physicians benefiting from reproducible and reliable methods for segmenting such lesions. Accurate segmentation would indeed help them during the evaluation of the lesions, the choice of treatment and treatment planning. Such a complex segmentation task should cope with three main scientific challenges: (i) the highly variable shape of the structures being sought, (ii) their similarity of appearance compared with their surrounding medium and finally (iii) the low signal to noise ratio being observed in these images. This problem is addressed in a clinical context through a two step approach, consisting of the segmentation of the entire liver envelope, before segmenting the tumors which are present within the envelope. We begin by proposing an atlas-based approach for computing pathological liver envelopes. Initially images are pre-processed to compute the envelopes that wrap around binary masks in an attempt to obtain liver envelopes from estimated segmentation of healthy liver parenchyma. A new statistical atlas is then introduced and used to segmentation through its diffeomorphic registration to the new image. This segmentation is achieved through the combination of image matching costs as well as spatial and appearance prior using a multi-scale approach with MRF. The second step of our approach is dedicated to lesions segmentation contained within the envelopes using a combination of machine learning techniques and graph based methods. First, an appropriate feature space is considered that involves texture descriptors being determined through filtering using various scales and orientations. Then, state of the art machine learning techniques are used to determine the most relevant features, as well as the hyper plane that separates the feature space of tumoral voxels to the ones corresponding to healthy tissues. Segmentation is then

  2. Children's Rights in Education Research: From Aims to Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hilary A.; Haslett, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    One approach to children's rights in research is to adopt a methodology that focuses on eliciting children's perspectives. Ensuring representative participation from all children allows a diversity of contexts to be reflected in the results, and points to ways in which improvements can be made in specific settings. In cultural contexts where…

  3. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  4. Segment-Tube: Spatio-Temporal Action Localization in Untrimmed Videos with Per-Frame Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Le Wang; Xuhuan Duan; Qilin Zhang; Zhenxing Niu; Gang Hua; Nanning Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the recent spatio-temporal action localization efforts with tubelets (sequences of bounding boxes), we present a new spatio-temporal action localization detector Segment-tube, which consists of sequences of per-frame segmentation masks. The proposed Segment-tube detector can temporally pinpoint the starting/ending frame of each action category in the presence of preceding/subsequent interference actions in untrimmed videos. Simultaneously, the Segment-tube detector produces per-fr...

  5. A novel magnet based 3D printed marker wand as basis for repeated in-shoe multi segment foot analysis: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdekens, Maarten; Staes, Filip; Pilkington, Thomas; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model. Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91. The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.

  6. Learning object for teacher training aimed to develop communication skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.

  7. The aim of psychoanalysis in theory and in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J

    1996-12-01

    The aims of psychoanalysis are reviewed in terms of theories of mental function and structure. The theory of mental conflict remains the central theory of classical psychoanalysis but has been deepened and supplemented by newer theories. In particular the theory of projective identification has radically altered our view of mental structure and function and has allowed us to reformulate the aims of psychoanalysis in terms of the re-acquisition and re-integration of projected parts of the self. The central role of mourning in this process is discussed, and some of the obstacles to progress are reviewed. It is suggested that oedipal resentments may play a central role in the creation of impasse.

  8. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  9. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  10. Use of Probiotic Microorganisms for Bio-Protective Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz YANGILAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was known that some diseases can be treated as the result of the use of antibiotics in certain periods and at certain dosages while inactivating and deteriorating normal microorganisms performing useful activities in human metabolism (in especially intestinal flora. It was occured that after the use of antibiotics, some defects can be seen resulting from antibiotics (such as allergy, diarrhea, gas formation etc. With this aim, nutraceutics and functional food have gained importance over the last years and consumers began to be interested in probiotics, natural antioxidants, dietary fibres, products with low calorie and cholesterol contents, especially the products containing probioticbacteria. Bacteriocins produced by probiotic bacteria can play important roles as food protective and safeguarding since they can compete with unwanted or pathogen microorganisms survive in the media and colonize in intestines. In this review, is aimed to emphasis bioprotective compounds, advantages and disadvantages of biopreservation method and the importance of the mechanisms of probiotic microorganisms.

  11. 250 kV aim for hvdc valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-06-01

    Development now being carried out by ASEA is aimed at increasing the normal operating voltage for a mercury arc valve to 250 kV dc. The maximum direct voltage per valve group, with one valve in each arm of the bridge, is 125 kV for equipment already in operation in New Zealand, Japan, and Konti Scan. Valves for 130 kV and 133 kV operation are under construction for the Vancouver and the Pacific Intertie 1 links.

  12. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  13. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  14. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Annual progress report. FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 or 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is necessary that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for articles from this report.

  15. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities over...... and intelligent regimes – is used to propose a way out of the current governance impasse at the universities....

  16. Ocean Science Video Challenge Aims to Improve Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    Given today's enormous management and protection challenges related to the world's oceans, a new competition calls on ocean scientists to effectively communicate their research in videos that last up to 3 minutes. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge, named for the number of seconds in 3 minutes, aims to improve ocean science communication while providing high school and middle school teachers and students with new and interesting educational materials about current science topics.

  17. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  18. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tsung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Results. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Conclusion. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  19. Coronary arteries segmentation based on the 3D discrete wavelet transform and 3D neutrosophic transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Hung, Pei-Kai; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chung-Ming; Kung, Woon-Man

    2015-01-01

    Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  20. A new segmentation strategy for processing magnetic anomaly detection data of shallow depth ferromagnetic pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Liu, Dejun; Cheng, Xing; Fang, Huafeng; Li, Caifang

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic anomalies produced by underground ferromagnetic pipelines because of the polarization of earth's magnetic field are used to obtain the information on the location, buried depth and other parameters of pipelines. In order to achieve a fast inversion and interpretation of measured data, it is necessary to develop a fast and stable forward method. Magnetic dipole reconstruction (MDR), as a kind of integration numerical method, is well suited for simulating a thin pipeline anomaly. In MDR the pipeline model must be cut into small magnetic dipoles through different segmentation methods. The segmentation method has an impact on the stability and speed of forward calculation. Rapid and accurate simulation of deep-buried pipelines has been achieved by exciting segmentation method. However, in practical measurement, the depth of underground pipe is uncertain. When it comes to the shallow-buried pipeline, the present segmentation may generate significant errors. This paper aims at solving this problem in three stages. First, the cause of inaccuracy is analyzed by simulation experiment. Secondly, new variable interval section segmentation is proposed based on the existing segmentation. It can help MDR method to obtain simulation results in a fast way under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of different depth models. Finally, the measured data is inversed based on new segmentation method. The result proves that the inversion based on the new segmentation can achieve fast and accurate inversion of depth parameters of underground pipes without being limited by pipeline depth.

  1. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  2. NUCLEAR SEGMENTATION IN MICROSCOPE CELL IMAGES: A HAND-SEGMENTED DATASET AND COMPARISON OF ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Luís Pedro; Shariff, Aabid; Murphy, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Image segmentation is an essential step in many image analysis pipelines and many algorithms have been proposed to solve this problem. However, they are often evaluated subjectively or based on a small number of examples. To fill this gap, we hand-segmented a set of 97 fluorescence microscopy images (a total of 4009 cells) and objectively evaluated some previously proposed segmentation algorithms.

  3. Robust shape regression for supervised vessel segmentation and its application to coronary segmentation in CTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaap, Michiel; van Walsum, Theo; Neefjes, Lisan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vessel segmentation method which learns the geometry and appearance of vessels in medical images from annotated data and uses this knowledge to segment vessels in unseen images. Vessels are segmented in a coarse-to-fine fashion. First, the vessel boundaries are estimated...

  4. Automated segmentation of dental CBCT image with prior-guided sequential random forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Li, Gang [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7513 (United States); Chen, Ken-Chung; Tang, Zhen [Surgical Planning Laboratory, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Xia, James J., E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu, E-mail: JXia@HoustonMethodist.org [Surgical Planning Laboratory, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Surgery (Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery), Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200011 (China); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu, E-mail: JXia@HoustonMethodist.org [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7513 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate 3D models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the image artifacts caused by beam hardening, imaging noise, inhomogeneity, truncation, and maximal intercuspation, it is difficult to segment the CBCT. Methods: In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Specifically, the authors first employ a majority voting method to estimate the initial segmentation probability maps of both mandible and maxilla based on multiple aligned expert-segmented CBCT images. These probability maps provide an important prior guidance for CBCT segmentation. The authors then extract both the appearance features from CBCTs and the context features from the initial probability maps to train the first-layer of random forest classifier that can select discriminative features for segmentation. Based on the first-layer of trained classifier, the probability maps are updated, which will be employed to further train the next layer of random forest classifier. By iteratively training the subsequent random forest classifier using both the original CBCT features and the updated segmentation probability maps, a sequence of classifiers can be derived for accurate segmentation of CBCT images. Results: Segmentation results on CBCTs of 30 subjects were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated based on manually labeled ground truth. The average Dice ratios of mandible and maxilla by the authors’ method were 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, which are significantly better than the state-of-the-art method based on sparse representation (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: The authors have developed and validated a novel fully automated method

  5. Automated segmentation of dental CBCT image with prior-guided sequential random forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Li, Gang; Chen, Ken-Chung; Tang, Zhen; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate 3D models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the image artifacts caused by beam hardening, imaging noise, inhomogeneity, truncation, and maximal intercuspation, it is difficult to segment the CBCT. Methods: In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Specifically, the authors first employ a majority voting method to estimate the initial segmentation probability maps of both mandible and maxilla based on multiple aligned expert-segmented CBCT images. These probability maps provide an important prior guidance for CBCT segmentation. The authors then extract both the appearance features from CBCTs and the context features from the initial probability maps to train the first-layer of random forest classifier that can select discriminative features for segmentation. Based on the first-layer of trained classifier, the probability maps are updated, which will be employed to further train the next layer of random forest classifier. By iteratively training the subsequent random forest classifier using both the original CBCT features and the updated segmentation probability maps, a sequence of classifiers can be derived for accurate segmentation of CBCT images. Results: Segmentation results on CBCTs of 30 subjects were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated based on manually labeled ground truth. The average Dice ratios of mandible and maxilla by the authors’ method were 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, which are significantly better than the state-of-the-art method based on sparse representation (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: The authors have developed and validated a novel fully automated method

  6. Limb-segment selection in drawing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  7. LIMB-SEGMENT SELECTION IN DRAWING BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  8. Handwriting segmentation of unconstrained Oriya text

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on vertical projection profiles and structural features of Oriya characters, text lines are segmented into words. For character segmentation, at first, the isolated and connected (touching) characters in a word are detected. Using structural, topological and water reservoir concept-based features, characters of the word ...

  9. Reflection symmetry-integrated image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Bhanu, Bir

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a new symmetry-integrated region-based image segmentation method. The method is developed to obtain improved image segmentation by exploiting image symmetry. It is realized by constructing a symmetry token that can be flexibly embedded into segmentation cues. Interesting points are initially extracted from an image by the SIFT operator and they are further refined for detecting the global bilateral symmetry. A symmetry affinity matrix is then computed using the symmetry axis and it is used explicitly as a constraint in a region growing algorithm in order to refine the symmetry of the segmented regions. A multi-objective genetic search finds the segmentation result with the highest performance for both segmentation and symmetry, which is close to the global optimum. The method has been investigated experimentally in challenging natural images and images containing man-made objects. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms current segmentation methods both with and without exploiting symmetry. A thorough experimental analysis indicates that symmetry plays an important role as a segmentation cue, in conjunction with other attributes like color and texture.

  10. Segmentation precedes face categorization under suboptimal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boomen, Carlijn; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain,

  11. Bayesian segmentation of brainstem structures in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    the brainstem structures in novel scans. Thanks to the generative nature of the scheme, the segmentation method is robust to changes in MRI contrast or acquisition hardware. Using cross validation, we show that the algorithm can segment the structures in previously unseen T1 and FLAIR scans with great accuracy...

  12. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  13. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An entity...

  14. Market Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Based Clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hattum, P.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share

  15. Convolutional Neural Networks for SAR Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images has several uses, but it is a difficult task due to a number of properties related to SAR images. In this article we show how Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can easily be trained for SAR image segmentation with good results. Besides...

  16. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  17. Moving window segmentation framework for point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, G.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first

  18. Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance

  19. Creating Web Area Segments with Google Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segments allow you to quickly access data for a predefined set of Sessions or Users, such as government or education users, or sessions in a particular state. You can then apply this segment to any report within the Google Analytics (GA) interface.

  20. Unsupervised Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Combined Filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendeson S Oliveira

    Full Text Available Image segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a process that can help to predict and diagnose cardiovascular related diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, which are known to affect the retinal blood vessels' appearance. This work proposes an unsupervised method for the segmentation of retinal vessels images using a combined matched filter, Frangi's filter and Gabor Wavelet filter to enhance the images. The combination of these three filters in order to improve the segmentation is the main motivation of this work. We investigate two approaches to perform the filter combination: weighted mean and median ranking. Segmentation methods are tested after the vessel enhancement. Enhanced images with median ranking are segmented using a simple threshold criterion. Two segmentation procedures are applied when considering enhanced retinal images using the weighted mean approach. The first method is based on deformable models and the second uses fuzzy C-means for the image segmentation. The procedure is evaluated using two public image databases, Drive and Stare. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well for vessel segmentation in comparison with state-of-the-art methods.

  1. A NEW APPROACH TO SEGMENT HANDWRITTEN DIGITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, L.S.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Sabourin, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new segmentation approach applied to unconstrained handwritten digits. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is based on the combination of two types of structural features in order to provide the best segmentation path between connected entities. In this article, we first

  2. Nanotechnology and nanomedicine: going small means aiming big.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, Mahesh Kumar; Mutalik, Srinivas; Rajanikant, G K

    2010-06-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging branch of science for designing tools and devices of size 1 to 100 nm with specific function at the cellular, atomic and molecular levels. The concept of employing nanotechnology in biomedical research and clinical practice is best known as nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is an upcoming field that could potentially make a major impact to human health. Nanomaterials are increasingly used in diagnostics, imaging and targeted drug delivery. Nanotechnology will assist the integration of diagnostics/imaging with therapeutics and facilitates the development of personalized medicine, i.e. prescription of specific medications best suited for an individual. This review provides an integrated overview of application of nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics and drug delivery in the development of nanomedicine and ultimately personalized medicine. Finally, we identify critical gaps in our knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity and how these gaps need to be evaluated to enable nanotechnology to transit safely from bench to bedside.

  3. Aligning emergency care with the triple aim: Opportunities and future directions after healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Conway, Patrick H

    2014-09-01

    The Triple Aim of better health, better care, and lower costs has become a fundamental framework for understanding the need for broad health care reform and describing health care value. While the framework is not specific to any clinical setting, this article focuses on the alignment between the framework and Emergency Department (ED) care. The paper explores where emergency care is naturally aligned with each Aim, as well as current barriers which must be addressed to meet the full vision of the Triple Aim. We propose a vision of EDs serving as a nexus for care coordination optimally consistent with the Triple Aim and the requirements for such a role. These requirements include: (1) substantial integration in coordinated care models; (2) development of reliable and actionable data on ED quality, population health, and cost outcomes; (3) specific initiatives to control and optimize ED utilization; and (4) payment models which preserve surge and disaster response capacity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pituitary gland in Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression: Evidence from structural MRI studies: Special Section on "Translational and Neuroscience Studies in Affective Disorders". Section Editor, Maria Nobile MD, PhD. This Section of JAD focuses on the relevance of translational and neuroscience studies in providing a better understanding of the neural basis of affective disorders. The main aim is to briefly summarise relevant research findings in clinical neuroscience with particular regards to specific innovative topics in mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, G; Altamura, A C; Soares, J C; Brambilla, P

    2017-08-15

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been widely investigated in mood disorders based on its role in regulating stress response. Particularly, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reports have explored pituitary gland (PG) in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context, the present review summarizes the results from MRI studies with the final aim of commenting on the presence of common or distinct PG structural alterations between these two disabling illnesses. A bibliographic search on PUBMED of all MRI studies exploring PG volumes in BD and MDD as well as first-degree relatives (RELs) from 2000 up to October 2016 was performed. Following the screening process of the available literature it can be said that a) PG enlargement has been found in both BD and MDD, therefore potentially representing a common neurobiological marker characterizing mood disorders, and b) PG volumes are moderated by age and sex in both illnesses, although the direction and the extent of this moderation are still not fully clear. Few MRI studies with heterogeneous results. These hypotheses must be taken with caution especially because the heterogeneity of the results of the studies reviewed does not allow for a definite answer about the role of PG in affective disorders. Therefore, larger longitudinal studies investigating PG volumes in BD and MDD patients at the early phases of the illness, by considering females and males separately, are needed to further corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  6. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  7. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  8. Aging and the segmentation of narrative film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurby, Christopher A; Asiala, Lillian K E; Mills, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    The perception of event structure in continuous activity is important for everyday comprehension. Although the segmentation of experience into events is a normal concomitant of perceptual processing, previous research has shown age differences in the ability to perceive structure in naturalistic activity, such as a movie of someone washing a car. However, past research has also shown that older adults have a preserved ability to comprehend events in narrative text, which suggests that narrative may improve the event processing of older adults. This study tested whether there are age differences in event segmentation at the intersection of continuous activity and narrative: narrative film. Younger and older adults watched and segmented a narrative film, The Red Balloon, into coarse and fine events. Changes in situational features, such as changes in characters, goals, and objects predicted segmentation. Analyses revealed little age-difference in segmentation behavior. This suggests the possibility that narrative structure supports event understanding for older adults.

  9. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): mind the gap!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanidou, Eleni; McQueen, James M; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were preceded by nonsense signs which were produced in either the target location or another location (with a small or large transition). Half of the transitions were within the same major body area (e.g., head) and half were across body areas (e.g., chest to hand). Deaf adult BSL users (a group of natives and early learners, and a group of late learners) spotted target signs best when there was a minimal transition and worst when there was a large transition. When location changes were present, both groups performed better when transitions were to a different body area than when they were within the same area. These findings suggest that transitions do not provide explicit sign-boundary cues in a modality-specific fashion. Instead, we argue that smaller transitions help recognition in a modality-general way by limiting lexical search to signs within location neighbourhoods, and that transitions across body areas also aid segmentation in a modality-general way, by providing a phonotactic cue to a sign boundary. We propose that sign segmentation is based on modality-general procedures which are core language-processing mechanisms.

  10. Vasopressin-induced constriction of the isolated rat occipital artery is segment dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Stephen P; Schmiedt, Chad W; Lewis, Tristan H; Lewis, Stephen J; Robertson, Tom P

    2013-01-01

    Circulating factors delivered to the nodose ganglion (NG) by the occipital artery (OA) have been shown to affect vagal afferent activity, and thus the contractile state of the OA may influence blood flow to the NG. OA were isolated and bisected into proximal and distal segments relative to the external carotid artery. Bisection highlighted stark differences between maximal contractile responses and OA sensitivity. Specifically, maximum responses to vasopressin and the V1 receptor agonist were significantly higher in distal than proximal segments. Distal segments were significantly more sensitive to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor agonist than proximal segments. Angiotensin II (AT)2, V2 and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists did not elicit vascular responses. Additionally, AT1 receptor agonists elicited mild, yet not significantly different maximal responses between segments. The results of this study are consistent with contractile properties of rat OA being mediated via AT1, V1 and 5-HT2 receptors and dependent upon the OA segment. Furthermore, vasopressin-induced constriction of the OA, regardless of a bolus dose or a first and second concentration-response curve, retained this unique segmental difference. We hypothesize that these segmental differences may be important in the regulation of blood flow through the OA in health and disease. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The use of atlas registration and graph cuts for prostate segmentation in magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsager, Anne Sofie, E-mail: asko@hst.aau.dk; Østergaard, Lasse Riis [Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark); Fortunati, Valerio; Lijn, Fedde van der; Niessen, Wiro; Walsum, Theo van [Biomedical Imaging Group of Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Carl, Jesper [Department of Medical Physics, Oncology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: An automatic method for 3D prostate segmentation in magnetic resonance (MR) images is presented for planning image-guided radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: A spatial prior based on intersubject atlas registration is combined with organ-specific intensity information in a graph cut segmentation framework. The segmentation is tested on 67 axial T{sub 2}-weighted MR images in a leave-one-out cross validation experiment and compared with both manual reference segmentations and with multiatlas-based segmentations using majority voting atlas fusion. The impact of atlas selection is investigated in both the traditional atlas-based segmentation and the new graph cut method that combines atlas and intensity information in order to improve the segmentation accuracy. Best results were achieved using the method that combines intensity information, shape information, and atlas selection in the graph cut framework. Results: A mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.88 and a mean surface distance (MSD) of 1.45 mm with respect to the manual delineation were achieved. Conclusions: This approaches the interobserver DSC of 0.90 and interobserver MSD 0f 1.15 mm and is comparable to other studies performing prostate segmentation in MR.

  12. Wavelet-filtering of symbolic music representations for folk tune segmentation and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Weyde, Tillman; Meredith, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a machine-learning method in which symbolic representations of folk songs are segmented and classified into tune families with Haar-wavelet filtering. The method is compared with previously proposed Gestalt based method. Melodies are represented as discrete...... coefficients’ local maxima to indicate local boundaries and classify segments by means of k-nearest neighbours based on standard vector-metrics (Euclidean, cityblock), and compare the results to a Gestalt-based segmentation method and metrics applied directly to the pitch signal. We found that the wavelet...

  13. Hitchhiker'S Guide to Voxel Segmentation for Partial Volume Correction of in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Quadrelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial volume effects have the potential to cause inaccuracies when quantifying metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. In order to correct for cerebrospinal fluid content, a spectroscopic voxel needs to be segmented according to different tissue contents. This article aims to detail how automated partial volume segmentation can be undertaken and provides a software framework for researchers to develop their own tools. While many studies have detailed the impact of partial volume correction on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification, there is a paucity of literature explaining how voxel segmentation can be achieved using freely available neuroimaging packages.

  14. Segmented phantoms reconstruction for skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Furnari, Laura; Reis, Gabriela S.

    2009-01-01

    There are several radio-sensitive skin diseases. Skin dosimetry is a difficult task to be properly performed, not only due to skin extension and small thickness, but also because it is usually submitted to high dose gradients. High-resolution medical images along with methods that simulate the interaction of radiation with matter, as the Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, have been widely used in medical physics procedures. These images provide the construction of realistic computational anatomical models, which after being coupled to these codes, retrieve reliable dosimetric assessments. However, present day regular images are unsuitable to correctly perform skin dose distribution evaluations. This inability is due to improper skin discrimination in most of current medical images, once its thickness stands below image resolution, i.e. pixel characteristic sizes are larger than skin thickness. This paper proposes a methodology of voxelized phantom reconstruction and segmentation, by subdividing their basic elements - voxels. It is done in order to better discriminate the skin by assigning more adequate value for skin thickness and its actual localization. Aiming at a more realistic skin modeling one is expected to get more accurate skin dose evaluations. This task is an important issue in many radiotherapy procedures. A particular interest lays in Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET), which highlights the treatment of the whole body irradiation, a radiotherapy procedure under implementation in the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-USP). (author)

  15. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  16. SEGMENTATION OF SME PORTFOLIO IN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namolosu Simona Mihaela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs represent an important target market for commercial Banks. In this respect, finding the best methods for designing and implementing the optimal marketing strategies (for this target are a continuous concern for the marketing specialists and researchers from the banking system; the purpose is to find the most suitable service model for these companies. SME portfolio of a bank is not homogeneous, different characteristics and behaviours being identified. The current paper reveals empirical evidence about SME portfolio characteristics and segmentation methods used in banking system. Its purpose is to identify if segmentation has an impact in finding the optimal marketing strategies and service model and if this hypothesis might be applicable for any commercial bank, irrespective of country/ region. Some banks are segmenting the SME portfolio by a single criterion: the annual company (official turnover; others are considering also profitability and other financial indicators of the company. In some cases, even the banking behaviour becomes a criterion. For all cases, creating scenarios with different thresholds and estimating the impact in profitability and volumes are two mandatory steps in establishing the final segmentation (criteria matrix. Details about each of these segmentation methods may be found in the paper. Testing the final matrix of criteria is also detailed, with the purpose of making realistic estimations. Example for lending products is provided; the product offer is presented as responding to needs of targeted sub segment and therefore being correlated with the sub segment characteristics. Identifying key issues and trends leads to further action plan proposal. Depending on overall strategy and commercial target of the bank, the focus may shift, one or more sub segments becoming high priority (for acquisition/ activation/ retention/ cross sell/ up sell/ increase profitability etc., while

  17. Acid activation of natural clays aiming their application in adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Sousa, A.K.F. de; Lima, W.S.; Vasconcelos, P.N.M. de; Rodrigues, M. G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays of smectite type have wide application in industrial, mainly due to their adsorption properties. However, it is necessary to subject them to chemical treatments to optimize their potential. This study aimed to analyze the effects of acid activation on the clay Brasgel fresh. In the acid activation was used concentrated hydrochloric acid at different concentrations (3M, 4.5 M and 6 M) at a temperature of 70 ° C for 30 minutes. The samples fresh and activated technique were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that the properties of clay after activation are improved, it could be used as adsorbents in the treatment of wastewater. (author)

  18. A Core Design Approach Aimed at Sustainability and Intrinsic Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive approach adopted for the core design of all LFRs investigated within the LEADER project, proved to effectively drive the design to the fulfillment of the aimed sustainability performances, and the respect of the design constraints for the robust implementation of the inherent safety principle: • the ELFR core is able to operate adiabatically, with a very narrow reactivity swing along a 2.5 y cycle; • wide margins are provided for protecting the fuel and the structures even in case of unprotected transients, allowing for very long grace times

  19. No norm needed: on the aim of belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Does transparency in doxastic deliberation entail a constitutive norm of correctness governing belief, as Shah and Velleman argue? No, because this presupposes an implausibly strong relation between normative judgements and motivation from such judgements, ignores our interest in truth, and cannot...... explain why we pay different attention to how much justification we have for our beliefs in different contexts. An alternative account of transparency is available: transparency can be explained by the aim one necessarily adopts in deliberating about whether to believe that p. To show this, I reconsider...... the role of the concept of belief in doxastic deliberation, and I defuse 'the teleologian's dilemma'....

  20. NASA tells physicists to aim for the stars

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    Dan Goldin, administrator at NASA, suggested that the next generation of instruments for high-energy physics research should be built in space. This did not go down well at Fermilab where a case is being made for a new ground-based accelerator. Goldin's aim though was simply to tell the scientific community that NASA is prepared to spend big money on physics in space. NASA also wants to work more closely with the DOE and the NSF to support space-based experiments (1 page).