WorldWideScience

Sample records for seed weight variation

  1. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  2. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea. (Cicer arietinum). ..... between photosynthesis and seed number at phloem isolated nodes in soybean. Crop. Science39: 1769-1775. Carlson, J.B. 1973. Morphology. pp. 17-95. In: Wilcox, J.R. (Ed.).

  3. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thapliyal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middleand high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variationssuggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. Thewide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have beenobserved in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes.The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied from 7

  5. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    .... This study examined within‐species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant P otamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China...

  6. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.; Vincken, J.P.; Groot, de J.; Gruppen, H.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines,

  7. Sunflower 1000-seed weight as affected by year and genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Velimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a successful seed production, it is necessary to know the size, i.e. 1000-seed weight, since it affects the sowing rate, plant density over the vegetative period as well as the seed yield per unit area. The study was conducted in field conditions, on plots where seed production of sunflower hybrids parental components was organized. Seed production was based at three different localities. Observation was conducted during the course of three years. The study was performed on 18 different genotypes. Considering the total number of the observed genotypes, 10 genotypes represented lines based on CMS, while the remaining 8 genotypes represented restorer lines. The study showed that 1000-seed weight was higher with CMS based lines than with restorer lines, which was expected considering the branching of the restorer lines. Sunflower 1000-seed weight depended on the year of observation and the observed genotype. Year had a significant effect on 1000-seed weight.

  8. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  9. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-04-01

    Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion.

  10. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed with Diets Based on Treated ... nutritional quality. Some processing methods including dry heat and wet heat treatment, soaking, dehulling, fermentation, sprouting etc. have been used in the past.

  11. Florivory Modulates the Seed Number-Seed Weight Relationship in Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, plant reproductive success might be affected negatively by florivory, and the effects may vary depending on the timing and intensity of florivory. To clarify the impacts of florivory by the sawfly larvae (Tenthredinidae on seed production of Halenia elliptica D. Don, we simulated florivory by removing different proportion of flowers at three reproductive stages in this alpine herb and then examined the seed number per fruit, the seed weight, and the seed mass per fruit of the remaining flowers. Seed number per fruit reduced significantly when flowers were removed at flowering and fruiting stages or when 15% and 60% of flowers were removed. However, seed weight increased significantly after flowers were removed, independent of treatments of reproductive stage and proportion. There was a similar seed mass per fruit between the plants subjected to simulation of florivory and control. The results indicated that florivory modulated the seed number-seed weight relationship in this alpine species. Our study suggested that selective seed abortion and resource reallocation within fruits may ensure fewer but larger seeds, which were expected to be adaptive in the harsh environments.

  12. Storage and germination of Seeds with different weight of Jiotilla

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    Trujillo-Hernández, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the germination of seeds of different weight of Escontria chiotilla, collected in May 2009 in Coxcatlán, Puebla. The experimental design was completely randomized. Factors taken were seed weight (0.584, 0.490 and 0.466 mg and storage conditions (23 ± 2 °C and -20 °C environment in the germplasm bank of UACHBANGEV. Germination capacity in 2009 (initial with no storage, 2010 and 2012, with storage of one and three years, respectively, was evaluated. The experimental unit was a Petri dish with 1 % agar and 100 seeds taken from each treatment with five repetitions, evaluated for 30 days each year. The results showed that germination capacity decreased after 3 years for all three weights. The heavier seeds (0.584 mg retained the highest percentage in storage conditions environment, while the seeds stored in BANGEV decreased their ability to germinate at all weights. It was concluded that seed germination of Escontria chiotilla is affected by weight and storage condition and time.

  13. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  14. Seed coat color, weight and eye pattern inheritance in gamma-rays induced cowpea M2-mutant line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Gaafar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation is a very effective tool for inducing genetic variation in characters of many plants. Black seeds of M2 mutant were obtained after exposure of an Egyptian cowpea cultivar (Kaha 1 to a low dose of gamma rays. Segregation of seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and seed eye pattern of the black seeds of this mutant line were further examined in this study. Four colors were observed for seed coat in the M3 plants ranging from cream to reddish brown and three eye patterns were distinguished from each other. SDS–PAGE of the seed storage proteins showed 18 protein bands; five of these bands disappeared in the seeds of M3 plants compared to M2 and M0 controls while other 5 protein bands were specifically observed in seeds of M3 plants. PCR analysis using twelve ISSR primers showed 47 polymorphic and 8 unique amplicons. The eight unique amplicons were characteristic of the cream coat color and brown wide eye pattern (M03-G10 while the polymorphic bands were shared by 6 coat-color groups. A PCR fragment of 850 bp was amplified, using primer HB-12, in M3-G04 which showed high-100 seed weight. These results demonstrated the mutagenic effects of gamma rays on seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and eye pattern of cowpea M3 mutant plants.

  15. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  16. Genetic variation in Pinus brutia Ten. seed stands and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    . Res. 127: 315-325. Cornelius J (1994). Heritabilities and Genetic Coefficients of Variation in. Forest Trees. Canandian Journal of Forestry Research 24:372-379. Dean CA, Stonecypher RW (2006). Early Selection of Douglas- ...

  17. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  18. Segregation for seed weight, pod length and days to flowering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the segregation of the F3 (early generation) and F6 (late generation) families for seed weight, pod length and days to flowering among cowpea inter-sub-specific crosses. A wide range of segregants were provided in this cross and families were highly significantly different in the ...

  19. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  20. Tree-to-tree variation in seed size and its consequences for seed dispersal versus predation by rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Ives, Anthony R

    2017-03-01

    Individual variation in seed size and seed production is high in many plant species. How does this variation affect seed-dispersing animals and, in turn, the fitness of individual plants? In this study, we first surveyed intraspecific variation in seed mass and production in a population of a Chinese white pine, Pinus armandii. For 134 target trees investigated in 2012, there was very high variation in seed size, with mean seed mass varying among trees almost tenfold, from 0.038 to 0.361 g. Furthermore, 30 of the 134 trees produced seeds 2 years later, and for these individuals there was a correlation in seed mass of 0.59 between years, implying consistent differences among individuals. For a subset of 67 trees, we monitored the foraging preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents on a total of 15,301 seeds: 8380 were ignored, 3184 were eaten in situ, 2651 were eaten after being cached, and 395 were successfully dispersed (cached and left intact). At the scale of individual seeds, seed mass affected almost every decision that rodents made to eat, remove, and cache individual seeds. At the level of individual trees, larger seeds had increased probabilities of both predation and successful dispersal: the effects of mean seed size on costs (predation) and benefits (caching) balanced out. Thus, despite seed size affecting rodent decisions, variation among trees in dispersal success associated with mean seed size was small once seeds were harvested. This might explain, at least in part, the maintenance of high variation in mean seed mass among tree individuals.

  1. Effects of Seed Weights on Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Wheat and Bean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ERDAL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different seed weights on plant growth, mineral nutrition and nutrient uptake of wheat and been plants. Also relations among seed weights and examined parameters were examined. For this purposes, 3 groups of wheat grains having 3.35, 4.05 and 4.98 g 100 seeds-1 and 4 groups of been grains having 30.02, 45.18, 54.01 and 58.6 g 100 seeds-1 were selected. Experiment was set up under greenhouse condition and left for growing during 2 months. After the experimental period, plants were harvested and analyzed for mineral analysis. According to the results it was seen that dry weights of both plants increased with the seed weights. For wheat plants, increasing of seed weights led to increase of plant Fe, Zn and Mn concentrations. Also K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn uptake of plant from the soil increased with increase of 100 seed weights. Similarly, N, Ca, Mg and concentrations of bean and nutrient uptake (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn from the pot increased with the seeds weights. For both plants, while there were not any correlations among seeds weights and seed nutrient concentrations generally, there were some significant correlations among the seeds weights and dry weights, leaf nutrient concentrations and nutrient uptake.

  2. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight changes with Diets 2(cooked kudzu) and Diet 8(positive control) having the highest values(55.10g and 90.0g).

  3. Genetic variation of transgenerational plasticity of offspring germination in response to salinity stress and the seed transcriptome of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Wendy T; Chang, Peter L; Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L

    2015-04-01

    demonstrate genetic variation in transgenerational plasticity within M. truncatula and show that parental exposure to salinity stress influences the expression of stored seed transcripts, seed weight, and germination behavior. Furthermore, we show that the parental environment influences gene expression to modulate biological pathways that are likely responsible for offspring germination responses to salinity stress.

  4. Compatibility of breeding for increased wood production and longterm sustainability: the genetic variation of seed orchard seed and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Johnson; S. Lipow

    2002-01-01

    Because breeding imposes strong artificial selection for a narrow suite of economically important traits, genetic variation is reduced in seedlings derived from operational seed orchards. Both quantitative genetics theory and studies of allozyme variation show that seed orchards contain most of the genetic diversity found in natural populations, although low-frequency...

  5. Down-regulation of BnDA1, whose gene locus is associated with the seeds weight, improves the seeds weight and organ size in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Li; Tang, Min-Qiang; Chen, Sheng; Zheng, Xiang-Feng; Mo, Hui-Xian; Li, Sheng-Jun; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Ke-Ming; Ding, Li-Na; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Li, Yun-Hai; Tan, Xiao-Li

    2017-08-01

    Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop worldwide and is the main raw material for biofuel. Seed weight and seed size are the main contributors to seed yield. DA1 (DA means big in Chinese) is an ubiquitin receptor and negatively regulates seed size. Down-regulation of AtDA1 in Arabidopsis leads to larger seeds and organs by increasing cell proliferation in integuments. In this study, BnDA1 was down-regulated in B. napus by over expressed of AtDA1R358K , which is a functional deficiency of DA1 with an arginine-to-lysine mutation at the 358th amino acid. The results showed that the biomass and size of the seeds, cotyledons, leaves, flowers and siliques of transgenic plants all increased significantly. In particular, the 1000 seed weight increased 21.23% and the seed yield per plant increased 13.22% in field condition. The transgenic plants had no negative traits related to yield. The candidate gene association analysis demonstrated that the BnDA1 locus was contributed to the seeds weight. Therefore, our study showed that regulation of DA1 in B. napus can increase the seed yield and biomass, and DA1 is a promising target for crop improvement. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Classification of viable and non-viable spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds by single seed near infrared spectroscopy and extended canonical variates analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a common non-destructive method for predicting seed quality parameters, such as moisture, oil, carbohydrates and protein content. Furthermore, variations in absorbance between germinating and non-germinating seeds have been shown in single seed...... with earlier studies of spinach seeds. Single seed NIR and ECVA classification are potential methods for the prediction of seed viability....

  7. Consequences of intraspecific seed-size variation in Sparganium emersum for dispersal by fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Ouborg, J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) is likely to vary within aquatic plant species, depending on intraspecific variation in phenotypic seed traits. 2. We studied the effect of seed size variation within the unbranched burreed (Sparganium emersum) on the potential for internal

  8. Seed weight - seedling size correlation in coastal Douglas-fir: genetic and environmental components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; Robert K. Campbell

    1992-01-01

    The effect of seed weight on nursery seedling height was analyzed in two experiments. In expt. 1, 16 seeds per family from 111 families were individually weighed and sown in autumn. In expt. 2, a second group of 16 seeds were individually weighed and stratified and sown in spring. Four-tree noncontiguous family plots were randomly assigned to two densities in two...

  9. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  10. Effect of seed yam weight on growth and tuber yield of white yam ( D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different weights of seed yam (250, 300 and 350 g) on growth and tuber yield of white yam were evaluated. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) among the three seed yam weights in vine length, number and basal diameter, and leaf number measured at 8, 10, and 12 weeks after planting, ...

  11. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of the immature seeds of two Brassica napus lines with extremely different thousand-seed weight to identify the candidate genes related to seed weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xinxin; Dong, Na; Wang, Yuquan; Li, Gan; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Xuejiao; Li, Jiabing; Wen, Zhaopu; Wei, Wenhui

    2018-01-01

    Brassica napus is an important oilseed crop worldwide. Although seed weight is the main determinant of seed yield, few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms that regulate seed weight in B. napus. In this study, the immature seeds of G-42 and 7-9, two B. napus doubled haploid (DH) lines with extremely different thousand-seed weight (TSW), were selected for a transcriptome analysis to determine the regulatory mechanisms underlying seed weight at the whole gene expression level and to identify candidate genes related to seed weight. A total of 2,251 new genes and 2,205 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained via RNA-seq (RNA sequencing). Among these genes, 1,747 (77.61%) new genes and 2020 (91.61%) DEGs were successfully annotated. Of these DEGs, 1,118 were up-regulated and 1,087 were down-regulated in the large-seed line. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analysis indicated that 15 DEGs were involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and proteasome pathways, which might participate in regulating seed weight. The Gene Ontology (GO) database indicated that 222 DEGs were associated with the biological process or molecular function categories related to seed weight, such as cell division, cell size and cell cycle regulation, seed development, nutrient reservoir activity, and proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic processes. Moreover, 50 DEGs encoding key enzymes or proteins were identified that likely participate in regulating seed weight. A DEG (GSBRNA2T00037121001) identified by the transcriptome analysis was also previously identified in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) region for seed weight via SLAF-seq (Specific Locus Amplified Fragment sequencing). Finally, the expression of 10 DEGs with putative roles in seed weight and the expression of the DEG GSBRNA2T00037121001 were confirmed by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, and the results were consistent with the RNA

  12. Intraspecific variation of seed floating ability in Sparganium emersum suggests a bimodal dispersal strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Verbruggen, E.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Ouborg, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water-mediated spread of seeds (hydrochory) plays an important role in the dispersal of aquatic plants. In this study we investigate intraspecific variation in floating ability and germination capacity of Sparganium emersum seeds in relation to seed mass, within three natural populations along the

  13. Variation in seed packaging of a fleshy-fruited conifer provides insights into the ecology and evolution of multi-seeded fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, L; Torices, R; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S; Nabais, C

    2017-07-01

    The study of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different populations may allow better understanding of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. Juniperus thurifera (Cupressaceae) provides a good model to study this due to the existence of two subspecies differentiated by phenotypic traits, such as seed size and cone seediness (number of seeds inside a cone), across its range. The aim of this study was to analyse seed packaging (seed mass and cone seediness) variation at different scales (subspecies, populations and individuals) and the relationship between cone and seed traits in European and African J. thurifera populations. After opening more than 5300 cones and measuring 3600 seeds, we found that seed packaging traits followed different patterns of variation. Large-scale effects (region and population) significantly contributed to cone seediness variance, while most of the seed mass variance occurred within individuals. Seed packaging differed between the two sides of the Mediterranean Sea, with African cones bearing fewer but larger seeds than the European ones. However, no differences in seed mass were found between populations when taking into account cone seediness. Larger cones contained more pulp and seeds and displayed a larger variation in individual seed mass. We validated previous reports on the intraspecific differences in J. thurifera seed packaging, although both subspecies followed the same seed size/number trade-off. The higher seediness and variation in seed mass found in larger cones reveals that the positive relationship between seed and cone sizes may not be straightforward.We hypothesise that the large variation of seed size found within cones and individuals in J. thurifera, but also in other fleshy-fruited species, could represent a bet-hedging strategy for dispersal. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Variations in soil seed banks of abandoned farmlands of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except seeds of Canariums chweinfurthii and Dialium guineense no other tree seeds were recorded. It was concluded that man should help in tree seeds dispersal and seedlings maintenance within abandoned farmland of the tropical rainforest to minimize the danger of most tree species being classified as being rare or ...

  15. Variation in physico-chemical properties of seed of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... level after through shaking to remove air bubble was recorded as dry seed volume. Dry seed density was estimated by dividing 20 g with the dry seed volume. ..... The authors wish to acknowledge the financial contribu- tions of the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, United. Kingdom through the IITA/Gatsby ...

  16. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  17. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin eVoiniciuc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50% to 200% of Col-0 levels in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10, which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads

  18. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  19. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  20. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical seed defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S; Fu, Xianhui; Schutte, Brian J; Berhow, Mark A; Dalling, James W

    2016-10-01

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study. Seeds of 11 annual weed species were buried in Savoy, IL, from 2007 through 2012. Seedling recruitment was measured weekly and seed viability measured annually. Seed physiological (dormancy), chemical (phenolic compound diversity and concentration; invertebrate toxicity), and physical traits (seed coat mass, thickness, and rupture resistance) were measured.Seed half-life in the soil (t0.5) showed strong interspecific variation (F10,30 = 15, p weed seed dormancy and seedbank persistence are linked across diverse environments and agroecosystems. Moreover, among seedbank-forming early successional plant species, relative investment in chemical and physical seed defense varies with seedbank persistence. Synthesis and applications. Strong covariance among weed seed traits and persistence in the soil seedbank indicates potential for seedbank management practices tailored to specific weed species. In particular, species with high t0.5 values tend to invest less in chemical defenses. This makes them highly vulnerable to physical harvest weed seed control strategies, with small amounts of damage resulting in their full decay.

  1. Genetic variation and heterotic effects for seed oil, seed protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hybrids revealed greater per se performance and positive heterosis for seed oil content. Of these, Surabhi x TCH 1646 exhibiting highest per se performance, heterotic effect was found to be best for directional selection. Keywords: Cotton, heterosis, seed oil, seed protein, yield. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  2. Wheat seed weight and quality differ temporally in sensitivity to warm or cool conditions during seed development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehzadeh, M; Ellis, R H

    2017-09-01

    Short periods of extreme temperature may affect wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed weight, but also quality. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature during seed development and maturation was investigated. Plants of 'Tybalt' grown at ambient temperature were moved to growth cabinets at 29/20°C or 34/20°C (2010), or 15/10°C or 34/20°C (2011), for successive 7-d periods from 7 DAA (days after anthesis) onwards, and also 7-65 DAA in 2011. Seed samples were harvested serially and moisture content, weight, ability to germinate, subsequent longevity in air-dry storage and bread-making quality were determined. High temperature (34/20°C) reduced final seed weight, with greatest temporal sensitivity at 7-14 or 14-21 DAA. Several aspects of bread-making quality were also most sensitive to high temperature then, but whereas protein quality decreased protein and sulphur concentrations improved. Early exposure to high temperature provided earlier development of ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation, but had little effect on maximum germination capacity. All treatments at 15/10°C resulted in ability to germinate declining between 58 and 65 DAA. Early exposure to high temperature hastened improvement in seed storage longevity, but the subsequent decline in late maturation preceded that in the control. Long (7-65 DAA) exposure to 15/10°C disrupted the development of seed longevity, with no improvement after seed filling ended. Longevity improved during maturation drying in other treatments. Early (7-14 DAA) exposure to high temperature reduced and low temperature increased subsequent longevity at harvest maturity, whereas late (35 or 42-49 DAA) exposure to high temperature increased and low temperature reduced it. Temporal sensitivity to extreme temperature was detected. It varied considerably amongst the contrasting seed variables investigated. Subsequent seed longevity at harvest maturity responded negatively to temperature early in development, but positively

  3. Evolutionary and ecological consequences of multiscale variation in pollen receipt for seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability can select for traits that reduce the negative impacts of this variability on mean fitness. Such selection may be particularly potent for seed production in flowering plants, as they often experience variation in pollen receipt among individuals and among flowers within individuals. Using analytically tractable models, we examine the optimal allocations for producing ovules, attracting pollen, and maturing seeds in deterministic and stochastic pollen environments. In deterministic environments, the optimal strategy attracts sufficient pollen to fertilize every ovule and mature every zygote into a seed. Stochastic environments select for allocations proportional to the risk of seed production being limited by zygotes or seed maturation. When producing an ovule is cheap and maturing a seed is expensive, among-plant variation selects for attracting more pollen at the expense of producing fewer ovules and having fewer resources for seed maturation. Despite this increased allocation, such populations are likely to be pollen limited. In contrast, within-plant variation generally selects for an overproduction of ovules and, to a lesser extent, pollen attraction. Such populations are likely to be resource limited and exhibit low seed-to-ovule ratios. These results highlight the importance of multiscale variation in the evolution and ecology of resource allocations.

  4. Normal plantar weight distribution pattern and its variations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal plantar weight distribution pattern and its variations with change of functional position and its comparison with patients of knee osteoarthritis. ... The participants in group-1 had no knee complaint and those in group-2 had diagnosis of early knee osteoarthritis. Independent test was used for the statistical analysis.

  5. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... The mean within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher CVBWT than gilts. To enhance profitability of pig ...

  6. Variation in individual piglet birth weights in a Large White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher CVBWT than gilts. To enhance profitability of pig enterprises, the selection for increased NBA should be followed by selection for decreased CVBWT. Keywords: Coefficient of variation, litter weight at birth, number of piglets born alive, parity ...

  7. Seed trichome variation in Hibiscus section Furcaria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micromorphology of the seed trichomes in Hibiscus section Furcaria in Tropical East Africa was surveyed. The structure of the trichomes was found to be unique for each species examined, where such trichomes are present. Seed trichomes of specimens of H. altissimus Horny from the Kenya and Tanzania coasts were ...

  8. Variation in seed rain from Widdringtonia whytei growing in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulanje Mountain is one of the examples of tropical montane landscapes with plant populations varying in size from small fragments of less than 1 ha to riverine strips and stands of more than 100 ha. Seed availability is a potential limiting factor in vegetation recovery in such landscapes. Field observation on seed rain and ...

  9. Variation in physico-chemical properties of seed of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed coat colour plays no significant role in the chemical content of the seed. The physicochemical properties evaluated generally had high broad sense heritability (56 - 99%). Cowpea varieties (IT97K-1101-5 and IT89KD-288) with high protein content could be selected for formulating infant feeds, varieties with lower

  10. FERTILITY VARIATION of Melaleuca cajuput subspcajuputi AND ITS IMPLICATION IN SEED ORCHARD MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khomsah Kartikawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information about fertility variation of flowering trees in seed orchard including determining the quality of seed production and estimating the genetic diversity are still lacking. This paper evaluates fertility variation, effective population size and genetic diversity among cajuput trees in seedling seed orchard at Paliyan, Gunungkidul for optimizing seed orchard management. A total of 160 trees were observed in three flowering periods of 2011-2013. The fertility based on the number of flowers and fruits were registered for each tree at the age of 12, 13 and 14 years. Results show that there are similar patterns of fertility after three years observation. Sibling coefficients (Ψ which show fertility variation during three flowering periods are 1.39, 1.25 and 1.43 respectively. They show deviation from random mating, because of individual imbalance for producing flowers and fruits. However, the number of fertile trees was comparatively higher at 2011. More than 15 families of effective population size were recorded each year and supported more than 75% individuals in seed orchard to contribute flowers and seeds. High value of genetic diversity was calculated based on fertility variation (0.965, 0.967 and 0.957, respectively. Fertility variation led to consequence on seed deployment, including seeds of fertile families which should be collected equally and mixed to compose equal proportion of seeds and to avoid domination of highly fertility families and genetic drift. Silvicultural treatments in seed orchard management were indispensable to promote fertility uniformity and to increase effective population size in seed orchard for obtaining maximal genetic gain.

  11. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  12. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  13. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  14. Effects of environmental variation during seed production on seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven; MacGregor, Dana R

    2017-02-01

    The environment during seed production has major impacts on the behaviour of progeny seeds. It can be shown that for annual plants temperature perception over the whole life history of the mother can affect the germination rate of progeny, and instances have been documented where these affects cross whole generations. Here we discuss the current state of knowledge of signal transduction pathways controlling environmental responses during seed production, focusing both on events that take place in the mother plant and those that occur directly as a result of environmental responses in the developing zygote. We show that seed production environment effects are complex, involving overlapping gene networks active independently in fruit, seed coat, and zygotic tissues that can be deconstructed using careful physiology alongside molecular and genetic experiments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in the Ochoco and Malheur National Forests of central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; John C. Weber

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits was evaluated for 280 families from 220 locations. Factor scores from three principal components were related by multiple regression to latitude, longitude, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed source, and by classification analysis to seed zone and elevation band in seed zone. Location variance was significant...

  16. Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of seed weight and seed quality in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Tianyao; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-08-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium(®) SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using 'pseudomolecules' representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their hypothetical order and to perform association mapping of seed weight and seed quality. As a result, two significant associations on A8 and C3 of Brassica napus were detected for erucic acid content, and the peak SNPs were found to be only 233 and 128 kb away from the key genes BnaA.FAE1 and BnaC.FAE1. BnaA.FAE1 was also identified to be significantly associated with the oil content. Orthologues of Arabidopsis thaliana HAG1 were identified close to four clusters of SNPs associated with glucosinolate content on A9, C2, C7 and C9. For seed weight, we detected two association signals on A7 and A9, which were consistent with previous studies of quantitative trait loci mapping. The results indicate that our association mapping approach is suitable for fine mapping of the complex traits in rapeseed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  17. Variation in diosgenin level in seed kernels among different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its seed kernel is used for oil extraction and the oil is used for human consumption and cosmetics. However, the oil cake is regarded as unsuitable for feeding because of the presence of many toxic substances. In this study, a spectrophotometric determination of diosgenin level and subsequent oil percentage analyses were ...

  18. Genetic variation for drought resistance in small red seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is low in major growing regions of Ethiopia mainly due to drought, caused by low and erratic rainfall. A field experiment was carried out at Gofa in Southern Ethiopia, to assess genetic variability for drought resistance in forty-nine small red seeded common bean genotypes ...

  19. Variation of seed protein of Alkanna orientalis subpopulations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographically, the first four sites are closed wadi systems (narrow wadi beds bounded by high mountains) and hence probably having very restricted gene flow with each other, while the last two sites (El-Rasis and El-Sheikh) are open flat areas expected to be subjected to occasional gene flow via seed transport from the ...

  20. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  1. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  2. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield.

  3. Variation of germination of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. seed during storage life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Nevena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. seed is dormant, which means that the maximum germination is achieved after some time. The research was performed on one genotype (Domaci srednje dugi - DSD. The seed, studied for germination rate, originates from year 2007 and the germination variation was studied for period 2007 - 2011. Eggplant seed was dormant after yield in 2007, but the germination increased over the years. The trial was conducted at the standard germination test method, defined in the Regulation on quality of agricultural seeds, 1987. The lowest germination rate (41% was in year of production (2007 of the II yield, while the maximum germination was found for the seed produced in the III yield, after two years of preserving. Although the seed after the period of dormancy had satisfactory - higher germination rate, trend of germination decrease was also present which is a normal due to seed aging. The conclusion is that the time of yield significantly determinate the dormancy of the eggplant seed and the time required for maximum germination and delayed aging of seed.

  4. Variations in seed traits of castor ( Ricinus communis ) accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical analysis showed that castor seed and oil had saponification value of 182.9 mg/g, moisture content of 4.4%, acid value of 3.085 mg/g, viscosity of 110.41 cP, pH of 6.11, iodine value of 8.46 mg/g, specific gravity of 0.962 and refractive index of 1.477˚C. The proximate analysis showed that moisture ...

  5. [Variation of muscle mass and weight in critical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Matarín, J; del Cotillo-Fuente, M; Grané-Mascarell, N; Quintana, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantify the muscle mass and body weight variation in critically ill patients and to identify associated factors. A descriptive follow-up study. Data for demographic variables, body weight, fluid balance, daily kilocalories, the amount of sedation and muscle relaxants received and motor physiotherapy applied were collected. Three consecutive measurements were performed in the brachial biceps and quadriceps rectus by using ultrasound, upon admission and every 5 days until discharge. 68 patients were included. Average age was of 73.5 [57-78,5] years. The median length of stay was 9.5 [5.5 -15] days. The median 16 (SD=5.7) daily kilocalories per kg/weight, 91.2% received sedation, 44.1% received muscle relaxants and 20% received physiotherapy. The patients presented a muscle wasting of 4.9 (SD=3.9)mm, p <.001 in the brachial biceps and 5.6 (SD=4.8)mm, p <.001 in the quadriceps rectus. Regression analysis selected the length of stay and the muscle relaxants are the most influential variables in the brachial biceps muscle wasting (R2=0.4), and length of stay as the most influential in the quadriceps rectus muscle wasting (R2=0.3). Patient's mean body weight on admission was of 81.1 (SD=15)kg and 81.2 (SD=14.2)kg on discharge, p=.95. The critically ill patient presents a significant muscle waste related with the length of stay and the treatment received with muscle relaxants. Patients are being discharged with a similar body weight to which they were admitted but with a significant reduction of muscle mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic variation and heterotic effects for seed oil, seed protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. Accepted 8 August ... List of parental genotypes used for genetic studies in upland cotton. CICR, Central ...... Heterosis and inbreeding depression for seed oil and protein contents in upland.

  7. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Smeekens, S.C.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2012-01-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy

  8. Interactive effects of salinity, nitrate, light, and seed weight on the germination of the halophyte Crithmum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, A; Debez, A; Rabhi, M; Smaoui, A; Abdelly, C

    2009-12-01

    Interaction of salinity, nitrate, light, and seed weight on the germination of Crithmum maritimum was investigated. Seeds of three size categories were germinated at 0-200 mM NaCl with either 0, 5 or 20 mM KNO 3 . Experiments were done under darkness, white light, or red light. Regardless of seed weight, germination was maximal in distilled water. Under salinity, the smallest seeds showed the highest germination percentage. Salt impact was amplified by darkness, but was mitigated by nitrate supply, red light and their combination. At the same PPFD, germination of T2 seeds was higher, when exposed to red light than under white light, suggesting that germination was more influenced by the light type than by the PPFD. As a whole, not only salinity, nutrient availability, seed weight, and light, but also their interaction may control the germination of this halophyte.

  9. Experiments on Growth and Variation of Spaceship Loaded Plant Seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. Y.; Lee, G. J.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, J. B.

    2008-08-15

    This educational experiment was designed (1)to obtain the basic information on the effects of the space environments on plant growth and mutagenesis, (2)to evaluate plant germination and seedling growth under the effect of microgravity and light conditions and (3)to improve a child's scientific mind through the real-time observations of a seedling growth for two plants conducted both in space and on earth. This project was implemented?as one of the missions in the Korean Astronaut Program. Seeds of eleven plant species (rice, soybean, rape, radish, hot pepper, perilla, arabidopsis, orchids, dandelion, hibiscus, cosmos) was vacuum-sealed in aluminium bags. Those seeds was loaded in the 'Progress' spaceship in Feb. 2008, traveled in the 'Progress', placed in the Russian Sector-International Space Station (RS-ISS), and then was brought by the Korean astronaut from the RS-ISS, and handed over to us at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The germination rate, plant growth and mutation type/frequency of the returned plants are under testing in the lab and field in KAERI now. The first Korean astronaut, Dr. So-Yeon Yi, who had returned to earth on April 19, 2008 after successfully completing her scientific mission for 12 days in Space, performed the experiment of plant germination and seedling growth in the International Space Station (ISS), and a similarly designed experiment kit was distributed to conduct the experiment by student and adult volunteers in Korea at the same time. The experiment was to observe the effects of microgravity and light on a seedling growth for soybean and radish. We designed a growth kit that was an all-in-one package consisting of seeds (12 seeds in each chamber) and rock wool as a growing medium filled in four polycarbonate growing chambers in a light proof textile bag or carton paper. The bottom of the chamber was filled with a tightly-fitted rock wool which can hold water and provide moisture during a

  10. The role of fungal pathogens in flower size and seed mass variation in three species of Hydrophyllum (Hydrophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Deborah L; Marshall, Michelle L

    2006-03-01

    Identifying ecological factors that affect seed number and seed size is key to understanding the persistence of large seed mass variation in some plant species. Pathogens may increase seed mass variation by increasing resource demand over the growing season such that late fruits experience higher resource competition than early fruits. We tested whether Fusarium sp. and Rhizoctonia sp., soil fungi that cause wilt, contributed to seasonal decline in flower size, seed number, or seed mass in Hydrophyllum appendiculatum and H. canadense. A third species not infected by these soil fungi, H. virginianum, was studied to determine how seasonal decline in floral traits and seed mass variation varies within this genus. Flower size declined seasonally for all species, but was greatest for H. appendiculatum, a monocarpic biennial with indeterminate inflorescences. Seed number decreased between first and last inflorescences in H. appendiculatum, but not in H. canadense or H. virginianum, perennials with determinate inflorescences. Seed mass varied most in H. appendiculatum and H. canadense (4-20-fold in 50% of individuals) and least in H. virginianum (4-8-fold in >30% of individuals). Fungal infection increased seed mass variation among diseased plants in H. canadense and H. appendiculatum. However, within plants fungal infection only increased seasonal decline in flower size, seed number, and seed mass in H. appendiculatum when flowers received supplemental pollination.

  11. Drivers of Spatial Variation in the Role of Ants as Secondary Seed Dispersers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, C; Peixoto, P E C; Silva, W R; Pizo, M A

    2016-08-01

    The spatial variation in the outcome of the interaction between secondary dispersers and seeds is superimposed upon the variation produced by primary dispersers. Investigating the factors that drive the outcome of the interactions with secondary seed dispersers thus represents an essential refinement to our understanding of the complete seed dispersal process. We studied the interactions between two ponerine ants (Pachycondyla striata Smith, 1858 and Odontomachus chelifer (Latreille, 1802)) with fruits experimentally set on the ground, and estimated the effects of ants on seedling establishment in three areas distributed along a 2-km stretch of a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest that differ in soil properties and vegetation physiognomies. We tested the hypothesis that interactions are more frequent, resulting in greater seedling establishment at the site with harsher abiotic and biotic conditions. Both ant species removed fruits frequently and have a positive effect on seedling establishment in all study areas, but fruit removal did not differ among areas, while seedling establishment was more pronounced at the site with stressful abiotic conditions. The two ant species differed in important aspects of their seed dispersal services, including the propensity to interact with seeds. As a result, both the species of ant and abiotic conditions interact at the scale of 2 km to determine the fate of seeds interacting with ants, thus creating a mosaic of outcomes with variable benefits to plants. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R K; Sharma, Tilak R; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs.

  13. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    Full Text Available Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT and (GAA/CTT motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8% were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA followed by composite interval mapping (CIM which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs.

  14. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Small

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed bank composition was sampled in 192–2.5 m2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years and six second-growth (∼125 years mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sørensen's coefficient <10%, emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (P<.01 higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%–60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on postharvest forest development.

  15. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in seed morphology of the Lima bean in 31 accessions was studied. Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. The differences among the accessions were significant, based on the three seed characteristics. K-means cluster analysis grouped the 31 accessions into four distinct groups, ...

  16. Canalization of Seasonal Phenology in the Presence of Developmental Variation: Seed Dormancy Cycling in an Annual Weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brianne; Burghardt, Liana T; Kovach, Katherine E; Donohue, Kathleen

    2017-11-01

    Variation in the developmental timing in one life stage may ramify within and across generations to disrupt optimal phenology of other life stages. By focusing on a common mechanism of developmental arrest in plants-seed dormancy-we investigated how variation in flowering time influenced seed germination behavior and identified potential processes that can lead to canalized germination behavior despite variation in reproductive timing. We quantified effects of reproductive timing on dormancy cycling by experimentally manipulating the temperature during seed maturation and the seasonal timing of seed dispersal/burial, and by assessing temperature-dependent germination of un-earthed seeds over a seasonal cycle. We found that reproductive timing, via both seed-maturation temperature and the timing of dispersal, strongly influenced germination behavior in the weeks immediately following seed burial. However, buried seeds subsequently canalized their germination behavior, after losing primary dormancy and experiencing natural temperature and moisture conditions in the field. After the complete loss of primary dormancy, germination behavior was similar across seed-maturation and dispersal treatments, even when secondary dormancy was induced. Maternal effects themselves may contribute to the canalization of germination: first, by inducing stronger dormancy in autumn-matured seeds, and second by modifying the responses of those seeds to their ambient environment. Genotypes differed in dormancy cycling, with functional alleles of known dormancy genes necessary for the suppression of germination at warm temperatures in autumn through spring across multiple years. Loss of function of dormancy genes abolished almost all dormancy cycling. In summary, effects of reproductive phenology on dormancy cycling of buried seeds were apparent only as long as seeds retained primary dormancy, and a combination of genetically imposed seed dormancy, maternally induced seed dormancy, and

  17. Genetic variation for seed protein and amino acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif du présent travail était donc d'étudier la variation génétique de certains parents de sorgho et leurs hybrides F1, les effets de l'Aptitude Générale à la Combinaison et de l'Aptitude Spécifique à la Combinaison. L'expérimentation arrangée d'un dispositif en blocs complets randomisés et utilisant quatre variétés de ...

  18. Ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of modularity in weighted seed-dispersal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Ingmann, Lili; Strauss, Rouven

    2014-01-01

    Modularity is a recurrent and important property of bipartite ecological networks. Although well-resolved ecological networks describe interaction frequencies between species pairs, modularity of bipartite networks has been analysed only on the basis of binary presence-absence data. We employ a new...... algorithm to detect modularity in weighted bipartite networks in a global analysis of avian seed-dispersal networks. We define roles of species, such as connector values, for weighted and binary networks and associate them with avian species traits and phylogeny. The weighted, but not binary, analysis...... identified a positive relationship between climatic seasonality and modularity, whereas past climate stability and phylogenetic signal were only weakly related to modularity. Connector values were associated with foraging behaviour and were phylogenetically conserved. The weighted modularity analysis...

  19. Ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of modularity in weighted seed-dispersal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Ingmann, Lili; Strauss, Rouven; Fritz, Susanne A; Dalsgaard, Bo; Matthias Dehling, D; Plein, Michaela; Saavedra, Francisco; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Dormann, Carsten F

    2014-04-01

    Modularity is a recurrent and important property of bipartite ecological networks. Although well-resolved ecological networks describe interaction frequencies between species pairs, modularity of bipartite networks has been analysed only on the basis of binary presence-absence data. We employ a new algorithm to detect modularity in weighted bipartite networks in a global analysis of avian seed-dispersal networks. We define roles of species, such as connector values, for weighted and binary networks and associate them with avian species traits and phylogeny. The weighted, but not binary, analysis identified a positive relationship between climatic seasonality and modularity, whereas past climate stability and phylogenetic signal were only weakly related to modularity. Connector values were associated with foraging behaviour and were phylogenetically conserved. The weighted modularity analysis demonstrates the dominating impact of ecological factors on the structure of seed-dispersal networks, but also underscores the relevance of evolutionary history in shaping species roles in ecological communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, David A; Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moe, Annika M; Geber, Monica A; Goodwillie, Carol; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Eckert, Christopher G; Elle, Elizabeth; Johnston, Mark O; Kalisz, Susan; Ree, Richard H; Sargent, Risa D; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Winn, Alice A

    2017-03-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant-pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We found a weak decline in outcrossing rate towards higher latitudes and among some biomes, but no biogeographic patterns in the frequency of self-incompatibility. Incorporating life history and growth form into biogeographic analyses reduced or eliminated the importance of latitude and biome in predicting outcrossing or self-incompatibility. Our results suggest that biogeographic patterns in mating system are more likely a reflection of the frequency of life forms across latitudes rather than the strength of plant-pollinator interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  2. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  3. Relationships Between Seed Weight, Germination Potential and Biochemical Reserves of Maritime Pine in Morocco: Elements for Tree Seedlings Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Nadya; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Selection of quality seeds in breeding programs can significantly improve seedling productivity. Germination and biochemical analyses on seeds from ten natural populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Morocco reveals significant differences among populations in seed weight, germination characters and protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes. During germination, the mobilization of protein content in megagametophyte is significantly different among populations than sugar content. A strong positive correlation between the germination capacity and the protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes indicates that the best populations in term of germination capacity may also be the richest in protein content. The present study finds that seed weight is not a good indicator for quality seed selection, nor is it recommended to increase the degree of germinability. Our results suggest that the pine population in southern Morocco might have adapted to drought conditions as it is characterized by heavy seed weight and lower speed of protein content mobilization in megagametophyte compared to northern populations growing in temperate climate.

  4. Selecting sagebrush seed sources for restoration in a variable climate: ecophysiological variation among genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities dominate a large fraction of the United States and provide critical habitat for a number of wildlife species of concern. Loss of big sagebrush due to fire followed by poor restoration success continues to reduce ecological potential of this ecosystem type, particularly in the Great Basin. Choice of appropriate seed sources for restoration efforts is currently unguided due to knowledge gaps on genetic variation and local adaptation as they relate to a changing landscape. We are assessing ecophysiological responses of big sagebrush to climate variation, comparing plants that germinated from ~20 geographically distinct populations of each of the three subspecies of big sagebrush. Seedlings were previously planted into common gardens by US Forest Service collaborators Drs. B. Richardson and N. Shaw, (USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah and Boise, Idaho) as part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. Seed sources spanned all states in the conterminous Western United States. Germination, establishment, growth and ecophysiological responses are being linked to genomics and foliar palatability. New information is being produced to aid choice of appropriate seed sources by Bureau of Land Management and USFS field offices when they are planning seed acquisitions for emergency post-fire rehabilitation projects while considering climate variability and wildlife needs.

  5. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Plant functional traits provide a mechanistic basis for understanding ecological variation among plant species and the implications of this variation for species distribution, community assembly and restoration. 2. The bulk of our functional trait understanding, however, is centered on traits rel...

  6. Plant-Species Diversity Correlates with Genetic Variation of an Oligophagous Seed Predator

    OpenAIRE

    Liisa Laukkanen; Pia Mutikainen; Anne Muola; Roosa Leimu

    2014-01-01

    Several characteristics of habitats of herbivores and their food-plant communities, such as plant-species composition and plant quality, influence population genetics of both herbivores and their host plants. We investigated how different ecological and geographic factors affect genetic variation in and differentiation of 23 populations of the oligophagous seed predator Lygaeus equestris (Heteroptera) in southwestern Finland and in eastern Sweden. We tested whether genetic differentiation of ...

  7. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m...

  8. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  9. unctional Importance of Seed Weight on the Seedling Establishment of Syzygium bankense (Hassk. Merr. & L.M. Perry and Quercus gemelliflora Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNISA SATYANTI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling is the first and prominent phase of plant development. Seedling performance can be determined by seed and its embedded characteristics, among them is seed weight. In this study we would like to see how seed weight within species affect seedling establishment. The hypotheses tested were that heavier seed is regarded advantageous compared to lighter seed by functionally produce more competitive seedlings for better growth. Heavier seeds indeed resulted in higher shoot length than lighter seeds. The same pattern was also pronounced for the correlation between seed weight and shoot length of Syzygium bankense and Quercus gemelliflora. There was also a significant positive correlation between seed size and number of leaf within species.

  10. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  11. Influence of seed size and weight used in sowing on common bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) Plant vigour

    OpenAIRE

    Toth Ilie; Neculai Dragomir; Carmen Dragomir; Dorin Camen; Anca Sala; Florin Neciu

    2015-01-01

    Growth and development of common bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) plants are influenced by seed size and weight upon sowing. Studies show that the five seed size groups influence plant vigour, i.e. a 2-4 times increase of morphological organs (roots, seedlings, leaves) in larger and heavier seed group than in smaller and lighter seed group. This increase was also pointed out by the strong correlations between seed size and plant vigour.

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jens-Christian, Holm; Michael, Gamborg; Leigh, Ward

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  13. Changes due to cooking and sterilization in low molecular weight carbohydrates in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months.

  14. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights.

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program......, and 68 children entered a follow-up program spanning 28 months. Measurements were performed at baseline and day 82 as well as at months 10, 16, and 28. Height, weight, body composition, Tanner stages, testicular size, and serum concentrations of leptin, and insulin were measured at all time points....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin...

  16. Rapid Identification of Candidate Genes for Seed Weight Using the SLAF-Seq Method in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Geng

    Full Text Available Seed weight is a critical and direct trait for oilseed crop seed yield. Understanding its genetic mechanism is of great importance for yield improvement in Brassica napus breeding. Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines derived by microspore culture were developed from a cross between a large-seed line G-42 and a small-seed line 7-9. According to the 1000-seed weight (TSW data, the individual DNA of the heaviest 46 lines and the lightest 47 lines were respectively selected to establish two bulked DNA pools. A new high-throughput sequencing technology, Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq, was used to identify candidate genes of TSW in association analysis combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA. A total of 1,933 high quality polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and 4 associated markers of TSW were procured. A hot region of ~0.58 Mb at nucleotides 25,401,885-25,985,931 on ChrA09 containing 91 candidate genes was identified as tightly associated with the TSW trait. From annotation information, four genes (GSBRNA2T00037136001, GSBRNA2T00037157001, GSBRNA2T00037129001 and GSBRNA2T00069389001 might be interesting candidate genes that are highly related to seed weight.

  17. Genetic variation in PLAG1 associates with early life body weight and peripubertal weight and growth in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, M; Grala, T; Sanders, K; Walker, C; Waghorn, G; Macdonald, K; Coppieters, W; Georges, M; Spelman, R; Hillerton, E; Davis, S; Snell, R

    2012-10-01

    Variation at the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) locus has recently been implicated in the regulation of stature and weight in Bos taurus. Using a population of 942 outbred Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, we report confirmation of this effect, demonstrating strong association of early life body weight with PLAG1 genotype. Peripubertal body weight and growth rate were also significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. Growth rate per kilogram of body weight, daily feed intake, gross feed efficiency and residual feed intake were not significantly associated with PLAG1 genotype. This study supports the status of PLAG1 as a key regulator of mammalian growth. Further, the data indicate the utility of PLAG1 polymorphisms for the selection of animals to achieve enhanced weight gain or conversely to aid the selection of animals with lower mature body weight and thus lower maintenance energy requirements. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Rapid development of adaptive, climate-driven clinal variation in seed mass in the invasive annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara K Konarzewski

    Full Text Available We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection. We collected seeds from 34 field populations from a 1,000 km long temperature and rainfall gradient across the species' introduced range in south-eastern Australia. Seeds were germinated, grown to reproductive age under common glasshouse conditions, and progeny seeds were harvested and weighed. Analyses showed that seed mass was significantly related to climatic factors, with populations sourced from hotter, more arid sites producing heavier seeds than populations from cooler and wetter sites. Seed mass was not related to edaphic factors. We also found that seed mass was significantly related to both longitude and latitude with each degree of longitude west and latitude north increasing seed mass by around 2.5% and 4% on average. There was little evidence that within-population or between-population variation in seed mass varied in a systematic manner across the study region. Our findings provide compelling evidence for development of a strong cline in seed mass across the geographic range of a widespread and highly successful invasive annual forb. Since large seed mass is known to provide reproductive assurance for plants in arid environments, our results support the hypothesis that the fitness and range potential of invasive species can increase as a result of genetic divergence of populations along broad climatic gradients. In E. plantagineum population-level differentiation has occurred in 150 years or less, indicating that the adaptation process can be rapid.

  19. Seasonal and annual variations in body weight and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...

  20. Seasonal Variations in Birth Weight in Suzhou Industrial Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Ding, Yi; Rui, Xing Li; Mao, Cai Ping

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental factors have been shown to adversely influence birth weight, and new insight has been gained into 'seasonal programming'. We studied a total of 23,064 infants. The mean birth weight varied across seasons. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous outcomes (e.g., macrosomia, low birth weight). There were significant differences in the risks for macrosomia in infants born in different seasons. Compared with those for infants born in spring, the ORs for macrosomia were 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.98] and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77-0.99) for infants born in summer and autumn, respectively. These findings suggest that environmental factors may have public health implications and should be considered when primary prevention programs are developed for macrosomia or low birth weight. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotypic variation in fruit ripening time and weight reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed in most of the hybrids compared to plantain landraces in their keeping qualities before senescence. Specifically, hybrids 23977-7 and SH 3362 kept for 25.9 days to stage 10. Fruits of FHIA 3 showed the shortest storage life (13.3days) before senescence. The weight of ...

  2. Plant-species diversity correlates with genetic variation of an oligophagous seed predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Laukkanen

    Full Text Available Several characteristics of habitats of herbivores and their food-plant communities, such as plant-species composition and plant quality, influence population genetics of both herbivores and their host plants. We investigated how different ecological and geographic factors affect genetic variation in and differentiation of 23 populations of the oligophagous seed predator Lygaeus equestris (Heteroptera in southwestern Finland and in eastern Sweden. We tested whether genetic differentiation of the L. equestris populations was related to the similarity of vegetation, and whether there was more within-population genetic variation in habitats with a high number of plant species or in those with a large population of the primary food plant, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. We also tested whether genetic differentiation of the populations was related to the geographic distance, and whether location of the populations on islands or on mainland, island size, or population size affected within-population genetic variation. Pairwise FST ranged from 0 to 0.1 indicating low to moderate genetic differentiation of populations. Differentiation increased with geographic distance between the populations, but was not related to the similarity of vegetation between the habitats. Genetic variation within the L. equestris populations did not increase with the population size of the primary food plant. However, the more diverse the plant community the higher was the level of genetic variation within the L. equestris population. Furthermore, the level of genetic variation did not vary significantly between island and mainland populations. The effect of the population size on within-population genetic variation was related to island size. Usually small populations are susceptible to loss of genetic variation, but small L. equestris populations on large islands seemed to maintain a relatively high level of within-population genetic variation. Our findings suggest that, in

  3. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  4. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  5. Genetic variation in flowering phenology and avoidance of seed predation in native populations of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, A; Barat, M; Legionnet, A S; Parize, L; Tarayre, M

    2010-02-01

    The genetic variation in flowering phenology may be an important component of a species' capacity to colonize new environments. In native populations of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, flowering phenology has been shown to be bimodal and related to seed predation. The aim of the present study was to determine if this bimodality has a genetic basis, and to investigate whether the polymorphism in flowering phenology is genetically linked to seed predation, pod production and growth patterns. We set up an experiment raising maternal families in a common garden. Based on mixed analyses of variance and correlations among maternal family means, we found genetic differences between the two main flowering types and confirmed that they reduced seed predation in two different ways: escape in time or predator satiation. We suggest that this polymorphism in strategy may facilitate maintain high genetic diversity for flowering phenology and related life-history traits in native populations of this species, hence providing high evolutionary potential for these traits in invaded areas.

  6. Uncovering the genetic architecture of seed weight and size in intermediate wheatgrass through linkage and association mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG); Thinopyrum intermedium) is being developed as a new perennial grain crop that has a large allohexaploid genome similar to that of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Breeding for increased seed weight is one of the primary goals for improving grain yield of IWG. As a new crop, ...

  7. Genetic parameters for within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and change in within-litter variation during suckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, L H; Rydhmer, L; Løvendahl, P; Grandinson, K

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for within-litter variation in birth weight and for change in within-litter variation in piglet weight during suckling. A further objective was to estimate maternal genetic correlations of these two traits with mortality, birth weight, growth, and number of piglets born alive. Data were obtained from Lövsta research station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and included 22,521 piglets born in 2,003 litters by 1,074 Swedish Yorkshire sows. No cross fostering was used in the herd. The following seven traits were analysed in a multivariate animal (sow) model: number of piglets born alive, within-litter SD in birth weight, within-litter SD in piglet weight at 3 wk of age, mean weight at birth, mean weight at 3 wk of age, proportion of stillborn piglets, and proportion of dead piglets during suckling. Maternal genetic variance for the change in within-litter SD in piglet weight during suckling was assessed from the estimated additive genetic covariance components by conditioning on within-litter SD in birth weight. Similarly, mean growth of piglets during suckling was assessed from the additive genetic covariance components by conditioning on mean weight at birth. The heritability for within-litter SD in birth weight was 0.08 and 0.06 for within-litter SD in piglet weight at 3 wk. The genetic correlation between these two traits was 0.71. Little maternal genetic variance was found for the change in within-litter SD in piglet weight during suckling, and opportunity for genetic improvement of this trait by selective breeding seems limited. The genetic correlation of within-litter SD in birth weight with proportion of dead piglets during suckling was 0.25 and of within-litter SD in birth weight with mean growth of piglets was -0.31. The maternal genetic variance and heritability found for within-litter SD in birth weight indicates that genetic improvement of this

  8. Identification of candidate genes of QTLs for seed weight in Brassica napus through comparative mapping among Arabidopsis and Brassica species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in polyploidy crop species remains a challenge due to the complexity of their genome structures. QTLs for seed weight in B. napus have been identified, but information on candidate genes for identified QTLs of this important trait is still rare. Results In this study, a whole genome genetic linkage map for B. napus was constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that covered a genetic distance of 2,126.4 cM with an average distance of 5.36 cM between markers. A procedure was developed to establish colinearity of SSR loci on B. napus with its two progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea through extensive bioinformatics analysis. With the aid of B. rapa and B. oleracea genome sequences, the 421 homologous colinear loci deduced from the SSR loci of B. napus were shown to correspond to 398 homologous loci in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through comparative mapping of Arabidopsis and the three Brassica species, 227 homologous genes for seed size/weight were mapped on the B. napus genetic map, establishing the genetic bases for the important agronomic trait in this amphidiploid species. Furthermore, 12 candidate genes underlying 8 QTLs for seed weight were identified, and a gene-specific marker for BnAP2 was developed through molecular cloning using the seed weight/size gene distribution map in B. napus. Conclusions Our study showed that it is feasible to identify candidate genes of QTLs using a SSR-based B. napus genetic map through comparative mapping among Arabidopsis and B. napus and its two progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea. Identification of candidate genes for seed weight in amphidiploid B. napus will accelerate the process of isolating the mapped QTLs for this important trait, and this approach may be useful for QTL identification of other traits of agronomic significance. PMID:23216693

  9. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  10. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  11. Variation of nutrients and antioxidant activity in seed and exocarp layer of some Persian pistachio genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nuts are rich sources of nutrients which are essential for human wellbeing. In the present study we investigate the variation of oil, protein, total phenol, mineral contents, and antioxidant activity of twenty rare Persian pistachio nuts and exocarp layer. Among the 20 pistachio genotypes, in seeds Mn concentration was varied from 5.73 to 17.33 mg/kg; Fe ranged from 17 to 62.4 mg/kg; Zn varied from 6.76 to 30.3 mg/kg; Na ranged from 0.06 to 0.126%; K varied from 0.68 to 1.35%; P varied from 0.42 to 0.73%; N ranged from 2.6 to 4.29%; Mg varied from 0.11 to 0.17%, Ca varied from 0.23 to 0.47%, oil ranged from 47.94 to 57.29% and protein ranged from 16.26 to 25.5%. The G3 genotype had the highest total phenol content (35.64 mg GAEs/g and antioxidant activity (90.55% in exocarp layer and oil content in seeds (57.29%. The highest phosphorus (0.73% in exocarp layer and phenol (4.2 mg GAEs/g contents in seeds were observed in G19. According to the correlation analysis, there were a correlation between total phenol (in exocarp layer and oil contents gain with some values; these two values had a significant correlation with PC1. Cluster analysis separated the genotypes into three groups considering all measured Values.

  12. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees.

  13. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-06-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed.

  14. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  15. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Shir, Ofer M; Yu, Yang; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profiles and composition of storage reserves of agricultural crop seeds are strongly regulated by heritable and environmental factors. Yet, very little is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of adaptive metabolic variation amongst wild type as well as transgenic seed populations derived from the same genetic background, grown under natural field conditions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of natural environmental conditions on wild type and transgenic soybean seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of cystathionine γ-synthase, a methionine main regulatory enzyme. The seeds were grown in four geographically distinct habitats in China and then assayed for primary metabolic profiles using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, morphological traits and storage reserve accumulation. The analyses revealed changes in the levels of primary metabolites which evidently exhibited high correlation to methionine regardless of changes in environmental conditions. The environment, however, constituted a major determinant of metabolic profiles amongst seeds, as much more metabolites were observed to be affected by this variable, particularly along the north-to-south latitudinal gradient. The observations suggest that metabolic variation amongst seeds grown under natural field conditions depends upon the complex relationships existing amongst their genetic background and the environmental conditions characterizing their cultivation areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL FROM KAPUK SEED OIL (Ceiba Pentandra L AT VARIATION STIRRING DURATION IN TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Dwi Siswani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel targeted as SNI 04-7182-2006 standard has been done from kapuk randu seed, following two steps i.e. sokhlet extraction process of kapuk seed oil from kapuk seed using n-heksane as a solvent, and the production of biodiesel from kapuk seed oil by transesterification process using methanol and KOH as catalyst. Transesterificatin process was performed at temperature 50 oC with the variation of stirring duration as followed  50, 75, 100 and 125 minutes. The kapuk randu extraction resulted  % kapuk randu seed oil, while the transestherification process resulted around 55 - 65%. The biodiesel product characteristics provided the density value of all biodiesel at stirring durations variation are suitable with SNI standard (850 – 890 kg/m3, the viscosity value of all biodiesel are  higher than the range SNI value (2,3 – 6,0 cSt. While the flash point values are lesser than SNI standard (10160 - 11000 cal/g.   Keywords: kapuk randu seed, transestherification, biodiesel

  18. Extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Jeffrey P; Touzet, Pascal; Gummow, Julie S; Delph, Lynda F; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2007-08-09

    It has long been known that rates of synonymous substitutions are unusually low in mitochondrial genes of flowering and other land plants. Although two dramatic exceptions to this pattern have recently been reported, it is unclear how often major increases in substitution rates occur during plant mitochondrial evolution and what the overall magnitude of substitution rate variation is across plants. A broad survey was undertaken to evaluate synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Although most taxa conform to the generality that plant mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly, additional cases of highly accelerated rates were found. We explore in detail one of these new cases, within the genus Silene. A roughly 100-fold increase in synonymous substitution rate is estimated to have taken place within the last 5 million years and involves only one of ten species of Silene sampled in this study. Examples of unusually slow sequence evolution were also identified. Comparison of the fastest and slowest lineages shows that synonymous substitution rates vary by four orders of magnitude across seed plants. In other words, some plant mitochondrial lineages accumulate more synonymous change in 10,000 years than do others in 100 million years. Several perplexing cases of gene-to-gene variation in sequence divergence within a plant were uncovered. Some of these probably reflect interesting biological phenomena, such as horizontal gene transfer, mitochondrial-to-nucleus transfer, and intragenomic variation in mitochondrial substitution rates, whereas others are likely the result of various kinds of errors. The extremes of synonymous substitution rates measured here constitute by far the largest known range of rate variation for any group of organisms. These results highlight the utility of examining absolute substitution rates in a phylogenetic context rather than by traditional pairwise methods. Why substitution rates are generally so low

  19. Seed predation and climate impacts on reproductive variation in temperate forests of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Bell; James S. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Climatic effects on tree recruitment will be determined by the interactive effects of fecundity and seed predation. Evaluating how insect and vertebrate seed predators mediate tree reproductive responses to climate depends on long-term studies of seed production, development, and predation. In this study, our objectives were to (1) assess the effects of...

  20. Effects of sow nutrition during gestation on within-litter birth weight variation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P H R F; Silva, B A N; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Knol, E F

    2012-05-01

    The increasing demand for efficiency in pork production requires great specialization of all sectors involved in this activity. In this context, the development of strategies that could reduce undesirable traits related with negative effects on piglet survival and postnatal growth and development are essential for the pig industry. Currently, special attention is given to variation in birth weight, as some evidences suggest an increased within-litter birth weight variation in modern sows. This variation has been shown to be associated with preweaning mortality, variable weights at weaning and deteriorated growth performance, which results in economic losses and lower efficiency. Therefore, understanding the factors that can influence the events that occur during gestation and that have an impact on the fetal growth and development are important to achieve better efficiency and also to develop strategies that can be used to achieve increased within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight. This study concludes that even at a given placental size, fetal growth may vary because of differences in placental vascularization and efficiency. Feeding extra feed or energy during late gestation only marginally improves birth weight, and positive effects are not consistent between different studies. The detrimental effects of protein restriction on fetal growth during early gestation may be due to altered placental and endometrial angiogenesis and growth, which leads to a reduction in placental-fetal blood flow, nutrient supply from mother to the fetuses and ultimately to fetal growth retardation. The number of studies that attempted to influence within-litter birth weight variation by means of sow nutrition during gestation is limited. Therefore, more research concerning sow nutrition during gestation associated with the provision of balanced diets to meet requirements of the sows and fetuses are still required. This knowledge may subsequently provide starting points for the

  1. effects of variation of particle size and weight fraction on the tensile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Abstract. The effects of variation of particle size and weight fraction on the tensile strength and Youngs modulus of periwinkle shell reinforced polyester composite have been investigated. Particulate reinforced polyester composites incorporating varying amounts of periwinkle shell particles (10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 45 wt %) of ...

  2. Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. Testicular recrudescence commenced in autumn (April), reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn ...

  3. Effects of Variation of Particle Size and Weight Fraction on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of variation of particle size and weight fraction on the tensile strength and Young's modulus of periwinkle shell reinforced polyester composite have been investigated. Particulate reinforced polyester composites incorporating varying amounts of periwinkle shell particles (10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 45wt %) of different ...

  4. Thermal Properties and Molecular Weight Variations due to Thermal History in Segmented Polyurethane Copolymer Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Y.J.; Park, D.W.; Kim, H.L.; Choe, S.J. [BAIKSAN CO. LTD. (Korea); Lee, H.S.; Mah, S.I. [Inha University, Inchon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The variations of the glass transition, melting peaks, molecular weight and its distribution (polydispersity index: PI) due to the annealing temperature and time have been investigated using the thermoplastic segmented polyurethanes (TPUs) and its blends based on the contents of hard segment. The position of the microdomain structure due to the long-range or short-range segmental motion, the order-disorder transition of non-crystalline microphase, the variation of the domain size or the degree of disorder of crystalline structure by given different thermal histories. The annealing temperature and time affected the molecular weight and polydispersity : the number and weight average molecular weights were increased, while the polydispersity index (PI) deceased at certain temperatures : for TPU-35 at 135 deg. C, for TPU-44 at 170 deg. C and for TPU-53 at 180 deg. C. The temperatures which give the variations in molecular weights and in PIs are consistent with the annealing temperatures of which T3 solely exists for each sample. Thus it is suggested that the chain dissociation and recombination simultaneously occur at the above mentioned temperature for each sample. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  6. The Tracking Study: description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Jeffery, Robert W; Crow, Scott J; Brelje, Kerrin L; Pacanowski, Carly R; Gavin, Kara L; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (wi-fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This study was successful in recruiting adult male and female participants and is positioned to enhance the standard of care with regard to weight tracking recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations in desiccation tolerance in seeds of Eugenia pyriformis: dispersal at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Vicente Lamarca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eugenia pyriformis Cambess., known locally as uvaieira, a species of fruit-bearing tree with both pharmacological and gastronomic potential, has seeds which are sensitive to desiccation. The aim of this study was to analyse whether the degree of tolerance to desiccation of uvaieira seeds depends on the stage of maturation of the seeds at shedding. This, in turn, depends on the environmental conditions in which the seeds develop, including the accumulation of degree-days and rainfall in the period. Seeds were collected from the ripe fruit of parent plants located in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, submitted to drying and analysed for water content and germination. A completely randomised design was used in a 20 x 3 factorial scheme (source of material x level of drying. The degree of desiccation tolerance differs between region and period of collection, even for the same parent plant when the seeds are collected in different years. The water and thermal conditions of the environment during seed development modify the maturation cycle, the physiological quality and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In uvaieira seeds, desiccation tolerance depends on the physiological maturity of the seeds at the time of dispersal, which is associated with the environmental conditions.

  8. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha

    2016-01-01

    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7GF0RN2, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  9. Weight variation over time and its association with tuberculosis treatment outcome: a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Weight variation during therapy has been described as a useful marker to predict TB treatment outcome. No previous study has used longitudinal analysis to corroborate this finding. The goal of this study was to evaluate change and trends of patients' bodyweight over time depending on TB treatment outcome. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study with all TB cases diagnosed from 2000 to 2006 was carried out. Information from 5 public tuberculosis treatment facilities at Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru was analyzed. Poor outcome was defined as failure or death during TB therapy, and compared to good outcome defined as cured. Longitudinal analysis with a pre-specified marginal model was fitted using Generalized Estimating Equations to compare weight trends for patients with good and poor outcome adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 460 patients (55.4% males, mean age: 31.6 years were included in the analysis: 42 (9.1% had a poor outcome (17 failed and 25 died. Weight at baseline was not different comparing outcome groups (p = 0.17. After adjusting for age, gender, type of TB, scheme of treatment, HIV status and sputum variation during follow-up, after the first month of treatment, patients with good outcome gained, on average, almost 1 kg compared to their baseline weight (p<0.001, whereas those with poor outcome lost 1 kg (p = 0.003. Similarly, after 4 months, a patient with good outcome increased 3 kg on average (p<0.001, while those with poor outcome only gained 0.2 kg (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Weight variation during tuberculosis therapy follow-up can predict treatment outcome. Patients losing weight during TB treatment, especially in the first month, should be more closely followed as they are at risk of failure or death.

  10. Stochastic and deterministic processes regulate spatio-temporal variation in seed bank diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Todd E. Ristau

    2013-01-01

    Seed banks often serve as reservoirs of taxonomic and genetic diversity that buffer plant populations and influence post-disturbance vegetation trajectories; yet evaluating their importance requires understanding how their composition varies within and across spatial and temporal scales (α- and β-diversity). Shifts in seed bank diversity are strongly...

  11. Genetic Variation Controlling Wrinkled Seed Phenotypes in Pisum: How Lucky Was Mendel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Rayner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the traits studied by Mendel in pea (Pisum sativum L. was the wrinkled-seeded phenotype, and the molecular basis for a mutation underlying this phenotype was discovered in the 1990s. Although the starch-branching enzyme gene mutation identified at the genetic locus r is most likely to be that in seeds available to Mendel in the mid-1800s, it has remained an open question as to whether or not additional natural mutations in this gene exist within Pisum germplasm collections. Here, we explore this question and show that all but two wrinkled-seeded variants in one such collection correspond to either the mutant allele described previously for the r locus or a mutation at a second genetic locus, rb, affecting the gene encoding the large subunit of Adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase; the molecular basis for the rb mutation is described here. The genetic basis for the phenotype of one (JI 2110 of the two lines which are neither r nor rb has been studied in crosses with a round-seeded variant (JI 281; for which extensive genetic marker data were expected. In marked contrast to the trait studied by Mendel and the rb phenotype; the data suggest that the wrinkled-seeded phenotype in JI 2110 is maternally determined, controlled by two genetic loci, and the extent to which it is manifested is very sensitive to the environment. Metabolite analysis of the cotyledons of JI 2110 revealed a profile for sucrose and sucrose-derived compounds that was more similar to that of wild-type round-seeded, than that of wrinkled-seeded r, pea lines. However, the metabolite profile of the seed coat (testa of JI 2110 was distinct from that of other round-seeded genotypes tested which, together with analysis of recombinant inbred progeny lines, suggests an explanation for the seed phenotype.

  12. Juglans regia L., phenotypic selection and assessment of genetic variation within a simulated seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Noble hardwoods are very important for the Italian furniture industry. Since 1985, approximately 170,000 ha have been planted in Italy with noble hardwoods. Among them, about 50% of species are represented by walnuts. Walnut (Juglans regia L., not native in Italy, has been the focus of a substantial research effort for breeding and improvement programmes. The priority has been to preserve the in situ genetic resource still existing after intensive felling. Phenotypes suitable for timber production showing important traits such as straight stem, nice branch architecture, dominance and adaptation (phenology have needed to be developed and selected. In order to reach this goals, selection of valuable progenies and the evaluation of the interaction genotype x environment, methods based essentially on a multi-trait Selection Index, were developed. Studies have been undertaken also to measure the variation of phenological traits, more correlated to traits valuable for architecture; in addition, neutral markers were used to assess genetic variation among different intensities of the adopted selections. The individual genetic component was found to be higher than at the inter-population level. Results showed that a hypothetical seed orchard made with progenies selected by morphology, phenology and genetic traits could provide material with a good performance and supply a variability similar to larger populations as the total plantation or the pseudo-natural system chosen for comparison. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso

  13. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  14. Spatio-temporal variation in seed production in three Euphorbia species and the role of animals on seed fate

    OpenAIRE

    Boieiro, Mário Rui Canelas

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on the reproductive biology of co-occurring related plant species have provided valuable information for the interpretation of ecological and evolutionary phenomena, with direct application in conservation management of plant populations. The aims of this thesis were to identify the causes of pre-dispersal reproductive losses in three Euphorbia species (the Mediterranean E. characias and the narrow endemics E. pedroi and E. welwitschii) and evaluate the variation ...

  15. Iterative total-variation reconstruction versus weighted filtered-backprojection reconstruction with edge-preserving filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L; Li, Ya; Zamyatin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Iterative image reconstruction with the total-variation (TV) constraint has become an active research area in recent years, especially in x-ray CT and MRI. Based on Green’s one-step-late algorithm, this paper develops a transmission noise weighted iterative algorithm with a TV prior. This paper compares the reconstructions from this iterative TV algorithm with reconstructions from our previously developed non-iterative reconstruction method that consists of a noise-weighted filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm and a nonlinear edge-preserving post filtering algorithm. This paper gives a mathematical proof that the noise-weighted FBP provides an optimal solution. The results from both methods are compared using clinical data and computer simulation data. The two methods give comparable image quality, while the non-iterative method has the advantage of requiring much shorter computation times. PMID:23618896

  16. A further contribution to the seasonal variation of weighted mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Maohua; Hu, Wusheng

    2017-12-01

    The weighted mean temperature Tm is a variable parameter in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology and the Askne-Nordius zenith wet delay (ZWD) model. Some parameters about the Tm seasonal variation (e.g. the annual mean value, the annual range, the annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and the long-term trend) were discussed before. In this study, some additional results about the Tm seasonal variation on a global scale were found by using the Tm time series at 309 global radiosonde sites. Periodic signals of the annual and semi-annual variations were detected in these Tm time series by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The annual variation is the main component of the periodic Tm in non-tropical regions, while the annual variation or the semiannual variation can be the main component of the periodic Tm in tropics. The mean annual Tm almost keeps constant with the increasing latitude in tropics, while it decreases with the increasing latitude in non-tropical regions. From a global perspective, Tm has an increasing trend of 0.22 K/decade on average, which may be caused by the global warming effects. The annual phase is almost found in about January for the non-tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in about July for the non-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it has no clear symmetry in tropics. Unlike the annual phase, the geographical distributions of semi-annual phase do not follow obvious rules. In non-tropical regions, the maximum and minimum Tm of the seasonal model are usually found in respective summer and winter days while the maximum and minimum Tm are distributed over a whole year but not in any fixed seasons for tropical regions. The seasonal model errors increase with the increasing value of annual amplitude. A primary reason for the irregular seasonal variation in tropics is that Tm has rather small variations in this region.

  17. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Martin; R. M.D. Koebner

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  18. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  19. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass-1/day-1) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m2; gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass-1/day-1) was inversely associated with the change in fat mass (r

  20. INTRA-AND INTER-POPULATION VARIATION IN SEED SIZE AND DORMANCY IN Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. Blake IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Müller Freire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed size and dormancy level were studied in 20 trees from two populations of Schizolobium parahybato evaluate how these characteristics occurbetween and within populations, and whether seed germination was affected by its morphometry. These two populations are located in the coastal (Paraty or mountain (Miguel Pereira regions in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The seed morphometrictraits (length, width, thickness and weight were measured. Germination with or without seedcoatdormancy treatment (mechanical scarification wasassessedbya randomized emergence test in nursey. All morphometric traits differed significantly among individuals and between populations. The trees from the mountain region showed a larger seed size and a lower dormancy level than that of trees from the coastal region. Seed size had no effect on seed germination or seedling development. Climate influence on the determination of germination behavior is discussed based on the results.

  1. Spatial variation in post-dispersal seed removal in an Atlantic forest: Effects of habitat, location and guilds of seed predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianini, Alexander V.; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-11-01

    Studies of post-dispersal seed removal in the Neotropics have rarely examined the magnitude of seed removal by different types of granivores. The relative impact of invertebrates, small rodents, and birds on seed removal was investigated in a 2,178 ha Atlantic forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. We used popcorn kernels ( Zea mays—Poaceae) to investigate seed removal in a series of selective exclosure treatments in a replicated, paired design experiment that included forest understory, gaps, and forest edge sites. We recorded the vegetation around the experimental seed stations in detail in order to evaluate the influence of microhabitat traits on seed removal. Vertebrate granivores (rodents and birds) were surveyed to determine whether granivore abundance was correlated with seed removal levels. Seed removal varied spatially and in unpredictable ways at the study site. Seed encounter and seed use varied with treatments, but not with habitat type. However, seed removal by invertebrates was negatively correlated with gap-related traits, which suggested an avoidance of large gaps by granivorous ants. The abundance of small mammals was remarkably low, but granivorous birds (tinamous and doves) were abundant at the study site. Birds were the main seed consumers in open treatments, but there was no correlation between local granivorous bird abundance and seed removal. These results emphasize the stochastic spatial pattern of seed removal, and, contrary to previous studies, highlight the importance of birds as seed predators in forest habitats.

  2. Intra-stand variation of cone structure and seed production in Siberian stone pine: pattern and use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Akimov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in Russia is primarily valued as a nut-bearing species. Therefore, intra-standvariation in its cone structure and seed production have been actively studied during the last 50 years. However, these studies arepoorly related to practical breeding. We used a novel system of traits to characterize yearly seed crops at the different levels of itsstructural organization. The purpose is to analyze the results of long-term observations of the intra-stand variation of the reproductivefeatures complex, and to reveal the pattern and character of its diversity. This information would be useful to develop the method ofsearching the initial material for breeding. The research plot is established in the Nizhne-Sechenovo forest located 25 km fromTomsk in the south part of the boreal zone (170 years old, mean height 22 m, mean d.b.h. 60 cm. The number of sampled trees variedbetween 40-120 among years. The registration of seed crop and analysis of its structure was conducted every year from 1990 to 2005. Theintra-stand variation of the traits' level was determined as a standard deviation in percent from the simple average. The level ofvariability rose sharply and the correlations between them decreased in the years of the low crops. The results concerning variation in seedand cone traits are listed in the next table. The number of full seeds depended rather on losses in the processes of development (r =0.80*-0.85* than on their starting number (r =0.55*-0.60*. The mass of one seed with sound endosperm rose with an increase in the ratio ofthe ovules, which were lost at the earlier stagesof development (r = 0.20-0.25* and the flat seed ratio (r = 0.35*-0.40*. In year-to-year dynamics, the number of cones per tree ispositively connected with the number of filled seeds per cone (r = 0.78* and with other indices characterizing 'the crop quality'.The breeding rank of trees by all important

  3. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty...... acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing...... not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies....

  4. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mating system of A. hybrid has never been reported and the results from this study could enhance the understanding of the species in terms of inbreeding depression. Like the majority of Acacias, A. hybrid produces a sub- stantial number of seeds within a pod. Butcher and Moran. (2000) reported incidence of genetic ...

  5. Variation for seed minerals and protein concentrations in diverse germplasm of lentil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important food legume that can provide significant amounts of dietary minerals and other essential nutrients to humans. To understand the nutritional diversity that exists within this species, we measured seed mineral and protein concentrations in 350 diverse accessions...

  6. Spatial variation in seed bank dynamics of two annual brome species in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes decrease forage production in northern central plains rangelands of North America. Early life history stages are when plants are most failure-prone, yet studying death post-germination and prior to emergence is difficult. In seed bank collections conducted over the course of two growin...

  7. Genetic basis for natural variation in seed vitamin E levels in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilliland, L.U.; Magallanes-Lundback, M.; Hemming, C.; Suppllee, A.; Koornneef, M.; Bentsink, L.; DellaPenna, D.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin E is an essential nutrient for humans and is obtained primarily from food, especially oil, derived from the seed of plants. Genes encoding the committed steps in vitamin E synthesis in plants (VTE, loci 1-5) have been isolated and used for tocopherol pathway engineering with various degrees

  8. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  9. Variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for fruit diameter, number of seeds per fruit, fruit weight, leaf blade length and width, and height at flowering. In addition, genetic and phenotypic variances were high for the number of seed, fruit weight, plant height at flowering and days to 50% flowering.

  10. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  11. Seed size variability: from carob to carats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Santamaria, Luis; Martorell, Toni; Rallo, Joan; Hector, Andy

    2006-09-22

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discriminate differences in carob seed weight of around 5% by eye demonstrating the potential for humans to greatly reduce natural variation. Interestingly, the variability of pre-metrication carat weight standards is also around 5% suggesting that human rather than natural selection gave rise to the carob myth.

  12. Whole-Genome Analysis of Candidate genes Associated with Seed Size and Weight in Sorghum bicolor Reveals Signatures of Artificial Selection and Insights into Parallel Domestication in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yongfu; Mace, Emma S; Tai, Shuaishuai; Cruickshank, Alan; Campbell, Bradley C; Zhao, Xianrong; Van Oosterom, Erik J; Godwin, Ian D; Botella, Jose R; Jordan, David R

    2017-01-01

    Seed size and seed weight are major quality attributes and important determinants of yield that have been strongly selected for during crop domestication. Limited information is available about the genetic control and genes associated with seed size and weight in sorghum. This study identified sorghum orthologs of genes with proven effects on seed size and weight in other plant species and searched for evidence of selection during domestication by utilizing resequencing data from a diversity panel. In total, 114 seed size candidate genes were identified in sorghum, 63 of which exhibited signals of purifying selection during domestication. A significant number of these genes also had domestication signatures in maize and rice, consistent with the parallel domestication of seed size in cereals. Seed size candidate genes that exhibited differentially high expression levels in seed were also found more likely to be under selection during domestication, supporting the hypothesis that modification to seed size during domestication preferentially targeted genes for intrinsic seed size rather than genes associated with physiological factors involved in the carbohydrate supply and transport. Our results provide improved understanding of the complex genetic control of seed size and weight and the impact of domestication on these genes.

  13. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  14. Variation of Binge Eating One Year after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Its Relationship with Excess Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Luciano Billodre; Brito, César Luis de Souza; Debon, Letícia Manoel; Brandalise, Lívia Nora; Azevedo, Juliana Tainski de; Monbach, Karin Daniele; Heberle, Luísa Schmidt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity classes II and III. However, some patients do not get the desired results or initially lose and then regain the lost weight. Identifying these individuals early on and treating them adequately remains a challenge. As binge eating directly affects food intake, the study of this symptom and its relation to bariatric surgery and its results is increasing, because it appears to have an influence on the results of surgery. This study aimed to see how binge eating changes, measured with the Binge Eating Scale, interferes in the % excess weight loss one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 149 patients older than 18 years who were evaluated one year after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The variation in the intensity of binge eating was measured with the pre- and postoperative Binge Eating Scale scores. The variation of one unit in the Binge Eating Scale implied an inverse variation of 0.41% of % excess weight loss (p<0.05). The correlation coefficient between the variation of binge eating and the % excess weight loss was -0.186 (p = 0.033). The correlation coefficient between the binge eating symptoms one year after surgery and the % excess weight loss was -0.353 (p<0.001). There was a correlation between the variation of binge eating one year after gastric bypass and the % excess weight loss. The correlation between binge eating and the % excess weight loss was greater after the surgery than it was at the preoperative stage. This study provides new, valuable information on the intensity and variation of binge eating symptoms one year after gastric bypass, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been studied in depth earlier.

  15. Variation of Binge Eating One Year after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Its Relationship with Excess Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Billodre Luiz

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity classes II and III. However, some patients do not get the desired results or initially lose and then regain the lost weight. Identifying these individuals early on and treating them adequately remains a challenge. As binge eating directly affects food intake, the study of this symptom and its relation to bariatric surgery and its results is increasing, because it appears to have an influence on the results of surgery.This study aimed to see how binge eating changes, measured with the Binge Eating Scale, interferes in the % excess weight loss one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.We conducted a cross-sectional study with 149 patients older than 18 years who were evaluated one year after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The variation in the intensity of binge eating was measured with the pre- and postoperative Binge Eating Scale scores.The variation of one unit in the Binge Eating Scale implied an inverse variation of 0.41% of % excess weight loss (p<0.05. The correlation coefficient between the variation of binge eating and the % excess weight loss was -0.186 (p = 0.033. The correlation coefficient between the binge eating symptoms one year after surgery and the % excess weight loss was -0.353 (p<0.001.There was a correlation between the variation of binge eating one year after gastric bypass and the % excess weight loss. The correlation between binge eating and the % excess weight loss was greater after the surgery than it was at the preoperative stage. This study provides new, valuable information on the intensity and variation of binge eating symptoms one year after gastric bypass, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been studied in depth earlier.

  16. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers based on Biparental Resequencing for Fine Mapping Seed Weight in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a complement to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, biallelic insertions and deletions (InDels represent powerful molecular markers with desirable features for filling the gap in current genetic linkage maps. In this study, 28,908 small InDel polymorphisms (1–5 base pair, bp distributed genome-wide were identified and annotated by comparison of a whole-genome resequencing data set from two soybean [ (L. Merr.] genotypes, cultivar Zhonghunag13 (ZH and line Zhongpin03-5373 (ZP. The physical distribution of InDel polymorphisms in soybean genome was uneven, and matched closely with the distribution of previously annotated genes. The average density of InDel in the arm region was significantly higher than that in the pericentromeric region. The genomic regions that were fixed between the two elites were elucidated. With this information, five InDel markers within a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL for seed weight (SW, , were developed and used to genotype 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross of ZP × ZH. Adding these five InDel markers to previously used SNP and SSR markers facilitated the discovery of further recombination events allowing fine-mapping the QTL to a 0.5 Mbp region. Our study clearly underlines the high value of InDel markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in soybean.

  17. Phenotypic variation in fruit, seed and seedling traits of nine Uapaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uapaca kirkiana is one of the priority indigenous fruit tree species for domestication in southern Africa. Natural populations of U. kirkiana are declining due to deforestation, forest fragmentation and wildfires. Knowledge of genetic variation is prerequisite for development of conservation strategies. A provenance evaluation ...

  18. Climatic variation and seed persistence: freeze-thaw cycles lower survival via the joint action of abiotic stress and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian M; Orrock, John L

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change is altering thermal cycles in soils during late winter, a transition that may directly threaten seed survival via abiotic stress, facilitate infection by soil-borne pathogens, or both. Using field-collected soil and seeds of the perennial bunchgrass Elymus canadensis, we tested the hypothesis that soil freeze-thaw events limit survival within the soil through direct effects on seed persistence and amplification of soil pathogen attack using a factorial experiment that manipulated freeze-thaw cycles (constant freeze vs. freeze-thaw) and fungicide addition. Freeze-thaw treatment resulted in lower seedling emergence and delayed emergence time relative to constant-freeze controls. Fungicide-treated soils had greater emergence relative to untreated soils; the lowest seedling emergence was observed in no-fungicide, freeze-thaw-treated soils (fungi on seeds were mitigated through interactions at the seed-soil interface, as subsequent experiments showed that fungicide and freeze-thaw treatments alone do not influence dormancy. Our work demonstrates that changes in freeze-thaw events directly limit seedling emergence, delay seedling phenology, and provide opportunities for fungal pathogens to limit seed persistence. As recruitment from seeds is a key determinant of plant population dynamics, these results suggest that climatic variation may generate unique consequences for populations under changing climate regimes.

  19. QRS complex detection in ECG signals using locally adaptive weighted total variation denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tanushree; Sharma, Kamalesh Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The QRS complex is the most prominent feature in the electrocardiogram (ECG), therefore, its detection is required for delineation of other waves and segments in the ECG and derivation of additional clinically useful information. QRS detection is complicated by factors like varying QRS morphologies, noise, artefacts and interference from tall and pointed P- and T-waves. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for QRS detection by preprocessing the ECG using weighted total variation (WTV) denoising. A local estimate of noise in the signal block under consideration is used to determine the regularization parameter in WTV minimization, which determines the amount of smoothing applied. This makes the denoising locally adaptive. The weights are chosen so as to give preference to preservation of QRS complexes over P- and T-waves while smoothing. Thus, the technique can simultaneously reduce the higher frequency noise as well as the lower frequency interference from P- and T-waves, in spite of the fact that they have overlapping spectra with the QRS complexes. The proposed method is evaluated on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and gives improved detection accuracy over established and state-of-the-art techniques. The technique has low computational load, therefore, it can be used for fast offline QRS detection in long duration ECG records, as well as real-time QRS detection in block-by-block processing mode. The average values of sensitivity, positive predictivity and detection error rate are 99.90%, 99.88% and 0.23%, for the offline implementation, respectively, and 99.86%, 99.85% and 0.29%, for the real-time mode, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental changes in the germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and longevity of individual seeds of Trifolium ambiguum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, F. R.; Smith, R. D.; Ellis, R. H.; Butler, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Using two parental clones of outcrossing Trifolium ambiguum as a potential model system, we examined how during seed development the maternal parent, number of seeds per pod, seed position within the pod, and pod position within the inflorescence influenced individual seed fresh weight, dry weight, water content, germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and subsequent longevity of individual seeds. Methods Near simultaneous, manual reciprocal crosses were carried out between clonal lines for two experiments. Infructescences were harvested at intervals during seed development. Each individual seed was weighed and then used to determine dry weight or one of the physiological behaviour traits. Key Results Whilst population mass maturity was reached at 33–36 days after pollination (DAP), seed-to-seed variation in maximum seed dry weight, when it was achieved, and when maturation drying commenced, was considerable. Individual seeds acquired germinability between 14 and 44 DAP, desiccation tolerance between 30 and 40 DAP, and the capability to become hardseeded between 30 and 47 DAP. The time for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) at 60 % relative humidity and 45 °C increased between 36 and 56 DAP, when the seed coats of most individuals had become dark orange, but declined thereafter. Individual seed f. wt at harvest did not correlate with air-dry storage survival period. Analysing survival data for cohorts of seeds reduced the standard deviation of the normal distribution of seed deaths in time, but no sub-population showed complete uniformity of survival period. Conclusions Variation in individual seed behaviours within a developing population is inherent and inevitable. In this outbreeder, there is significant variation in seed longevity which appears dependent on embryo genotype with little effect of maternal genotype or architectural factors. PMID:20228084

  1. Variations in fatty acid composition of neem seeds collected from the Rajasthan state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, N; Vir, S

    2000-12-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a multipurpose tree native to the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asian countries. Products derived from neem have been used for centuries, particularly in India, for medicinal and pest-management purposes. Azadirachtin and neem oil are the two major commercially important products derived from the tree. The oil contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in good proportion. Although there is growing demand for quality planting material for plantation of neem, efforts are lacking for the selection of neem trees based on their biochemical composition. In the present study, 60 Neem seed samples were collected from different provinances of the Rajasthan state in India. These samples were analysed by GLC to study the variability of fatty acid composition. Significant variability in individual fatty acids was observed. The palmitic acid ranged from 16 to 34%, stearic acid from 6 to 24%, oleic acid from 25 to 58% and linoleic acid from 6 to 17%. This variability can be exploited for selection of trees and for studying the genetic variability in neem. These selections can also be utilized for genetic improvement of the tree.

  2. Spike sorting of heterogeneous neuron types by multimodality-weighted PCA and explicit robust variational Bayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTakekawa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new spike sorting method that classifies spike waveforms from multiunit recordings into spike trains of individual neurons. In particular, we develop a method to sort a spike mixture generated by a heterogeneous neural population. Such a spike sorting has a significant practical value, but was previously difficult. The method combines a feature extraction method, which we may term multimodality-weighted principal component analysis (mPCA, and a clustering method by variational Bayes for Student’s t mixture model (SVB. The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of other conventional methods for simulated and experimental data sets. We found that the mPCA efficiently extracts highly informative features as clusters clearly separable in a relatively low-dimensional feature space. The SVB was implemented explicitly without relying on Maximum-A-Posterior (MAP inference for the degree of freedom parameters. The explicit SVB is faster than the conventional SVB derived with MAP inference and works more reliably over various data sets that include spiking patterns difficult to sort. For instance, spikes of a single bursting neuron may be separated incorrectly into multiple clusters, whereas those of a sparsely firing neuron tend to be merged into clusters for other neurons. Our method showed significantly improved performance in spike sorting of these difficult neurons. A parallelized implementation of the proposed algorithm (EToS version 3 is available as open-source code at http://etos.sourceforge.net/.

  3. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  4. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  5. Unravelling the complex trait of seed quality: using natural variation through a combination of physiology, genetics and -omics technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, W.; Joosen, R.V.L.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Seed quality is a complex trait that is the result of a large variety of developmental processes. The molecular-genetic dissection of these seed processes and their relationship with seed and seedling phenotypes will allow the identification of the regulatory genes and signalling pathways involved

  6. Mapping genetic variation and seed zones for Bromus carinatus in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Nancy L. Mandel; J. Bradley St. Clair; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland

    2010-01-01

    Seed transfer zones ensure that germplasm selected for restoration is suitable and sustainable in diverse environments. In this study, seed zones were developed for mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and adjoining Washington. Plants from 148 Blue Mountain seed source locations were...

  7. Molecular weight and galloylation affect grape seed extract constituents' ability to cross-link dentin collagen in clinically relevant time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Bai, Xinyan; Li, Shaohua; Liu, Ying; Keightley, Andrew; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the structures of polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed extract (GSE) and their activity in cross-linking dentin collagen in clinically relevant settings. Representative monomeric and dimeric GSE constituents including (+)-catechin (pCT), (-)-catechin (CT), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), procyanidin B2 and a pCT-pCT dimer were purchased or synthesized. GSE was separated into low (PALM) and high molecular weight (PAHM) fractions. Human molars were processed into dentin films and beams. After demineralization, 11 groups of films (n=5) were treated for 1min with the aforementioned reagents (1wt% in 50/50 ethanol/water) and 1 group remained untreated. The films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) followed by a quantitative mass spectroscopy-based digestion assay. Tensile properties of demineralized dentin beams were evaluated (n=7) after treatments (2h and 24h) with selective GSE species that were found to protect dentin collagen from collagenase. Efficacy of GSE constituents in cross-linking dentin collagen was dependent on molecular size and galloylation. Non-galloylated species with degree of polymerization up to two, including pCT, CT, EC, EGC, procyanidin B2 and pCT-pCT dimer were not active. Galloylated species were active starting from monomeric form, including ECG, EGCG, PALM, GSE and PAHM. PALM induced the best overall improvement in tensile properties of dentin collagen. Identification under clinically relevant settings of structural features that contribute to GSE constituents' efficacy in stabilizing demineralized dentin matrix has immediate impact on optimizing GSE's use in dentin bonding. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism variation and better storability of dark- versus light-coloured soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Qin, Wen-Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Deng, Jun-Cai; Iqbal, Nasir; Liu, Wei-Guo; Du, Jun-Bo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-15

    The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and β-glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pbody height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  10. a Study on Variations of Shoreline Changes and Temporal-Spatial Potentiality for Cloud Seeding at Urumia Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Taher, R.; Jafari, M.; Fallah, M.; Alavi, A.

    2015-12-01

    time period has been used. In order to reach better results, images from MODIS satellite has been used as auxiliary data for the images that are with an error margin. Initial classification on the images was conducted to distinguish water and non water applications. Neural network classification was applied with specific scales on the images and the two major applications were thereby extracted. Then, in order to authenticate the proceedings, Error matrix and Kappa coefficient has been applied on the classified images. Base pixel method of neural network was used for the purpose of information extraction while authenticity of that was evaluated too. The outcomes display the trend of Urmia shoreline has been approximately constant between the years of 1976 to 1995 and has experienced very low variations. In 1998 the lake experienced increase of water and therefore advancement of the shoreline of the lake due to increase of precipitation and the volume of inflowing water to the basin. During 2000 to 20125, however, the lake's shoreline has experienced a downward trend, which was intensified in 2007 and reached to its most critical level ever since, that is decreasing to about one third. Further, temporal and spatial potentiality evaluation of clouds seeding in Urmia lake zone has been studied as a solution for improvement and recovery of the current status of the lake, and an algorithm was proposed for optimized temporal- spatial study on could seeding. Ecological, meteorological and synoptic data were used for timing study of the cloud's seeding plan, which upon study; it is easy to evaluate precipitation potential and quality of the system. At the next step, the rate of humidity and also stability of the precipitating system can be analyzed using radar acquired data. Whereas extracted date from MODIS images are expressing the spatial position, therefore in order to study the location of the cloud's seeding, MODIS images of the selected time intervals along with

  11. A STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF SHORELINE CHANGES AND TEMPORAL-SPATIAL POTENTIALITY FOR CLOUD SEEDING AT URUMIA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agha Taher

    2015-12-01

    + sensors in the 35 time period has been used. In order to reach better results, images from MODIS satellite has been used as auxiliary data for the images that are with an error margin. Initial classification on the images was conducted to distinguish water and non water applications. Neural network classification was applied with specific scales on the images and the two major applications were thereby extracted. Then, in order to authenticate the proceedings, Error matrix and Kappa coefficient has been applied on the classified images. Base pixel method of neural network was used for the purpose of information extraction while authenticity of that was evaluated too. The outcomes display the trend of Urmia shoreline has been approximately constant between the years of 1976 to 1995 and has experienced very low variations. In 1998 the lake experienced increase of water and therefore advancement of the shoreline of the lake due to increase of precipitation and the volume of inflowing water to the basin. During 2000 to 20125, however, the lake’s shoreline has experienced a downward trend, which was intensified in 2007 and reached to its most critical level ever since, that is decreasing to about one third. Further, temporal and spatial potentiality evaluation of clouds seeding in Urmia lake zone has been studied as a solution for improvement and recovery of the current status of the lake, and an algorithm was proposed for optimized temporal- spatial study on could seeding. Ecological, meteorological and synoptic data were used for timing study of the cloud’s seeding plan, which upon study; it is easy to evaluate precipitation potential and quality of the system. At the next step, the rate of humidity and also stability of the precipitating system can be analyzed using radar acquired data. Whereas extracted date from MODIS images are expressing the spatial position, therefore in order to study the location of the cloud’s seeding, MODIS images of the selected time

  12. Glacial bottleneck and postglacial recolonization of a seed parasitic weevil, Curculio hilgendorfi, inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K; Kato, M; Murakami, N

    2008-07-01

    Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in the warm temperate zone. We investigated phylogeographical patterns of a weevil Curculio hilgendorfi (Curculionidae), a host-specific seed predator of Castanopsis (Fagaceae) growing in the broadleaved evergreen forests in Japan. We examined 2709 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 204 individuals collected from 62 populations of the weevil. Four major haplogroups were detected, in southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands and in central and southern parts of the Ryukyu Islands. The demographic population expansion was detected for the two groups in the main islands but not for the Ryukyu groups. The beginning time of the expansion was dated to 39,000-59,000 years ago, which is consistent with the end of the last glacial period. Our data also demonstrated that the southwestern population of the main islands has experienced a more severe bottleneck and more rapid population growth after glacial ages than the northeastern population. At least three refugial areas in the main islands were likely to have existed during the last glacial periods, one of which had not previously been recognized by analyses of intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation of several plant species growing in the broadleaved evergreen forests. Our results represent the first phylogeographical and population demographic analysis of an insect species associated with the broadleaved evergreen forests in Japan, and reveal more detailed postglacial history of the forests.

  13. Assessment of protein intake during pregnancy using a food frequency questionnaire and the effect on postpartum body weight variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade de; Kac, Gilberto; Sichieri, Rosely

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protein intake during pregnancy on postpartum weight variation. This was a prospective cohort study with 421 women interviewed at 15 days (baseline) and 2, 6, and 9 months postpartum. Data on diet were obtained using the food frequency questionnaire, focusing on the second and third trimesters. Protein intake was considered adequate when women consumed ≥ 1.2g of protein per kg body weight, and inadequate when weight loss of 0.409kg/month (±0.12) (p Women with adequate protein intake during pregnancy lost an additional 0.094kg/month (±0.04) during postpartum (p = 0.03) when compared to women with inadequate intake. The model was adjusted for energy, % body fat, stature, age, schooling, skin color, and smoking. Recommended protein intake during pregnancy favored postpartum weight reduction.

  14. Variations of Weeds Seeds of Species Belonging to Poaceae on the Basis of Germination, Production and Morphological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Meriem Hani; Rafika Lebazda; Mohamed Fenni

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Seed characters are very helpful for identification of a large number of species or genera. In many cases, morphological characteristics, germination and production of seeds, can be used to distinguish species and varieties. Methodology: Study it thoroughly in the laboratory where researchers often observe it by naked eyes, in addition to the reliance on references and researches concerning describing seeds to make the study effective and successful it must be conducted carefully wi...

  15. Root morphology and seed and leaf ionomic traits in a Brassica napus L. diversity panel show wide phenotypic variation and are characteristic of crop habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C L; Alcock, T D; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Matterson, S; Wilson, L; Young, S D; Dupuy, L X; White, P J; Hammond, J P; Danku, J M C; Salt, D E; Sweeney, A; Bancroft, I; Broadley, M R

    2016-10-04

    Mineral nutrient uptake and utilisation by plants are controlled by many traits relating to root morphology, ion transport, sequestration and translocation. The aims of this study were to determine the phenotypic diversity in root morphology and leaf and seed mineral composition of a polyploid crop species, Brassica napus L., and how these traits relate to crop habit. Traits were quantified in a diversity panel of up to 387 genotypes: 163 winter, 127 spring, and seven semiwinter oilseed rape (OSR) habits, 35 swede, 15 winter fodder, and 40 exotic/unspecified habits. Root traits of 14 d old seedlings were measured in a 'pouch and wick' system (n = ~24 replicates per genotype). The mineral composition of 3-6 rosette-stage leaves, and mature seeds, was determined on compost-grown plants from a designed experiment (n = 5) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seed size explained a large proportion of the variation in root length. Winter OSR and fodder habits had longer primary and lateral roots than spring OSR habits, with generally lower mineral concentrations. A comparison of the ratios of elements in leaf and seed parts revealed differences in translocation processes between crop habits, including those likely to be associated with crop-selection for OSR seeds with lower sulphur-containing glucosinolates. Combining root, leaf and seed traits in a discriminant analysis provided the most accurate characterisation of crop habit, illustrating the interdependence of plant tissues. High-throughput morphological and composition phenotyping reveals complex interrelationships between mineral acquisition and accumulation linked to genetic control within and between crop types (habits) in B. napus. Despite its recent genetic ancestry (morphology, and leaf and seed composition traits could potentially be used in crop improvement, if suitable markers can be identified and if these correspond with suitable agronomy and quality traits.

  16. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  17. Hybrid Short Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Variational Mode Decomposition and a Weighted Regularized Extreme Learning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nantian Huang; Chong Yuan; Guowei Cai; Enkai Xing

    2016-01-01

    Accurate wind speed forecasting is a fundamental element of wind power prediction. Thus, a new hybrid wind speed forecasting model, using variational mode decomposition (VMD), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and weighted regularized extreme learning machine (WRELM), is proposed to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting. First, the historic wind speed time series is decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Second, the partial correlation of each IMF sequenc...

  18. Variations in some morphological and yield characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on the peduncle and vine lengths, days to 50 % anthesis, growth period, pod maturity period, pod length, number of seeds pod-1, number of pods plant-1 and 100 seed weight and subjected to analysis of variance using the unbalanced treatment procedure. In terms of the morphological characteristics, variation can be ...

  19. Concurrent Diurnal Variations of High-molecular-weight Dissolved Arsenic and Organic Phosphorus in the Upper Euphotic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. P.; Cheng, C. Y.; Wen, L. S.

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in the global ocean has received concerned interests due to its potential competitive inhibition to phosphate. Arsenate can be uptake by phytoplankton or bacterioplankton, followed by transformation into arsenite or methylated arsenic and released into seawater by certain detoxification pathways. The arsenic/phosphate ratio in seawater has been proposed as the factor determining the arsenic speciation in the global ocean, however, the regeneration processes are much more complicated. In this study, ultra-clean sampling and cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF) were used to differentiate the molecular weight distribution of arsenic and phosphorous in the oligotrophic Western Philippine Sea. Our results indicated that 21±8% of total dissolved arsenic were in the high-molecular-weight (HMW, 1 kDa - 0.4μm) phase, and HMW phosphorous accounted for a significant amount of 61±16% in the DOP fraction. In the upper euphotic zone, HMW-As exhibited short-term temporal variations, corresponding to the change of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic phosphorus (HMW-DOP). The low-molecular-weight (LMW, MW < 1 kDa) arsenic, by contrast, was relatively unchanged. The concurrent variations between HMW-As and HMW-DOP may resulted from photoheterotrophy, marine ectoenzymes such as alkaline phosphatase might play an important role in recycling processes. All these evidences highlight the strong biological effect on production and assimilation of HMW materials and its vital importance in marine P and As cycle.

  20. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people.

  1. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time.

  2. Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Acacia species collected from the northwest zone of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Riyazuddeen; Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Mather Ali; Alam, Pravej; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mahmooduzzafar

    2012-08-30

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of the mature seeds of Acacia species collected from natural habitat of the northwest zone of the Indian subcontinent (Rajasthan) were analyzed in order to determine their potential for human or animal consumption. Oil content varied between 40 and 102 g kg⁻¹. The highest oil content was obtained in Acacia bivenosa DC. (102 g kg⁻¹) among the nine Acacia species. The fatty acid composition showed higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (~757.7 g kg⁻¹ in A. bivenosa), oleic acid (~525.0 g kg⁻¹ in A. nubica) and dominant saturated fatty acids were found to be 192.5 g kg⁻¹ palmitic acid and 275.6 g kg⁻¹ stearic acid in A. leucophloea and A. nubica respectively. Seed oils of Acacia species can thus be classified in the linoleic-oleic acid group. Significant variations were observed in oil content and fatty acid composition of Acacia species. The present study revealed that the seed oil of Acacia species could be a new source of high linoleic-oleic acid-rich edible oil and its full potential should be exploited. The use of oil from Acacia seed is of potential economic benefit to the poor native population of the areas where it is cultivated. The fatty acid composition of Acacia seed oils is very similar to that reported for commercially available edible vegetable oils like soybean, mustard, sunflower, groundnut and olive. Hence the seed oil of Acacia species could be a new source of edible vegetable oil after toxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Body weight variation and control of cardiovascular risk factors in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Perez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Gonzalez, Carmen; Lurbe, Empar; Redón, Josep

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of weight changes on blood pressure (BP), lipids and glucose goals in a cohort of hypertensive subjects. Prospective follow-up. Hypertension clinic. 326 hypertensive non-diabetic subjects, 46% with metabolic syndrome (MS). Usual care treatment, which included diet, physical exercise and drugs prescribed when indicated. All patients were observed for up to 1 year. BP and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal were those in ESH/ESC and ATP III recommendations, respectively. The glucose goal was to delay progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus, or to achieve blood glucose <100 mg/dl for non-diabetics. According to body weight changes, patients were categorized using adjusted ROC curves models. Overall, there was a significant weight increment of 0.5 kg (95% CI 0.1-0.9 kg); 28 patients (8.6%) lost more than 5 kg, and only four (1.2%) lost more than 10 kg. BP, LDL-C and glucose goals were achieved in 56%, 78% and 61% of patients, respectively. To lose or not gain weight was an independent prognostic factor to achieve the BP goal in all the patients and the LDL goal in the presence of MS. For glucose control, being treated with beta-blockers and/or diuretics was a negative factor. In hypertensive subjects, even small changes in weight may have an important impact on achieving cardiovascular goals, mainly in those with MS.

  4. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  5. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Bindon, Keren A; Kennedy, James A; Bastian, Susan E P

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed procyanidins (PC) are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE) have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP) combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2). SixPC fractions (F1-F6) were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature) and ripe (mature), utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (PCaco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (PCaco-2 cells (PCaco-2 cells (PCaco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  6. Genetic Variation in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L. for Seed Quality-Related Traits and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid M. Rezaei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L. is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70% of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed.

  7. Genetic Variation in the Leptin Receptor Gene, Leptin, and Weight Gain in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Baak, van M.A.; Mars, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. Research Methods and Procedures: From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17, 500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an

  8. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  9. Scrambling in spoken Dutch : Definiteness versus weight as determinants of word order variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Geertje; de Swart, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Direct objects in the Dutch middlefield can either precede adverbs or follow them. This word order variation is traditionally labeled scrambling. Based on a corpus study of scrambling in spoken Dutch, we show that pronouns scramble almost categorically, whereas indefinite and definite objects

  10. [Body weight- independent variations in HDL-cholesterol following gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, S; Andrada, P; Silva, C; Rotellar, F; Valenti, V; Gil, M J; Gómez-Ambrosi, J; Frühbeck, G; Salvador, J

    2016-04-29

    Bariatric surgery has multiple beneficial effects on lipid profile in patients with morbid obesity. However, these changes can be attenuated by weight regain. This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of gastric bypass(GBP) on different lipid fractions over a 6 year follow-up. We studied 177 patients (135 women)with morbid obesity (BMI 44.2+0.4 kg/m2) aged 42.4+0.9 years before and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 months after laparoscopic proximal GBP. Anthropometry, body composition measurement (Bod-Pod) and fasting blood samples were taken in all evaluations to measure total cholesterol (TC),LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides(TG), glucose and insulin. GPB was followed by a significant BMI reduction (nadir BMI at 18 m 28.3+0.4 kg/m2 plost was 84.1%and that of body fat was 87% 18 months after GBP. These numbers decreased to 65.6% and 38.3% (pweight and fat mass regain. TG and LDL-C values decreased 30% with respect to preoperative levels, while HDL-C increased 97%over initial values. This HDL-C increase was progressive even over the weight regain phase. Both TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-Cratios normalized after GBP and values were sustained over the weight regain period until the end of the study. These results confirm the beneficial effects of GBP on all lipid fractions, which are maintained over 6 years of follow-up. Globally, the rise in HDL-C seems to be independent of weight or fat mass changes, since it increases even over the weight regain phase, so contributing to a reduction in the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  11. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  12. Morpho-physiological variation of white spruce seedlings from various seed sources and implications for deployment under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Villeneuve

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec.The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0 in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modelling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0 from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This

  13. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  15. Variação do tamanho de sementes de plantas daninhas e sua influência nos padrões de emergência das plântulas Weed seed size variation and its influence on seedling emergence patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Araldi

    2013-03-01

    weight of 200 seeds was measured per weed species selected and non-accumulated frequency distribution curves were established for the weight of the species seeds, using the Gompertz model. After classification based on size (small, medium, and large seeds of Ipomoea purpurea and Brachiaria decumbens were sown in field plots of 1.2 m² at different soil depths (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm of each treatment (depth; four repetitions were carried out. In general, the first study’s results indicated that one cannot refer to the weight of the seeds of the weed species studied considering only the mean of this feature, due to the large variation that can be found. This great variation in seed size may be associated with variations in the emergence patterns, verified in the second study on the species I. purpurea. The emergence speed index of I. purpurea was greater at 4 cm depth in the small seeds, 8 cm, in the medium seeds and from 6 to 10 cm depth in the large seeds.

  16. How do low/high height and weight variation affect upper limb movements during manual material handling of industrial boxes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of surface height and load weight on upper limb movements and electromyographic (EMG recordings during manual handling performed by both experienced and inexperienced lifter subjects. METHODS: Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box (both 7 and 15 kg from an intermediate height (waist level to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. Groups, right/left sides, weights and heights were compared. There were no differences between either groups or sides. RESULTS: Weight and height variations affected EMG and posture, although weight had more impact on EMG. Shoulder abduction and flexion movements higher than 60º occurred, particularly for the higher surface. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The high demand of upper limb in manual material handling tasks is clear, particularly for the shoulder. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

  17. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  18. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  19. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  20. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Minka Samuel R; Oben Julius E; Ngondi Judith L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dietary fibres are frequently used for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seeds in the management of obesity. This was carried out as a double blind randomised study involving 40 subjects (mean age 42.4 years). Twenty-eight subjects received Irvingia gabonensis (IG) (1.05 g three time a day for one month) while 12 were on placebo (P) and the same schedule. During the one-month study period all subjects were on a normoca...

  1. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation for Relaxed Mumford-Shah Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    boundaries between them. The values are designated by c1 and c2 and are obtained on the regions Σ and Σc respectively. The two regions and values are unknowns...model. For the remainder of the paper, we refer to L1−αL2 as the weighted difference of anisotropic and isotropic TV: Jani−αJiso = ‖ ux ‖1 + ‖uy‖1−α... ux |2 + |uy|2‖1 (3) where it is understood that these norms are operating on the gradients of the image. Here, α ∈ [0, 1] and is chosen based on

  2. Seasonal variations and trends in weight and arm circumference of non-pregnant rural Senegalese women, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, K B; Ndiaye, T; Dia, M; Yam, A; Ndiaye, M; Marra, A; Diallo, A; Simondon, F

    2008-08-01

    To describe levels, monthly variations and trends in weight and arm circumference of non-pregnant lactating women living in the Sahel, characterized by one short yearly rainy season (July-October). A mixed unbalanced cross-sectional longitudinal observational study conducted at 3, 5, 7 and 10 months postpartum among 3869 women living in the Sine area in central Senegal who had brought their infants into dispensaries for immunization from January 1990 to February 1997, and 1-5 consecutive children per woman (26 106 visits). Mean weight was 55.7 kg (s.d.: 7.1), but it varied by 2.5-3.9 kg each year, from high means during the dry season (March-May) to low means at the end of the rainy season (September-November). The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity (body mass index (BMI)30 kg/m(2), respectively) was 7.6% (95% confidence interval: 7.3, 7.9), 6.4% (6.1, 6.7) and 0.4% (0.3, 0.4), but varied strongly by season (P<0.0001 for all). Unlike weight, mean arm increased during the early rains, a peak season of agricultural work (+0.10 cm/month (s.d.: 0.6) from June to August vs -0.35 kg/month (s.d.: 1.1) for weight). BMI and arm circumference were positively associated with age (mean: 20.8 vs 22.2 kg/m(2) and 25.3 vs 27.4 cm, at 20-24 and 40-49 years, respectively, P<0.0001 for both). Season was a major determinant of the anthropometric status of rural African women. Negative energy balance reduced body weight from the onset of agricultural labour, while arm circumference increased during early rains, probably due to high physical activity.

  3. Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaughlin, Tracey; Carter, Susan; Lamendola, Cindy; Abbasi, Fahim; Yee, Gail; Schaaf, Patricia; Basina, Marina; Reaven, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    .... We aimed to ascertain the effects of moderate variations in the carbohydrate and fat content of calorie-restricted diets on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant persons...

  4. Orthodoxy, recalcitrance and in-between: describing variation in seed storage characteristics using threshold responses to water loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolerance of desiccation is typically described by a threshold or low-water-content-limit to survival. This convention provides fairly good distinction between orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, which show thresholds of less than about 0.07 and greater than about 0.2 g H2O g dw-1, respectively. Thresh...

  5. Synthesis of poly (methyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene with high molecular weight by DPE seeded emulsion polymerization and its application in proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hepeng; Geng, Wangchang; Gu, Junwei; Zhou, Yanyang; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we present poly (methyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene (PMMA-b-PS) with different block ratios and high molecular weight, which was synthesized by environmentally friendly seeded emulsion polymerization with 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) as a chain transfer agent. Polymerization kinetics in the first and second stage was investigated. Stable latex and homogeneous latex particles were obtained with the characterization of laser light scattering (LLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEC and (1)H NMR revealed the successful preparation of block copolymers with high molecular weight and two different block ratios. The morphology of microphase separation of block copolymer thin films was investigated by AFM, and long-range order lamellar morphology was observed after vapor-annealing. The block copolymer with block ratio of almost 1:1 and higher molecular weight than that of previous PMMA-b-PS was sulfonated with acetyl sulfate, and the sulfonation was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR, and TGA. Then, the sulfonated PMMA-b-PS was casted as membranes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy displayed that membranes possessed favorable proton conductivity and fine dimensional stability, and they could be candidates as proton exchange membranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  7. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  8. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  9. Hybrid Short Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Variational Mode Decomposition and a Weighted Regularized Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate wind speed forecasting is a fundamental element of wind power prediction. Thus, a new hybrid wind speed forecasting model, using variational mode decomposition (VMD, the partial autocorrelation function (PACF, and weighted regularized extreme learning machine (WRELM, is proposed to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting. First, the historic wind speed time series is decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Second, the partial correlation of each IMF sequence is analyzed using PACF to select the optimal subfeature set for particular predictors of each IMF. Then, the predictors of each IMF are constructed in order to enhance its strength using WRELM. Finally, wind speed is obtained by adding up all the predictors. The experiment, using real wind speed data, verified the effectiveness and advancement of the new approach.

  10. Differential seed dispersal in Oxalis acetosella,a cleistogamous perennial herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Henrik

    2000-03-01

    Explosive seed dispersal in the cleistogamous perennial forest herb Oxalis acetosella was studied during two growing seasons, to determine whether seeds derived from chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers differ in dispersal distance. Seed dispersal distance, seed weight, and height of fruits were measured for both flower types, and the effects of phenology and year were also taken into account. The dispersal experiment was performed indoors, using plants transplanted from natural populations to pots. CL seeds were thrown significantly further than were CH seeds, though there was a considerable overlap in dispersal distances. There was also a significant positive relationship between seed weight and dispersal distance. No relationship was found between fruit height and dispersal distance. The results of this study contradict the common view that CL progeny should always be dispersed closer to the mother plant than CH progeny. The ecological implications of the dispersal difference are unclear, especially since it is uncertain whether CH seeds are generally outcrossed or not. Variation in dispersal distance in O. acetosella seems to be mainly dependent on a combination of reproductive mode and variation in seed weight.

  11. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krueger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. Methods: We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sexspecific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. Results: The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion. While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion in economic burden could be avoided annually. Conclusion: There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region’s attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs.

  12. VARIABILITY IN PHENOTYPIC EXPRESSION OF SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN SOYBEAN GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the genetic variability of chosen soybean lines in seed quality by determining diversity in phenotypic expression of 1000 seed weight, as well as protein and oil concentrations in the seed. Field trials were set up in a randomized, complete block design with two replications, at the Agricultural Institute Osijek during three growing seasons (2010-2012. Each year, after harvest, 1000 seed weight, and protein and oil concentrations in the seed were determined. Statistical analyses of the results included: calculating basic measures of variation and analysis of variance. The analyzed data showed the existence of plant material's diversity in phenotypic expression of investigated seed quality traits, as well as the existence of statistically significant genotype and year effects.

  13. [Effects of temperature and light variations, and of radiothyroidectomy on body weight regulation in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canguilhem, B; Koch, A

    1976-09-01

    Regain of body weight in European Hamsters after fasting was investigated at various periods of the year and under different ambient conditions (fig. 1) with and without radiothyroidectomy. 1. Weight gain after food deprivation proceeds at rates which vary with the season. It is faster in spring and summer than in winter. 2. Variations in ambient temperature and in light conditions do not influence the daily weight gain and the relative rate of weight increase (fig. 2,3). 3. Radiothroidectomy depresses these two parameters in winter as well as in spring, and lowers the level of the set point of the regulating mechanism (fig. 4,5).

  14. Seed quality effects on seedling emergence, plant stand establishment and grain yield in two-row barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed viability and vigour play important roles in seedling emergence, plant stand establishment and yield potential. The majority of cereal fields in Finland are typically sown with farm saved seed (FSS. If the quality of the seed is not known, there can be insidious yield reduction. This research was conducted to study the effects of seed quality on seedling emergence rate, seedling number and yielding capacity. The study comprised three-year field experiments conducted during 2007–2009, established at three sites: Jokioinen, Nousiainen and Ylistaro. Spring barley cultivars Saana (2007 and Annabell (2008-2009 were sown at rate of 500 germinating seeds m-2. Five seed lots were included as treatments: farm saved seed (FSS; downgraded seed 2.7 mm; upgraded seed >2.7 mm with disinfection (FSS>2.7 mm + dis; and commercial certified seed with disinfection (CCS. Up- and down-graded seed lots (FSS2.7 mm, and FSS>2.7 mm + dis all originated from the FSS. Seedling emergence rate was measured from the time when coleoptiles started to break through the soil surface. The number of seedlings (3 × 1 m row per plot was recorded at five-day intervals four times from the same rows. Plots were harvested at physiological maturity and grain yield (kg ha-1, hectolitre weight (HLW, kg single grain weight (SGW, mg and grain protein content (% were recorded. Seed lots of CCS and FSS>2.7 mm + dis enhanced seedling emergence rate and increased the number of plants compared with other treatments. These two seed lots also produced the highest grain yield and had the lowest grain protein. Seed quality had an apparent effect on plant stand establishment and grain yield. A seed lot effect was evident despite identical targeted sowing rates that took into account germination rate and seed weight. Therefore, differences in seedling emergence and yielding capacity were likely outcomes of variation in seed vigour among the five treatments.;

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity and variation of Robinia pseudoacacia seeds induced by short-term spaceflight based on two molecular marker systems and morphological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C Q; Li, Y F; Sun, P; Sun, Y H; Zhang, G J; Yang, M S; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y; Wang, L

    2012-12-17

    The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a forest legume that is highly valued as a honey plant and for its wood. We explored the effect of short-term spaceflight on development of R. pseudoacacia seedlings derived from seeds that endured a 15-day flight; the genetic diversity and variation of plants sampled from space-mutagenized seeds were compared to plants from parallel ground-based control seeds using molecular markers and morphological traits. In the morphology analysis, the space-mutagenized group had apparent variation compared with the control group in morphological traits, including plant height, basal diameter, number of branches, branch stipular thorn length, branch stipular thorn middle width, leaflet vertex angle, and tippy leaf vertex angle. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular marker analyses showed a slightly higher levels of genetic diversity in the space-mutagenized group compared to the control group. In the SRAP analysis, the space-mutagenized group had 115 polymorphic bands vs 98 in the controls; 91.27% polymorphic loci vs 77.78% in the controls; 1.9127 ± 0.2834 alleles vs 1.7778 ± 0.4174 in the controls; Nei's genetic diversity (h) was 0.2930 ± 0.1631 vs 0.2688 ± 0.1862 in the controls, and the Shannon's information index (I) was 0.4452 ± 0.2177 vs 0.4031 ± 0.2596 in the controls. The number of alleles was significantly higher in the space-mutagenized group. In the SSR analysis, the space-mutagenized group also had more polymorphic bands (51 vs 46), a greater percentage of polymorphic loci (89.47% vs 80.70%); h was also higher (0.2534 ± 0.1533 vs 0.2240 ± 0.1743), as was I (0.3980 ± 0.2069 vs 0.3501 ± 0.2412). These results demonstrated that the range of genetic variation in the populations of R. pseudoacacia increased after spaceflight. It also suggested that the SSR and SRAP markers are effective markers for studying mutations and genetic diversity in R. pseudoacacia. The data

  16. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution.

  17. Interspecific xenia and metaxenia in seeds and fruits of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenia, the transmission of traits from the pollinizer to the female's tissues, is a phenomenon hitherto unknown in tomatoes. Here, we describe xenia effects on the seeds and fruits of Solanum lycopersicum, the tomato, elicited by S. galapagense. The wild tomatoes, such as S. galapagense, have highly pilose fruit surface and minute seeds, unlike the domesticated species. Crossings between S. galapagense (pollinizer and two large-seeded, glabrous cultivars of S. lycopersicum (females tested the former's ability to raise the trichome density and trichome-to-1000-cell ratio and to reduce the seed weight in the latter's fruits. Selfed fruits of the two cultivars, Micro-Tom and Pusa Ruby, were compared to the crossed fruits. The pollen of S. galapagense was able to raise pilosity and to reduce seed weight in the crossed fruits of both cultivars, but with different magnitudes: seed reduction was more intense in Pusa Ruby, while pilosity increase was greater in Micro-Tom, both of which characterize xenia. Pilosity increase is not completely dependent on variation in epidermal cell density, which displayed no xenia effect. The difference between the maternal cultivars in the magnitude of pilosity increase may be due to the higher dilution of a putative male chemical signal (either hormone or RNA in the larger fruits of Pusa Ruby. However, one cannot use the signal diffusion hypothesis to explain the xenia effects on seed weight.

  18. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...... to seed maturation. Physiologically sound seed shows a high germination rate, but germination may be restricted by various dormancy mechanisms that in nature aim at delaying or restricting seed germination during time of poor seed survival....

  19. Gene flow inferred from seed dispersal and pollinator behaviour compared to DNA analysis of restriction site variation in a patchy population of Lotus corniculatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, I R; Brødsgaard, B

    1992-02-01

    Gene flow was investigated in a natural population of Lotus corniculatus L. (Fabaceae) using a combination of pollen and seed dispersal studies and a recombinant DNA technique. The population is spatially heterogeneous and grows with Empetrum nigrum. L. corniculatus is pollinated by the pollen-collecting bumblebee Bombus lapidarius L. Most pollinator flights occurred within patches, as bees usually visit nearest-neighbour plants, show no marked directionality, and forage mostly within patches. Gene flow by seeds is also limited, reinforcing the pattern of gene flow within patches. However, 2.6% of pollinator flights are between patches and considerable pollen carryover also occurs. Thus, gene flow between patches is potentially sufficient to retard or prevent genetic differentiation in spite of the patchy sub-structuring of the population. A sub-set of the population was analysed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to document the actual gene flow pattern of the population. The DNA analysis revealed significant levels of genetic differentiation between the patches. The level of gene flow that can be inferred from the distribution of genetic variation is surprisingly restricted, as compared to gene flow inferred from pollinator behaviour, and emphasizes that stochastic processes like genetic drift and founder effects may have a strong impact on the prevailing genetic structure.

  20. A metabonomic study of transgenic maize (Zea mays) seeds revealed variations in osmolytes and branched amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, Cesare; Bianchetti, Cristiano; Casciani, Lorena; Castro, Cecilia; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Miccheli, Alfredo; Motto, Mario; Conti, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate metabolic variations associated with genetic modifications in the grains of Zea mays using metabonomic techniques. With this in mind, the non-targeted characteristic of the technique is useful to identify metabolites peculiar to the genetic modification and initially undefined. The results obtained showed that the genetic modification, introducing Cry1Ab gene expression, induces metabolic variations involving the primary nitrogen pathway. Concerning the methodological aspects, the experimental protocol used has been applied in this field for the first time. It consists of a combination of partial least square-discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. The most important metabolites for discrimination were selected and the metabolic correlations linking them are identified. Principal component analysis on selected signals confirms metabolic variations, highlighting important details about the changes induced on the metabolic network by the presence of a Bt transgene in the maize genome.

  1. Physiological comparisons of two soybean cultivars differing in canopy photosynthesis. II. Variation in specific leaf weight, nitrogen, and protein components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R; Ashley, D A; Boerma, H R; Reger, B J

    1986-01-01

    Cultivar differences in canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP) have been observed in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) but little is known about the physiological mechanisms which are responsible for such differences. This study was initiated to determine if variation in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) and soluble protein exists among cultivars which differ in CAP during reproductive growth. In addition, the relationship between specific leaf weight (SLW) and leaf protein was examined. Two Maturity Group VI cultivars, 'Tracy' (high CAP) and 'Davis' (low CAP), were grown in the field during 1979, 1980, and 1981 and in a greenhouse experiment. Leaves located at two canopy positions (topmost, fully expanded leaf and eighth node from the top) in 1979 and three canopy positions (those mentioned, plus the fourth node from the top) in 1980 and 1981 were sampled. Leaves at the two upper canopy positions exhibited greater SLW, RuBPCase m(-2), and soluble protein m(-2) than found at the eighth node down. Photosynthetic capacity of leaves at inner canopy regions was therefore affected by both light penetration into the canopy and leaf protein status. Over the three year period, the SLW was 23 percent and the soluble protein m(-2) leaf 21 percent greater in Tracy than in Davis. Although the trend in RuBPCase m(-2) leaf was not significant, it was consistently greater in Tracy in the field and greenhouse. No cultivar differences were observed when the proteins were expressed on a unit of leaf dry weight. The quantity of RuBPCase per unit leaf area was positively correlated with SLW with significant partial correlation coefficients of 0.62, 0.67, 0.35, and 0.82 for 1979, 1980, 1981, and the greenhouse study, respectively. Since these cultivars have similar leaf area indices during September, the greater SLW of Tracy is translated into more photosynthetic proteins per unit ground area and higher CAP rate.

  2. Spatial distributions of and diurnal variations in low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater, and the controlling factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takedaq@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Katoh, Shinya; Mitsui, Yumi; Nakano, Shinichi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Nakatani, Nobutake [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai-Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We studied the spatial distributions of and the diurnal variations in four low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal, in coastal seawater. The samples were taken from the coastal areas of Hiroshima Bay, the Iyo Nada, and the Bungo Channel, western Japan. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyoxal concentrations were higher in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay than at offshore sampling points in the Iyo Nada and the Bungo Channel. These three compounds were found at much higher concentrations in the surface water than in deeper water layers in Hiroshima Bay. It is noteworthy that propionaldehyde was not detected in any of the seawater samples, the concentrations present being lower than the detection limit (1 nanomole per liter (nM)) of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system we used. Photochemical and biological experiments were performed in the laboratory to help understand the characteristic distributions and fates of the LMW carbonyl compounds. The primary process controlling their fate in the coastal environment appears to be their biological consumption. The direct photo degradation of propionaldehyde, initiated by ultraviolet (UV) absorption, was observed, although formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not degraded by UV irradiation. Our results suggest that the degradation of the LMW carbonyl compounds by photochemically formed hydroxyl radicals is relatively insignificant in the study area. Atmospheric deposition is a possible source of soluble carbonyl compounds in coastal surface seawater, but it may not influence the carbonyl concentrations in offshore waters. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater were determined. • Photochemical productions of LMW carbonyl compounds in seawater were observed. • LMW carbonyl compounds were largely consumed biologically. • Photochemical degradation was relatively insignificant in the study area.

  3. Effect of body weight support variation on muscle activities during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Jamwal, Prashant K; Ghayesh, Mergen H

    2017-05-01

    While body weight support (BWS) intonation is vital during conventional gait training of neurologically challenged subjects, it is important to evaluate its effect during robot assisted gait training. In the present research we have studied the effect of BWS intonation on muscle activities during robotic gait training using dynamic simulations. Two dimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed conjointly with another 2-D model of a robotic orthosis capable of actuating hip, knee and ankle joints simultaneously. The musculoskeletal model consists of eight major muscle groups namely; soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius (GAS), tibialis anterior (TA), hamstrings (HAM), vasti (VAS), gluteus maximus (GLU), uniarticular hip flexors (iliopsoas, IP), and Rectus Femoris (RF). BWS was provided at levels of 0, 20, 40 and 60% during the simulations. In order to obtain a feasible set of muscle activities during subsequent gait cycles, an inverse dynamics algorithm along with a quadratic minimization algorithm was implemented. The dynamic parameters of the robot assisted human gait such as joint angle trajectories, ground contact force (GCF), human limb joint torques and robot induced torques at different levels of BWS were derived. The patterns of muscle activities at variable BWS were derived and analysed. For most part of the gait cycle (GC) the muscle activation patterns are quite similar for all levels of BWS as is apparent from the mean of muscle activities for the complete GC. Effect of BWS variation during robot assisted gait on muscle activities was studied by developing dynamic simulation. It is expected that the proposed dynamic simulation approach will provide important inferences and information about the muscle function variations consequent upon a change in BWS during robot assisted gait. This information shall be quite important while investigating the influence of BWS intonation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robotic gait training.

  4. Evaluation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds inoculation with Rhizobium phaseoli and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegari, M; Rahmani, H A; Noormohammadi, G; Ayneband, A

    2008-08-01

    To study the effect of co-inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Rhizobium, on yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated in 2 consecutive years under field condition of plant growing evidence indicates that soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. PGPR strains Pseudomonas fluorescens P-93 and Azospirillum lipoferum S-21 as well as two highly effective Rhizobium strains were used in this study. Common bean seeds of three cultivars were inoculated with Rhizobium singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate their effect on growth characters. A significant variation of plant growth in response to inoculation with Rhizobium strains was observed. Treatment with PGPR significantly increased pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 seed, weight of seeds per plant, weight of pods per plant, total dry matter in R6 as well as seed yield and protein content. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR demonstrated a significant increase in the yield and yield components. The results showed that all treatments of bacteria increased yield; however, strains Rb-133 with Pseudomonas fluorescens P-93 gave the highest seed yield, number of pods per plant, weight of 100 seed, seed protein yield, number seed per pod, seed protein yield.

  5. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; He, Haimin; Chen, Chao; Fu, Shu; Xue, Fangsen

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  6. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  7. Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR to better understand and explore the local and regional variations of those factors behind human-caused fire occurrence.

    The number of human-caused fires occurring within a 25-yr period (1983–2007 was computed for each of the 7638 Spanish mainland municipalities, creating a binary variable (fire/no fire to develop logistic models, and a continuous variable (fire density to build standard linear regression models. A total of 383 657 fires were registered in the study dataset. The binary logistic model, which estimates the probability of having/not having a fire, successfully classified 76.4% of the total observations, while the ordinary least squares (OLS regression model explained 53% of the variation of the fire density patterns (adjusted R2 = 0.53. Both approaches confirmed, in addition to forest and climatic variables, the importance of variables related with agrarian activities, land abandonment, rural population exodus and developmental processes as underlying factors of fire occurrence.

    For the GWR approach, the explanatory power of the GW linear model for fire density using an adaptive bandwidth increased from 53% to 67%, while for the GW logistic model the correctly classified observations improved only slightly, from 76.4% to 78.4%, but significantly according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc, from 3451.19 to 3321.19. The results from

  8. Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacan, Mexico: implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; R. Ricardo Guzman-Reyna; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2006-01-01

    Pinus oocarpa has a large natural distribution in the sub-tropical forests of Mexico. Populations, however, are rapidly disappearing particularly in the Michoacan State as native forests are converted to avocado (Persea sp.) orchards.We investigated the patterning of genetic variation among P. oocarpa populations...

  9. Effect of the genotype: Environmental interaction on phenotype variation of the bunch weight in white wine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the interaction of phenotypical variations, components of yield for the widest spread wine varieties and external factors of the Danube region in the central Serbia. The number of fruitful buds per vine for twenty-one varieties was the same, whereas the yield and the components of the yield were different. The growing season, from bud burst to full ripening of the grapevine and the sum of active temperatures for the same period, were of crucial importance. In the factor analysis, three factors have been singled out: the first factor couples the mean air temperature; the second factor delineates the values according to genotype characteristics, sugar content and acids in the must, and the third factor indicates that bunch weight had the major effect on the yield of grapes. By the application of bunch analysis, a hierarchy tree was formed to include the four groups of varieties. The most numerous group, consisting of 18 varieties, is characterized by top quality grapes (21.5% sugar content, medium yield (1.52 kg/m2 and a proportional relation of total acids (7.5 g/l and this is achieved during the middle of the ripening period.

  10. Resonance sensor measurements of stiffness variations in prostate tissue in vitro--a weighted tissue proportion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Ville; Andersson, Britt M; Bergh, Anders; Ljungberg, Börje; Lindahl, Olof A

    2006-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the US. The methods to detect prostate cancer are still precarious and new techniques are needed. A piezoelectric transducer element in a feedback system is set to vibrate with its resonance frequency. When the sensor element contacts an object a change in the resonance frequency is observed, and this feature has been utilized in sensor systems to describe physical properties of different objects. For medical applications it has been used to measure stiffness variations due to various patho-physiological conditions. In this study the sensor's ability to measure the stiffness of prostate tissue, from two excised prostatectomy specimens in vitro, was analysed. The specimens were also subjected to morphometric measurements, and the sensor parameter was compared with the morphology of the tissue with linear regression. In the probe impression interval 0.5-1.7 mm, the maximum R(2) > or = 0.60 (p measured stiffness. Cancer and stroma had the greatest effect on the measured stiffness. The deeper the sensor was pressed, the greater, i.e., deeper, volume it sensed. Tissue sections deeper in the tissue were assigned a lower mathematical weighting than sections closer to the sensor probe. It is concluded that cancer increases the measured stiffness as compared with healthy glandular tissue, but areas with predominantly stroma or many stones could be more difficult to differ from cancer.

  11. FERMENTATION BY Lactobacillus paracasei OF GALACTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES AND LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT CARBOHYDRATES EXTRACTED FROM SQUASH (Curcubita maxima AND LUPIN (Lupinus albus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Palacio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro prebiotic activity of galactooligosaccharides (GOS and low-molecular-weight carbohydrates (LMWC extracted from lupin and squash seeds on the growth of Lactobacillus paracasei BGP1 was studied. To this end, the change in cell density after 24 h of L. paracasei growth on 1% (w/v glucose, 1% (w/v raffinose, 1% (w/v commercial inulin GR, 1% (w/v lupin extract, and 1% (w/v squash extract relative to the change in cell density of a mixture of enteric strains under the same culture conditions were evaluated. Additionally, the principal components of GOS and LMWC in the extracts were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography. The highest prebiotic activity score was for L. paracasei grown on squash extract (0.55±0.03, followed by lupin extract (0.49±0.02, inulin (0.38±0.05 and raffinose (0.37±0.05. These results will contribute to selecting plant species as potential sources of prebiotic ingredients for the development of functional foods.

  12. Longitudinal variation of circulating irisin after an energy restriction-induced weight loss and following weight regain in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Pardo, María; Arturo, Roca-Rivada; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered peptide irisin has been hypothesized to be a regulator of body metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether circulating human irisin levels are modulated by body size and changes in adiposity during an energy restriction treatment and the subsequent weight regain. A group of 94 obese patients (50 men, 44 women; 49.4 ± 9.4 years; BMI 35.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ) participated in a weight loss program following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) with a weight maintenance follow-up. The patients were evaluated at 0, 8, and 24 weeks after starting treatment. In addition, 48 normal-weight subjects (16 men, 32 women; 35.71 ± 8.8 years; BMI 22.9 ± 2.2 kg/m(2) ) participated as controls. Plasma irisin, body weight, body composition, and hormones controlling energy homeostasis were measured. Irisin levels were higher in obese subjects (353.1 ± 18.6 ng/mL) than in those of normal-weight (198.4 ± 7.8 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.001) and were also higher in men (340.9 ± 20 ng/mL) than in women (267.6 ± 12 ng/mL; P weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, as measured by bioimpedance, but not with height or leptin levels. Interestingly, irisin levels paralleled body weight reduction after the dietary treatment (week 8) and again returned to the baseline levels at 24 weeks in those patients regaining the lost weight. Irisin strongly reflects body fat mass, suggesting that the irisin circulating levels are conditioned by adiposity level. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: control of the aspect ratio by variation of the reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppl, Susanne; Ghielmetti, Nico [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials (Switzerland); Caseri, Walter, E-mail: wcaseri@mat.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Polymer Technology, Department of Materials (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Seed-mediated growth methods involving reduction of tetrachloroaurate(III) with ascorbic acid are common for the synthesis of gold nanorods. This study shows, however, that simply by appropriate choice of the reducing agent a drastic influence on the aspect ratio can be attained. Weaker reducing agents, such as dihydroxybenzene isomers (hydroquinone, catechol or resorcinol) or glucose can increase the aspect ratio of the nanorods by an order of magnitude, up to values as high as 100 (nanowires). The increase in aspect ratio is mainly a consequence of an increase in length of the particles (up to 1-3 {mu}m). This effect is probably associated with a decrease in the reduction rate of gold(III) species by dihydroxybenzenes or glucose compared to ascorbic acid. The reduction potential of the reducing agents strongly depends on the pH value, and related effects on the dimensions of the nanoparticles are also reflected in this study. The nanorods exhibited penta-twinned nature without noteworthy defects (e.g. stacking faults and dislocations).

  14. Seasonal variation in body weight of the bivalves Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Mya arenaria and Cerastoderman edule in the Dutch Wadden sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo

    The paper deals with the seasonal and annual variations in the weight of the soft parts of four bivalve species, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Mya arenaria and Cerastoderma edule from tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea. The paper reviews methodology and points to error sources. The variation in ash-free dry weight between individuals of the same size collected at the same time and place could be attributed to age, parasitic infestation, gametogenesis, burying depth and siphon size. The allometric relations between weight of soft parts and size are given in equations, averaged per month. The body weight of all four bivalve species peaked in May and June at a level approximately twice the lowest value, which occurred in November to March. The extent of this seasonal fluctuation varied, however, from year to year. The presence of gametes explained a part of the peak weight in summer. Winter losses of body weight were less at low temperatures, due to reduced energy expenditure when the animals are inactive. No large differences were found between the seasonal changes in body weight in the Wadden Sea and elsewhere in the temperate zone.

  15. Effect of within-litter birth weight variation on piglet survival and pre-weaning weight gain in a commercial herd

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norest Marandu; Tinyiko Edward Halimani; Michael Chimonyo; Andrew Shoniwa; Tonderai Mutibvu

    2015-01-01

    .... The main factors that influenced piglet mortality were fostering, parity and within-litter variability especially the weight of the individual piglet relative to the average of the litter (P<0.05...

  16. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Design and Methods Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n=15 male, n=15 female) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories from fat; n=277 male, n=278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and body composition were routinely measured. Results Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (p=0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P=0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all pbody weight for both sexes (pbody fat (pbody weight. PMID:24942674

  17. Effect of within-litter birth weight variation on piglet survival and pre-weaning weight gain in a commercial herd

    OpenAIRE

    Norest Marandu; Tinyiko Edward Halimani; Michael Chimonyo; Andrew Shoniwa; Tonderai Mutibvu

    2015-01-01

    There are several factors that affect piglet survival and this has a bearing on sow productivity. Ten variables that influence pre-weaning vitality were analysed using records from the Pig Industry Board, Zimbabwe. These included individual piglet birth weight, piglet origin (nursed in original litter or fostered), sex, relative birth weight expressed as standard deviation units, sow parity, total number of piglets born, year and month of farrowing, within-litter variability and the presence ...

  18. Effects of altrenogest treatment in sows on the variation of piglet birth weight and pre-weaning piglet performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatee Kitkha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of altrenogest (ALT feeding combined with induced ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG in sows was evaluated on piglet birth weight (BW variation and pre-weaning performance. Sows were divided into four groups: the control (no ALT; without hCG induction; artificial inseminated (AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 40, ALT + hCG72 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2 (D0: weaning day; hCG 750 IU at 72 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41, ALT + hCG96 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2; hCG 750 IU at 96 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41 and ALT + no hCG (20 mg/d, D-4–D2; without hCG induction; AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 41. The results revealed that piglet BW was not different among the groups (p > 0.05. However, the standard deviation of piglet BW (SDBW was lower in ALT + hCG72 (0.32 ± 0.02 kg; p = 0.032, compared to ALT + hCG96 (0.40 ± 0.02 kg and ALT + no hCG (0.40 ± 0.02 kg, except for the control (0.39 ± 0.02 kg. In addition, the pre-weaning mortality rate (%PWM due to underweight elimination at weaning (below 3.50 kg was decreased in ALT + hCG72 (8.33% compared to the control (32.50%; p = 0.007 but similar to ALT + hCG96 (10.71% and ALT + no hCG (24.05%. Therefore, ALT + hCG72 treatment in sows could reduce piglet BW variation and the number of piglets eliminated at weaning.

  19. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  20. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  1. Effects of supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with sole or mixtures of noug seed meal and wheat bran on feed intake, digestibility and body weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Fentie; Melaku, Solomon

    2008-12-01

    Digestibility and feeding trials for 10 and 90 days were conducted using 25 yearling Farta rams with a mean body weight (BW) of 16.8 +/- 0.17 kg (mean +/- SD) to study the effects of supplementation with sole or mixtures of noug seed meal (NSM) and wheat bran (WB) on feed intake, digestibility and BW change in Farta sheep fed hay. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. The sheep were arranged in five blocks based on initial BW, and the five treatments were assigned randomly to each animal in a block. The five treatments comprised of ad libitum hay (control, T1) and ad libitum hay plus daily supplementation of 300 g dry matter (DM) sole WB (T2), 2WB:1NSM (T3), 1WB:2NSM (T4) and sole NSM (T5). Supplementation increased total DM (P < 0.01) and crude protein (CP) (P < 0.001) intake and promoted daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Non- supplemented sheep consumed more (P < 0.01) hay DM compared to the supplemented treatments, except T2. Among supplemented sheep, T5 had higher (P < 0.001) CP intake than the other treatments. Supplementation improved (P < 0.001) the digestibility of CP. Lack of statistical differences in daily BW gain between the different supplements used in this study suggests that sheep producers can use the different feed supplements considered in this study depending on their availability in the order of T4, T5, T3 and T2, respectively.

  2. Effect of within-litter birth weight variation on piglet survival and pre-weaning weight gain in a commercial herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norest Marandu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several factors that affect piglet survival and this has a bearing on sow productivity. Ten variables that influence pre-weaning vitality were analysed using records from the Pig Industry Board, Zimbabwe. These included individual piglet birth weight, piglet origin (nursed in original litter or fostered, sex, relative birth weight expressed as standard deviation units, sow parity, total number of piglets born, year and month of farrowing, within-litter variability and the presence of stillborn or mummified littermates. The main factors that influenced piglet mortality were fostering, parity and within-litter variability especially the weight of the individual piglet relative to the average of the litter (P<0.05. Presence of a mummified or stillborn littermate, which could be a proxy for unfavourable uterine environment or trauma during the birth process, did not influence pre-weaning mortality. Variability within a litter and the deviation of the weight of an individual piglet from the litter mean, influenced survival to weaning. It is, therefore, advisable for breeders to include uniformity within the litter as a selection criterion. The recording of various variables by farmers seems to be a useful management practice to identify piglets at risk so as to establish palliative measures. Further, farmers should know which litters and which piglets within a litter are at risk and require more attention.

  3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the normal endometrium: temporal and spatial variations of the apparent diffusion coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasa, Francesca; Montemezzi, Stefania [Dept. of Radiology, San Bonifacio Hospital, Verona (Italy)], e-mail: francescafornasa@libero.it

    2012-06-15

    Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is increasingly used in the diagnosis of endometrial disease. No complete knowledge, however, exists yet of the influence of physiology on the endometrial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on which DWI is based. Purpose: To establish whether the ADC values measured with DWI in the endometrium of healthy reproductive-aged women significantly vary from the early proliferative to the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle and between the fundus and the isthmus of the uterus. Material and Methods: In 17 women the endometrial ADC values measured on the fifth menstrual day, both at the fundus and at the isthmus of the uterus, were compared to the values obtained on the 14th day before the subsequent cycle. In 81 women (menstrual day: fifth through 21st) the endometrial ADC values measured at the fundus were compared to the values obtained at the isthmus of the uterus. All examinations were performed with a 1.5 T magnet (b values: 0 and 800 mm/s{sup 2}). The results were analyzed by means of Student's t-test per paired data. Results: The endometrial ADC values measured on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle were lower than those obtained in the periovulatory phase both at the fundus (mean 0.923 vs. 1.256 x 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) and at the isthmus (mean 1.297 vs. 1.529 x 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) of the uterus. The endometrial ADC values measured at the fundus of the uterus were lower than those obtained at the isthmus (mean 1.132 vs. 1.420 x 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) through the menstrual cycle. All these differences were highly significant (P < 0.001) at statistical analysis. Conclusion: Physiological variations occurring in endometrial ADC values of healthy women should be considered by the radiologists when interpreting DWI examinations in patients with endometrial disease.

  4. processing of fluted pumpkin seeds, telfairia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    seeds of T. occidentalis were divided into three groups based on heat treatment: group. 1, the unprocessed (raw) ... the high nutritional value of its leaf and seed which are eaten as food [7, 8]. The seeds are eaten .... The proximate composition (% dry weight) of T. occidentalis seeds is presented in. Table 1. The results ...

  5. Seasonal variations in the volume of the haemolymph and body weight of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    whereas, minimum (30 ml) in higher salinities during summer and post flood periods. The body weight of the crab was found to be affectEd. by the fluctuations in salinity. During flood period (October-November) average body weight of the crab increas...

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region.

  8. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    The even placement of seeds at the correct depth is crucial for achieving the optimum yield. The depth of drill coulters on state-of-the-art seeding machines is normally set manually by downforce springs or weights will therefore react to different soil resistances. A prototype seeder with one...... drill coulter was constructed and tested in a rotational soil bin. The research concluded a potential of minimizing the low frequent drill coulter depth variations and a solution for providing an even coulter depth in soil....

  9. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. em função do peso da semente e do tipo de substrato Germination of seeds and seedling development of drumstick as a function of seed weight and substrate type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos E. Bezerra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. é uma espécie arbórea originária do noroeste indiano, cultivada graças ao seu valor alimentar, medicinal, industrial e no tratamento de água para o consumo humano. Os efeitos do peso de sementes e do substrato na germinação e desenvolvimento das plântulas foram determinados, sob condições de casa de vegetação (sombrite 50% com nebulização intermitente em Fortaleza (CE, de 29/11 a 14/12/02. Os tratamentos constaram de arranjo fatorial 3x3 referente a três categorias de semente: pesadas (272,41 g/1000 sementes, médias (218,88 g/1000 sementes e leves (177,07 g/1000 sementes; e três substratos: vermiculita; Plantmax® e uma mistura à base de solo esterilizado (S, húmus de minhoca (H e pó de coco lavado (PC, na proporção de 2:1:1, dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições (24 sementes/repetição. Efetuou-se a semeadura das três classes de pesos de sementes em bandejas de isopor de 72 células contendo os substratos, avaliando-se a percentagem, velocidade e tempo médio de germinação, altura da plântula, massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca total. As sementes pesadas e médias apresentaram maior percentagem e velocidade de germinação do que as leves; as sementes pesadas proporcionaram plântulas mais vigorosas; no substrato Plantmax® e na mistura (S+H+PC a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação foi superior à vermiculita; e as plântulas desenvolveram-se melhor no substrato Plantmax®.To compensate the shortage of information on the influence of seed weight and substrate over the germination and seedling development of Moringa oleifera an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (50% of natural light with intermittent nebulization in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of a 3x3 factorial arrangement [three seed weights: heavy (272.41 g/1000 seeds; medium (218.88 g/1000 seeds and light (177.07 g/1000 seeds and three substrates

  10. Variation in the maternal corticotrophin releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP gene and birth weight in Blacks, Hispanics and Whites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathik D Wadhwa

    Full Text Available Given the unique role of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH system in human fetal development, the aim of our study was to estimate the association of birth weight with DNA sequence variation in three maternal genes involved in regulating CRH production, bioavailability and action: CRH, CRH-Binding Protein (CRH-BP, and CRH type 1 receptor (CRH-R1, respectively, in three racial groups (African-Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites.Our study was carried out on a population-based sample of 575 mother-child dyads. We resequenced the three genes in mouse-human hybrid somatic cell lines and selected SNPs for genotyping.A significant association was observed in each race between birth weight and maternal CRH-BP SNP genotypes. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes established three common haplotypes marked by the rs1053989 SNP in all three races. This SNP predicted significant birth weight variation after adjustment for gestational age, maternal BMI, parity, and smoking. African American and Hispanic mothers carrying the A allele had infants whose birth weight was on average 254 and 302 grams, respectively, less than infants having C/C mothers. Non-Hispanic White mothers homozygous for the A allele had infants who were on average 148 grams less than those infants having A/C and C/C mothers.The magnitudes of the estimates of the birth weight effects are comparable to the combined effects of multiple SNPs reported in a recent meta-analysis of 6 GWAS studies and is quantitatively larger than that associated with maternal cigarette smoking. This effect was persistent across subpopulations that vary with respect to ancestry and environment.

  11. Variation and correlation of protein molecular weight distribution and semolina quality parameters for durum genotypes grown in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research assessed the associations between protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and quality characteristics for durum semolina samples that were obtained from thirteen durum genotypes grown at seven locations for two years in North Dakota. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractable and un...

  12. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, Hartmut; Koot, J M; Rasali, D P; Gustin, S E; Pennock, M

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.). The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved

  13. Ethnic variation in validity of the estimated obesity prevalence using self-reported weight and height measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoeff Arnoud P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined ethnic differences between levels of body mass index (BMI based on self-reported and measured body height and weight and the validity of self-reports used to estimate the prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 in Turkish, Moroccan, and Dutch people in the Netherlands. Furthermore, we investigated whether BMI levels and the prevalence of obesity in Turkish and Moroccan people with incomplete self-reports (missing height or weight differ from those with complete self-reports. Methods Data on self-reported and measured height and weight were collected in a population-based survey among 441 Dutch, 414 Turks and 344 Moroccans aged 18 to 69 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands in 2004. BMI and obesity were calculated from self-reported and measured height and weight. Results The difference between measured and estimated BMI was larger in Turkish and Moroccan women than in Dutch women, which was explained by the higher BMI of the Turkish and Moroccan women. In men we found no ethnic differences between measured and estimated BMI. Sensitivity to detect obesity was low and specificity was high. In participants with available self-reported and measured height and weight, self-reports produced a similar underestimation of the obesity prevalence in all ethnic groups. However, many obese Turkish and Moroccan women had incomplete self-reports, missing height or weight, resulting in an additional underestimation of the prevalence of obesity. Among men (all ethnicities and Dutch women, the availability of height or weight by self-report did not differ between obese and non obese participants. Conclusions BMI based on self-reports is underestimated more by Turkish and Moroccan women than Dutch women, which is explained by the higher BMI of Turkish and Moroccan women. Further, in women, ethnic differences in the estimation of obesity prevalence based on self-reports do exist and are due to incomplete self-reports in obese Turkish and

  14. Native wildflower seed production with limited subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Native wildflower seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native wildflower (forb) seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and...

  15. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  16. Subsurface drip irrigation for native wildflower seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2008-01-01

    Native forb seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native forb seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and soil moisture...

  17. Native wildflower seed production with limited subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Lamont D. Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Native wildflower seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native wildflower (forb) seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and...

  18. Diversity of selected Lupinus angustifolius L. genotypes at the phenotypic and DNA level with respect to microscopic seed coat structure and thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. 'Emir', and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars 'Sonet' and 'Emir'. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar 'Zeus' (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes.

  19. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens, in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod. The weight of 1000 seeds decreased with delayed planting. Phosphorus application improved seed weight. Seed yield was highest (1000 kg/ha for July 5 sowing with phosphorus application of 60 kg/ha P205 combination. The variation in mean seed yield for planting between June 21 and August 2 was 782.0 to 360.3 kg/ha. The application of 0 to 60 kg/ha P205 resulted in mean seed yields of 405.7 to 776.8 kg/ha. Herbage residue was favoured more by June 21 sowing and the application of 60 kg/ha P205. The crude protein content was better with August sowing and 60 kg/ha P205.

  20. Spatial variation in below‐ground seed germination and divergent mycorrhizal associations correlate with spatial segregation of three co‐occurring orchid species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Lievens, Bart; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    ... that contribute to orchid coexistence. 2.  In this study, we combined molecular identification techniques with seed germination experiments and spatial point pattern analyses to investigate to what extent differences in mycorrhizal association...

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as "peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line ( pscb )." The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin) , and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of a new peanut seed coat mutant for the physiological regulatory mechanism involved in seed coat cracking and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Wan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.. With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb. The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly lower than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyandin content and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40. Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1, c40902_g2 (kinesin and c33560_g1 (MYB3 were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color.

  3. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Seeds from the other treatments were extracted after a. 10-day fermentation period (practice widely used by farmers) then washed and dried until 6-7% moisture. After drying, seeds with similar weights (310 ± 76 mg) were selected for germination and vigor evaluation. This mean was determined on the ...

  4. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  5. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  6. Incorporating spatial variation in housing attribute prices: a comparison of geographically weighted regression and the spatial expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Christopher; Mulligan, Gordon F.; Dall'Erba, Sandy

    2007-04-01

    Hedonic house price models typically impose a constant price structure on housing characteristics throughout an entire market area. However, there is increasing evidence that the marginal prices of many important attributes vary over space, especially within large markets. In this paper, we compare two approaches to examine spatial heterogeneity in housing attribute prices within the Tucson, Arizona housing market: the spatial expansion method and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our results provide strong evidence that the marginal price of key housing characteristics varies over space. GWR outperforms the spatial expansion method in terms of explanatory power and predictive accuracy.

  7. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal to sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karubian, Jordan; Ottewell, Kym; Link, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees via 'destination-based' dispersal processes. For example, use of traditional sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys Ateles belzebuth generates high densities of seeds of a preferred food source, the palm Oenocarpus bataua, at these sites. Little is known about the maternal seed source diversity and population genetic metrics of seed pools encountered at these sites. Given the repeated use of sleeping trees over time, and the fluid social organization and wide ranging movements exhibited by spider monkeys, we predicted that O. bataua seed pools beneath sleeping trees would be characterized by relatively high values of maternal seed source diversity and standard metrics of genetic diversity. Contrary to these expectations, we found relatively low average maternal seed source diversity beneath each of 6 sleeping trees we studied (weighted mean α = 3.74), but considerable variation in diversity of maternal seed sources between sleeping trees (range = 1.75-10.1) and high heterogeneity in standard genetic diversity measures between sleeping trees. There was no evidence for overlap in maternal seed sources between sleeping tree sites (δ = 1.0), resulting in significant genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.055-0.319) between these sites. Observed variation between sleeping trees could not be explained by the number of individual spider monkeys whose core home ranges included a given tree, nor by distance to a central mineral lick, a focal point of spider monkey activity. These findings suggest that spider monkey seed dispersal to sleeping trees is spatially restricted, perhaps because the animals visit sleeping trees at the end of the day and therefore only disperse O. bataua fruits that they ingest late in the day. These results add to our growing appreciation of the ways frugivore behavior mechanistically shapes seed dispersal outcomes.

  8. A new hypothesis for the evolution of overproduction of ovules: an advantage of selective abortion for females not associated with variation in genetic quality of the resulting seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Satoki

    2007-04-01

    A new hypothesis for the evolution of overproduction of ovules within flowers is proposed: overproduction is a counter-strategy of female seed production in the conflict with males and/or offspring. It is advantageous for females to produce a uniform size of seeds, whereas it is advantageous for fertilized ovules to absorb more resources than this size. If there is a variance in resource absorption ability among fertilized ovules, nonuniform seeds are produced. Then, by overproducing ovules, females should select fertilized ovules with similar resource absorption rates, resulting in seeds of uniform size. A model analysis confirmed that this hypothesis works. In the model, the fertilized ovules of a plant consist of two genotypes that differ in resource absorption rate. I found that overproduction of ovules and selective abortion is advantageous if the difference in the resource absorption rates of the genotypes is large. The new hypothesis is different from the selective abortion hypothesis in that selecting ovules is advantageous even if there are no differences in the genetic quality of resulting seeds.

  9. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in female wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden: Sources of variation and associations with internal organ weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungvall, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Korvela, Marcus; Norrby, Mattias; Bergquist, Jonas; Persson, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden, and it is legally hunted all year. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the present study female mink (n = 91) from 6 different areas in Sweden were analyzed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 ± 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 ± 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 ± 537 ng/g for mercury, and 196 ± 401 ng/g for lead (expressed as mean ± standard deviation). There were associations between the sample area and the concentrations of silver, lead, and mercury. The concentrations of lead and cadmium varied with season of capture and lead, cadmium, and mercury were positively associated with increasing age. Relative liver weight was positively associated with concentrations of mercury and negatively associated with lead and cadmium. Relative kidney weight was negatively associated with lead concentrations. In summary, it is of importance to take age and season of capture into account when assessing levels of heavy metals in wild mink. Also, liver and kidneys seem to be potential targets for heavy metal toxicity in wild female mink in Sweden. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2030-2035. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  11. Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Uterus: Regional ADC Variation with Oral Contraceptive Usage and Comparison with Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; Morgan, Veronica A.; Silva, Sonali S. de; Souza, Nandita M. de (Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)); Ind, Thomas E. (Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-15

    Background: There is growing interest in diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cervical carcinoma but normal uterine appearances and effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) have not been described. Purpose: To establish apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for normal regions of uterus, determine the effect of the OCP on these values, and compare them with ADCs from cervical cancer. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven premenopausal women (19 taking the OCP) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were studied with T2W and diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI). Regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps by visual matching with T2W images on different zones of the uterus and values compared between women not taking and taking the OCp.A further group of 25 women with clinically obvious tumors of the cervix were also studied with T2W and DW-MRI and ADC values of tumor were compared with ADC values of cervical epithelium and stroma. Results: The ADC values of adjacent zones of the uterus and cervix were significantly different from one another (P<0.001). The junctional zone was seen as a band of restricted diffusion between endometrium and outer myometrium. The ADC value of the junctional zone of the uterus was significantly greater (P<0.001) in patients taking the OCP than those patients not taking the OCp.There was no significant affect of the OCP on the ADC values of other uterine zones. Conclusion: The zonal anatomy of the uterus is well demonstrated by DW-MRI with hormonal effects secondary to the OCP affecting junctional zone alone. ADC of cervical tumor is significantly different to cervical epithelium and stroma indicating a role in cervical cancer detection and local staging

  12. SEED GROWTH RATE, GROWTH DURATION, AND YIELD IN SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Guffy, R. D.; Hesketh, J. D.; Nelson, R. L.; Bernard, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Seed growth rate and duration of growth were studied for different soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars and isolines differing in maturity and stem termination behavior under field conditions. Various methods for estimating rate and duration were compared, and such estimates were compared with yield, along with mature seed weight, seed number, and days from planting to maturity. Three estimates of seed filling period were all highly correlated with each other, but the final seed weight,...

  13. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  14. Are environmental factors responsible for geographic variation in the sex ratio of the Greenlandic seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2010-01-01

    Until recently nothing indicated an unequal sex ratio in the widespread Greenland seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). However, recently populations more or less devoid of males were discovered in high arctic Northeast Greenland. This initiated an inspection of th...

  15. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was measured by ...

  16. Exploring Determinants of Spatial Variations in the Dengue Fever Epidemic Using Geographically Weighted Regression Model: A Case Study in the Joint Guangzhou-Foshan Area, China, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is a common and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, this imported disease has posed an increasing threat to public health in China, especially in many southern cities. Although the severity of DF outbreaks in these cities is generally associated with known risk factors at various administrative levels, spatial heterogeneities of these associations remain little understood on a finer scale. In this study, the neighboring Guangzhou and Foshan (GF cities were considered as a joint area for characterizing the spatial variations in the 2014 DF epidemic at various grid levels from 1 × 1 km2 to 6 × 6 km2. On an appropriate scale, geographically weighted regression (GWR models were employed to interpret the influences of socioeconomic and environmental factors on this epidemic across the GF area. DF transmissions in Guangzhou and Foshan cities presented synchronous temporal changes and spatial expansions during the main epidemic months. Across the GF area, this epidemic was obviously spatially featured at various grid levels, especially on the 2 × 2 km2 scale. Its spatial variations were relatively sufficiently explained by population size, road density, and economic status integrated in the GWR model with the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AICc = 5227.97 and highest adjusted R square (0.732 values. These results indicated that these three socioeconomic factors acted as geographical determinants of spatial variability of the 2014 DF epidemic across the joint GF area, although some other potential factors should be added to improve the explaining the spatial variations in the central zones. This work improves our understanding of the effects of socioeconomic conditions on the spatial variations in this epidemic and helps local hygienic authorities to make targeted joint interventions for preventing and controlling this epidemic across the GF area.

  17. Seasonal variation in the insecticidal action of chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens products on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus f. infesting stored cowpea seeds in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Sastawa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in the efficacy of 0.0 (control, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0g extracts of each of ground seed, ground rind, ground whole fruit and unground whole fruit of chilli on the reproduction of Callosobruchus maculatus were investigated during the hot (April/May; 21.1-34.7°C; 13.0-37.0% R.H. and the cold (November/December; 20.1-24.0°C; 13.0-26.0% R.H. dry seasons in Maiduguri. Oviposition and adult development were significantly reduced in treated seeds than the untreated control and in the cold dry than in the hot dry period. The form and dose differential efficacy responses of chilli on the depression of both fecundity and adult development in C. maculatus were in the decreasing order of ground seed > whole fruit > ground rind > unground rind and 5.0g chilli > 2.5g > 1.0g.

  18. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  19. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  20. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  1. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  2. Phenology and Seed Yield Performance of Determinate Soybean Cultivars Grown at Elevated Temperatures in a Temperate Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug-Hwan Choi

    Full Text Available Increased temperature means and fluctuations associated with climate change are predicted to exert profound effects on the seed yield of soybean. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the impacts of global warming on the phenology and yield of two determinate soybean cultivars in a temperate region (37.27°N, 126.99°E; Suwon, South Korea. These two soybean cultivars, Sinpaldalkong [maturity group (MG IV] and Daewonkong (MG VI, were cultured on various sowing dates within a four-year period, under no water-stress conditions. Soybeans were kept in greenhouses controlled at the current ambient temperature (AT, AT+1.5°C, AT+3.0°C, and AT+5.0°C throughout the growth periods. Growth periods (VE-R7 were significantly prolonged by the elevated temperatures, especially the R1-R5 period. Cultivars exhibited no significant differences in seed yield at the AT+1.5°C and AT+3.0°C treatments, compared to AT, while a significant yield reduction was observed at the AT+5.0°C treatment. Yield reductions resulted from limited seed number, which was due to an overall low numbers of pods and seeds per pod. Heat stress conditions induced a decrease in pod number to a greater degree than in seed number per pod. Individual seed weight exhibited no significant variation among temperature elevation treatments; thus, seed weight likely had negligible impacts on overall seed yield. A boundary line analysis (using quantile regression estimated optimum temperatures for seed number at 26.4 to 26.8°C (VE-R5 for both cultivars; the optimum temperatures (R5-R7 for single seed weight were estimated at 25.2°C for the Sinpaldalkong smaller-seeded cultivar, and at 22.3°C for the Daewonkong larger-seeded cultivar. The optimum growing season (VE-R7 temperatures for seed yield, which were estimated by combining the two boundary lines for seed number and seed weight, were 26.4 and 25.0°C for the Sinpaldalkong and Daewonkong cultivars, respectively. Considering the current

  3. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon Pool Weight Associated with Plant Biodiversity (Case Study: Mixed-Beech Forests of Glandrood in Nour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon pool plays an important role in the global C cycle and climate change mitigation. Therefore, improving our understanding of some factors such as plant biodiversity that can affect forest soil C storage is fundamentally important for anticipating changes. This study was carried out in the mixed-beech forests of Glandrood located in Noor using a systematic network of points including 400 m2 plot for trees layer regularly distributed by a distance of 100 m from each other. Within each sampling plot, five different smaller sub-plots (1m2 corresponded to the herbal coverage on the four cardinals and the center of sampling plots in order to measure Shannon-winner index H΄, Pielou index J΄, Species richness SR, Dominance index D, Abundance index and Species Importance Value index SIV. After removing the litter and large plant materials, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depths within each sub-plot, air dried and 2 mm sieved. The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that soil organic C pool was significantly different in the second depth compared to other soil layers. Based on the Pearson's correlation test across different soil layers, a positive strong correlation was detected between soil organic carbon storage at the first depth and abundance of tree layer. Furthermore, the aforementioned test showed that there was a strong correlation between Pielou index, dominance index of herbal coverage and soil C pool weight in the third depth as well as across the whole depths. Moreover, there was a inverse correlation between Dominance of herbal coverage and soil C pool weight in the third depth and the whole depth. In addition, there was a positive strong correlation between Shannon's index of herbal coverage and soil C pool weight in the third depth, total soil C pool weight. In contrast to the above conclusion, there was no significant correlation between species richness, SIV and soil C pool weight in different

  4. Weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata seed extract on normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adejuwon Adewale Adeneye

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Overall, results of this study showed that repeated oral treatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata elicited weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats that were mediated via de novo cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition.

  5. Genetic variation of habitual coffee consumption and glycemic changes in response to weight-loss diet intervention: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Ma, Wenjie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Duan, Donghui; Bray, J George A; Champagne, Catherine M; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-11-01

    Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention. Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS. Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( P -interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group. Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of coordinated transcript abundance during seed development in different Brassica rapa morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Ram Kumar; Moreno-Pachon, Natalia; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris; Bonnema, Guusje

    2013-12-01

    Brassica seeds are important as basic units of plant growth and sources of vegetable oil. Seed development is regulated by many dynamic metabolic processes controlled by complex networks of spatially and temporally expressed genes. We conducted a global microarray gene co-expression analysis by measuring transcript abundance of developing seeds from two diverse B. rapa morphotypes: a pak choi (leafy-type) and a yellow sarson (oil-type), and two of their doubled haploid (DH) progenies, (1) to study the timing of metabolic processes in developing seeds, (2) to explore the major transcriptional differences in developing seeds of the two morphotypes, and (3) to identify the optimum stage for a genetical genomics study in B. rapa seed. Seed developmental stages were similar in developing seeds of pak choi and yellow sarson of B. rapa; however, the colour of embryo and seed coat differed among these two morphotypes. In this study, most transcriptional changes occurred between 25 and 35 DAP, which shows that the timing of seed developmental processes in B. rapa is at later developmental stages than in the related species B. napus. Using a Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), we identified 47 "gene modules", of which 27 showed a significant association with temporal and/or genotypic variation. An additional hierarchical cluster analysis identified broad spectra of gene expression patterns during seed development. The predominant variation in gene expression was according to developmental stages rather than morphotype differences. Since lipids are the major storage compounds of Brassica seeds, we investigated in more detail the regulation of lipid metabolism. Four co-regulated gene clusters were identified with 17 putative cis-regulatory elements predicted in their 1000 bp upstream region, either specific or common to different lipid metabolic pathways. This is the first study of genome-wide profiling of transcript abundance during seed development in B

  7. Relationships Between Fruits And Seed Sizes, Germination And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each fruit and seeds, the weight was measured using electric weighing balance, Ohaus Corporation, Model Scout Prospu 402. Broadcast of 100 seeds of ... There was no co-relationship between seed size and germination rate because both small and big seeds started germination within the same week. The observed ...

  8. Variações espaço-temporais no estoque de sementes do solo na floresta amazônica Space-time variations in soil seed stock in an amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwton Leal Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A dispersão eficiente, a longevidade e a capacidade das sementes de permanecer em estado latente a espera de condições adequadas de germinação no banco de sementes do solo da floresta garantem a presença de espécies arbóreas pioneiras nas áreas perturbadas. As variações estacionais e espaciais na densidade e na composição florística do banco de sementes em Florestas Tropicais Úmidas são assuntos ainda pouco compreendidos. Este trabalho verificou a existência de modificações espaço-temporais do banco de sementes presente em áreas de Floresta Tropical úmida localizadas próximas a Manaus, AM. Em cada uma das seis áreas estudadas, foram coletadas 40 amostras circulares de solo superficial (10 cm de diâmetro e 2 cm de profundidade ao acaso. Essas amostras foram coletadas a cada dois meses, entre agosto/2004 e junho/2005,. As amostras de solo foram distribuídas em bandejas em casa de vegetação e a emergência das sementes presentes no solo foi acompanhada por 4 meses. Houve uma redução significativa (H: 14,09, p The dispersion efficiency, longevity and the ability of seeds to remain latent waiting for suitable conditions for germination in the forest soil seed bank ensures the presence of pioneer tree species in disturbed areas. The seasonal and spatial variations in the density and floristic composition of the seed bank in tropical rainforests is a subject still little understood. This work verified the existence of spatio-temporal changes of the seed bank present in areas of humid tropical rain forest located near Manaus, Amazonas. In each of the six study areas, 40 circular samples of topsoil (10 cm in diameter and 2 cm deep were randomly collected every two months, from August 2004 to June/2005. Inside a greenhouse, the collected soil samples were distributed in trays and the emergence of seeds present in the soil was accompanied during four months. There was a significant reduction (H: 14.09112, p <0.05 in the mean

  9. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    ABSTRACT. Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly soap products. The chemical analysis of seed oil was carried out using the methods reported by AOAC (1998), Akpan et al., (2006) and Bassir, (1978) which revealed that it had.

  10. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  11. Influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit haplotypes on dough rheology in elite common wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins. They are encoded by a multigene family located at the Glu-3 loci, and their allelic variation strongly influences wheat end-use quality. Due to ambiguities in the LMW-GS allele nomenclature and to the co...

  12. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  13. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeh Kwadwo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW, width of funicles (WFN, seed width (SW and seed height (SH were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ or an abscission-less zone (ALZ forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat.

  14. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...... acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... was evaluated for the working speeds of 4, 8 and 12 km h−1, by testing uniformity and accuracy of the coulter depth in relation to the target depth of −30 mm. The evaluation was based on coulter depth measurements, obtained by coulter position sensors combined with ultrasonic soil surface sensors. Mean coulter...

  15. Variation in seed fatty acid composition and sequence divergence in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated sesame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Tonnis, Brandon; Morris, Brad; Wang, Richard B; Zhang, Amy L; Pinnow, David; Wang, Ming Li

    2014-12-03

    Sesame germplasm harbors genetic diversity which can be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs. Seven accessions with different levels of oleic acid were selected from the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection (1232 accessions) and planted for morphological observation and re-examination of fatty acid composition. The coding region of the FAD2 gene for fatty acid desaturase (FAD) in these accessions was also sequenced. Cultivated sesame accessions flowered and matured earlier than the wild species. The cultivated sesame seeds contained a significantly higher percentage of oleic acid (40.4%) than the seeds of the wild species (26.1%). Nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated species. Some nucleotide polymorphisms led to amino acid changes, one of which was located in the enzyme active site and may contribute to the altered fatty acid composition. Based on the morphology observation, chemical analysis, and sequence analysis, it was determined that two accessions were misnamed and need to be reclassified. The results obtained from this study are useful for sesame improvement in molecular breeding programs.

  16. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L. [Cancer Research UK and ESPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Surrey (United Kingdom); deSouza, Nandita M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC{sub total} and a perfusion-insensitive ADC{sub high} (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC{sub total} and ADC{sub high} showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC{sub high} showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.46 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.33 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.84 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.77 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; both P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in ADC values in relation to menstrual cycle (ADC{sub total} P = 0.2, ADC{sub high} P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC{sub total} P = 0.6, ADC{sub high} P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  17. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  18. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  19. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  20. High-Molecular-Weight Paired Helical Filaments from Alzheimer Brain Induces Seeding of Wild-Type Mouse Tau into an Argyrophilic 4R Tau Pathology in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouard, Emilie; Houben, Sarah; Masaracchia, Caterina; Yilmaz, Zehra; Suain, Valérie; Authelet, Michèle; De Decker, Robert; Buée, Luc; Boom, Alain; Leroy, Karelle; Ando, Kunie; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    In Alzheimer disease, the development of tau pathology follows neuroanatomically connected pathways, suggesting that abnormal tau species might recruit normal tau by passage from cell to cell. Herein, we analyzed the effect of stereotaxic brain injection of human Alzheimer high-molecular-weight paired helical filaments (PHFs) in the dentate gyrus of wild-type and mutant tau THY-Tau22 mice. After 3 months of incubation, wild-type and THY-Tau22 mice developed an atrophy of the dentate gyrus and a tau pathology characterized by Gallyas and tau-positive grain-like inclusions into granule cells that extended in the hippocampal hilus and eventually away into the alveus, and the fimbria. Gallyas-positive neuropil threads and oligodendroglial coiled bodies were also observed. These tau inclusions were composed only of mouse tau, and were immunoreactive with antibodies to 4R tau, phosphotau, misfolded tau, ubiquitin, and p62. Although local hyperphosphorylation of tau was increased in the dentate gyrus in THY-Tau22 mice, the development of neurofibrillary tangles made of mutant human tau was not accelerated in the hippocampus, indicating that wild-type human PHFs were inefficient in seeding tau aggregates made of G272V/P301S mutant human tau. Our results indicate thus that injection of human wild-type Alzheimer PHF seeded aggregation of wild-type murine tau into an argyrophilic 4R tau pathology, and constitutes an interesting model independent of expression of a mutant tau protein. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of risk to honeybee colonies from use of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam as seed treatments: a postscript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Stephenson, Gladys L

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a postscript to the four companion papers in this issue of the Journal (Solomon and Stephenson 2017a , 2017b ; Stephenson and Solomon 2017a , 2017b ). The first paper in the series described the conceptual model and the methods of the QWoE process. The other three papers described the application of the QWoE process to studies on imidacloprid (IMI), clothianidin (CTD), and thiamethoxam (TMX). This postscript was written to summarize the utility of the methods used in the quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE), the overall relevance of the results, and the environmental implications of the findings. Hopefully, this will be helpful to others who wish to conduct QWoEs and use these methods in assessment of risks.

  2. Variations in the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability of children to weight gain induced by short sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Puig, A; Grau-Cabrera, P; Riera-Pérez, E; Cortés-Marina, R; Fortea, E; Soriano-Rodríguez, P; de Zegher, F; Ibánez, L; Bassols, J; López-Bermejo, A

    2013-02-01

    Shorter sleep duration predisposes to obesity, but the mechanisms whereby sleep deprivation affects body weight are poorly understood. We tested whether this association is modulated by the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral fat (abdominal ultrasound), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and sleep time per 24 h were assessed in 297 asymptomatic children (151 boys, 146 girls; age range 5-9 years; BMI s.d. score range -2.0-4.0). Associations between sleep duration and the abovementioned outcomes were tested for three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely FTO (rs9939609), TMEM 18 (rs4854344) and NRXN3 (rs10146997), as well as for their combination. TT homozygotes (but not A(*) carriers) for the FTO SNP, exhibited nominal associations between decreasing sleep duration and increasing BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat and HOMA-IR (all Psleep and, respectively, BMI (Psleep less per night was associated with an increase in BMI of 1.0 s.d. (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.6 s.d.) and with 8.0 cm (95% confidence interval 3.6-12.2 cm) more waist circumference in genetically susceptible children. By age 7, common variations in FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability to metabolic complications of sleep deprivation. Further genetic studies are warranted to replicate these findings in other populations.

  3. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  4. Genetic diversity of dispersed seeds is highly variable among leks of the long-wattled umbrellabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewell, Kym; Browne, Luke; Cabrera, Domingo; Olivo, Jorge; Karubian, Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees, but genetic consequences of this phenomenon remain poorly resolved. Seed dispersal of the palm Oenocarpus bataua by long-wattled umbrellabirds Cephalopterus penduliger generates high seed densities in leks (i.e., multi-male display sites), providing a suitable venue to investigate how dispersal by this frugivore may influence seed source diversity and genetic structure at local and landscape levels. We found moderate levels of maternal seed source diversity in primary seed rain across five leks in northwest Ecuador (unweighted mean alpha diversity α = 9.52, weighted mean αr = 3.52), with considerable variation among leks (αr range: 1.81-24.55). Qualitatively similar findings were obtained for allelic diversity and heterozygosity. Higher densities of O. bataua adults around leks were associated with higher values of αr and heterozygosity (non-significant trends) and allelic diversity (significant correlation). Seed source overlap between different leks was not common but did occur at low frequency, providing evidence for long-distance seed dispersal by umbrellabirds into leks. Our findings are consistent with the idea that seed pool diversity within leks may be shaped by the interaction between density of local trees, which can vary considerably between leks, and umbrellabird foraging ecology, particularly a lack of territorial defense of fruiting trees. Taken as a whole, this work adds to our growing appreciation of the ways resource distribution and associated frugivore foraging behaviors mechanistically shape seed dispersal outcomes and the distribution of plant genotypes across the landscape.

  5. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  6. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Graña-Miraglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  7. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña-Miraglia, Lucía; Lozano, Luis F; Velázquez, Consuelo; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia; Pérez-Oseguera, Ángeles; Cevallos, Miguel A; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  8. Seed production of native forbs shows little response to irrigation in a wet year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Lamont D. Saunders; Nancy Shaw; Ann DeBolt

    2007-01-01

    Native forb seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native forb seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and soil moisture...

  9. Differential expression of a WRKY gene between wild and cultivated soybeans correlates to seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongzhe; Li, Wei; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yan; Gao, Huihui; Liu, Miao; Chen, Qingshan; Lai, Yongcai; He, Chaoying

    2017-05-17

    Soybean (Glycine max) probably originated from the wild soybean (Glycine soja). Glycine max has a significantly larger seed size, but the underlying genomic changes are largely unknown. Candidate regulatory genes were preliminarily proposed by data co-localizing RNA sequencing with the quantitative loci (QTLs) for seed size. The soybean gene locus SoyWRKY15a and its orthologous genes from G. max (GmWRKY15a) and G. soja (GsWRKY15a) were analyzed in detail. The coding sequences were nearly identical between the two orthologs, but GmWRKY15a was significantly more highly expressed than GsWRKY15a. Four haplotypes (H1-H4) were found and they varied in the size of a CT-core microsatellite locus in the 5'-untranslated region of this gene. H1 (with six CT-repeats) was the only allelic version found in G. max, while H3 (with five CT-repeats) was the dominant G. soja allele. Differential expression of this gene in soybean pods was correlated with CT-repeat variation, and manipulation of the CT copy number altered the reporter gene expression, suggesting a regulatory role for the simple sequence repeats. Seed weight of wild soybeans harboring H1 was significantly greater than that of soybeans having haplotypes H2, H3, or H4, and seed weight was correlated with gene expression, suggesting the influence of GsWRKY15a in controlling seed size. However, the seed size might be refractory to increased SoyWRKY15a expression in cultivated soybeans. The evolutionary significance of SoyWRKY15a variation in soybean seed domestication is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  11. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C L; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Meacham, M C; Neugebauer, K; Nightingale, M; Dupuy, L X; Hammond, J P; White, P J; Broadley, M R

    2016-04-06

    Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR;Brassica napus) varieties. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a 'pouch and wick' HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49;P < 0·05) and with emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49;P < 0·05) field experiments. Seedling LRD correlated positively with leaf concentrations of some minerals, e.g. calcium (r = 0·46;P < 0·01) and zinc (r = 0·58;P < 0·001), but did not correlate with emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats.

  13. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal pancreas: reproducibility and variations of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement at 1.5- and 3.0-Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, M; Soyer, P; Ben Hassen, W; Gayat, E; Aout, M; Chiaradia, M; Rahmouni, A; Luciani, A

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate reproducibility and variations in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in normal pancreatic parenchyma at 1.5- and 3.0-Tesla and determine if differences may exist between the four pancreatic segments. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the pancreas was performed at 1.5-Tesla in 20 patients and at 3.0-Tesla in other 20 patients strictly matched for gender and age using the same b values (0, 400 and 800s/mm(2)). Two independent observers placed regions of interest within the four pancreatic segments to measure ADC at both fields. Intra- and inter-observer agreement in ADC measurement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and comparison between ADC values obtained at both fields using non-parametrical tests. There were no significant differences in ADC between repeated measurements and between ADC obtained at 1.5-Tesla and those at 3.0-Tesla. The 95% limits of intra-observer agreement between ADC were 2.3%-22.7% at 1.5-Tesla and 1%-24.2% at 3.0-Tesla and those for inter-observer agreement between 1.9%-14% at 1.5-Tesla and 8%-25% at 3.0-Tesla. ADC values were similar in all pancreatic segments at 3.0-T whereas the tail had lower ADC at 1.5-Tesla. ADC measurement conveys high degrees of intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. ADC have homogeneous distribution among the four pancreatic segments at 3.0-Tesla. Copyright © 2012 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  15. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T.; Cavadino, Alana; Bakker, Rachel; Brion, Marie-Jo A.; Geller, Frank; Paternoster, Lavinia; Myhre, Ronny; Potter, Catherine; Johnson, Paul C.D.; Ebrahim, Shah; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Kaakinen, Marika; Lowe, Lynn P.; Magnus, Per; McConnachie, Alex; Melbye, Mads; Ng, Jane W.Y.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Power, Chris; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain P.; Sengpiel, Verena; Taal, H. Rob; Watt, Graham C.M.; Sattar, Naveed; Relton, Caroline L.; Jacobsson, Bo; Frayling, Timothy M.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Pennell, Craig E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Hypponen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4–36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: −4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight. PMID:22956269

  16. Genotypic Variation in the Concentration of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seeds Is Associated with an Accumulation of Leaf and Pod β-ODAP during Vegetative and Reproductive Stages at Three Levels of Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Xiong, You-Cai; Bai, Xue; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Zhu, Hao; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Wang, Jian-Yong; Turner, Neil C

    2015-07-15

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation is limited because of the presence in seeds and tissues of the nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin that can cause lathyrism in humans. Seven grass pea genotypes differing in seed β-ODAP concentration were grown in pots at three levels of water availability to follow changes in the concentration and amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods and seeds. The concentration and amount of β-ODAP decreased in leaves in early reproductive development and in pods as they matured, while water stress increased β-ODAP concentration in leaves and pods at these stages. The net amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods at early podding was positively associated with seed β-ODAP concentration at maturity. We conclude that variation among genotypes in seed β-ODAP concentration results from variation in net accumulation of β-ODAP in leaves and pods during vegetative and early reproductive development.

  17. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2010-01-01

    work we will seek to understand more about the internal dynamics of the indented cylinder. We will apply image analysis to observe the movement of seeds in the indented cylinder. This work is laying the groundwork for future studies into the application of image analysis as a tool for autonomous......-Spline surfaces. Using image analysis, the seeds will be tracked using a kalman filter and the 2D trajectory, length, velocity, weight, and rotation will be sampled. We expect a high correspondence between seed length and certain spatially optimal seed trajectories. This work is done in collaboration with Westrup......The indented cylinder is used for sorting seeds. The seeds are physically manipulated in a way, such that sorting is based primarily on the length of individual seeds. Seeds are separated into at least two subsets: (1) seeds of a length a threshold (a scalar) and (2) seeds of a length the same...

  18. Correlations and path analyses of yield and other sunflower seed characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Velimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten sunflower commercial female parental lines were evaluated for various parameters under field conditions to estimate genetic parameters, correlation coefficient, and path analyses. Interactions of seed germination, 1000 seed weight, oil and protein content with seed yield were examined. After three years of observations, positive significant correlations were found while comparing seed yield with 1000 seed weight. Negative significant correlations were found by comparing seed yield and seed germination. Positive but not significant correlation was found while comparing seed yield with oil content in sunflower seed. Path coefficient analysis indicates that 1000 seed weight has maximum positive and seed germination maximum negative direct effect on yield. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31025: Development of new varieties and production technology improvement of oil crops for different purposes

  19. Genetic variation in body weight gain and composition in the intercross of Large (LG/J and Small (SM/J inbred strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Melissa G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain intercross experiments provide a powerful means for mapping genes affecting complex quantitative traits. We report on the genetic variability of the intercross of the Large (LG/J and Small (SM/J inbred mouse strains as a guide to gene mapping studies. Ten SM/J males were crossed to 10 LG/J females, after which animals were randomly mated to produce F1, F2, and F3 intercross generations. The 1632 F3 animals from 200 full-sib families were used to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations of the traits measured. A subset of families was cross-fostered at birth to allow measurement of the importance of post-natal maternal effects. Data was collected on weekly body weight from one to 10 weeks and on organ weights, body weight, reproductive fat pad weight, and tail length at necropsy in the intercross generations. There was no heterosis for age-specific weights or necropsy traits, except that one-week weight was the highest in the F2 generation, indicating heterosis for maternal effect in the F1 mothers. We found moderate to high heritability for most age-specific weights and necropsy traits. Maternal effects were significant for age-specific weights from one to four weeks but disappeared completely at ten-week weight. Maternal effects for necropsy traits were low and not statistically significant. Age-specific weights showed a typical correlation pattern, with correlation declining as the difference in ages increased. Among necropsy traits, reproductive fat pad and body weights were very highly genetically correlated. Most other genetic correlations were low to moderate. The intercross between SM/J and LG/J inbred mouse strains provides a valuable resource for mapping quantitative trait loci for body size, composition, and morphology

  20. Seed drill instrumentation for spatial coulter depth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    An even and correct depth placement of seeds is crucial for uniform crop germination and for obtaining the desired agricultural yield. On state-of-the-art seed drills, the coulter down pressure is set manually by static springs or heavy weights, which entails that the coulter’s seeding depth reac...

  1. 7 CFR 457.108 - Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of priority is as follows... for oil type sunflower seed grading U.S. No. 2, or non-oil type sunflower seed with a test weight of... area in which you normally market the sunflower seed. The local market price for oil type sunflower...

  2. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The determination of the number of seeds, bulblets, or tubers of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight...

  3. OF SEED YIELD IN SOYBEANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ( 1983) noted that tall plants often tended to produce high yield, while Gonzales et al. ( 1984) concluded that pod weight was the most appropriate character for indirect selection. The objective of this study was to determine the component characters whose selection would lead to improvement in seed yield of some Nigerian.

  4. Short-term variation in the body weight of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus : Effect of available feeding time by day and night, temperature and wind force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    The available feeding time of coastal Oystercatchers varies from day to day due to the effect of wind direction and wind force on the water level. If the birds are not able to feed at all during a day, they lose 30 g, or 6% of their body weight. The body weight increases with the duration of the

  5. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  6. Effects of provenance and seed size on seedling survival and mophology of Quercus pontica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aksu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of provenance and seed size on seedling survival and growth of Quercus pontica. The study showed that seed parameters showed significant differences among provenances. Provenance and seed size affected seedling survival and seedling morphology. Bigger seed size increased seedling survival, and also the large sized seed showed significant higher seedling height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and Dickson Quality Index in 1+0 seedlings.

  7. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Genetic variation for phytic acid content in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Janardan Dhole

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek is a short-duration legume crop cultivated for seeds that are rich in protein and carbohydrates. Mungbeans contain phytic acid (PA, an anti-nutritional factor that is the main storage form of organic phosphorus in seeds. It is a strong inhibitor against the absorption of nutrients including iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium in monogastric animals. Genotypes with low phytic acid (lpa in seed may show increased assimilation of nutrients and be useful in breeding lpa cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify lpa sources, genetic variation, heritability, and association with seed coat color, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and seed size in 102 mungbean genotypes including released varieties, land races, mutants, and wild species grown in two seasons: summer 2011 and rabi 2012. PA and IP in dry seeds were estimated by modified colorimetric method and Chen's modified method, respectively. PA, IP, and 100-seed weight differed significantly in the two seasons. PA content in 102 genotypes ranged from 5.74 to 18.98 mg g− 1 and 5.85 to 20.02 mg g− 1 in summer 2011 and rabi 2012, respectively. High heritability was found for PA (0.87 and 0.86 and seed size (0.82 and 0.83 but low heritability for IP (0.61 and 0.60. A negative correlation was found between PA and seed size (r = − 0.183 and − 0.267. Yellow and green seed coat genotypes contained significantly less PA than black seed coat genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed the distinctness of wild species, land races and cultivated varieties on the basis of PA content. The genotypes YBSM (6.001 mg g− 1 and JL-781 (6.179 mg g− 1 showed lowest PA. These lpa sources can be used to develop high-yielding mungbean cultivars with low phytic acid.

  9. Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Quality of Rice Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Juan; FANG, Hui; ZHANG, Ying; FAN, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Germination and hydroponic experiments are performed on rice seeds growing in soils treated with Cd stress, with rice seeds of the same variety that is not treated with Cd stress as a control, to study the effects of Cd stress on quality of rice seeds. The results have shown that: (1) Cd stress reduces the thousand grain weight of rice seeds, and higher Cd content means lower thousand grain weight; (2) The germination vigor and germination percentage of rice seeds under Cd stress as well as t...

  10. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration. PMID:23006315

  11. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 02: Evaluation of Dosimetric Variations in Partial Breast Seed Implant (PBSI) due to Patient Arm Position (Up vs. Down)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Long, K [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Husain, S [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Meyer, T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    The planning for PBSI is done with the patient's ipsilateral arm raised, however, anatomical changes and variations are unavoidable as the patient resumes her daily activities, potentially resulting in significant deviations in implant geometry from the treatment plan. This study aims to quantify the impact of the ipsilateral arm position on the geometry and dosimetry of the implant at eight weeks, evaluated on post-plans using the MIM Symphony™ software (MIM Software, Cleveland, OH). The average dose metrics for the three patients treated at the TBCC thus far using rigid fusion and contour transfer for the arms up position were 76% for the CTV V100, 61% for the PTV V100, and 37% for the PTV V200; and for the arms down position 81% for the CTV V100, 64% for the PTV V100, and 42% for the PTV V200. Qualitative analysis of the post-implant CT for one of the three patients showed poor agreement between the seroma contour transferred from the pre-implant CT and the seroma visible on the post-implant CT. To obtain a clinically accurate plan for that patient, contour modifications were used, yielding improved dose metric averages for the arms-up position for all three patients of 87% for the CTV V100, 68% for the PTV V100, and 39% for the PTV V200. Overall, the data available shows that dosimetric parameters increase with the patient's arm down, both in terms of coverage and in terms of the hot spot, and accrual of more patients may confirm this in a larger population.

  12. Wheat genotypes under different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Vieira Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wheat tillering capacity defines yield and yield components, being affected by seeding rate. This study aimed at evaluating wheat genotypes under different seeding rates, in Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2009 and 2010. A completely randomized blocks design, in a factorial scheme, with four replications, was used. The agronomic traits of three wheat genotypes (PF 014384, BRS Tangará and BRS Pardela were evaluated under the seeding rates of 150 pl m-2, 250 pl m-2, 350 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. In Londrina, the maximum yield was observed at densities close to 270 pl m-2, while in Ponta Grossa (2009 there was a linear fit. There was no adjustment for plant height, concerning seeding rate. The number of ears per area (ears m-2 was higher in Ponta Grossa (2009 and did not differ between the locations, in 2010. In Ponta Grossa (2010, the highest one thousand seeds weight was estimated at the density of 341 pl m-2, while in Londrina (2010 it was estimated at 150 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. The seeding rate affected grain yield, depending on place and year. In Londrina, there was a limit for yield, concerning seeding rate. The one thousand seeds weight was influenced by seeding rate, depending on year and location. Plant height was affected by genotype and growing area.

  13. [Study on effect of seed vigor and agronomic characters of Cassia seeds implanted with low energy nitrogen ion beans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on seed germination and agronomic characters. Different doses of low energy nitrogen ion implantation were implanted into fresh Cassia seed embryos. Seed germination, seedling growth and field agronomic characters were observed. The seeds after ion implantation showed significant reduction in germination energy, germination percentage and germination index, besides the significant decreasement in root length, fresh weight and vigor index of seedling. Plant height decreased despite the increase in grain size and grain weight. The low energy nitrogen ion implantation have significant effect on Cassia seeds, and being of great significance on Cassia artificial cultivation.

  14. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-05-03

    , vitamin C. ... germination process improves the nutritional value and reduces antinutritional .... Effect of magnetic field treatment seeds on the elongation (a), fresh weight (b), dry weight (c) water concentration in tissue (d) in.

  15. Nutritionist’s Variation in Counseling Style and the Effect on Weight Change of Patients Attending a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy M. M. Sea

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the nature of nutritionist-patient relationships is very limited. This qualitative and quantitative study examined nutritionist’s skills, attributes, and beliefs towards nutrition counseling during a lifestyle modification intervention program, and whether this affected the patient’s weight outcome. 24 nutrition consultations were observed during the program and the nutritionists were interviewed for their perception on practice (n = 4. A statistically significant difference was observed between the nutritionists in regard to patient’s weight change after adjustment for age and baseline weight (p < 0.001. Key nutritionist skills identified that influenced weight outcome were meticulous investigation of the underlying obesity cause, identification of the subject’s stage of change, and psychological support.

  16. The Effect of Osmo and Hormone Priming on Germination and Seed Reserve Utilization of Millet Seeds under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed priming with osmo and hormone priming on growth and seed reserve utilization of millet seeds under drought stress. Treatments were combinations of 4 levels of drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar and 3 levels of seed priming and control with 3 replications. Results showed that with increase in drought stress, germination components such as germination percentage, germination index, mean time to germination, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed and seed reserve utilization efficiency decreased, but seed priming showed lower reduction. The highest germination characteristics and seed reserve utilization was obtained by priming in control conditions. It is concluded that priming results in improvement in germination components of millet in drought stress conditions.

  17. Relationship of seed traits on initial progeny growth performance and divergence studies in Madhuca latifolia Macb. for further use in tree improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BN Divakara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of twenty-three genotypes of M. latifolia was carried out based on relationship of seed traits with initial progeny growth performance and divergence studies as a scope for further breeding programme. Variability studies revealed that, more than twelve accessions recorded above average for 100-seed weight (247.5±49.2, oil content (43.8±3.7 and volume index (346.0±97.7. The maximum values observed in studied CPTs were as follows: seed length (39.1 mm in CPT-15 genotype, seed breadth (19.2 mm in CPT–8 and CPT–9, aspect ratio (2.2 in CPT-6 and CPT-15, 2D surface area (501.4 and 491.6 mm2 in CPT-9 and CPT-3 respectively. CPT–16 recorded maximum for 100 seed weight (282.4 g and oil content (51.2%. However, maximum volume index was recorded by CPT–3 (578.3 cm3 followed by CPT–16 (496.0 cm3. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations are close to each other for all traits, except volume index that exhibited striking difference between PCV (40.0% and GCV (19.9% indicating that for most traits genetic control was quite high. Trait oil content and 100 seed weight expressed high heritability (93.5%, 93.0% accompanied with moderate genetic advance (17.2%, 15.6%, indicating that, heritability is due to additive gene effects and selection may be effective. At genotypic level 100 seed weight registered positive significant correlation with height (0.73 and seed breadth, oil content with volume index (0.55, 0.71. Hence seeds with large breadth, high seed weight and oil content may be selected for producing better progenies. Since traits viz. 100 seed weight and oil content are under strong genetic control, improvement in these characters can bring improvement in volume index. On the basis of the divergence, the 23 genotypes studied were grouped into 5 clusters, indicating wide diversity. The clustering pattern shows that geographical diversity is not necessarily related to genetic diversity. The genotypes in cluster IV and V

  18. Evaluation of germination capacity and selected biometric parameters (length and dry weight of roots and coleoptile of sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus after application of preparations containing effective microorganisms (EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SEKUTOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and early growth microbiotest PhytotoxkitTM was used in the experiment, which consisted of 3 independent laboratory experimental series with one month intervals each and 3 replications. The aim of this study was to evaluate germination dynamics and capacity as well as selected biometric parameters after seed treatment with two preparations containing effective microorganisms: EM Farma (EMF and EM Farma Plus (EMFP. Sunflower seeds (H. annuus were chosen as the experimental material. Seeds soaked in distilled water were control objects (K in these experiment. Apart from control (K, reference material was prepared in the form of two biostimulants: Kelpak SL (KSL and gibberellic acid (GA3. The effect of the two biopreparations EM Farma (EMF and EM Farma Plus (EMFP was beneficial related to germination capacity and biometric parameters of sunflower (H. annuus.

  19. [Effects of storage time on quality of Desmodium styracifolium seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan; Tang, Xiao-min; Pan, Hai-yun; Mei, Ling-feng; Zhang, Chun-rong; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic changes of germination percentage, germination potential, thousand-seed weight, antioxidase activity in Desmodium styracifolium seeds with different storage time were tested, and electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, starch in seed leach liquor were also determined in order to reveal the mechanism of seed deterioration. The results as the following. (1) The germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds declined, while the seed coat color darkened with the extension of storage time. (2) The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The SOD activity declined fastest in 1,095-1,185 d of storage, while the POD activity declined significantly in 365-395 d of storage. (3) The electrical conductivity and the contents of soluble sugar, starch in seed leach liquor increased, while the content of soluble protein declined with the extension of storage time. (4) Correlation analysis indicated that the germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds have a significantly positive correlation with SOD and POD activity, while have a significantly negative correlation with the electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar and starch. It can be concluded that during the storage of D. styracifolium seeds, physiological and biochemical changes including decrease in antioxidase activity, rise in electrical conductivity, degradation effluent of soluble sugar and starch, degradation of soluble protein were the main factors leading to the seed deterioration.

  20. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further administered ...

  1. Seed production temperature regulation of primary dormancy occurs through control of seed coat phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Dana R; Kendall, Sarah L; Florance, Hannah; Fedi, Fabio; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Penfield, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes during seed production are important drivers of lot-to-lot variation in seed behaviour and enable wild species to time their life history with seasonal cues. Temperature during seed set is the dominant environmental signal determining the depth of primary dormancy, although the mechanisms though which temperature changes impart changes in dormancy state are still only partly understood. We used molecular, genetic and biochemical techniques to examine the mechanism through which temperature variation affects Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, low temperatures during seed maturation result in an increase in phenylpropanoid gene expression in seeds and that this correlates with higher concentrations of seed coat procyanidins. Lower maturation temperatures cause differences in coat permeability to tetrazolium, and mutants with increased seed coat permeability and/or low procyanidin concentrations are less able to enter strongly dormant states after exposure to low temperatures during seed maturation. Our data show that maternal temperature signalling regulates seed coat properties, and this is an important pathway through which the environmental signals control primary dormancy depth. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    flies' activities caused damage to seeds including rotten kennels and seeds, empty shells and dead developing embryos in transparent polyethylene storage bags. The highest infestation was on 2052 seeds out of a total production of 582,503 germinated seeds in batch number 5 and the lowest was 223 seeds out of ...

  3. Bean arcelin : 1. Inheritance of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its effect on seed composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Andreas, J; Yandell, B S; Bliss, F A

    1986-04-01

    SDS-PAGE of seed proteins from the seeds of a nondomesticated bean of Mexican origin (Phaseolus vulgaris L., PI 325690) revealed the presence of a novel 38 kd protein which appeared to be neither an altered phaseolin nor a lectin fraction. The protein was named arcelin, after Arcelia, the town in the state of Guerrero near which PI 325690 had been collected. The pure line, UW 325, was derived by self fertilization of the plant from a single arcelin-containing seed of PI 325690. Despite a low percentage seed phaseolin (14.6%), seed phenotype, seed germination, plant growth, pollen fertility, and percentage seed protein of UW 325 were normal. Analyses of F2 and F3 seeds from a single F1 plant of the cross 'Sanilac'XPI 325690-3 revealed that arcelin expression was inherited as a single gene and that presence was dominant to absence of arcelin. The mean percentage phaseolin in the seeds of homozygous dominant Arc/Arc F3 families (14.0%) was significantly lower than that of the homozygous recessive arc/arc seeds (44.7%). The distribution of percentage phaseolin values for seeds within segregating families was bimodal and nonoverlapping. Without exception, seeds containing arcelin (Arc+phenotype) contained a lower percentage phaseolin than seeds lacking arcelin (Arc-phenotype). Although arcelin presence was associated with low percentage phaseolin, the Arc/Arc and Arc/arc genotypes were similar for seed weight and percentage total seed protein.

  4. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  5. Analysis the parameters of seed quality in ns sunflower hybrid after processing in gravity separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad before and after processing in gravity separator. The cultivars were Pegaz, Duško, NS Fantazija, Sumo 1 PR and NS Oskar. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed in 2015 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1.000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of sclerotinia per 1.000. The results showed that all the parameters of seed quality of sunflower hybrids were better after processing seeds in the gravity separator.

  6. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  7. Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the weaning to estrus interval affects subsequent variation in within-litter piglet birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of supplementation of dextrose to the diet of sows during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on subsequent litter size and within-litter variation were investigated. After weaning, 223 sows (first to fifth parity) were fed 3.5 kg/d. Half of the sows additionally received 150 g of dextrose

  8. Variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and macropolymers in wheat grains of a recombinant inbred lines population and in two contrasting eco-sites in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits andmacropolymers in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality, which are genetically determined and affected by environmental factors. The 6 VS·6AL translocation chromosome segment is reported to own high powdery m...... wheat cultivars for high resistence to powdery mildew and yellow rust with less risk of undesirable effects on grain quality. c 2012 Society of Chemical Industry Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.......BACKGROUND: Concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits andmacropolymers in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality, which are genetically determined and affected by environmental factors. The 6 VS·6AL translocation chromosome segment is reported to own high powdery...... mildew and yellow rust resistance genes of Pm21 and Yr26. This study investigated the variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and gluteninmacropolymer (GMP) in response to the 6 VS·6AL translocation segment and the two contrasting sites. RESULTS: Large variations...

  9. Seeds and plantlets of Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”: biometry, germination, and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson E. Medina Bardales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to determine seed biometrics, recording cellular respiration in the imbibition process, evaluate the effect of inducing chemicals in germination and early growth analysis. Cellular respiration during imbibition was measured by reduction of methylene blue and Janus Green B. The inductor effect of five chemical compounds in germination was evaluated. Initial growth was recorded by stereoscopic. Results showed that the seeds have an average weight of 520 ± 172 mg, length of 13.50 ± 1.76 mm, width of 10.61 ± 1.14 mm, and thickness of 4.68 ± 0 62 mm. These variables showed significant correlations (r of 0.494 to 0.897 and p 90% and 65% respectively. Seedling initial growth consisted of six stages and occurred over a period of 22 days after radicle emergence. In conclusion, M. dubia seeds show wide variation in their biometrics (weight, length, width and thickness, but show significant correlations with each other. Likewise, seeds are metabolically active in imbibition process, and germination is induced by sodium nitrite and potassium cyanide. Furthermore, seedling initial growth to occur over a period of 22 days after emergence of the radicle and consists of six distinct stages.

  10. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.

  11. Impact of social mobility and geographical migration on variation in male height, weight and body mass index in a British cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Using a sample of 2090 British father and son pairs the relationships between social and geographical intra- and inter-generational mobility were examined in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). There was much more social mobility than geographical (regional) migration. Social mobility and geographical migration were not independent: socially non-mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be geographical non-migrants, and upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be regional migrants. Upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were, on average, taller and had a lower BMI than non-mobile and downwardly mobile fathers and sons. In general, no significant associations were found between geographical migration and height or weight. Migrating fathers had a lower BMI than sedentes, as did their sons who migrated between 1965 and 1991. There was no significant interaction that indicated that social mobility and geographical migration were acting in a simple additive way on height, weight and BMI.

  12. Seed manual: Rural household seed security

    OpenAIRE

    Neuendorf, O. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    This training manual on Small Scale Seed Production is meant to be used by the individual farmer or farmer group, the intermediary or extension worker, as well as the trainer(s) to train, elaborate, and execute a small scale seed production project. Nine instructional chapters focus on the following topics: introduction to the basic theoretical principles of food production, planning and implementation of seed production, project preparatory phase: training of trainers; small scale seed produ...

  13. Tamanho de amostra para a estimação da média do comprimento, diâmetro e massa de sementes de feijão de porco e mucuna cinza Sample size for estimating the average length, diameter and weight of seeds of jack bean and velvet bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tamanho de amostra necessário para a estimação da média do comprimento, dos diâmetros maior e menor e da massa de sementes de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis e de mucuna cinza (Stizolobium cinereum. Em 300 sementes de feijão de porco e em 300 sementes de mucuna cinza, foram mensurados os seguintes caracteres: comprimento, diâmetros maior e menor e massa. Foram calculadas medidas de tendência central e de variabilidade. Após, foram testadas as hipóteses de igualdade entre as médias e de homogeneidade entre as variâncias. Foi determinado o tamanho de amostra por meio de reamostragem, com reposição de 10.000 amostras. Para a estimação da média do comprimento, dos diâmetros maior e menor e da massa, com intervalo de confiança de 95% igual a 10% da estimativa da média, 117 e 66 sementes são suficientes, respectivamente, para feijão de porco e mucuna cinza.The objective of this research was to determine the sample size (number of seeds to estimate the average of length, major and minor diameters and weight of seeds of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis and velvet bean (Stizolobium cinereum. In 300 seeds of jack bean and 300 seeds of velvet bean it was measured following characters: length, major and minor diameters and weight. It was calculated measures of central tendency and variability. After the hypothesis of equality between the means and homogeneity of variances, were tested. It was determined the sample size using resampling with replacement of 10,000 samples. For estimating the average of length, major and minor diameters and weight, with amplitude of confidence interval of 95%, equal 10% of average estimate, 117 and 66 seeds are sufficient, respectively, for jack bean and velvet bean.

  14. Seed germination, seedling traits, and seed bank of the tree Moringa peregrina (Moringaceae) in a hyper-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Nasr H; Picó, F Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Water-limited hot environments are good examples of hyper-aridity. Trees are scarce in these environments but some manage to survive, such as the tree Moringa peregrina. Understanding how trees maintain viable populations in extremely arid environments may provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms by which trees cope with extremely arid weather conditions. This understanding is relevant to the current increasing aridity in several regions of the world. Seed germination experiments were conducted to assess variation in seed mass, seed germination, and seedling traits of Moringa peregrina plants and the correlations among these traits. A seed burial experiment was also designed to study the fate of M. peregrina seeds buried at two depths in the soil for two time periods. On average, seeds germinated in three days and seedling shoots grew 0.7 cm per day over three weeks. Larger seeds decreased germination time and increased seedling growth rates relative to smaller seeds. Seeds remained quiescent in the soil and germination was very high at both depths and burial times. The after-ripening time of Moringa peregrina seeds is short and seeds germinate quickly after imbibition. Plants of M. peregrina may increase in hyper-arid environments from seeds with larger mass, shorter germination times, and faster seedling growth rates. The results also illustrate the adjustment in allocation to seed biomass and correlations among seed and seedling traits that allows M. peregrina to be successful in coping with aridity in its environment.

  15. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    from each site, as well as several environmental variables, were used to evaluate seed viability within the context of habitat variation. Initial viability of seeds used in the seed retrieval experiment was 81 and 92 percent for mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush, respectively. After remaining in the field for 24 months, buried Wyoming big sagebrush seeds retained 28-58 percent viability,11-23 percent of seeds under litter remained viable, and no seeds remained viable on the surface (estimates are 95-percent confidence intervals). The odds of remaining viable did not change from 12 to 24 months. However, after 24 months the odds of seeds beneath litter being viable decreased to 75 percent of the odds of viability at 12 months. Similar to Wyoming big sagebrush, buried seeds of mountain big sagebrush were 31-68 percent viable, seeds under litter retained 10-22 percent of their viability, and no surface seeds were viable after 24 months. Both subspecies of big sagebrush had some portion of seed that remained viable for more than one growing season provided they were buried or under litter. Although seeds beneath litter may remain viable in intact communities, seeds are susceptible to incineration during fires. Nine months after seed dispersal, seed bank estimates for Wyoming big sagebrush ranged from 19 to 49 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 19-57 viable seeds/m2 in soil samples (95-percent confidence interval). For mountain big sagebrush, estimates were 27-75 viable seeds/m2 in litter samples and 54-139 viable seeds/m2 in soil (95-percent confidence interval). The number of viable seeds present in the seed bank 9 months after seed dispersal was not significantly different from the number present immediately after seed dispersal. Seed viability was highest in mountain big sagebrush sites for seeds on the surface and beneath litter, but decreased after one season. Buried seeds of both subspecies were in equal abundances and may be insulated from the effect

  16. Weed seed predation in organic and conventional fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, S; Wratten, S D; Kristensen, K

    2009-01-01

    % in conventional fields although variation was high. Significantly different removal rates between the two field types were found only 9 m from the field edge with approximately four times higher losses of fathen seeds in organic fields. There was also a strong tendency towards higher seed losses at organic field......Enhanced biological control of weed seeds may improve sustainability of agricultural production. Biological control due to seed predation may be higher in organic fields because organic production generally supports more seed predators. To investigate such a difference, weed seed predation...... was studied in autumn in eight organic and eight conventional mixed cropping fields in New Zealand. Predation rates were estimated by observing removal rates of seeds of the annual weeds fathen or common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) and Persian speedwell (Veronica persica). The seed losses were recorded...

  17. Effect of Row Spacing and Seeding Rate on Yield Component and Seed Yield of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ABADOUZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigation the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Mesasirsa an experiment was carried out at the research farm of Khouzestan Agricultural Research Center from 2000 to 2004. This research was conducted in the form of a split plot design in a randomized complete block, with four replications. Main plot was three row spaces (50, 60 and 70 cm and sub plots were five seeding rates (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg seed ha-1. Results showed that the highest seed yield obtained in the second year. Seed yield and raceme per m2 increased with row spacing decreased. Seeding rate did not have any significant effect on pod per raceme, seed per pod and seed weight. The interaction of year and treatments on whole of traits were not significant. It was observed that correlation among seed yield and yield components was positive and significant. It was concluded that with using 15 kg seed ha-1 obtained highest seed yield due to increase in raceme per m2 and seed weight.

  18. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  19. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  20. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  1. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  2. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  3. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  4. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  5. Organic forage seed production

    OpenAIRE

    BOELT, B.; Deleuran, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    From January 2004 only organically produced seed can be used in organic farming systems within the EU. Danish seed producers and seed companies are establishing an organic forage seed production in order to supply organic growers within the EU with high quality seed of recognised varieties. This brief paper outlines a project investigating improved cultivation and management techniques to ensure such a supply is met.

  6. Nutritional composition of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaibi, Moncef; Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Rezig, Leila; Donsì, Francesco; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem

    2012-04-01

    Zizyphus lotus seeds are an unutilized source of vegetable oil and protein and nothing has been reported on their physicochemical characteristics which would indicate the potential uses of these seeds. The percentage composition of the Zizyphus lotus seeds is (on a dry-weight basis): ash 1.05%, oil 32.92%, protein 19.11%, total carbohydrate 40.87% and moisture 6.05%. Calcium, potassium and magnesium constitute the major minerals of Zizyphus lotus seeds. The seed proteins are rich in threonine, glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and aspartic acid (26.73%, 17.28%, 13.11%, 9.47% and 7.76%, respectively). The main fatty acids of the oil are oleic (61.93%), linoleic (18.31%) and palmitic (9.14%) acids. Glycerol trioleate (OOO; O: oleic acid) was the most abundant triacylglycerol, representing 26.48% of the total triacyglycerols. β-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (130.47 mg 100 g(-1) ). This oil was rich in Δ7-campestrol and β-sitosterol (147.82 and 82.10 mg 100 g(-1) oil), respectively. Zizyphus lotus seeds are rich in fat and protein which are of potential industrial significance. In addition, Zizyphus lotus L. seed oil contained many bioactive compounds. This fact is of great economic interest owing to several applications of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds in the food, cosmetics and medicinal industries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  8. Mapping variations in weight percent silica measured from multispectral thermal infrared imagery - Examples from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S.J.; Dmochowski, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Rowan, L.C.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Stock, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Remotely sensed multispectral thermal infrared (8-13 ??m) images are increasingly being used to map variations in surface silicate mineralogy. These studies utilize the shift to longer wavelengths in the main spectral feature in minerals in this wavelength region (reststrahlen band) as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic. An approach is described for determining the amount of this shift and then using the shift with a reference curve, derived from laboratory data, to remotely determine the weight percent SiO2 of the surface. The approach has broad applicability to many study areas and can also be fine-tuned to give greater accuracy in a particular study area if field samples are available. The approach was assessed using airborne multispectral thermal infrared images from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results indicate the general approach slightly overestimates the weight percent SiO2 of low silica rocks (e.g. basalt) and underestimates the weight percent SiO2 of high silica rocks (e.g. granite). Fine tuning the general approach with measurements from field samples provided good results for both areas with errors in the recovered weight percent SiO2 of a few percent. The map units identified by these techniques and traditional mapping at the Hiller Mountains demonstrate the continuity of the crystalline rocks from the Hiller Mountains southward to the White Hills supporting the idea that these ranges represent an essentially continuous footwall block below a regional detachment. Results from the Baja California data verify the most recent volcanism to be basaltic-andesite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  10. Comparative germination of Tamarix ramosissima spring and summer seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng; Wei, Yan; Yang, Meilin

    2011-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima has bi-seasonal flowering and fruit-setting characteristics. This study compared the morphology and germination characteristics of seeds from Tamarix ramosissima plants during the spring flowering period and the summer flowering period. The results are as follows: there is no significant difference in morphology, such as size and thousand-seed weight, between seeds from different the spring and summer flowering periods. Freshly harvested spring and summer flowering period ...

  11. Weight changes and growth performance in Sprague Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight changes and growth performance in Sprague Dawley rats fed diet containing graded doses of Carica Papaya seeds. ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ... The observations suggest Carica papaya seeds may have weight reduction potentials and may induce growth retardation.

  12. Dressed and internal organ weights of broilers fed toasted pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toasted seeds of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical legume grown in Nigeria were investigated to determine its effect on the dressed weight and internal organ weight characteristics of broilers. The dry, brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100°C for 15minutes, cooled, made into a meal and stored in ...

  13. Phosphate fertilization on production and quality of cauliflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Due to the scarcity of information related to the effect of fertilizers on production and quality of vegetable seeds, mainly on species which present an increase in the cycle, like cauliflower, more studies are necessary about the influence of nutrients rates which provide high production of high-quality seeds. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of rates of phosphorus (P on the production and quality of cauliflower seeds. Five rates of phosphorus were studied (0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200kg ha-1 of P2O5, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Production and quality (weight of a thousand seeds, germination test, first count of germination test and emergence in substrate of the seeds and soil chemical characteristics were evaluated. The higher the rate of phosphorus, the higher P content in the soil and values of sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and saturation of bases were observed at the end of the cycle. Seed quality was not affected by P fertilization, with the exception of the weight of a thousand seeds which was adjusted to a linear model. For seed production quadratic effect was obtained. The highest weight of seeds per plant was estimated for the rate of 862kg ha-1 of P2O5.

  14. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  15. Spatial and temporal effects on seed dispersal and seed predation of Musa acuminata in southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzeng; Gao, Xiuxia; Chen, Jin; Martin, Konrad

    2012-03-01

    Wild bananas are abundant in tropical areas and many ecologists have observed that the succession process is quicker following increased disturbance. This study was conducted to analyze animal-seed interactions and their effects on the seed fate of a wild banana species (Musa acuminata) in tropical southern Yunnan (China) through experiments considering spatial (site and habitat) and temporal (seasons) variation. The largest proportion of fruits (81%) was removed by frugivorous seed dispersers, especially by bats at nighttime. Only 13% of the fruits were removed by climbing seed predators (different species of rats). In the exclosure treatment, rodents accounted for a significantly higher total artificially exposed seed removal number than ants, but with spatial and temporal differences. The highest seed predation rate by rodents (70%) was found in forest with wild banana stands, corresponding with the highest rodent diversity (species numbers and abundance) among the habitat types. In contrast, the seed removal number by ants (57%) was highest in the open land habitats, but there was no close correlation with ant diversity. Seed removal numbers by ants were significantly higher in the dry compared to the rainy season, but rodent activity showed no differences between seasons. The overall results suggest that the largest proportion of seeds produced by wild banana are primarily dispersed by bats. Primary seed dispersal by bats at nighttime is essential for wild banana seeds to escape seed predation. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Production of genetically improved seed. Produktion av foeraedlat froe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsson, L.; Eriksson, Urban; Danell, Oe.

    1993-01-01

    It is estimated that the estimated genetic potential (in terms of stem volume) is about 8% higher in first-generation seed orchards than in corresponding natural stand stock, whilst quality for the most part is the same. In addition heterosis and good seed physiology probably create an improvement in volume of 3-5 percentage points. Even second-generation breeding stock is capable of producing an estimated genetic gain exceeding 20%. However, cross pollination by wild pollen reduces the genetic gain from the male parent to a varying extent. Freeze testing, growth-rhythm studies and field experiments have revealed significant variations in both hardiness and growing characteristics in crops from the same seed orchard in different years. The same variations occur in stand-seed stock from the same provenance. In spite of the uncertainties surrounding seed production, most of the evidence suggests that it makes good economic sense to produce seed in conventional seed orchards. Improved technology for seed production, such as supplementary pollination, stimulation of flowering, genetic thinning, selective harvesting, etc., can increase the value of orchard seed even more. Controlled crossing is necessary for complete genetic control of the seed production. This can be done, for instance, by producing seed in greenhouses. Extensively managed seed orchards can be an inexpensive option for use alongside other seed production, even if the period before a return is made is long and the genetic gain smaller than in intensive management. All the seed-production methods examined in the study can satisfy the requirement for long-term genetic diversity. 153 refs, 1 fig, 7 tabs, 22 photos

  17. The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Kwapich, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff. Because foragers collect a range of seed sizes but only open small seeds, large seeds accumulate, forming 70% or more of the weight of seed stores. Major workers increase the rates at which small and medium seeds are opened, but do not increase the size range of opened seeds. Experiments limiting ant access to portions of natural seed chambers showed that seeds germinate during storage, but that the ants rapidly remove them. When offered alongside non germinating seeds, germinating seeds were preferentially fed to larvae. The rate of germination during the annual cycle was determined by both burial in artificial chambers at various depths and under four laboratory temperatures. The germination rate depends upon the species of seed, the soil/laboratory temperature and/or the elapsed time. The seasonal soil temperature cycle generated germination patterns that vary with the mix of locally-available seeds. Taken together, exploitation of germination greatly increases the resources available to the ants in space and time. While the largest seeds may have the nutritional value of 15 small seeds, the inability of workers to open large seeds at will precludes them from rapid use during catastrophic events. The harvester ant's approach to seed harvesting is therefore two-pronged, with both immediate and delayed payoffs arising from the tendency to forage for a wide variety of seeds sizes.

  18. Physical properties of seeds of African walnut ( Plukenetia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the physical and proximate traits of seeds of African walnut (Plukenetia conophorum) from four locations (states) in south-eastern Nigeria was carried out in 2011. The locations considered were Enugu, Anambra, Abia and Rivers. Results of statistical analysis showed remarkable variation (p < 0.05) in all the seed ...

  19. Changes in DNA methylation levels during seed development in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRATIMA PANDEY

    Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/95/e13.pdf]. Introduction. Jatropha curcas has attained significant economic impor- .... shows variation between two panels are marked by arrows. Table 3. Proportion (%) of different methylation types in leaf tissue and seeds at different stages of seed development.

  20. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  1. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Bramlett

    1977-01-01

    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  2. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia seeds References Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. What are chia seeds? Updated February 5, 2014. www.eatright.org/resource/food/vitamins-and-supplements/nutrient-rich-foods/what-are-chia-seeds . Accessed ...

  3. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  4. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  5. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Tsitsoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-purpose forestry. For these reasons, artificial regeneration may be required in order to render ecosystem restoration faster. Although P. halepensis is characterized by a high germination capacity and a constant temperature of 20 °C is considered optimal for germination, no research has dealt with the germination behaviour and early growth of seedlings under alternative temperature conditions similar to those dominating outdoors. Moreover, little research was conducted on seed quality characteristics of this species. Thus, in this study seed quality of P. halepensis was estimated by measuring purity, number of seeds per kg, weight of 1000 seeds, average seed weight, seed moisture content and percentage of empty seeds. Also, seed germination capacity, germination rate, percentage of infected and not germinated viable seeds, abnormal seedlings as well as the total seedling length were studied under laboratory (alternative temperature and chamber (constant temperature conditions with the same photoperiod. Results showed that the percentage of empty seeds and abnormal seedlings was extremely low and the total germination percentage was very high (87–90% in both environments. Germination capacity, germination rate and the total length of seedlings did not show any differences among the two growth environments.

  6. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.) cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Chalchat, Jean Claude; Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. Th...

  7. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  8. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though t...... with yield loss during the harvest and post-harvest processes....... In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...

  9. Dietary flax seed oil and/or Vitamin E improve sperm parameters of cloned goats following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Rohollah; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation. Accordingly, eight adult cloned Bakhtiari bucks were divided randomly into four groups. Bucks were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate. The concentrate was enriched with flax seed oil, 30 gr/kg body weight/day (OIL), Vitamin E (VIT), 3 gr/kg body weight/day, or combined flax seed oil and the vitamin E (OIL-VIT). The concentrate with no supplements was considered as control group (CONT). Both flax seed oil and Vitamin E supplements were added to the total diet. The bucks were fed with their corresponding diets for a total of 9 weeks while sperm collection was carried out within 10-14 weeks. Ejaculates were diluted with Andromed® and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were evaluated following freezing/thawing. According to the results of our study, dietary supplementation with flax seed oil, or/and Vitamin E can improve sperm motility, vitality and number of sperm with intact plasma membrane following freezing-thawing. But the degree of improvement in these parameters was significantly higher when Flax seed oil and vitamin E were co-supplemented. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub-...

  11. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ... Harvest dates, days after flowering, fruit colour and state of maturity, relative moisture and oil contents of cumin seeds ..... composition of cactus pear seed compared with cotton and grape.

  12. Needs of Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  13. Seed Proteomics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  14. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  15. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  16. variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... fruit weight, leaf blade length and width, and height at flowering. In addition, genetic and phenotypic variances were high for the number of seed, fruit weight, plant height at flowering and days to 50% flowering. High heritability estimates were recorded for all traits. Fruit weight showed a positive association ...

  17. Penurunan Jumlah dan Motilitas Spermatozoa Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Biji Pepaya (Kajian Potensi Biji Papaya sebagai Bahan Kontrasepsi Alternatif The Declining of Spermatozoa Number and Motility of Mice Were Treats with Papaya Seeds Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Kristijanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Organs of many plants have been used as male contraception materials. One of the organs is papaya seed. This seed contains carpain, a molecule that could cause vacuole initiation on Sertoli cell. The research aimed to know whether papaya seed carpain affects mice spermatozoa quality. This research is an experimental one that makes use of 24 male mice. These mice are separated into 4 groups. Each group has its own papaya seed extract doses. The first group is the mice group that is given by doses of 0 mg/200 gr body weights. And the following groups are 10 mg/200 gr body weight for group II, 20 mg/200 gr body weight for group III, and 40 mg/200 gr body weight for group IV. Oral supplement of the papaya seed is 1 ml/mouse/day in the term of 40 days. These oral supplement is followed by reversibility time for 40 days. The data consist of spermatozoa viability, motility, and amount. These data are analyzed by 2 x 4 factorial analysis in the test scale of 5%. Statistical analysis shows significant differences among each treatment (8.27 > 2.76, spermatozoa taking time (5.81 > 4.60 and dose variation among groups (15.29 > 3.34. There are also significant differences among motility treatment (24.94 > 2.76, time (4.66 > 4.60 and doses (55.03 > 3.34. There is no significant difference among viability (3.22 < 3.74 nor treatment (2.30 < 2.76. The research concluded that papaya seed extract affects the spermatozoa motility and the decrease of spermatozoa numbers, but not to the reversibility and the viability. Keywords: contraception, papaya seed, reversibility

  18. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  19. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2010-02-23

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These "thermal fingerprints" vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of "virtual pea seeds," that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such "cooling" compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development.

  20. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  1. Effect of sowing dates and seed treatments on yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 63.1 - 180.3 kg/da and 20.1 - 27.3%, respectively. 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were significantly affected from sowing dates and seed treatments. On the other hand, protein content was highly affected from late sowing and gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments. It was concluded that early sowing along with ...

  2. Internal dispersal of seeds by waterfowl: effect of seed size on gut passage time and germination patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Jordi; Charalambidou, Iris; Santamaria, Luis; Green, Andy J.

    2010-06-01

    Long distance dispersal may have important consequences for gene flow and community structure. The dispersal of many plants depends on transport by vertebrate seed dispersers. The shapes of seed shadows produced by vertebrates depend both on movement patterns of the dispersers and on the dynamics and effects of passage through the disperser’s gut (i.e. the retention time, survival and germination of ingested seeds). A combination of experiments with captive waterbirds and aquatic plant seeds was used to analyse the following: (a) the effects of inter- and intra-specific variation in seed size and duck species on seed retention time in the gut and (b) the relationship between retention time and the percent germination and germination rates of seeds. Among the three Scirpus species used, those with smaller seeds showed higher survival after ingestion by birds and longer retention times inside their guts than those with larger seeds. For Potamogeton pectinatus, only seeds from the smaller size class (<8 mg) survived ingestion. Retention time affected the percent germination and germination rate of Scirpus seeds but in a manner that varied for the different plant and bird species studied. We recorded both linear and non-linear effects of retention time on percent germination. In addition, germination rate was positively correlated with retention time in Scirpus litoralis but negatively correlated in Scirpus lacustris. Small seed size can favour dispersal over larger distances. However, the effects of retention time on percent germination can modify the seed shadows produced by birds due to higher percent germination of seeds retained for short or intermediate periods. The changes in dispersal quality associated with dispersal distance (which is expected to be positively related to retention time) will affect the probability of seedling establishment over longer distances and, thus, the spatial characteristics of the effective seed shadow.

  3. Experimental Paper. The effect of colour grading of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn. seeds on their quality for sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosińska Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn. is a medicinal plant belonging to Asteraceae family. Extract from milk thistle achenes (termed in practice as seeds contains sylimarin, which protects liver cells against inorganic and organic toxic compounds. Objective: The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of colour grading on the quality of milk thistle seeds. Methods: Seeds were graded manually by colour according to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart, issued in Great Britain. In three samples two fractions of seeds were separated: beige and brown, whereas seeds of the fourth sample were graded into three fractions: yellow, beige and brown. The 1000-seed weight and germination of graded and non-graded seeds were evaluated. Infestation of graded seeds with fungi was assessed. Results: Brown seeds had a higher 1000-seed weight than beige or yellow ones. Germination at the final count of beige seeds did not differ as compared to that of brown seeds or was even better. Milk thistle seeds were infested with numerous fungi, however Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium consortiale predominated. Conclusions: Less mature beige seeds can be used as sowing material because their germination at the final count did not differ as compared to that of fully mature brown seeds or was even better. Infestation of these seeds with some of the fungi was lower than brown seeds.

  4. Seed-predator satiation and Janzen-Connell effects vary with spatial scales for seed-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhishu; Mi, Xiangcheng; Holyoak, Marcel; Xie, Wenhua; Cao, Ke; Yang, Xifu; Huang, Xiaoqun; Krebs, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    The Janzen-Connell model predicts that common species suffer high seed predation from specialized natural enemies as a function of distance from parent trees, and consequently as a function of conspecific density, whereas the predator satiation hypothesis predicts that seed attack is reduced due to predator satiation at high seed densities. Pre-dispersal predation by insects was studied while seeds are still on parent trees, which represents a frequently overlooked stage in which seed predation occurs. Reproductive tree density and seed production were investigated from ten Quercus serrata populations located in south-west China, quantifying density-dependent pre-dispersal seed predation over two years by three insect groups. Acorn infestation was nearly twice as high in the low-seed year as that in the high-seed year, with considerable spatio-temporal variation in the direction and magnitude of density-dependent pre-dispersal seed predation evident. Across whole populations of trees, a high density of reproductive trees caused predator satiation and reduced insect attack in the high-seed year. Within individual trees, and consistent with the Janzen-Connell model, overall insect seed predation was positively correlated with seed production in the low-seed year. In addition, there was variation among insect taxa, with positive density-dependent seed predation by Curculio weevils in the high-seed year and moths in the low-seed year, but apparent density independence by Cyllorhynchites weevils in both years. The overall trend of negative density-dependent, pre-dispersal seed predation suggests that predator satiation limited the occurrence of Janzen-Connell effects across Q. serrata populations. Such effects may have large impacts on plant population dynamics and tree diversity, depending on the extent to which they are reduced by counteracting positive density-dependent predation for seeds on individual trees and other factors affecting successful recruitment. © The

  5. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether...... a treatment with a lower EC value like 0.75 mS·cm-1 to improve the estimate of the optimal EC level from a curved function for the seed production and quality parameters....

  6. Producción de semillas de Leucaena spp. en suelo ácido Seed production of Leucaena spp. on acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda B Wencomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó en una colección de Leucaena spp. que se estableció sobre un suelo ácido en la provincia de Villa Clara, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la producción de semillas de esta especie arbustiva en este tipo de suelo. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos (A, B, C y D, los cuales fueron definidos a través de los cuatro trimestres del año, distribuidos según un diseño completamente aleatorizado; además se observó la fenología. Se obtuvo una variación altamente significativa (PThis work was conducted on a of Leucaena spp. collection that was established on acid soil in the Villa Clara province, with the objective of studying the seed production performance of this shrubby species on this soil type. Four treatments were evaluated (A, B, C and D, which were defined through the four quarters of the year, distributed according to a completely randomized design; in addition, the phenology was observed. A highly significant variation (P<0,01 in the total seed and pure seed yield, and the best result was obtained in treatment D. Besides, in this treatment the lowest weight of 1 000 seeds was observed, which represented a higher number of seeds per kilogram and a lower cost per kilogram of seed ($ 4,80. Variation was observed regarding the phenology patterns of flowering and fructification of the different studied species and accessions. The harvest of seeds from Leucaena is concluded to be more economical when it is carried out in the last quarter of the year under the conditions this trial was conducted.

  7. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  8. Growth characteristics of maize seeds exposed to magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Ananta; Joshi, Devendra Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Standardization of magnetic field was done for maximum enhancement in germination characteristics of maize seeds. Seeds of maize were exposed to static magnetic fields of strength 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h for all field strengths. Results indicate that magnetic field application enhanced seed performance in terms of percentage germination, speed of germination, seedling length, and seedling dry weight significantly compared to unexposed control. Among the various combinations of field strength and duration, 200 mT for 1 h exposure gave best results. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity as it reduced cellular leakage and, consequently, electrical conductivity. Experiments conducted at a research farm as well as farmer's field showed that plants raised from seeds exposed to 200 mT for 1 h had higher values of leaf area index, shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, shoot/root dry weight, and root characteristics as compared to corresponding values in untreated control. From the studies, it may be concluded that exposure of dry seeds to static magnetic field of 200 mT for 1 h improved shoot and root growth. Improved root system and biomass led to increased seed yield. Improved functional root parameters suggested that magnetically treated maize seeds could be used under moisture stress conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:151-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An allometric model for mapping seed development in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Tong, Chunfa; Bo, Wenhao; Pang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhong; Xu, Jichen; Gai, Junyi; Wu, Rongling

    2014-07-01

    Despite a tremendous effort to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for agriculturally and biologically important traits in plants, our understanding of how a QTL governs the developmental process of plant seeds remains elusive. In this article, we address this issue by describing a model for functional mapping of seed development through the incorporation of the relationship between vegetative and reproductive growth. The time difference of reproductive from vegetative growth is described by Reeve and Huxley’s allometric equation. Thus, the implementation of this equation into the framework of functional mapping allows dynamic QTLs for seed development to be identified more precisely. By estimating and testing mathematical parameters that define Reeve and Huxley’s allometric equations of seed growth, the dynamic pattern of the genetic effects of the QTLs identified can be analyzed. We used the model to analyze a soybean data, leading to the detection of QTLs that control the growth of seed dry weight. Three dynamic QTLs, located in two different linkage groups, were detected to affect growth curves of seed dry weight. The QTLs detected may be used to improve seed yield with marker-assisted selection by altering the pattern of seed development in a hope to achieve a maximum size of seeds at a harvest time.

  10. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  11. Glycaemic variations after administration of Irvingia gabonensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude seeds (CS), the defatted seeds (DS) and the protein fraction (PF) were administered at dose of 400mg/ kg body weight to normoglycemic rats submitted to oral glucose test (OGTT) with glucose (2g/kg body weight). The results obtained show a significant reduction of the postprandial glucose level after a glucose ...

  12. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bebbere

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle differed significantly (P<0.05 from endodermal tissues (liver, lung. The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001 from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest

  13. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  14. Seasonal variation in dry weight and elemental composition of the early developmental stages of Petrolisthes laevigatus (Guérin, 1835) (Decapoda: Porcellanidae) in the Seno de Reloncaví, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, P.; Paschke, K.; Barría, A.; Anger, K.

    2013-03-01

    In the Seno de Reloncaví, southern Chile, seasonal changes in dry weight (DW) and elemental composition (CHN) were studied in embryo (initial embryonic stage), newly hatched zoeae, and newly settled megalopae of a porcelain crab, Petrolisthes laevigatus. Samples were taken throughout the seasons of egg laying (March-December), hatching (August-February), and settlement (October-February). Values of DW and CHN per embryo or larva, respectively, were consistently minimum in the middle of each season and maximum near its beginning and end. Patterns of seasonal variation in early embryonic biomass may thus be carried over to larvae at hatching and, possibly, to the settlement stage. Such carry-over effects may be selectively advantageous, as zoeae released at the beginning or near the end of the hatching season face conditions of poor planktonic food availability in combination with low winter temperatures or decreasing temperatures at the end of summer (enforcing long development duration). Hence, an enhanced female energy allocation into egg production may subsequently translate to enhanced yolk reserves remaining at hatching, allowing for a larval development under unfavourable winter conditions. In summer, by contrast, plankton productivity and temperatures are generally high, allowing for fast larval growth and development. This coincides with minimal biomass and energy contents both at hatching and settlement. In conclusion, our data suggest that seasonal patterns in the biomass of early developmental stages of P. laevigatus may reflect phenotypic variability as an adaptive response to predictable variations in environmental conditions, allowing this species to reproduce in temperate regions with marked seasonality in water temperature and plankton productivity.

  15. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbere, Daniela; Bauersachs, Stefan; Fürst, Rainer W; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Medugorac, Ivica; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Wolf, Eckhard; Ledda, Sergio; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus) carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term) and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle) differed significantly (Ptaurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest changes in IGF2R expression in overgrown fetuses could be modulated through other mechanisms than changes in imprinting.

  16. Stability in and correlation between factors influencing genetic quality of seed lots in seed orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-year span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fundamental in both making predictions about the genetic composition of the seed crop and decisions about orchard roguing and improved seed orchard establishment. In this paper, a primary Chinese pine seed orchard with 49 clones is investigated for stability, variation and correlation analysis of factors which influence genetic quality of the seed lots from initial seed harvest to the stable seed production over a 12 years span. Results indicated that the reproductive synchrony index of pollen shedding has shown to be higher than that of the strobili receptivity, and both can be drastically influenced by the ambient climate factors. Reproductive synchrony index of the clones has certain relative stability and it could be used as an indication of the seed orchard status during maturity stage; clones in the studied orchard have shown extreme differences in terms of the gametic and genetic contribution to the seed crop at the orchard's early production phase specifically when they severe as either female or male parents. Those differences are closely related to clonal sex tendency at the time of orchard's initial reproduction. Clonal gamete contribution as male and female parent often has a negative correlation. Clone utilization as pollen, seed or both pollen and seed donors should consider the role it would play in the seed crop; due to numerous factors influencing on the mating system in seed orchards, clonal genetic contribution as male parent is uncertain, and it has major influence on the genetic composition in the seed orchard during the initial reproductive and seed production phase.

  17. Physiological quality of sesame seeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the oldest oilseed plants used by man, and has great economic potential due to the possibilities for its exploitation in both the domestic and international markets. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sesame seeds stored in different environments and packaging, with a view to their conservation. The seeds were packed into paper bags, multiwall paper, black polyethylene and PETE bottles, and stored for a period of 12 months in different environments: dry cold room (10 °C and 55% RH, natural environment (30-32 °C and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 °C and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 °C. Every three months the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design employed was completely randomised, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. The results showed that sesame seeds remain viable for up to twelve months when stored in a dry cold room or refrigerator, regardless of the type of packaging used. In a natural environment, the seeds remain viable for up to six months in storage. Paper packaging is the most suitable for sesame seeds stored in a freezer for up to twelve months.

  18. Analysis of an intraspecific RIL population uncovers genomic segments harbouring multiple QTL for seed relevant traits in lentil (Lens culinaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rintu; Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday Chand; Rana, Maneet; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Shiv; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2017-07-01

    Improving seed related traits remains key objective in lentil breeding. In recent years, genomic resources have shown great promise to accelerate crop improvement. However, limited genomic resources in lentil greatly restrict the use of genomics assisted breeding. The present investigation aims to build an intraspecific genetic linkage map and identify the QTL associated with important seed relevant traits using 94 recombinant inbreds (WA 8649090 × Precoz). A total of 288 polymorphic DNA markers including simple sequence repeat (SSR), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were assayed on mapping population. The resultant genetic linkage map comprised 220 loci spanning 604.2 cM of the lentil genome, with average inter-marker distance of 2.74 cM. QTL mapping in this RIL population uncovered a total of 18 QTL encompassing nine major and nine minor QTL. All major QTL were detected for seed related traits viz., seed diameter (SD), seed thickness (ST), seed weight (SW) and seed plumpness (SP) across two locations. A considerable proportion of the phenotypic variation (PV) was accounted to these QTL. For instance, one major QTL on LG5 controlling SW (QTL 15) explained 50% PV in one location, while the same QTL accounted for 34.18% PV in other location. Importantly, the genomic region containing multiple QTL for different seed traits was mapped to a 17-cM region on LG5. The genomic region harbouring QTL for multiple traits opens up exciting opportunities for genomics assisted improvement of lentil.

  19. Chemical composition and nutritive value of lantana and sweet pepper seeds and nabak seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan El-Sayed; Mokhtar, Sayed Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Chemical analysis was carried out on lantana (Lantana camara) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds and nabak (Zizyphus spina-christi) seed kernels. The proximate analysis (on dry weight basis) of sweet pepper seeds, lantana seeds, and nabak seed kernels showed the following composition: moisture 70.95%, 17.27%, and 4.22%; ash 4.88%, 1.81%, and 3.51%; fat 19.57%, 11.0%, and 30.19%; crude protein 19.28%, 6.3%, and 38.2%; and carbohydrate 56.3%, 80.9%, and 28.1%, respectively. For minerals, potassium was the most abundant element, followed by phosphorus and sodium. Also, zinc, iron, copper, and manganese were detected. Analysis of amino acids revealed that the first limiting amino acid was valine, for both lantana and sweet pepper seeds, but it was threonine for nabak seed kernels. Antinutritional compounds, including, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, and tannins, were detected in all seeds. Results of fatty acid compositions showed that the major fatty acid was oleic acid in both lantana (48.73%) and nabak oils (53.25%), but it was linoleic acid in sweet pepper oil (71.55%). Moreover, the degree of unsaturation of these oils was close to that of common vegetable oils. In all oils, there was absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-B and UV-C ranges with potential for use as broad spectrum UV protectants. It can be inferred that the seeds investigated are good sources of crude fat, crude protein, ash, carbohydrate, and some minerals. Furthermore, the oil extracts could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications. The nutritional composition of the investigated seeds suggested that they could be used to meet part of the nutritional requirements of animal feeds. Also, they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  1. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow and uneven germination of seeds of Capsicum species are undesirable to the seed producers and farmers. Seed osmo priming is one of the pre-treatments for enhancing seed quality. An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species.

  2. Effects of germination time on seed morph ratio in a seed-dimorphic species and possible ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.; Yang, Xuejun; Cao, Dechang; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Diaspores of heteromorphic species may germinate at different times due to distinct dormancy-breaking and germination requirements, and this difference can influence life history traits. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of germination time of the two seed morphs of Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica on life history traits of the offspring. Methods Germinated brown and black seeds were sown on the 20th of each month from April to September in a simulated but near-natural habitat of the species. Phenological and vegetative traits of the maternal plants, and number, size and germination percentage of the offspring were determined. Key Results Germinated seeds sown late in the year produced smaller plants that had a higher proportion of non-dormant brown than dormant black seeds, and these brown seeds were larger than those produced by germinated seeds sown early in the year. The length of the seedling stage for brown seeds was shorter than that for black seeds, and the root/shoot ratio and reproductive allocation of plants from brown seeds were more variable than they were for plants from black seeds. Late-germinating brown seeds produced larger plants than late-germinating black seeds. Conclusions Altering the proportion of the two seed types in response to germination timing can help alleviate the adverse effects of delayed germination. The flexible strategy of a species, such as S. corniculata, that produces different proportions of dimorphic seeds in response to variation in germination timing may favour the maintenance and regeneration of the population in its unpredictable environment. PMID:25395107

  3. Effects of fragmentation on the seed predation and dispersal by rodents differ among species with different seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Cao, Lin; Wang, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Fragmentation influences the population dynamics and community composition of vertebrate animals. Fragmentation effects on rodent species in forests may, in turn, affect seed predation and dispersal of many plant species. Previous studies have usually addressed this question by monitoring a single species, and their results are contradictory. Very few studies have discussed the fragmentation effect on rodent-seed interaction among tree species with different seed sizes, which can significantly influence rodent foraging preference and seed fate. Given that fruiting periods for many coexisting plant species overlap, the changing foraging preference of rodents may substantially alter plant communities. In this study, we monitored the dispersal and predation by rodents of 9600 seeds, belonging to 4 Fagaceae species with great variation in seed size, in both the edge and interior areas of 12 tropical forest fragments ranging in area from 6.3 to 13872.9 ha in Southwest China. The results showed that forest fragmentation altered the seed fates of all the species, but the intensity and even the direction of fragmentation effect differed between species with large versus small seeds. For the seeds harvested, fragment size showed negative effects in forest interiors but positive effects at edges for the 2 large-seeded species, but showed little effect for the 2 small-seeded species. For the seeds removed, negative effects of fragment size only existed among the small-seeded species. The different fragmentation effect on seed dispersal and predation among plant species may, in turn, translate into the composition differences of the regeneration of the whole fragmented forest. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...

  5. Feed conversion, protein efficiency, digestibility and growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus fed Delonix regia seed meal

    OpenAIRE

    Balogun, J.K.; Abdullahi, S.A.; Auta, J.; Ogunlade, O.P.

    2005-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (mean weight 5.27~c0.29g) were fed raw and boiled Delonix regia seed meals following standard procedures. The weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU) were determined as growth indices. Diet formulated with seed boiled for 80 minutes showed significantly (P

  6. Effect of Variety, Seed Rate and Row Spacing on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variety was placed in the main plot, seeding rate in the sub plot while row spacing was placed in sub –sub plot. Data were collected on parameters such as plant height, number of tillers per plant, spikes per hill, spikelets per spike and number of seeds per spike, seed weight per hill, 1000 grain weight and yield kg ha-1 and ...

  7. Sesame seed lignans

    OpenAIRE

    Moazzami, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Sesame seed has been an important oilseed since ancient times. It contains 25% protein and 50% oil. Sesame seed possesses many health promoting effects, some of which have been attributed to a group of compounds called lignans (sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol and sesamolinol). Sesame seed contains lignan aglycones in oil and lignan glucosides. Sesamin, the major sesame oil lignan, is known to reduce plasma cholesterol and to increase plasma γ-tocopherol in humans. This thesis aimed at investiga...

  8. Measuring bitterbrush seed production on plants with variable crown density...complete counts per plant suggested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald W. Seegrist; Donald L. Neal; Richard L. Hubbard

    1966-01-01

    A sampling study was made of the number of bitterbrush seeds per trap from plots in northeastern California. The count per trap had a large variation for each plant. This variation was not reduced to an acceptable low level by grouping the seed traps according to their position relative to the plant crown. In the absence of additional information, it is recommended...

  9. Dry pea seed quality depending on seed moisture at harvest and cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Branko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed moisture content at harvest on the most important parameters of dry pea was examined. The seed moisture content, germination energy, germination, proportion of abnormal seedlings and 1000-seed weight were analyzed in three dry pea cultivars (Jezero, Javor and NS-Junior and at eight harvest stages. At the first harvest stage, seed moisture content was 20.44%, while at the eighth stage it was 11.26%. The best seed quality, with germination energy of 81.70% and germination of 90.11%, was at the sixth harvest time when seed moisture content was 12.92%. The poorest seed quality one was at the first harvest stage, with germination energy of 68.55% and germination of 78.56%. Cultivar Jezero, with shorter growing season, determinant stem growth and uniform maturity, had the highest germination energy (82.00%, germination (92.21% and percent of abnormal seedlings (1.96%. Cultivar NS Junior, with the longest growing season, indeterminant stem growth and non-uniform maturity, had the lowest germination energy (70.39% and germination (76.54%, and the highest percent of abnormal seedlings (3.58%.

  10. Germination of Styrax camporum Pohl. seeds in response to substrate types, moisture contents and the seed morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Edson; Nakamura, Adriana T; Takaki, Massanori

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the contributions of Styrax camporum seed morphology (size of seeds, presence or absence of endocarp attached to the seed), different substrates (filter paper, vermiculite, sand and the soils of cerrado s. str., cerradão and a riparian forest), different water potentials (0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4 and -0.5 MPa), light and temperature to seed germination. Seed size did not affect the germination percentage when seeds were sown on vermiculite. Seeds were affected by small variations in the moisture content of the tested substrates, showing a significant decrease in germination under water potentials lower than -0.1 MPa, close to the field capacity of cerrado s. str. soils. At the temperatures of 15 and 20°C, a significant decrease in germination was observed. Thus, the availability of water in cerrado soils associated to temperature modulate the distribution of germination in this species. Seed morphology contributes to the maintenance of seeds in the soil, and the lack of synchrony in seed germination spreads the distribution of germination in time. These peculiarities allow the emergency of seedlings at different time periods and establishment conditions, an adaptative response of S. camporum to the cerrado environment.

  11. Weighted LCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amihood; Gotthilf, Zvi; Shalom, B. Riva

    The Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) of two strings A and B is a well studied problem having a wide range of applications. When each symbol of the input strings is assigned a positive weight the problem becomes the Heaviest Common Subsequence (HCS) problem. In this paper we consider a different version of weighted LCS on Position Weight Matrices (PWM). The Position Weight Matrix was introduced as a tool to handle a set of sequences that are not identical, yet, have many local similarities. Such a weighted sequence is a 'statistical image' of this set where we are given the probability of every symbol's occurrence at every text location. We consider two possible definitions of LCS on PWM. For the first, we solve the weighted LCS problem of z sequences in time O(zn z + 1). For the second, we prove \\cal{NP}-hardness and provide an approximation algorithm.

  12. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting Arabidopsis thaliana seed morphology features extracted computationally from images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Candace R; Gronwall, David S; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 10(3) seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6-4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool.

  13. Effects of Sowing Time on Yield of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Ecotypes under Mashhad Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javadi hedayat abad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and yield of medicinal plants affected by planting date as an important management factor. In order to study the effects of planting dates on yield and yield components of some black seed (Nigella sativa L. ecotypes, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. Four planting dates (24 Feb., 16 Mar., 4 Apr. and 25 Apr. and four black seed ecotypes (Birjand, Gonabad, Neyshabour and Sabzevar were allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences between planting dates for number of follicles per plant, number of seeds per follicles and 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum numbers of follicles per plant, number of seed per follicles, biological yield and seed yield were observed in first planting date, maximum 1000-seed weight was observed in fourth planting dates and maximum harvest index were recorded in the third planting date. Yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index also were affected by ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and black cumin ecotypes. The highest and the lowest of all traits, expect 1000-seed weight were achieved in Gonabad and Neyshabour ecotypes, respectively. The maximum and minimum 1000-seed weights were obtained in Neyshabour and Gonabad ecotypes, respectively. Planting in 24 Feb., 16 Mar. and 4 Apr. have had high seed yield and there was a reduction on seed yield due to delay planting to 25 Apr. Also, Birjand ecotype in the last planting date had the highest seed yield. According to the seed yield, Gonabad and birjand ecotypes were better than from two other ecotypes in range of planting dates.

  14. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  15. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  16. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  17. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impacts of Mycorrhiza and Phsphorus Along with the Use of Salicylic Acid on Maize Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedra Taheri Oshtrinani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biological and chemical fertilizers, along with the use of salicylic acid, on the agronomic characteristics of corn in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications were evaluated at the Agricultural Research Station of Boroujerd in 2011. Factors were three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 150 kg ha, two levels of biological fertilizers (mycorrhizal fungi (inoculation and non- inoculation of seeds and two levels of salicylic acid (0.5 and 1 mM, respectively. The results showed that phosphorus fertilizer and mycorrhizal inoculation of seeds affected number of seed rows, seed weight, seed yield and biological yield significantly. Seed yield of plants inoculated with mycorrhiza was 8412 kg.ha-1 which is 24% higher than non-inoculated ones. The effect of salicylic acid on plant height, stem diameter, ear length, ear diameter, number of seed rows, seed weight, seed yield and biological yield and harvest index was also significant. The yield of plants with 1 mM salicylic acid treatment amounted to be 8316 kg.ha-1 which is 24% higher than none treated ones. Phosphorus and mycorrhizal interaction on the number of rows of seeds, seed weight, seed yield and biological yield were significant. Salicylic acid and phosphorus interactions and three way treatment effects were only significant on grain yield. This study showed that salicylic acid and mycorrhizal inoculation of seeds can increase seed yield by improving yield components.

  19. Weight rhythms: weight increases during weekends and decreases during weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsama, Anna-Leena; Mattila, Elina; Ermes, Miikka; van Gils, Mark; Wansink, Brian; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m(2); age, 25-62 years) was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p < 0.05), with higher weight early in the week (Sunday and Monday) and decreasing weight during the week. Increases begin on Saturday and decreases begin on Tuesday. This compensation pattern was strongest for those who lost or maintained weight and weakest for those who slowly gained weight. Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. Effect of supplementation of Carica papaya seed concentrate diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of supplementation of Carica papaya seeds (CPS) concentrate diet on the performance and faecal egg count of semi intensively village managed West African dwarf goats aged 6 to 8 months old with average weight of 7.31 ± 0.35 kg was evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial. Goats (n =16) were balanced for weight ...

  1. Overexpression of sinapine esterase BnSCE3 in oilseed rape seeds triggers global changes in seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism.

  2. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  3. Seeding density in wheat: the more, the merrier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pirez Valério

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adjustment of seeding schemes is one of the crop management techniques that most influences grain yield components. This work aimed to characterize the potential grain yield and its components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes with contrasting tillering ability under different seeding densities and environments. Five experiments were conducted in split-plot design, each with ten cultivars (main plot, sown in five distinct seeding densities (subplots. Experiments were sown in three locations in southern Brazil in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. The grain yield per plot and its yield components: number of fertile tillers, weight of 1,000 grains, ear weight and number of grains per ear were evaluated. Genotypes with reduced tillering ability expressed an increase in grain yield with an increase in seeding densities, however showing a reduction in ear weight. The number of grains per ear did not affect grain yield but was highly influenced by seeding densities. The compensatory effect was expressed by the weight of a thousand grains as a function of the experimental conditions in which the genotypes were evaluated, regardless of seeding densities used. Results pointed to differences among cultivars tested in specific locations and years.

  4. The influence of environmental conditions on Carum carvi L. var. annum seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out during two growing seasons with annual caraway, at three localities, in order to determine the effect of different environmental conditions on the quality of seed as reproductive material. During the experiment, it was found that the quality of caraway seed was significantly lower in the hotter and drier year in comparison to the year with moderate conditions. Unfavourable weather conditions caused premature ripening and consequently thousand seed weight was low and lower amounts of essential oils were stored in the seed. By applying the linear regressions method it was established that the total variability of both thousand seed weight and the amount of essential oil per seed were due to its association with harvest index. Because of better characteristics of seed during the moderate year, the germination energy and total germination were significantly higher, and reproductive material was of good quality.

  5. Differential Attachment of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to Alfalfa, Fenugreek, Lettuce, and Tomato Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Walcott, Ronald; Chen, Jinru

    2017-04-01

    Vegetable seeds have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to assess the abilities of selected Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains to attach to fungicide-treated versus untreated, and intact versus mechanically damaged, seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato. Surface-sanitized seeds (2 g) were exposed to four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC at 20°C for 5 h. Contaminated seeds were rinsed twice, each with 10 ml of sterilized water, before being soaked overnight in 5 ml of phosphate-buffered saline at 4°C. The seeds were then vortexed vigorously for 1 min, and pathogen populations in seed rinse water and soaking buffer were determined using a standard plate count assay. In general, the Salmonella cells had higher attachment ratios than the EHEC cells. Lettuce seeds by unit weight had the highest numbers of attached Salmonella or EHEC cells, followed by tomato, alfalfa, and fenugreek seeds. In contrast, individual fenugreek seeds had more attached pathogen cells, followed by lettuce, alfalfa, and tomato seeds. Significantly more Salmonella and EHEC cells attached to mechanically damaged seeds than to intact seeds ( P EHEC cells were recovered from untreated than fungicide-treated seeds ( P 0.05), with a few exceptions. This study fills gaps in the current body of literature and helps explain bacterial interactions with vegetable seeds with differing surface characteristics. IMPORTANCE Vegetable seeds, specifically sprout seeds, have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study investigated the interaction between two important bacterial pathogens, i.e., Salmonella and EHEC, and vegetable seeds with differing surface characteristics. This research helps understand whether seed surface structure, integrity, and fungicide treatment affect the interaction between bacterial cells and vegetable seeds. Copyright © 2017

  6. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  7. A crop population perspective on maize seed systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, George A; Taylor, J Edward

    2008-01-15

    Improvement of local germplasm through artificial selection is regarded as the main force behind maize evolution and diversity in Mexico, the crop's center of origin. This perspective neglects the larger social context of maize evolution. Using a theoretical approach and Mexico-wide data, we show that farmer-led evolution of maize is largely driven by a technological diffusion and appropriation process that selectively integrates nonlocal germplasm into local seed stocks. Our approach construes farmer practices as events in the life history of seed to build a demographic model. The model shows how random and systematic differences in management combine to structure maize seed populations into subpopulations that can spread or become extinct, in some cases independently of visible agronomic advantages. The process involves continuous population bottlenecks that can lead to diversity loss. Nonlocal germplasm thus might play a critical role in maintaining diversity in individual localities. Empirical estimates show that introduction of nonlocal seed in Central and Southeastern Mexico is rarer than previously thought; prompt replacement further prevents new seed from spreading. Yet introduced seed perceived as valuable diffuses rapidly, contributing variation in the form of type diversity or through introgression into local seed. Maize seed dynamics and evolution are thus part of a complex social process driven by farmers' desire to appropriate the value in maize farming, not always achieved by preserving or improving local seed stocks.

  8. Sowing Quality Indicators for a Seed Drill With Overpressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Turan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of sowing is the distribution of seeds at an optimal depth with adequate seed spacings. The results of the optimal sowing, in both horizontal and vertical directions, are better germination and sprouting, as well as increased yield and reduced influence of plants on each other’s space for growing, regarding the available light, nutrients and moisture. Quality of horizontal and vertical seed distribution is influenced by the distance between rows, sowing depth, pre-sowing preparation, seed drill, seeding mechanism, sowing density, and operator’s skills. The arithmetic mean of spacing (Am, standard deviation for spacings between the plants (SD and coefficient of variation (CV are usually used for representation of sowing evenness. Assuming that the seeds are of good germination quality, the yield is directly dependent on the sowing quality and organization of plants per unit of surface area. A well prepared plot was sown with 20 corn seed hybrids from different FAO maturity groups. The sowing was performed with precision pneumatic seed drill INO Becker Aeromat 2, which ejects individual seeds by using the overpressure.After sprouting, no statistically significant differences were found between the sowing of hybrids from different FAO maturity groups and their characteristics. When the yield is concerned, biological characteristics of hybrids are much more influential than the quality of sowing. This is true only if the tractor implement for wide row planting is properly adjusted.

  9. Seed vigor and ion toxicity in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. seedlings produced by various seed sizes under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Demir Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Safflower is an important oilseed crop and is largely grown for edible oil production in low moisture or saltaffected soils of Turkey. The objective of the study was to find out the quality of seeds with different sized seeds, and the effects of seed size (3, 4 and 5 mm and NaCl stresses at electrical conductivities of 5, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 on the germination and early seedling growth of the safflower cultivar Dinзer. Our results show that heavier one-thousand-seed weight (70.5 g and higher hull percentage (52.9 % were obtained from large seeds while the oil content and water uptake of small seeds was higher than that of medium or large seeds. Germination percentage, germination time, root length, shoot length, and seedling fresh and dry weight showed size-dependent responses of the seeds to salt stress. In general, medium-sized (4 mm seeds germinated more rapidly compared to small and large seeds against all levels of salt stress; however, the highest germination percentage and most vigorous seedling growth was recorded from large seeds after 10 days incubation. The inhibitory effect of NaCl levels was exhibited a drastic effect on seedling growth. Increased NaCl resulted in an increase in the Na+ and Cl- content of the seedlings produced by all seed sizes, while the K+ content was not changed. However, the seedlings from small seeds had the highest Na+ and Cl- content of all measured NaCl levels. It was concluded that large seeds produced vigorous seedling growth due to a lower ion accumulation under NaCl stress. Consequently, large seeds could be used for successful stand establishment in contrast to their slow germination performance if the cultivation of safflower on saline soils is required.

  10. Collecting genetic variation on a small island

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kallow; C. Trivedi

    2017-01-01

    Genetic variation is the most powerful factor in ensuring the long term success of trees and forests in times of change. In order to protect against loss of genetic variation from threats, including pests and diseases and climate change, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is developing a national tree seed collection for the United Kingdom. This paper...

  11. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  13. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  14. Mycelial growth rate and toxin production in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda: Resource trade-offs and temporally varying selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; M. Masi; S. Clement; T. L. Davis; J. Beckstead

    2015-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda, an important pathogen in Bromus tectorum seed banks in semi-arid western North America, exhibits >4-fold variation in mycelial growth rate. Host seeds exhibit seasonal changes in dormancy that affect the risk of pathogen-caused mortality. The hypothesis tested is that contrasting seed dormancy phenotypes select for contrasting strategies...

  15. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  16. Morphology, anatomy and histochemistry of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae) fruits and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, K A; Macfarlane, T D; Colmer, T D

    2005-05-01

    The subfamily Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae) are a taxonomically difficult group largely due to the lack of diagnostic characters available to delineate tribal- and generic-level boundaries; a consequence of their reduced floral and vegetative features. This study examined the variation in fruits and seeds across both tribes of the Salicornioideae to assess if characters support traditional taxonomic sections. Light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy and anatomical ultra-thin sectioning were employed to examine variation in fruits and seeds. Sixty-eight representatives across 14 of the 15 genera currently recognized within the tribes Halopeplideae and Salicornieae were examined to determine whether characters support current taxonomic groups. Characters such as seed coat structure, embryo shape, seed orientation, the forms of seed storage proteins and carbohydrates show variation within the Salicornioideae and may be phylogenetically useful. The campylotropous ovule typical of the Chenopodiaceae generally results in a curved embryo; however, many Halosarcia and Sclerostegia species have straight embryos and in Salicornia and Sarcocornia the large peripheral embryo appears bent rather than curved. Seed coat ornamentation of Microcnemum and Arthrocnemum is distinct from other Salicornioideae as the elongated epidermal cells of the exotesta have convex walls. Histochemical stains of anatomical sections of cotyledon cells showed protein bodies were variable in shape, and starch grains were present in some species, namely Salicornia bigelovii, S. europaea and Allenrolfea occidentalis. While fruits and seeds were found to be variable within the subfamily, no synapomorphic characters support the tribe Halopeplideae as these genera have crustaceous seed coats, curved embryos and abundant perisperm; features characteristic of many of the tribe Salicornieae. The endemic Australian genera are closely related and few seed and fruit characters are

  17. Thermal stability of quaternary alloy (InAlGaAs)-capped InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum dot heterostructures with variation in growth rate, barrier thickness, seed quantum dot monolayer coverage, and post-growth annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A.; Chakrabarti, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Verma, U. [Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India)

    2013-10-15

    Strain-driven influences on the structural and optoelectronic properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum dot (MQD) heterostructures prompted our research into the growth of thermally stable MQD samples that were functional in an emission range technically favorable for communication lasers and intermediate band gap solar cells. We also studied parameter optimization by varying growth rate, capping layer thickness, seed quantum dot (QD) monolayer coverage, and post-growth annealing. A capping combination of InAlGaAs and i-GaAs was used. This combination helps in strain compensation, favors growth of multiple QD layers, functions as a strain-driven phase separation alloy, and helps increase QD stability. Photoluminescence results showed MQD sample emissions in the technologically significant range of 1.1-1.3 {mu}m. Post-growth annealing at high temperatures led to inter-diffusion of the constituent QD materials, generation of low minimum energy states, and greater carrier involvement in intermediate band gap structures, thereby showing that annealing is a suitable method for post-growth manipulation. For one MQD sample, the annealing temperature was found to affect structural and optoelectronic properties as well as the presence of intermediate energy states. Heterostructure stability at annealing temperatures up to 750 {sup circle} C was found for the other samples. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence results supported these findings. (orig.)

  18. Localization and composition of seed oils of Crithmum maritimum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of oils was 44.4% dry weight basis. The C. maritimum L. seed oil was rich with oleic acid (78.6%), low level of palmitic acid (4.8%) and non negligible amount of linoleic acid (15.4%). This composition is similar to olive oil and canola oil. These results confirmed the good quality of C. maritimum L. seed oils.

  19. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Single seed near-infrared hyperspectral imaging in determining tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed quality in association with multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Knapič, Matej; Žibrat, Uroš

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was explored as a rapid and non-destructive method of investigating seed quality parameters such as seed viability and variation in tomato seed lots. The seed lots differed with year of production and variety. Four tomato varieties: Cal J, Monprecus, NCL...... and Chiuri from 2013, 2014 and 2015 were used in the study. The extracted NIR hyperspectral data from 975 to 2500 nm were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares- discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). No distinct patterns of separation between viable and non-viable tomato seeds...... were revealed by the PCA. Our findings showed a pattern of separation in the tomato seed lots due to production years and varieties. The PLS-DA showed the ability to predict with ∼100 percent accuracy for varietal class membership when only the seeds of a single harvest year were included in the model...

  1. Morphological and anatomical analyses of the seed coats of sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Hernández Julián

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The study of histology and morphology of seeds of genus Passiflora has been of high utility for the classification of species. In seeds of sweet granadilla, the histological characteristics and methodologies for their study are unknown. This study was aimed to know the tissue and morphological characteristics of the seed coats of seeds of sweet granadilla and to be able to determine its value in the differentiation of accessions. Five accessions collected in producing zones of the Province of Huila, Colombia, were analyzed. In morphological analysis, all accessions presented falsifoveate ornamentation and entire margin. The seeds presented high change in weight and size for every accession; there stood out the seeds of the accession PmN for presenting major size (7.42 mm long, weight (35.62 mg, homogeneity in these variables and a typical orange color. For the histological analysis, a protocol was adapted to realize sections of seed coats in parafin, by means of which one managed to obtain sections (7 μ that in the optical microscope show clearly three well differentiated layers, belonging, possibly, to exotegmen (internal layer, mesotesta (medium layer and exotesta (external layer. Every layer presented differences in the form of the cells, color and thickness, between the sections of the basal and medium parts of the seeds, but the differences between the analyzed accessions

  2. Harvest seasons and physiological quality of crambe seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Borges de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different harvest seasons on the seed quality of crambe, cultivar FMS Brilhante. The experiment was carried out at Experimental area of the Montes Claros State University – UNIMONTES in Janaúba-MG, on September 3, 2011. The first raceme harvest was performed 14 days after flowering, when approximately 50% of the plants showed full flowering. The other harvests were performed every six days, making a total of five harvests. Accumulation of thermal units in degrees day during time intervals was also determined. The collected racemes were taken to the Laboratory of Seed Analysis at UNIMONTES, when they remained under ambient conditions until beginning the analyses. Seeds were evaluated as for water content, germination and vigor (dry seed weight, thousand seeds weight, seedling emergence, and emergence speed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five harvest seasons, which composed the treatments, and four replications. Crambe seeds present post-harvest dormancy. The maximum dry matter accumulation (physiological maturity occurred 26 days after flowering. In conclusion, the best time to harvest crambe seeds, cultivar FMS Brilhante, with higher physiological quality (maximum germination and vigor occurs within 14 to 26 days after flowering, which is a thermal sum 1111,1 to 1302, 15 degree day.

  3. Characteristics of Color Development in Seeds of Brown- and Yellow-Seeded Heading Chinese Cabbage and Molecular Analysis of Brsc, the Candidate Gene Controlling Seed Coat Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjing Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyanidin (PA is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147 and yellow-seeded (B80 heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis. It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA staining and toluidine blue O (TBO staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped. The results of whole genome re-sequencing showed that there are large fragment deletions variation in the mapping region between the brown-seeded parent ‘92S105’ and the yellow-seeded parent ‘91-125.’ Based on the B. rapa genome annotation information, the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1, is likely to be the candidate gene controlling seed coat color. A 94-base deletion was found in the 96th base downstream of the initiation codon in the TTG1 of yellow seed, thus, the termination codon TGA was occurred in the 297th base which makes the full length of TTG1 of yellow seed is 300 bp. Based on the differential sequences of TTG1 of brown and yellow seed, a functional marker, Brsc-yettg1, was developed to detect the variation of TTG1. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of BrTTG1 in different tissues showed that expression levels of BrTTG1 was not tissue-specific. During the whole seed development period, the expression of BrTTG1 in B147 was higher than that of B80. The expression levels of four structural genes, BrDFR, BrANS, BrANR1, and BrANR2 in B147 were also higher than those in B80. The co-segregation molecular markers obtained in this report and TTG1 related information provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed coat color in heading Chinese cabbage.

  4. Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude, which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory, and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F=3.50, P=0.01, seed size (F=8.31, P<0.01, and seed shape (F=2.62, P=0.04 differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight (P=0.15, seed size (P=0.38, or seed shape (variance (P=0.95 and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F=3.64, P=0.01 and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces.

  5. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  6. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  7. Concerning seed spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Larsen; R. J. Smith

    1913-01-01

    In connection with the sowing of Yellow pine, White pine and Western larch on The Blackfeet National Forest during the sea sons of 1911 and 1912, seventeen and one-half acres were sowed directly in seed spots.

  8. Prescribed seed plantings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains memos, notes, and tables related to tallgrass prairie seed harvesting on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1995.

  9. Genetic gain and gene diversity of seed orchard crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyu-Suk [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2001-07-01

    Seed orchards are the major tool for deploying the improvement generated by breeding programs and assuring the consistent supply of genetically improved seed. Attainment of genetic gain and monitoring of gene diversity through selection and breeding were studied considering the factors: selection intensity; genetic value; coancestry; fertility variation; and pollen contamination. The optimum goal of a seed orchard is achieved when the orchard population is under an idealized situation, i.e., panmixis, equal gamete contributions from all parental genotypes, non-relatedness and no pollen contamination. In practice, however, due to relatedness among parents, variation in clonal fertility and ramet number, and gene migration from outside, the realized genetic gain and gene diversity deviate from the expectation. In the present study, the genetic value of seed orchard crops (genetic gain, G) could be increased by selective harvest, genetic thinning and/or both. Status number (N{sub S}) was used to monitor the loss of gene diversity in the process of forest tree domestication, and calculated to be reasonably high in most seed orchards. Fertility of parents was estimated based on the assessment of flowering or seed production, which was shown to be under strong genetic control. Variation in fertility among orchard parents was a general feature and reduced the predicted gene diversity of the orchard crop. Fertility variation among parents could be described by the sibling coefficient ({psi}). {psi} was estimated to be 2 (CV = 100% for fertility). In calculating {psi}, it was possible to consider, besides fertility variation, the phenotypic correlation between maternal and parental fertilities, and pollen contamination. Status number was increased by controlling parental fertility, e.g., equal seed harvest, mixing seed in equal proportions and balancing parental contribution. By equalizing female fertility among over-represented parents, it was possible to effect a

  10. Behavioral, Performance, Carcass Traits and Hormonal Changes of Heat Stressed Broilers Feeding Black and Coriander Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan D.M. EL-Shoukary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done to determine the effects of feeding heat stressed broilers (Ross308 diets contain Nigella Sativa seeds or coriander seeds on Ingestive, panting behaviors, feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, live body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage, corticosterone, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4. Three groups were used; the first one is the control group, which fed on basal diet only and the second fed diet contains 1% Nigella Sativa seeds (black seed while the third group fed diet contain 2% coriander seeds. The previous parameters were recorded daily or weekly during the experiment or after slaughtering to collecting blood parameters. The results explained that, there was a significant increase in feeding behavior, feed consumption, weight gain and dressing percentage while there was a significant decrease in panting behavior, water to feed ratio, T3 level and corticosterone level. Moreover, there was no significance difference in drinking behavior live body weight, slaughter weight, feed conversion rate and T4 level (P<0.05. It could be concluded that, black seeds and coriander seeds can be used to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress in broiler during summer seasons in Egypt.

  11. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Seed–predator satiation and Janzen–Connell effects vary with spatial scales for seed-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhishu; Mi, Xiangcheng; Holyoak, Marcel; Xie, Wenhua; Cao, Ke; Yang, Xifu; Huang, Xiaoqun; Krebs, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The Janzen–Connell model predicts that common species suffer high seed predation from specialized natural enemies as a function of distance from parent trees, and consequently as a function of conspecific density, whereas the predator satiation hypothesis predicts that seed attack is reduced due to predator satiation at high seed densities. Pre-dispersal predation by insects was studied while seeds are still on parent trees, which represents a frequently overlooked stage in which seed predation occurs. Methods Reproductive tree density and seed production were investigated from ten Quercus serrata populations located in south-west China, quantifying density-dependent pre-dispersal seed predation over two years by three insect groups. Key Results Acorn infestation was nearly twice as high in the low-seed year as that in the high-seed year, with considerable spatio-temporal variation in the direction and magnitude of density-dependent pre-dispersal seed predation evident. Across whole populations of trees, a high density of reproductive trees caused predator satiation and reduced insect attack in the high-seed year. Within individual trees, and consistent with the Janzen–Connell model, overall insect seed predation was positively correlated with seed production in the low-seed year. In addition, there was variation among insect taxa, with positive density-dependent seed predation by Curculio weevils in the high-seed year and moths in the low-seed year, but apparent density independence by Cyllorhynchites weevils in both years. Conclusions The overall trend of negative density-dependent, pre-dispersal seed predation suggests that predator satiation limited the occurrence of Janzen–Connell effects across Q. serrata populations. Such effects may have large impacts on plant population dynamics and tree diversity, depending on the extent to which they are reduced by counteracting positive density-dependent predation for seeds on individual trees

  13. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of OncoSeed 6711 seeds; Estudo da deposicao de dose para diferentes configuracoes de sementes OncoSeed 6711

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Lucas Crusoe

    2013-07-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. Iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed´s dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  14. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of seeds OncoSeed 6711; Estudo da deposicao de dose para diferentes configuracoes de sementes OncoSeed 6711

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Lucas Crusoe

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. lodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed's dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  15. What volume of seeds can a chimpanzee carry in its body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michio; Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Zamma, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Great apes are important seed dispersers with large bodies, able to swallow large seeds and travel long distances. Although there have been several studies investigating seed dispersal quality [sensu Schupp (Vegetatio 107/108:15-29, 1993)] by chimpanzees, there is little information on the volume of seeds they can carry in their bodies. When a relatively fresh corpse of a mature female chimpanzee was found at Mahale, Tanzania, we took advantage of the rare opportunity to investigate the total weight and cubic volume of seeds recovered from the corpse. The seeds contained in the corpse weighed 258.8 g (dry weight) and measured 489.4 cm(3). The volume of seeds was 14.7 % of the previously reported capacity of the digestive tract of a chimpanzee in captivity. We also indirectly estimated the volume of seeds from the values of observed seed volume in feces, the reported number of defecations per day, and the seed passage time. The estimated volume was significantly lower than the observed seed volume, suggesting that the number of defecations per day is underestimated because it may not include nighttime defecation.

  16. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Guimarães

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3 kg, yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size with either a single or few ( 100 seeds. Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among

  17. Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of Some Salvia Species from Iran--A Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Massoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Rahmani, Nosrat; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). The results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α-Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 - 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 - 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 - 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 - 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 - 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs ranged between 1.90 - 53.80% and 13.46 - 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among the species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of polyunsaturated FAs, except in linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-31

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  19. An empirical study of choosing efficient discriminative seeds for oligonucleotide design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Hyoung; Park, Seong-Bae

    2009-12-03

    Oligonucleotide design is known as a time-consuming work in bioinformatics. In order to accelerate and be efficient the oligonucleotide design process, one of widely used approach is the prescreening unreliable regions using a hashing (or seeding) algorithm. Since the seeding algorithm is originally proposed to increase sensitivity for local alignment, the specificity should be considered as well as the sensitivity for the oligonucleotide design problem. However, a measure of evaluating the seeds regarding how adequate and efficient they are in the oligo design is not yet proposed. Here, we propose novel measures of evaluating the seeding algorithms based on the discriminability and the efficiency. To evaluate the proposed measures, we examine five seeding algorithms in oligonucleotide design. We carried out a series of experiments to compare the seeding algorithms. As the result, the spaced seed is recorded as the most efficient discriminative seed for oligo design. The performance of transition-constrained seed is slightly lower than the spaced seed. Because BLAT seeding algorithm and Vector seeding algorithm give poor scores in specificity and efficiency, we conclude that these algorithms are not adequate to design oligos. Consequently, we recommend spaced seeds or transition-constrained seeds with 15 approximately 18 weight in order to design oligos with the length of 50 mer. The empirical experiments in real biological data reveal that the recommended seeds show consequently good performance. We also propose a software package which enables the users to get the adequate seeds under their own experimental conditions. Our study is valuable to the two points. One is that our study can be applied to the oligo design programs in order to improve the performance by suggesting the experiment-specific seeds. The other is that our study is useful to improve the performance of the mapping assembly in the field of Next-Generation Sequencing. Our proposed measures are

  20. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  1. HAEMATINICS AND WEIGHT REDUCTION PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAEMATINICS AND WEIGHT REDUCTION PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN RATS. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information ...

  2. Seed Filling Trend of Faba bean (Vicia faba L. as Affected by Planting Date and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahemi Karizaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenology, seed yield, its components, seed filling rate and grain filling period of faba bean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gonbad University, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. The factors were three planting dates (4th of November, 4th of December 2013 and 3th of January 2014 and four planting densities (8, 12, 16 and 18 plant/m2. The results showed that planting dates significantly affected on phenology, yield and its components, seed filling rate and periods while the effect of plant density on seed filling period was not significant. Comparison of sigmoid equation coefficients showed that seed filling rates in three planting dates were different. The highest seed filling rate was obtained in 3th of January and the lowest at November 4, planting dates. The effect of planting date on seed filling duration was also significant, but it was not on plant density. Regression analysis showed that increasing 0.01g seed growth rate in seed unit, resulted in seed weight increase by 45.11, 32.43 and 26.66 g for November 4, December 4 and January 3 planting dates respectively. Delaying planting dates decreased seed filling period by 8.53 days and seed weight by 0.27 g. due to its effect on day length and temperature changes. Delayed planting dates were more effective on the rate and period of seed filling and phenology of faba bean. Delaying in planting date increased time to emergence, while decreased seed filling period and seed yield because of coincidence of this period with high temperatures.

  3. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  4. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  6. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Louise; Bradley, Emma L; Lloyd, Antony S; Pritchard, Hugh W; Castle, Laurence; Kranner, Ilse

    2012-11-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss.

  7. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  8. Weighted Hypernetworks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xin-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Complex network theory has been used to study complex systems. However, many real life systems involve multiple kinds of objects . They can't be described by simple graphs. In order to provide complete information of these systems, we extend the concept of evolving models of complex networks to hypernetworks. In this work, we firstly propose a non-uniform hypernetwork model with attractiveness, and obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the non-uniform hypernetwork. Furthermore, we develop a model for weighted hypernetworks that couples the establishment of new hyperedges and nodes and the weights' dynamical evolution. We obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution by using the hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork model with attractiveness. In particular, the model yields a nontrivial time evolution of nodes' properties and scale-free behavior for the hyperdegree distribution. It is expected that our work may give help to the study of the hypernetworks in real-world syste...

  9. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-01-01

    An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the en...

  10. Weight Rhythms: Weight Increases during Weekends and Decreases during Weekdays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Leena Orsama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. Methods: The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m2; age, 25-62 years was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. Results: A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p Conclusion: Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation.

  11. Variation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variation of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some plants commonly used as home remedies were screened on the basis of air drying time of (short term and long term air) the dried plant Ocimum sanctum (leaf), Cucumis sativus (Seed), and ethanolic extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Seed) and ...

  12. The effects of temperature on the dormancy and germination of Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bochenek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological regulation of seed dormancy in perennial species and those with a varied life cycle has not been studied in detail yet. That is why an attempt has been made to determine the Cirsium arvense seed water relations during stratification and afterripening at different temperatures and germination at constant or fluctuating temperatures on the basis of the hydrotime model. The obtained results showed that breaking of the primary dormancy of achenes took place only during the first stratification month at moderate temperatures, mainly due to an increase in the average water-stress tolerance in a seed population. The induction of secondary seed dormancy during after-ripening at all temperatures resulted mostly from a substantial loss of the seeds' ability to tolerate water stress. Fluctuating temperatures affected neither seed germination nor the hydrotime model parameters. The analysis of the variations of hydrotime model parameters allows a better understanding of the physiological basis of seed dormancy relief and induction.

  13. Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan; Klinger, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, the focal species suffers from Associational Susceptibility. In contrast, if seeds of the focal species are harvested less when in association with a second species, the focal species benefits from Associational Resistance.To evaluate density dependence and associational effects among seeds in mixtures, we conducted seed removal experiments using a completely additive design patterned after a two-species competition experiment using seeds of either Achnatherum hymenoides(Indian ricegrass), Leymus cinereus (basin wildrye) or Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), all native perennial grasses, combined with seeds of Bromus tectorum(cheatgrass), a non-native annual grass. The experiment involved placing five fixed quantities of the native seeds mixed with five fixed quantities of B. tectorum seeds in a factorial design, resulting in 35 seed mixture combinations. The seed-eating rodent community at our study sites, in order of abundance, is composed of Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse), Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse).Native seed harvesting was density dependent, with a greater proportion of seeds being harvested as density increased. In the mixed density model, the presence of B. tectorumdid not affect harvest of any of the native species' seeds when analysed individually. However, when all three native species were analysed together, increasing quantities of B. tectorum resulted in reduced harvest of native seeds, demonstrating weak but significant Associational Resistance. In contrast, harvest of B. tectorum seeds increased

  14. Effect of Seed Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Two Mustard Cultivars (Brassica compestris var. parkland and Goldrash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: B. campestris is an old plant that commonly grows in arid and semi-arid areas. It has mucilage in the epidermal cells of canola seeds, a considerable variation in growth form and characteristics across the many cultivars. These species have in general, a flat root without an elongated crown, with stems that typically grow 30 to 120 cm tall. The leaves are large, soft, smooth or soft-hairy. The yellow flowers are small, usually less than 2 cm long (24. Seed priming is a procedure in which seed is soaked and then dried back to its original water content. Hydropriming uses only water in the process of controlled imbibitions, but osmopriming simply means soaking seeds in an osmotic solution. Seed priming is a technique of controlled hydration and drying that results in more rapid germination when the seed is reimbibed. Priming can be a valuable process for improving germination and uniformity of heterogeneously matured seed lots. Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to improve germination and emergence in seeds of many crops, particularly vegetables and small seeded grasses. Seed priming is a presowing strategy for influencing seedling development by modulating pregermination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Fast germination and uniform emergence assist the farmer to “catch up” on the time lost to drought (17, 18. This research aimed to study the effect of the best treatments of osmopriming and hydropriming on varieties of mustard seed germination traits was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted under laboratory conditions of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012 to determine the seed priming effects on germination traits of two cultivars of mustard. The experiment was in completely randomized design with six treatments. Seeds of two mustard cultivars including Goldrash and Parkland (Brassica

  15. Heat shock, mass-dependent germination, and seed yield as related components of fitness in Cistus ladanifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J A.; Serrano, J M.; López, F; Acosta, F J.

    2001-08-01

    The different weight-number strategies of seed production displayed by individuals of a Mediterranean fire-prone plant species (Cistus ladanifer) were investigated in relation to seed germination responses to pre-germination heating. A control (no heating), a high temperature during a short exposure time (100 degrees C during 5 min) and a high temperature during a long exposure time (100 degrees C during 15 min) were applied to seeds from different individual plants with different mean seed weight. These pre-germination treat