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  1. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Gurchani, M.A.; Hussain, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radical and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after inbibition than primed seeds against the minimum electrical conductivity that was recorded in seeds primed with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed with 20 ppm solution of ascorbic acid may be used for wheat seed invigoration. (author)

  2. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  3. Solid matrix priming with chitosan enhances seed germination and seedling invigoration in mung bean under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy SEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the response of the mung bean seeds of ‘Sonali B1’ variety primed with chitosan in four different concentrations (0, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% under salinity stress of five different concentrations (i.e., 0, 4, 6, 8 and 12 dS*mm-1 and halotolerance pattern by applying Celite as matrix at three different moisture levels (5%, 10% and 20%. Improved germination percentage, germination index, mean germination time, coefficient of velocity of germination along with root and shoot length was observed comparing with control. Germination stress tolerance index (GSI, plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI and root length stress tolerance index (RLSI were used to evaluate the tolerance of the mung bean seeds against salinity stress induced by chitosan. Results of GSI, PHSI, RLSI showing noteworthy inhibitory effect of salinity stress in control set was significantly less pronounced in chitosan treated seedlings. Chitosan can remarkably alleviate the detrimental effect of salinity up to the level of 6 dS*m-1, beyond which no improvement was noticed. In conclusion present investigation revealed that chitosan is an ideal elicitor for enhancing the speed of germination and seedling invigoration that synchronize with emergence of radicle and salinity stress tolerance.

  4. Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjunatha, G.; Raj, S. Niranjan; Shetty, Nandini Prasad

    2008-01-01

    experiments with NO donors showed no adverse effect either on the host or pathogen. Aqueous SNP seed treatment with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) priming was the most effective in inducing the host resistance against downy mildew both under greenhouse and field conditions. Potassium Ferrocyanide...

  5. The Synergistic Priming Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid and H2O2 on Chilling Tolerance Enhancement during Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Xu, Jungui; Gao, Yue; Wang, Chun; Guo, Genyuan; Luo, Ying; Huang, Yutao; Hu, Weimin; Sheteiwy, Mohamed S; Guan, Yajing; Hu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seedling establishment in the field. To examine the role of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in response to chilling stress, we investigated the effects of seed priming with SA, H 2 O 2 , and SA+H 2 O 2 combination on maize resistance under chilling stress (13°C). Priming with SA, H 2 O 2 , and especially SA+H 2 O 2 shortened seed germination time and enhanced seed vigor and seedling growth as compared with hydropriming and non-priming treatments under low temperature. Meanwhile, SA+H 2 O 2 priming notably increased the endogenous H 2 O 2 and SA content, antioxidant enzymes activities and their corresponding genes ZmPAL, ZmSOD4, ZmAPX2, ZmCAT2 , and ZmGR expression levels. The α-amylase activity was enhanced to mobilize starch to supply metabolites such as soluble sugar and energy for seed germination under chilling stress. In addition, the SA+H 2 O 2 combination positively up-regulated expressions of gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis genes ZmGA20ox1 and ZmGA3ox2 , and down-regulated GA catabolism gene ZmGA2ox1 expression; while it promoted GA signaling transduction genes expressions of ZmGID1 and ZmGID2 and decreased the level of seed germination inhibitor gene ZmRGL2 . The abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism gene ZmCYP707A2 and the expressions of ZmCPK11 and ZmSnRK2.1 encoding response receptors in ABA signaling pathway were all up-regulated. These results strongly suggested that priming with SA and H 2 O 2 synergistically promoted hormones metabolism and signal transduction, and enhanced energy supply and antioxidant enzymes activities under chilling stress, which were closely relevant with chilling injury alleviation and chilling-tolerance improvement in maize seed. Highlights: Seed germination and seedling growth were significantly improved under chilling stress by priming with SA+H 2 O 2 combination, which was closely relevant with the change of reactive oxygen species, metabolites and

  6. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  7. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  8. Does retained-seed priming drive the evolution of serotiny in drylands? An assessment using the cactus Mammillaria hernandezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Bianca A; Martorell, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Serotinous plants retain their seeds for a long time. In deserts, retained seeds undergo hydration-dehydration cycles and thus may become primed. Priming enhances germination and seedling vigor. We test the hypothesis that serotiny evolves because it provides a site protected from predators in which seeds can become primed. Rainfall-cued dispersal of primed seeds may enhance this effect. We tested this hypothesis with Mammillaria hernandezii through protein-content analyses; field and laboratory germination experiments with primed, unprimed, and retained seeds; and fitness estimations from demographic models. Hydration-dehydration cycles induced priming, enhancing germination. Artificial priming and retention in the parent plant for 1 yr induced similar changes in seed protein patterns, suggesting that priming occurs naturally while seeds are retained. Under field conditions, germination of seeds retained for 1 yr more than doubled that of seeds of the same cohort that were not primed or that remained buried for 1 yr. The first seeds to germinate died rapidly. Serotinous plants whose seeds underwent priming had higher fitness than those whose seeds were in the soil seed bank or that did not experience priming. Priming in soil seed banks may be costly because of high predation, so seed protection during priming is sufficient to promote the evolution of serotiny. Bet hedging contributes to this process. Rapid germination of primed seeds that respond to brief rainfall events is disadvantageous because such rainfall is insufficient for seedling survival. Serotinous species counteract this cost by cueing dispersal with heavy precipitation.

  9. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  10. Zinc distribution and localization in primed maize seeds and its translocation during early seedling development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Neumann, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) priming is a technique used to increase seed Zn reserves for improving seed quality, crop growth, and enhancing stress tolerance in crop plants. The present study demonstrated the effect of water and Zn priming on the distribution and accumulation of endogenous and primed Zn in maize...... seeds (Zea mays L.). Zn concentration in unprimed, water and Zn primed seeds and germinated seedlings were analyzed by ICP-MS (Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy). DTZ (Diphenyle Thio-Carbazone) staining method and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy...

  11. Seed priming improves salinity tolerance of wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Y.; Shafi, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response of wheat varieties to seed priming and salinity, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The performance of 6 wheat varieties (Tatara-96, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhri Sarhad, Bakhtawar-92, Pirsabaq-2004 and Auqab-2000) at two seed conditions (primed with 30 mM NaCl and un primed) under four salinity levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM) was studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that salinity, seed priming and varieties had significantly (P= 0.05) affected shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/, shoot Na/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight), shoot K/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/Na/sup +/ ratio. Maximum shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (7.71 g), shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.68 g), shoot K/sup +/ contents (1.39 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ratio (1.45) were recorded from Bakhtawar-92 as compared with other varieties. Highest shoot Na/sup +/ contents (1.43 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) were recorded from Auqab-2000 when compared with other varieties. All parameters were enhanced with seed priming except shoot Na/sup +/ contents, which reduced significantly (p= 0.05) with seed priming. (author)

  12. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... As a result, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were improved. Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling growth of maize under salt stress. ... Salinization is more spreading in irrigated lands because of inappropriate management of irrigation and drainage.

  13. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  14. Comparison of seed priming techniques with regards to germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... investigate the effects of different priming techniques on seed germination and early seedling growth. The seeds ... methods in which the environment must be controlled for prolonged ..... Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro ...

  15. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

  16. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

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    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  17. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

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    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  18. Comparison of seed priming techniques with regards to germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai, cv. Crimson Sweet] were used to investigate the effects of different priming techniques on seed germination and early seedling growth. The seeds were soaked in solutions of 0.2% gibberellin (50 mg L–1 gibberellic acid), 0.2% cytokinin (90 mg L–1 kinetin) ...

  19. Effects of seed priming and water potential on seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... (without seed drying), primed and 12 h drying on seed germination of wheat .... completely with the lower half and the paper were rolled and placed ..... water stress and control of germination: a review. Plant Cell Environ.

  20. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  1. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  2. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  3. Salinity effect and seed priming treatments on the germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Academy of Sciences (CAS); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental ... About 9.5 hundred million hectares of the world's soil are .... Therefore, exploring an effective seed priming technique, ... The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Coastal. Wetland ..... microscopy.

  4. Adoption Study Of Seed Priming Technology In Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption study was carried out during 2003 cropping season on randomly selected 83 farmers out of the 300 that participated in the upland rice seed priming technology transfer between year 2000 – 2002 to determine the impact of the technology on upland rice production in five States of Nigeria, through the use of ...

  5. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity is considered as a major abiotic stress affecting germination, seedling growth and crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Many techniques are used to improve tolerance to salinity. Priming is believed to be an effective technique that increases germination, plant growth and improve yield of several ...

  6. The Effect of Osmo and Hormone Priming on Germination and Seed Reserve Utilization of Millet Seeds under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed priming with osmo and hormone priming on growth and seed reserve utilization of millet seeds under drought stress. Treatments were combinations of 4 levels of drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar and 3 levels of seed priming and control with 3 replications. Results showed that with increase in drought stress, germination components such as germination percentage, germination index, mean time to germination, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed and seed reserve utilization efficiency decreased, but seed priming showed lower reduction. The highest germination characteristics and seed reserve utilization was obtained by priming in control conditions. It is concluded that priming results in improvement in germination components of millet in drought stress conditions.

  7. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Seed priming with antioxidants improves sunflower seed germination and seedling growth under unfavorable germination conditions

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANIC, Ivana; LEKIC, Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    The results of studying the effects of sunflower seed priming with an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (A), tocopherol (T), and glutathione (G) performed prior to accelerated ageing and a cold test are presented in this paper. Germination, the percentage of abnormal seedlings, and the lengths of both roots and shoots were monitored. The results showed that the cold test caused a drastic drop in germination, an adverse effect on the shoot length, an increase in the percentage of abnormal seed...

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Seeds during Artificial Ageing and Priming Using the Isobaric Tandem Mass Tag Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyong Lv

    mainly enriched in amino acid synthesis, stress defense (plant-pathogen interactions, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and energy supply (oxidative phosphorylation and carbon metabolism. Therefore, DEPs associated with seed ageing and priming can be used to characterize seed vigor and optimize germination enhancement treatments. This work reveals new proteomic insights into protein changes that occur during seed deterioration and priming.

  10. Influence of Seed Priming on Performance and Water Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice in Alternating Wetting and Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ur Rehman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct seeded rice is promising alternative to traditional transplanting, but requires appropriate crop and water management to maintain yield performance and achieve high water productivity. Present study evaluated the effect of seed priming and irrigation on crop establishment, tillering, agronomic traits, paddy yield, grain quality and water productivity of direct seeded rice in alternate wetting and drying (DSR-AWD in comparison with direct seeded rice at field capacity (DSR-FC. Seed priming treatments were osmo-priming with KCl (2.2%, CaCl2 (2.2% and moringa leaf extracts (MLE, 3.3% including hydro-priming as control. Among the treatments, seed osmo-primed with MLE emerged earlier and had higher final emergence, followed by osmo-priming with CaCl2. Tillering emergence rate and number of tillers per plant were the highest for seed priming with CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Total productive and non-productive tillers, panicle length, biological and grain yields, harvest index were highest for seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Similarly, grain quality, estimated in terms of normal grains, abortive and chalky grains, was also the highest in DSR-AWD with MLE osmo-priming. Benefit cost ratio and water productivity was also the highest in DSR-AWD for seed priming with MLE. In conclusion, seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 can be successfully employed to improve the direct seeded rice performance when practiced with alternate wetting and drying irrigation.

  11. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Priming is one of the most common methods of improving seed quality, which significantly affects their storability. Seed priming is a seed treatment that allows imbibition and activation of the initial metabolic events associated with seed germination, but prevents radicle emergence and growth. In other words, phase one and two of seed water imbibition curve are passed, but seeds do not enter the third phase of water uptake. Then seeds are dried back to their original water content. Seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for influencing seed germination and seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Naturally, when speed and percentage emergence of germinating seeds are being high, growing sources like light, water and nutrient will be more used. Another factor that can affect the seed germination and seedling establishment is the seed size. As generally known, among producing factors, seed as the first consumer store, plays an important role in the transfer of genetic characters and improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of production. One of the most important factors in maximizing crop yield is planting high quality seed. Seed size is an important physical indicator of seed quality that affects vegetative growth and is frequently related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. In the present paper, effects of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion cultivars were investigated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the response of physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion to priming and seed size, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East, Azarbayjan, Iran. This experiment was a factorial experiment based on a

  12. Seed priming with hormones does not alleviate induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress

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    Rogério Falleiros Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming with hormones has been an efficient method for increasing seed vigor as well as seedling growth under stressful conditions. These responses have in the past been attributed to the activation of antioxidant systems in a range of crops. The results described in this work show that hormonal priming with methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid or CEPA (chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene (ET releaser, does not induce the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase or glutathione reductase in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress. The enhanced biomass of maize seedlings under salt stress that was observed only from ET priming indicates that the stress tolerance in maize from ethylene priming is a fundamental process for stress tolerance acquisition, which is explained, however, by other biochemical mechanisms but not by changes in the antioxidant system.

  13. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  14. Influence of biostimulants-seed-priming on Ceratotheca triloba germination and seedling growth under low temperatures, low osmotic potential and salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masondo, Nqobile A; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f. (an indigenous African leafy vegetable) under low temperature, low osmotic potential and salinity stress conditions. Ceratotheca triloba seeds were primed with biostimulants [smoke-water (SW), synthesized smoke-compound karrikinolide (KAR 1 ), Kelpak ® (commercial seaweed extract), phloroglucinol (PG) and distilled water (control)] for 48h at 25°C. Thereafter, primed seeds were germinated at low temperatures, low osmotic potential and high NaCl concentrations. Low temperature (10°C) completely inhibited seed germination. However, temperature shift to 15°C improved germination. Smoke-water and KAR 1 enhanced seed germination with SW improving seedling growth under different stress conditions. Furthermore, priming seeds with Kelpak ® stimulated percentage germination, while PG and the control treatment improved seedling growth at different PEG and NaCl concentrations. Generally, high concentrations of PEG and NaCl brought about detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Findings from this study show the potential role of seed priming with biostimulants in the alleviation of abiotic stress conditions during seed germination and seedling growth in C. triloba plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of priming on the physiological traits of corn seed germination under drought stress

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    Seyyedeh Roghayyeh KHATAMI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of drought stress and priming on germination of corn seeds (cultivar SC704 as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were drought stress in four levels including 0,-3,-6 and -9 bar and priming as control, hydro, osmo, vitamin and hormone priming. Results showed that interaction of two factors was significant on radicle and plumule dry weight, seedling vigor and germination rate. Osmo-priming remained the radicle dry weight and seedling vigor index same to control but germination rate decreased in this treatment about 38% to control. Drought stress at any severity caused seed reservoirs were not use inefficiently. In conclusion, osmo and hormone primings were the best treatments for seed invigoration under severe drought stress.

  16. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

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    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  17. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  18. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

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    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  19. Influence of seed priming and nitrogen application on the growth and development of maize seedlings in saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, D.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Guan, B.

    2018-01-01

    Seed priming and nitrogen application can promote plant tolerance and resistance to salt stress. To explore the combined effects of these two factors on the growth of salt-stressed seedlings, four treatments (priming + nitrogen application, PN; priming + no nitrogen application, P; unprimed + nitrogen application, UPN; and control treatment unprimed + no nitrogen application, UP) were applied to evaluate the responses of plant morphology, antioxidase systems, physiological and biochemical parameters of the maize seedlings under different concentrations of salt stress (0, 100, 200, and 300 mM). The results indicated that under salt stress, the priming treatment facilitated the growth of seedlings of root and stems, increased the amount of osmoregulatory substances, and enhanced the antioxidase activity and resistance of the maize seedlings. After nitrogen application during the maize growth stage, the growth of young leaves was greatly promoted along with an increase in the soluble protein and chlorophyll content. The combination of seed priming and nitrogen application significantly improved the plant growth, antioxidase activities and physiological and biochemical parameters. (author)

  20. The Effects of Physical Primings of Seeds on Agronomical Characteristics and Alkaloid Content of Datura

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    S Baser kouchebagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of physical seed primings on yield and alkaloid content of datura an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 10 different treatments was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Aazd University, Tabriz branch, Iran, during growing season of 2013. Treatments of moist seeds were: ultrasonic treatment of seeds with a maximum of 3 watts, gamma and beta irradiations of seeds at 2 microcurie (µc for 10 minutes, laser irradiation at 6328 angstrom (A° and magnetic field of seeds with 40 microtesla (mt each for 5, 10, 15 minutes respectively and control. Results indicated that seeds treated with gamma irradiation increased plant height over the control by 45%. Highest (206 g.m-2 and lowest (108.3 g.m-2 biological yields were produced when seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes and laser for 5 minutes respectively. Similarly, highest (27.27 g.m-2 and lowest (14.96 g.m-2 seed yields were obtained by treating seeds with magnetic field for 15 minutes and ultrasonic respectively. Alkaloid content in the above ground plant parts was highest when seeds treated with gamma irradiation and lowest with the magnetic field irradiation for 5 minutes. It may be concluded that physical primings of seeds with magnetic field, gamma and laser irradiations would result in higher seed yields.

  1. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

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    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  2. Seed priming with KNO3 mediates biochemical processes to inhibit lead toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Akram, Asim; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Ahmad, Khawaja S; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Sardar, Hasan; Shabbir, Rana N; Majeed, Sadia; Shehzad, Muhammad A; Anwar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Accumulation of lead (Pb) in agricultural soils has become a major factor for reduced crop yields and poses serious threats to humans consuming agricultural products. The present study investigated the effects of KNO 3 seed priming (0 and 0.5% KNO 3 ) on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to Pb toxicity (0, 1300 and 2550 mg kg -1 Pb). Pb exposure markedly reduced the growth of maize seedlings and resulted in higher Pb accumulation in roots than shoots. Pretreatment of seeds with KNO 3 significantly improved the germination percentage and increased physiological indices. A stimulating effect of KNO 3 seed priming was also observed on pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents) of Pb-stressed plants. Low translocation of Pb from roots to shoots caused an increased accumulation of total free amino acids and higher activities of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in roots as compared to shoot, which were further enhanced by exogenous KNO 3 supply to prevent Pb toxicity. Maize accumulates more Pb in roots than shoot at early growth stages. Priming of seeds with KNO 3 prevents Pb toxicity, which may be exploited to improve seedling establishment in crop species grown under Pb contaminated soils. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of Seed Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Two Mustard Cultivars (Brassica compestris var. parkland and Goldrash

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    M. Goldani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: B. campestris is an old plant that commonly grows in arid and semi-arid areas. It has mucilage in the epidermal cells of canola seeds, a considerable variation in growth form and characteristics across the many cultivars. These species have in general, a flat root without an elongated crown, with stems that typically grow 30 to 120 cm tall. The leaves are large, soft, smooth or soft-hairy. The yellow flowers are small, usually less than 2 cm long (24. Seed priming is a procedure in which seed is soaked and then dried back to its original water content. Hydropriming uses only water in the process of controlled imbibitions, but osmopriming simply means soaking seeds in an osmotic solution. Seed priming is a technique of controlled hydration and drying that results in more rapid germination when the seed is reimbibed. Priming can be a valuable process for improving germination and uniformity of heterogeneously matured seed lots. Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to improve germination and emergence in seeds of many crops, particularly vegetables and small seeded grasses. Seed priming is a presowing strategy for influencing seedling development by modulating pregermination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Fast germination and uniform emergence assist the farmer to “catch up” on the time lost to drought (17, 18. This research aimed to study the effect of the best treatments of osmopriming and hydropriming on varieties of mustard seed germination traits was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted under laboratory conditions of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012 to determine the seed priming effects on germination traits of two cultivars of mustard. The experiment was in completely randomized design with six treatments. Seeds of two mustard cultivars including Goldrash and Parkland (Brassica

  4. Effect of NaCl Priming on Seed Germination of Tunisian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Under Salinity Conditions

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    Souguir, Maher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one major problem of increasing production in crop growing areas throughout the world. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of NaCl priming on seed germination of Tunisian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under salinity conditions. Seeds of fenugreek were primed with NaCl (4g/l for 36 h in continuous 25°C. Experimental factors were included 2 priming treatments (NaCl and non-priming as control and five salinity solution (4,6,8,10 and 12 gl-1. Results showed that seed priming increased final germination percentage, germination speed and radicle length over the non-primed treatment. At the lowest levels of salinity, there were no notable differences between primed and non-primed seeds, but with increasing salinity levels, primed seeds showed the better performance than non-primed seeds. These results indicated that NaCl priming significantly improved seed performance under salinity conditions.

  5. Effect of Seed Priming on Sugar Beet Root Yield under Low Irrigation and Presence of Weed

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    ali absalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The success of sugar beet as a crop depends on predictable seed germination, early seedling establishment and the rapid development of a leaf canopy which is able to utilize the available solar radiation efficiently. Seed priming has become a common practice to increase the rate and uniformity of field germination and emergence in many important crop plants in unfavorable conditions. Hydro-priming is a simple method of priming treatment that is used of distilled water as priming medium. Humic acid has been used for treatment before seed planting. Washing sugar beet seeds with water also affects the germination and seedling establishment through the elimination of inhibitory compounds on the seed coat. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming with different methods at different times and concentrations on germination of sugar beet. Materials and Methods In the spring of 1393, a field trial was conducted simultaneously in two regions of the Jovain and Jajarm. The experimental was conducted as split plot (split-split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications.The main factor was irrigation with four levels of 100, 90, 80 and 70% water, sub-plots are including different methods of priming: control, priming with running water for 48 hours, priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid, priming with running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym, sub-sub plots are including weeds competition with (absence and presence of weeds. Results and Discussion The results for two regions showed that by reducing the amount of irrigation water sugar beet root yield significantly reduced. Results show that the effect of priming treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym to have achieved the highest sugar beet root yield for two areas. The result of the interaction effect showed

  6. Seed Priming to Overcome Salinity Stress in Persian Cultivars of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    Ali SEPEHRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of hydro-priming on seed germination with distilled water on germination of five Alfalfa cultivars under salinity stress, an experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Seven levels of hydro-priming and salinity of NaCl including prime and non-salinity, prime and 50 mM salinity, prime and 100 mM salinity, prime and 150 mM salinity, prime and 200 mM salinity, prime and 250 mM salinity and without prime and salinity and five alfalfa varieties, including ‘Hamedani’, ‘Isfahani’, ‘Bami’, ‘Yazdi’ and ‘Ghareh Yonjeh’ were used. The results showed that the main effect of prime, salinity and cultivars and their interaction in all studied traits were significantly affected at the 5% probability level. Priming treatments in non-salinity of all cultivars were the highest. In all cultivars, final germination percentage, length and weight of radicle, plumule and seedling, germination rate and time, relative radicle elongation, vigor index and stress index, were significantly improved in response to priming in salinity levels of 50-200 mM, compared to control. Radicle produced higher length and weight than the plumule in hydro- priming and salinity treatments. ‘Hamedani’ cultivar in most of studied characteristics had a better response than others. The lowest response to salinity stress and priming was observed in ‘Yazdi’ cultivar.

  7. Withania somnifera Root Extract Enhances Chemotherapy through 'Priming'.

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    Aine Brigette Henley

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera extracts are known for their anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. One of their mechanisms of actions is to modulate mitochondrial function through increasing oxidative stress. Recently 'priming' has been suggested as a potential mechanism for enhancing cancer cell death. In this study we demonstrate that 'priming', in HT-29 colon cells, with W. somnifera root extract increased the potency of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. We have also showed the W. somnifera root extract enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction and that the underlying mechanism of 'priming' was selectively through increased ROS. Moreover, we showed that this effect was not seen in non-cancerous cells.

  8. Evaluation of seed priming and coating on emergence, yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread wheat production is constrained by climate change impacts and diseases in Amhara region. Pre-farming seed treatments are practiced worldwide to avert their effects on wheat. A field experiment was conducted at Adet and Finoteselam research stations in 2014 main cropping season to evaluate the effects of seed ...

  9. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2001-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Seed Priming and Seedbed on Characteristic of Transplant Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L.

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    A Manzari-Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    .05, the kind of seedbed and the interactions between these factors (P≤0.01 have significant effect on the sweet corn leaf area (Table 1. The seedlings of the bioprimed seeds produced a higher leaf area of 60.65 cm2 compared with the control and hydropriming treatments possibly due to more availability of the nutrients. Seed pretreatment with biological fertilizer of bioaminopalis that contained bacteria, azotobacter and pseudomonas had direct and indirect effects on plant growth leading to expansion of the leaf area. The direct effects of these bacteria could be used in producing chemical components needed for plant growth, facilitating nutrients uptake, atmospheric nitrogen fixation and plant hormones production such as auxin and gibberellins, enhancing plant growth in various stages of development, or construction of enzymes involved in the plant growth. Conclusions Seed priming and vermicompost seedbed improved the quality of the produced transplants. This system was recommended for sweet corn production in Iran using transplants in order to save at least 2-3 times of the irrigation per year where the country is suffering from serious water crises.

  11. The Effect of Priming Treatments on Germination and Seedling Performance of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea Seed Lots

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    Eren OZDEN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to test the effect of a priming combination on the seed germination percentage and seedling emergence performance of purslane under climate chamber and field conditions. Four purslane seed lots were treated according five different methods, which were T1: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C; T2: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, and then soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 5 °C; T3: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, and then soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 20 °C; T4: Seeds soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 5 °C; T5: Seeds soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 20 °C; and C: Control (untreated. Seed germination was calculated for 14 days at 20 °C, seedling emergence percentages were calculated in the climatically-controlled chamber for 21 days at 22 °C, and in the field for 35 days at 15-25 °C. The highest seed germination (94% and seedling emergence in the climatically-controlled chamber (87% and field (82% were obtained from seeds that had been kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, then soaked in distilled water for eight hours at 5 °C. Results indicated that farm-priming, can be an efficient priming method in purslane seeds.

  12. Effects of Hydro and Hormonal Seed Priming on Seed Germination of Milk Thistle under Saline Stress Condition

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    Yousef NASIRI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an abiotic stress which has harmful effects on germination of many plants. Therefore, high germination rate and vigorous early growth under salty soils is preferred. Seed priming is a way to increase salt tolerance of plants. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of seed priming on germination of milk thistle under salinity condition. The treatments were 4 levels of seed priming (no priming, distilled water as hydro priming and 0.5 and 1.0 mM salicylic acid and 5 levels of salinity (0, 40 and 80 mM NaCl and 40 and 80 mM CaCl2. The experiment arranged as a factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Results showed that salinity decreased germination percentage and germination rate to about 16 and 32% in 80 mM CaCl2 level compared to control, respectively. The highest mean germination time (5.7 day were belonged to 80 mM CaCl2. Radicle and plumule length significantly decreased by 80 mM NaCl and 40 and 80 mM CaCl2. The lowest seedling weight and seed stamina observed in 80 mM CaCl2. 0.5 mM salicylic acid improved all traits except mean germination time as compared to control.  Salicylic acid (0.5 mM improved radicle length under 0, 40 and 80 mM NaCl salinity levels as well as increased plumule length at the 0 and 40 mM NaCl salinity conditions.

  13. Responses of tomato seeds to hydro and osmo priming, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yakoub@AHMED

    The eřřiciency oř hydropriming seeds oř Casle rock tomato or osmopriming with ... 1997), as well as carrot, lettuce, and onions (Jeong et al. 2000b). ..... during hydration, mainly via production oř antioxidants and repair enzymes. In this.

  14. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni: influence of osmotic stress and seed priming on seed germination under laboratory conditions

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    Keila Regina Hossa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The foremost factor necessary for plant growers cultivating large acreages of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni is the production of qualitative bedding plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of osmotic-priming on the uniformity of seed germination. First, we evaluated the percentage of normal seedlings from two seed samples harvested in 2011 and 2012. The seeds harvested in 2012 produced 71.4% normal seedlings and thus they were used in the next experiments. The seeds were subjected to osmotic stress using five concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 at -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, and -1.0 MPa in contrast with distilled water. Based on these first results, only -0.8 and -1.0 MPa were evaluated in the third experiment. The seeds were immersed in both concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 for imbibing at 20ºC for four, five, six, and seven days. Thereafter, we evaluated the time to the first normal seedling (Ti, time to the last normal seedling (Tf, percentage normal seedlings at the initial time (Pi and percentage of normal seedlings at the end of every treatment (Pf. Osmotic priming increased the percentage of normal seedlings of the Stevia rebaudiana and reduced the time to the first and last germination events.

  15. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl 2 ) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na + contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na + contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.

  17. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. �Sari� (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. �Sari�.

  18. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. Sari (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. Sari.

  19. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  20. Reducing Drought Stress Effects in Germination and Establishment Stage of Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L.) By Seed Priming

    OpenAIRE

    AMIRNIA, Reza; GHIYASI, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the abiotic stresses that limit agricultural productions. In this study the effects of various seed priming treatments on germination and seedling growth of cumin under different levels of drought were investigated. Seeds were treated with KNO3 and KH2PO4 solutions having -1.2 MPa (osmopriming) and water (hydropriming) for 18h. Drought levels -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9 MPa were created by PEG6000. Control seeds were not treated. Results showed that seed priming significantly improv...

  1. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  2. Germination and seedling characteristics of drought-stressed corn seed as influenced by seed priming with potassium nano-chelate and sulfate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ZAHEDIFAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of seed-priming with potassium (K sources (K-nano-chelate, KNC, and sulfate (0, 2 and 4 % under drought stress (DS conditions (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa water potential on the corn seedling traits was studied. Drought stress decreased the germination indices and seedling vigor. The highest germination, seminal root fresh and dry mass (RFM and RDM was obtained in KNC primed seeds at -0.3 MPa DS. Mean germination time increased under DS conditions mainly in non-primed seeds. Increasing DS to -1.2 MPa led to decrease in RFM and RDM. Influence of DS on the fresh mass of shoots was more severe than on seminal roots. The highest shoots and seminal roots length was observed in 4 % KNC without any DS. Proper priming can be suggested to increase the plant tolerance under DS.

  3. Priming and stress under high humidity and temperature on the physiological quality of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5 seeds

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    Thiago Barbosa Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisade grass is a forage plant that is widely used in pasture cropping in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG–5 seeds subjected to priming and stress at high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x5 factorial arrangement. Seeds were exposed to stress under high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning and five priming treatments [Water (Control, potassium nitrate (KNO3 at 0.2%, calcium nitrate Ca(NO32 at 0.2%, gibberellin (GA3 at 0.2% and glucose at 10%] with four replications. Two experiments were performed: Experiment I - seed with chemical scarification using H2SO4 and Experiment II - without scarification. The stress on the seed was applied using artificial aging at 41°C for 96 hours. Seed priming was accomplished by immersion at 25°C for 2 hours. Thereafter, the seeds were oven-dried at 35°C until they regained hygroscopic equilibrium. Seed germination and vigor were evaluated. Priming using KNO3 and Ca(NO32 produced seeds with high tolerance to stress under high temperature, and this process is efficient to overcome dormancy.

  4. Condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor Priming seed treatment of cauliflower seeds

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    Ana Lúcia P Kikuti

    2009-06-01

    conducted to define an adequate procedure for cauliflower seed priming and to verify whether the seed physiological potential affects priming results. Six seed lots, three of the cultivar Sharon and three of Teresópolis Gigante, were submitted to hydropriming between two, four and six sheets of towel paper and to osmopriming between four sheets of towel paper moistened with polietilenoglycol 6000 solutions (-0,1 and -0,2 MPa potentials. In all priming procedures, the seed water content was adjusted to 32% or 38% for cv. Sharon and 34% or 41%, for cv. Teresópolis Gigante seeds. The effects of treatments on germination and seedling emergence were compared to unprimed control. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper was efficient to favor speed of germination (VG and speed of seedling emergence (VE in both cultivars when seeds attained 38% (cultivar Sharon and 41% (cultivar Teresópolis Gigante. VG increased from 14,6 (control to 16,4 (hydroprimed seeds in cv. Sharon seed lots of higher and lower physiological potential; the same for VE that incresead from 8,9 to 11,3 and from 7,8 to 11,6 in seed lots of lower physiological potential. In seeds of cv. Teresópolis Gigante, hydropriming promoted increases in the VG and VE, independently of seed physiological potencial; VG values ranged from 16,4 to 21,4 and the VE from 9,5 to 13,5. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper, in which seeds attained moisture content close to the required for primary root protrusion is efficient to favor the speed of germination and seedling emergence of cauliflower seeds; the influence of vigor level on seed priming response is closely related to cultivar and seed lot management.

  5. The Effect of Seed Priming and Accelerated Aging on Germination and Physiochemical Changes in Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum

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    Ghasem PARMOON

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed priming and aging on some physiological characteristics of Milk thistle was studied in a factoral experiment based on Complete Randomized Design (CRD. Tratments were included hydro priming (using distilled water, halo priming (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% KNO3 and accelerated aging (0, 2, 4 and 6 days under 45°C and 95% humidity in three replications. Determined parameters were germination charactristics including germination percentage, daily germination speed, mean time of germination, seed vigor index, hypocutile length and hypocutile dry weight. Activity of catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were determined at 12 hours after imbibition and seedling stage. According to results of this experiment, germination percentage, seed vigor and seedling growth of seeds were increased under all priming treatments. Improving the catalase and peroxidase activity led to decrease the aging damages. Germination characteristics were improved under both priming treatments at the beginning of germination as well as seedling growth. Polyphenol oxidase activity was increased in the pre-treated seeds but decreased in seedling growth stage. Aging treatments led to reduce the germination percentage, daily germination speed, seed vigor and seedling growth while the germination time was increased. Accelerated aging caused to reduce the germination rate and seedling growth of milk thistle that is probably due to increasing the lipid peroxidation, free radical increment and decreasing the antioxidants activity. The greatest and lowest antioxidants activity, the germination percentage, germination speed and seed vigor were respectively observed under priming using 3% KNO3 concentration and control seeds.

  6. Seed Priming Improves Agronomic Trait Performance under Flooding and Non-flooding Conditions in Rice with QTL SUB1

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    Ramni Kumar SARKAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in South East Asia are adopting rice crop establishment methods from transplanting to direct wet or dry seeding as it requires less labour and time and comparatively less energy than transplanting. In contrast to irrigated condition, in rainfed lowland, direct seeding is a common practice. Early flooding controls weeds but decreases seedling establishment in direct seeded rice. Anaerobic germination is an important trait to counteract damages caused by early flooding. Management options which can help in crop establishment and improve crop growth under flooding might remove the constraints related to direct seeding. The investigation was carried out with two near isogenic lines Swarna and Swarna-Sub1. Swarna-Sub1 is tolerant to submergence whereas Swarna is susceptible. Seed priming was done with water and 2% Jamun (Syzygium cumini leaf extract, and it improved seedling establishment under flooding. Acceleration of growth occurred due to seed pretreatment, which resulted longer seedling and greater accumulation of biomass. Seed priming greatly hastened the activities of total amylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in Swarna-Sub1 than in Swarna. Swarna-Sub1 outperformed Swarna when the plants were cultivated under flooding. Weed biomass decreased significantly under flooding compared to non-flooding conditions. Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions.

  7. Seed Germination Behaviors Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L After Priming With Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkheir H.A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed Priming Is Famous Technique To Accelerate Seed Germination Behaviors. This Experiment Was Conducted To Study The Effect Of Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000 As Priming Agent On Seed Germination Behavior Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L. Experiment Was Carried Out By Using Two-Factor Three Aerobic Rice Cultivars And Peg With Four Replications Which Arranged In Factorial System Design And Conducted With Completely Randomized Design. The Factor Was Varieties Which Were Inpago 8 V1 Ir64 V2 And Situbagendit V3 Combine With 4 Levels Of Peg Concentrations 0100 And 200 Gl-1 And Control With No Treatment. Experiment Was Repeated 4 Times So Total Number Of Experimental Units Were 48. Germination Parameters Measured Were Germination Percentage Germination Index Days Of 50 Germination Seedling Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight And Root Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Dry Weigh Mg Seedling Shoot Dry Weight And Root Dry Weight Mg ShootRoot Ratio Seedling Length Cm Seedling Root Length Cm And Shoot Length Cm And Seed Vigor Index. The Results Indicated That Seed Priming Significantly Affected Germination Behaviors Compared With Control Depending Upon Varieties. The Highest Germination Was Obtained Under Laboratory And Greenhouse Condition By The Treatment Of Peg 200 G L-1 On The Situbagendit And Ir-64 Variety 90.25 And 93.33 Respectively Compared To Control In Inpago-8 In Both Laboratory 75.75 And Greenhouse 80 . As Implementation To Increase Seed And Seedling Vigor Of Rice It Is A Best Practice To Use Peg Priming With 200 Gl-1 Solutions Depend Upon Varietal Response And We Suggest That More Research About The Effect Of Peg As Seed Priming Techniques On Seed Germination Behavior Of Many Grain Crops Is Needed To Confirm The Methodology.

  8. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  9. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  10. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza-primed

  11. Rapid Evaluation of Germinability of Primed China Aster (Callistephus Chinensis Ness. Seeds with Physiological and Biochemical Markers

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    Badek Bogumiła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the sowing value of primed China aster seeds represented by germination percentage (GP, mean germination time (MGT, germination uniformity expressed as the time between 25% and 75% of germinated seeds (T75-25 and some selected physiological characteristics - total activity of dehydrogenases (TAD, activity of catalase (AC, activity of cell cycle (ACC and electrolyte leakage (EL has been analysed in order to find useful markers of biological quality of seeds. To achieve this objective, analyses of effects of three methods of water supply to seeds viz. - hydroconditioning by soaking in excessive amount of water (M1, hydroconditioning by soaking in limited amount of water (M2 or hydroconditioning by contact with solid carrier of water - matriconditioning (M3, three levels (30.0, 35.0 and 40.0% of seed moisture content (m.c. and three incubation periods (1, 8 and 10 days during priming and hence their influence on germination properties (GP, MGT, T75-25 in comparison with TAD, AC, ACC and EL were determined. The results showed that MGT and T75-25 were correlated with TAD, AC, ACC and EL, irrespective of their priming method and sowing value. Therefore, all the investigated physiological/biochemical parameters of seed quality can be used as markers of germinability and sowing value reached by primed China aster seeds. The results also proved that, irrespective of the water supply method applied, hydration of seeds up to 37.5% m.c., and their incubation at 20 °C for 8 days, followed by drying to their initial moisture content, increased to the greatest extent the speed and uniformity of seed germination and their physiological activity.

  12. Determination of Optimum Duration and Concentration of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) Seed Priming with Boric Acid (H3BO3)

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHVERDI, Mehdi Aghighi; OMIDI, Heshmat; TABATABAEI, Seyed Jalal

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine optimal duration and concentration of Stevia seed priming with boric acid for improving germination, an experimental factorial completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in the laboratory of Seed Science and Technology, Shahed University of Tehran in 2015. The first factor was different concentrations of boric acid (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 percent) and the second factor was priming duration (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 hours). Effects of concentration an...

  13. Osmo and hydro priming improvement germination characteristics and enzyme activity of Mountain Rye (Secale montanum seeds under drought stress

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    Ansari O.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of polyetylenglycol 6000 (PEG 6000(0, -9, -11, -13 and -15 bar and hydro priming on Mountain Rye (secale montanum germination characteristic and enzyme activity were evaluated under drought stress in the seed laboratory of Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. Analyze of variance for hydro priming showed that temperature × time of priming interaction was significantly for germination percentage (GP, normal seedling percentage (NSP, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG, seedling vigor index (SVI, coefficient of allometry (AC and seedling length (SL under drought stress and for osmo priming showed that Concentration of PEG × Temperature × Time of priming interaction was significantly for all traits under drought stress. Results of interaction effects for hydro priming showed that the highest GP (53% and NSP (23.5% were attained from hydro priming for 16h at 15 ◦C and the highest CVG (0.21 and AC (0.49 were attained from hydro priming for 8h at 10 ◦C, also hydro priming for 8h at 15 ◦C increased SL (3.15 as compared to the unprimed.Osmo priming with concentration of -15 bar PEG for 24h at 15 ◦C increased GP (80.5 %, GI (17.9, NSP (45 %, SVI (257.85 and SL (5.73 cm and decreased MTG as compared to the unprimed and other treatments of osmo priming. The highest CVG was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 24h at 10 ◦C. the highest AC was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 12h at 15 ◦C. Also osmo and hydro priming increased catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX as compared to the unprimed.

  14. Primed infusion with delayed equilibrium of Gd.DTPA for enhanced imaging of small pulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalber, Tammy L; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Siow, Bernard M; Sage, Elizabeth; Price, Anthony N; Ordidge, Katherine L; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Janes, Sam M; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2013-01-01

    To use primed infusions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd.DTPA (Magnevist), to achieve an equilibrium between blood and tissue (eqMRI). This may increase tumor Gd concentrations as a novel cancer imaging methodology for the enhancement of small tumor nodules within the low signal-to-noise background of the lung. A primed infusion with a delay before equilibrium (eqMRI) of the Gd(III) chelator Gd.DTPA, via the intraperitoneal route, was used to evaluate gadolinium tumor enhancement as a function of a bolus injection, which is applied routinely in the clinic, compared to gadolinium maintained at equilibrium. A double gated (respiration and cardiac) spin-echo sequence at 9.4T was used to evaluate whole lungs pre contrast and then at 15 (representative of bolus enhancement), 25 and 35 minutes (representative of eqMRI). This was carried out in two lung metastasis models representative of high and low tumor cell seeding. Lungs containing discrete tumor nodes where inflation fixed and taken for haematoxylin and eosin staining as well as CD34 staining for correlation to MRI. We demonstrate that sustained Gd enhancement, afforded by Gd equilibrium, increases the detection of pulmonary metastases compared to bolus enhancement and those tumors which enhance at equilibrium are sub-millimetre in size (<0.7 mm(2)) with a similar morphology to early bronchoalveolar cell carcinomas. As Gd-chelates are routinely used in the clinic for detecting tumors by MRI, this methodology is readily transferable to the clinic and advances MRI as a methodology for the detection of small pulmonary tumors.

  15. Improving Consumer Decisions: The Conscious Use of Primes as Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nicolao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through this article we examine ways through which consumers can take advantage of marketers’ priming attempts and make better decisions. Specifically, we investigate what happens when individuals are made aware of primes that may potentially improve their performance. Using an Embedded Figures Test, we demonstrate that individuals can be consciously primed into an analytic thinking mindset and perform better when they believe that the prime will enhance performance. Individuals are able to successfully ignore the prime when they believe that the prime hinders performance. Utilizing both holistic and analytic primes and by alternating the valence of the prime’s potential outcome, we are able to disentangle the conscious effects of primes from demand effects. We discuss how these findings may lead to and suggest avenues for future research.

  16. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  17. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  18. The Effect of Seed Priming and Transplanting on Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Yield Components of SuperSweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    matin haghighi khah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn (Zea mays L. is the third most important cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice (Lashkari et al., 2011. Corn production has been extended in to the whole world during the course of the last century due to its compatibility. It has more diversity compare to other cereal. Many corn types are cultivated, including field corn, ornamental corn, popcorn, sweet corn and several different supersweet corns. Sweet corn, considered a vegetable, is a special type of corn with particular characteristics, such as sweet taste, thin pericarp and endosperm with delicate texture, and high nutritional value. It is destined exclusively for human consumption, in fresh form or in processed foods, whereas the straw can be used for silage after harvest (Santos et al., 2014. Sweet corn seeds germinate slowly and exhibit poor seedling vigour. Poor germination in sweet corn has been attributed to low seed vigour and susceptibility to seed and soilborne diseases (Ratin et al., 2006. Seed priming is the one of efficient method to improve germination and emergence. In addition, transplanting provides optimal environmental conditions for seed germination and avoids planting seeds in disease-contaminated soil (Khalid et al., 2012. Materials and methods To investigate the effect of seed priming and transplanting on morphological characteristics, yield and yield components of supersweet corn a series of greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in a factorial based design on a randomized complete block in 2013. This experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to determine the best seed priming treatments. The treatments were hydro priming, Poly ethylene glycol (6000 -0.4 and -0.8 MPa, Sodium Sulphate 0.1 and 0.5%, Zinc Sulphate 1 and 0.5%, Copper Sulphate 0.1 and 0.5% and Control for 36 hours. After that the seeds washed by distillated water and dried back in laboratory conditions. Then treated seeds were sown in trays that contained by cocopeatand

  19. Germinação de sementes de cenoura osmoticamente condicionadas e peletizadas com diversos ingredientes Germination of carrot seed primed and pelleted with several ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley M Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    seeders is generally very difficult. Seed pelleting has been used to improve sowing and consequently the stand establishment. Pelleted seeds generally present lower germination rate than raw seeds from the same seed lot. Seed priming has been used to increase germination rate of several species. Various binder materials for seed pelleting were evaluated and the relation between the osmoconditioning and germination of pellet seeds verified, using 'Alvorada' carrot cultivar. The pellet was obtained through a mixture of equal parts of microcelulose and sand as filling materials; five binder materials were also evaluated: bentonite, methocel, opadry, rhoximat and arabic gum. Part of the pelleted seeds received an external coat treatment (iriodin. Raw seeds were included as control. In another study, seeds were primed in an aerated solution of polyethylene glycol, dried and then pelleted. Rhoximat and opadry showed better characteristics as binder materials presenting pellets with smooth surface, uniform and excellent external appearance. In general, seed pellets showed a slight decrease of the germination rate and total germination compared to raw seeds, with greather differences for pellets finished with iriodin. Priming enhanced the germination rate of pelleted carrot seeds.

  20. Priming of Stylosanthes seeds Condicionamento osmótico de sementes de Stylosanthes

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    Karina Margareti de Castilio Alencar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 60% of the area of cultivated pasture, in the Brazilian Savannah, is degraded or in process of degradation, due to, among other causes, the lack of nitrogen. The Stylosanthes genus is the legume which has the greater number of cultivars used in tropical pastures, however, its seeds have characteristics which can difficult the formation of an adequate stand of plants on pasture. In this research the aim was to evaluate the effects of priming in the speed and uniformity of the Stylosanthes capitata, S. macrocephala and S. guianensis seeds germination. The seeds were kept for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours in aired media PEG 6,000 at 0.0, -0.5, -1.0 and -1.5MPa. Afterwards, they were sent to the germination test. The variables analyzed were germination percent, germination speed index (GSI and average germination time (AGT. For S. capitata it is recommended priming at 0.0 MPa for 10 hours, and for S. macrocephala the recommended potential is -0.5 MPa. However, for the S. guianensis the priming is not recommended under the time and potentials evaluated in this research.Atualmente, estima-se que 60% da área de pastagem cultivada, no Cerrado, esteja degradada ou em processo de degradação, devido, entre outras causas, à deficiência de nitrogênio. O gênero Stylosanthes é uma leguminosa que possui maior número de cultivares usadas em pastagens tropicais, no entanto, suas sementes apresentam características que podem dificultar a formação de um estande adequado da pastagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do condicionamento osmótico na velocidade e uniformidade da germinação das sementes de Stylosanthes capitata, S. macrocephala e S. guianensis. As sementes foram mantidas por um período de 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas em solução aerada de PEG 6000 a 0,0, -0,5, -1,0 e -1,5MPa, sendo posteriormente submetidas ao teste de germinação. Foram avaliadas as variáveis porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade

  1. Germination and vigour of primed asparagus seeds Germinação e vigor de sementes de aspargo osmoticamente condicionadas

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    Mário Lúcio de Carvalho Bittencourt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic conditioning or priming is considered a promising technique to speed up germination and to improve seed performance. Four seed lots of asparagus, Mary Washington cultivar, were primed at 25°C for seven or 14 days using PEG 6000 at -1.0 or -1.2 MPa, or sea water at -3.3 MPa; or for three days in distilled water. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by standard germination, first count germination, speed of seedling emergence, and germination percentage and seedling fresh and dry weights after controlled deterioration test. Primed seeds presented higher germination speed, independently of their initial physiological quality. Beneficial effects of priming on germination and vigour were more expressive in the seed lot of low physiological quality. Priming in PEG 6000 at -1.0 MPa for 14 days was the most beneficial treatment to improve asparagus seeds performance.O condicionamento osmótico ou priming tem sido considerado uma técnica promissora para acelerar a germinação e melhorar o desempenho das sementes. Sementes de quatro lotes de aspargo, cv. Mary Washington, foram condicionadas em PEG 6000 a -1,0 e -1,2 MPa, por 7 e 14 dias, em água do mar a -3,3 MPa, por 7 e 14 dias e em água destilada por 3 dias, em BOD a 25°C. Sementes não condicionadas foram usadas como testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada pela germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, velocidade de emergência e pela porcentagem de geminação e pesos da matéria fresca e seca das plântulas obtidas no teste de deterioração controlada (45°C/24 horas. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Duncan a 5%. Sementes de aspargo condicionadas osmoticamente apresentaram maior velocidade de germinação, independentemente de sua qualidade fisiológica inicial. Efeitos benéficos do condicionamento osmótico, na

  2. Morpho- Physiological Changes of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L. Traits as Affected by Seed Priming with Folic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

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    Shirin Karbalaye Golizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of seed priming of hempseed with folic acid and hydrogen peroxide on some morphological and physiological traits a factorial greenhouse experiment based on randomized complete design with four replications was conducted at Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch. Treatments consisted of hydrogen peroxide at five levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30 mm/liter as the first factor and the four leveld of folic acid (5, 10, 20, 27 mm/liter as the second factor.Seeds, to be primed, were immersed into solution of folic acid for 24 hours and hydrogen peroxide for 6 hours. The characteristics like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, relative water content, plant height, root length, allometric coefficient, plant fresh and dry weights, were measured. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effects of folic acid and hydrogen peroxide on all characters were significant, but the interaction between the two treatments were only significant on relative water content and allometric coefficient. In this study, seed priming with 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5mm folic acid resulted in highest chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll contents, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weights. Increasing hydrogen peroxide level above 15mm/liter affected traits negatively. Combinated treatments of 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5 and 10 mm of folic acid resulted in highest relative water content and allometric coefficient, respectively. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that priming seeds with 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5mm folic acid is recommended to produce proper morphological and physiological traits.

  3. Effect of Seed Priming, Sowing methods and Bio-fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Seedy Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus

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    M Zarandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus is one of the most important fresh fruits in Iran particularly during summer. After China, in terms of production and cultivation area, Iran placed second in the world. Research conducted in different regions (especially in arid and semi-arid regions, like Iran indicated that poor germination and establishment of seedlings in the field causes low yield, particularly in vegetables. Seed priming, (to increase the percentage and rate of germination and transplanting to increase plant establishment and use of bio-fertilizers to increase food availability during the growing season are inevitable to transfer to ecological agriculture. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmopriming, transplanting and bio-fertilizers on watermelon grain yield. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted at split plot based on complete block design with three replications in the Laboratory, Greenhouse and the Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2013. First factor was seed priming in two levels (unprimed and primed, the second factor was transplanting in two levels (direct sowing and transplantation and the third factor was bio-fertilizers containing pseudomonas and Azotobacter in two levels (non bio-fertilizers and bio-fertilizers. Leaf area index (LAI, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and total dry matter were determined. Results and Discussion Transplants produced using osmoprimed seeds that had been sprayed with bio-fertilizers on the field (T2P2K2 had higher LAI than the other treatments (Table 3. Bio-fertilizers in both transplanting and direct sowing produced more LAI, but osmopriming of seeds with PEG 6000 had little impact on LAI (Table 3. LAI is one of the growth parameters which had a great effect to achieve maximum yield that needs to be at higher level before flowering. Izadkhah et al. (2010 and

  4. Influence of Biophysical Priming on Seed Germination and Yield on Two Landraces of Lemon-Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

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    Marziyeh HOSEINI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effects of physical seed priming on germination and yield of lemon balm. Laboratory and pots experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. The treatments are magnetic field with 75 mT for 10 and 15 min durations; laser light with 2 mw.cm-2 for 20 min; ultrasonic wave with physiotrapy device for 20 min; cs-gamma ray for one hour in lead cell, and control that were applied on two landraces of lemon balm (‘Karaj’, ‘Esfahan’. Then in laboratory with use of special paper and pure water the seeds were cultured in petri-dishes and were putt in germinator with 19°C temperature for 8 days and were counted daily. Some parts of primed seeds were stored in normal condition for 6 months and were cultured in laboratory condition. All the primed seeds were farmed in pots. Three months later the plants were harvested in first blooming level and dry weight and essential oil percentage were measured. Results showed that the influence of various treatments on germination percentage and germination rate were significant. Magnetic field treatment (15 min showed the highest positive effect on percentage (86%, and rate. The length and weight of seedling in magnetic field treatment were the highest in comparison with other ones. Considering physiological characteristics, the higher Leaf Area Ratio and Leaf Area Index were seen in magnetic field. Effect of different treatments on plant height, biomass dry weight and essential oil concentration was significant.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes applied through seed-priming influence early germination, root hair, growth and yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-06-01

    Reports of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporated into plants have indicated better yield and productivity, yet the phenomena need in-depth understanding especially when agricultural crops are tested. We primed wheat seeds with MWCNTs to understand the effects on germination, growth, anatomy, physiology and yield. This study, carried out in field conditions, is a step forward over the previous reports. Early germination, excessive root hair, denser stomata and larger root length result in faster growth and higher yield of wheat plants. Denser root hair facilitated the uptake of both water and essential minerals such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which boosted the crop yield by significantly improving grain yield per plant from 1.53 to 2.5 g, a 63% increase. Increase in cell elongation by 80% was recorded, while xylem and phloem sizes dilated to almost 83% and 85% of control, thus enhancing their capacity to conduct water and nutrients. Augmented growth of MWCNT-primed wheat, enhancement in grain number, biomass, stomatal density, xylem-phloem size, epidermal cells, and water uptake is observed while finding no DNA damage. This opens up an entirely new aspect to using cost-effective nanomaterials (the MWCNTs were produced in-house) for enhancing the performance of crop plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of Osmo- and Hydro-priming on Seed Parameters of Sage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dastanpoor

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling ... through stem cuttings. .... and shoot length, and seedling fresh and dry weights were .... division in all the cells of germinating seeds. .... electric field treatments.

  7. Priming of pioneer tree Guazuma ulmifolia (Malvaceae seeds evaluated by an automated computer image analysis Condicionamento fisiológico de sementes da árvore pioneira Guazuma ulmifolia (Malvaceae avaliado por análise computadorizada de imagens

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    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct seeding is one of the most promising methods in restoration ecology, but low field seedling emergence from pioneer tree seeds still reduces its large scale applicability. The aim of this research was to evaluate seed priming for the pioneer tree species Guazuma ulmifolia. Priming treatments were selected based on seed hydration curves in water and in PEG 8000 solution. Seeds were primed in water for 16 h and in Polyethylene glycol - PEG 8000 (-0.8 MPa for 56 and 88 h at 20ºC to reach approximately 30% water content. Half of the seed sample of each treatment was dried back to the initial moisture content (7.2%; both dried and non-dried primed seeds as well as the unprimed seeds (control were tested for germination (percentage and rate and vigor (electrical conductivity of seed leachates. Seedling emergence percentage and rate were evaluated under greenhouse conditions, while seedling length and uniformity of seedling development were estimated using the automated image analysis software SVIS®. Primed seeds showed the highest physiological potential, which was mainly demonstrated by image analysis. Fresh or dried primed seeds in water for 16 h and in PEG (-0.8 MPa for 56 h, and fresh primed seeds in PEG for 88 h, improved G. ulmifolia germination performance. It is suggested that these treatments were promising to enhance efficiency of stand establishment of this species by direct seeding in restoration ecology programs.A semeadura direta é um dos métodos mais promissores para a restauração ecológica, mas a baixa emergência de plântulas em campo a partir de sementes de árvores pioneiras ainda limita sua aplicabilidade em larga escala. Avaliou-se a resposta de sementes da espécie florestal pioneira Guazuma ulmifolia ao condicionamento fisiológico. Os tratamentos foram selecionados com base em curvas de hidratação em água e em solução osmótica de Polietilenoglicol - PEG 8000. As sementes foram condicionadas em água por 16 h

  8. Potasssium chloride as a nutrient seed primer to enhance salt‑tolerance in maize

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    Badar‑uz‑Zaman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if KCl could be a useful nutrient primer for safe seed germination in maize crop under salt stress conditions. Seed priming was done using 50 mmol L‑1 of muriate of potash, and germination and seedling growth were evaluated after salt stress with NaCl up to 50 mmol L‑1. Another set of seeds was tested under the same salt stress conditions without priming. Under salinity stress, germination percentage, germination rate index, germination coefficient, and seedling vigor indexes were higher in primed seeds. In unprimed seeds, mean germination time increased, while the germination rate index and the fresh and dry matter mass decreased more sharply with salinity stress. The Na/K ratio was higher in unprimed seeds.

  9. Combined effect of soil amendment with oil cakes and seed priming in the control of root rot fungi of leguminous and non-leguminous crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Tariq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments of soil help in proper aeration, rising of temperature and water holding capacity which results in better uptake of nutrients with root system gets extensive establishment. In this study, effects of soil amendment with oil seed cakes including mustard (Brassica campestris L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and black seed (Nigella sativa L.) cakes at the rate of 0.1 and 1% w/w and priming of seeds with Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) leaves extracts and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium melilotii) was observed on the growth of plants and in the suppression of root infecting fungi. The results obtained showed that combined effect of bio-priming of seeds with T. harzianum spore suspension and amendment of soil with mustard cake at the rate of 1% was found to be most effective for the growth of leguminous and non-leguminous crop plants (peanut, chickpea, okra and sunflower) and for the reduction of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp followed by R. meliloti primed seeds in combination with cotton, almond and black seed cakes amendment respectively as compared to control (non treated seeds and soil). (author)

  10. Effect of seed priming on growth and biochemical traits of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Seeds of different wheat ..... simple and nondestructive measurement to evaluate .... Gorham J, Bridges J, Dubcovsky J, Dvorak J, Hollington PA, Luo MC,. Khan JA ...

  11. Enhancement of radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fangqing; Gu Ruiqi

    1994-01-01

    Enhancement of X-ray induced radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by heat treatment (44 degree C or 41 degree C, 20 min) has been investigated. The enhancement effect of heat treatment after irradiation was more significant than that of heat treatment before irradiation at dose range of 4.3-8.6 Gy. It was observed that germinating wheat seeds were very sensitive to heat treatment within 15 min after irradiation, which indicated that the repair of radiation damage was very active and rapid in a short period after irradiation. The repair of radiation damage in interval of fractionated irradiation was severely inhibited by heat treatment. The sensitivity of seeds to heat treatment corresponded with the levels of their repair activities. The more active the repairs of the seeds are, the more sensitive to heat treatment the seeds show. It was assumed that the enhancement of radiation damage by heat treatment in germinating wheat seeds was attributed to the inhibition of radiation damage repair by heat treatment, which is similar to the results of animal experiments

  12. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  13. Effect of priming with potassium nitrate and dehusking on seed germination of gladiolus (gladiolus alatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, A.; Hafiz, I.A.; Ahmad, T.; Abbasi, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Gladiolus (Gladiolus alatus), belonging to the family Iridaceae is rated as the most popular flower in the world at commercial scale. The effect of different concentrations of KNO/sub 3/ (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 0 %) on seed germination percentage, time required for 50% germination and on mean germination time (MGT) was studied under controlled conditions. Best germination rate of 92% was achieved in T6 (distilled water) followed by 80% in T1 (1% KNO/sub 3/) and 70% in T2 (2% KNO/sub 3/). Minimum time required for 50% germination i.e., 8 days was obtained with T6 (distilled water) and in the same way shortest mean germination time required by seeds was 15 days in T6. Bulb gained maximum weight (0.6467 g) and diameter (9.49 mm) in T3 (3% KNO/sub 3)/. Likewise, this treatment also resulted in an acquisition of 14 cm seedling length and a positive correlation was found between seedling length and growth parameters of bulb i.e., weight and diameter. In another experiment, effect of de husking on seed germination was tested. Seed without husk gave the promising outcome of 74% germination while seeds with husk merely acquired 63% germination after 30 days. (author)

  14. Effect of Hydro and Osmo-Priming in Combination with GA3 and KNO3 on Seed Germination of Dodonaeaviscosaunder Salinity Conditions

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    S. Pour Mombeini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dodonaeaviscosa is an evergreen and perennial shrub which distributed widely in warm regions throughout the world. Untreated seeds germinatewell, but to shorten germination, seeds werefloated in hot water for 30 seconds, then cooled down rapidly. In addition, scarification as pre-treatment and dipping the seed in boiling water improve seed germination. Under salinity,the level of abscisic acid increases more than gibberellic acid which prevents seeds germination. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions can lead to changes in water status in plant tissues and creating a series of second stress, such as oxidative stress. In priming, seeds are authorized to absorb some water, sothat, the early stages of germination are donewithout root emerging. The country of Iran and especiallyKhozestan province is located in arid and semi-arid region of the world, sounder such conditionand dueto high temperature and low rainfall, and salinity of water sources and media, D.viscosasexual reproduction is suffered by serious challenges. Consequently,the objective of this study was to investigate the effectsof hydro and osmo-priming in combining withgibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on seed germination of D.viscosaunder salinity stress. Materials and Methods: Two experiments in 2010 wereconducted separately and consecutively in completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications in the plant propagation laboratory of faculty of Agriculture, ShahidChamran University of Ahvaz (latitude 31.33° N, longitude 48.69° E, altitude 23 m. In the first experiment, 500 seeds were selected from seed lot, and were disinfectedwith sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, afterwards, divided into five categories (each category consisted of 100 seeds in four replicates and were treated as : 1 Osmo-priming with gibberellic acid 50 and 100 mg.l-1 and potassium nitrate 0.5 and 1 % for 12 h. 2 hydro-primed with distilled water (as control for 12 h. A week later second

  15. Priming theta burst stimulation enhances motor cortex plasticity in young but not old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, George M; Vosnakis, Eleni; Ridding, Michael C; Ziemann, Ulf; Semmler, John G

    Primary motor cortex neuroplasticity is reduced in old adults, which may contribute to the motor deficits commonly observed in the elderly. Previous research in young subjects suggests that the neuroplastic response can be enhanced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), with a larger plastic response observed following priming with both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like protocols. However, it is not known if priming stimulation can also modulate plasticity in older adults. To investigate if priming NIBS can be used to modulate motor cortical plasticity in old subjects. In 16 young (22.3 ± 1.0 years) and 16 old (70.2 ± 1.7 years) subjects, we investigated the response to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS; LTP-like) when applied 10 min after sham stimulation, continuous TBS (cTBS; LTD-like) or an identical block of iTBS. Corticospinal plasticity was assessed by recording changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude. In young subjects, priming with cTBS (cTBS + iTBS) resulted in larger MEPs than priming with either iTBS (iTBS + iTBS; P = 0.001) or sham (sham + iTBS; P iTBS + iTBS than sham + iTBS (P iTBS + iTBS was not different to sham + iTBS (P > 0.9), whereas the response to cTBS + iTBS was reduced relative to iTBS + iTBS (P = 0.02) and sham + iTBS (P = 0.04). Priming TBS is ineffective for modifying M1 plasticity in older adults, which may limit the therapeutic use of priming stimulation in neurological conditions common in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Improvement of antioxidant activities and yield of spring maize through seed priming and foliar application of plant growth regulators under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during reproductive and grain filling phases adversely affects the growth of cereals through reduction in grain’s number and size. However, exogenous application of antioxidants, plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants may be helpful to minimize these heat induced yield losses in cereals. This two year study was conducted to evaluate the role of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray on biochemical, physiological, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and quality of late spring sown hybrid maize. The experiment was conducted in the spring season of 2007 and 2008. We observed that application of AsA, SA and H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray improved the physiological, biochemical, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and grain quality of late spring sown maize in both years. In both years, we observed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activity in the plants where AsA, SA and H2O2were applied through seed priming or foliar spray than control. Membrane stability index (MSI, relative water contents (RWC, chlorophyll contents, grain yield and grain oil contents were also improved by exogenous application of AsA, SA and H2O2 in both years. Seed priming of AsA, SA and H2O2was equally effective as the foliar application. In conclusion, seed priming with AsA, SA and H2O2 may be opted to lessen the heat induced yield losses in late sown spring hybrid maize. Heat tolerance induced by ASA, SA and H2O2 may be attributed to increase in antioxidant activities and MSI which maintained RWC and chlorophyll contents in maize resulting in better grain yield in heat stress conditions.

  18. Mirror symmetric bimanual movement priming can increase corticomotor excitability and enhance motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston D Byblow

    Full Text Available Repetitive mirror symmetric bilateral upper limb may be a suitable priming technique for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. Here we demonstrate neurophysiological and behavioural after-effects in healthy participants after priming with 20 minutes of repetitive active-passive bimanual wrist flexion and extension in a mirror symmetric pattern with respect to the body midline (MIR compared to an control priming condition with alternating flexion-extension (ALT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS indicated that corticomotor excitability (CME of the passive hemisphere remained elevated compared to baseline for at least 30 minutes after MIR but not ALT, evidenced by an increase in the size of motor evoked potentials in ECR and FCR. Short and long-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI, short afferent inhibition (SAI and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI were also examined using pairs of stimuli. LICI differed between patterns, with less LICI after MIR compared with ALT, and an effect of pattern on IHI, with reduced IHI in passive FCR 15 minutes after MIR compared with ALT and baseline. There was no effect of pattern on SAI or FCR H-reflex. Similarly, SICI remained unchanged after 20 minutes of MIR. We then had participants complete a timed manual dexterity motor learning task with the passive hand during, immediately after, and 24 hours after MIR or control priming. The rate of task completion was faster with MIR priming compared to control conditions. Finally, ECR and FCR MEPs were examined within a pre-movement facilitation paradigm of wrist extension before and after MIR. ECR, but not FCR, MEPs were consistently facilitated before and after MIR, demonstrating no degradation of selective muscle activation. In summary, mirror symmetric active-passive bimanual movement increases CME and can enhance motor learning without degradation of muscle selectivity. These findings rationalise the use of mirror symmetric bimanual movement as a

  19. Effects of Physical Seed Priming and Hydropriming on Physiological and Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Harvest Index in Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baser Kouchebagh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of different seed treatments on germination of calendula, an experiment conducted in field with complete randomized block design and three replications, at Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2013. Treatments were: treating the most seeds by ultrasonic with maximum (3 w.m-2 and gamma and beta by 2 µc for 10 minutes, laser by 6328A° and magnetic field by 40 MT for 5, 10 and 15 minutes hydro-priming for 24 hours and control. Results indicate that maximum flower yield (13.85g was produced by seeds treated with laser irradiation for 15 minutes as compared to that of control (4.34g. Highest biologic yield belonged to seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes (33.20 g.m-2 and lowest to control (7.89 g.m-2. Highest harvest index was obtained from seeds treated by gamma irradiation for 10 minutes (69.07 and lowest for 15 minutes (18.81. It may be suggested that marigold growers may improve crop yield by priming the seeds with magnetic field and laser irradiation before sowing.

  20. Primed carrot seeds performance under water and temperature stress Desempenho de sementes osmocondicionadas de cenoura sob estresse hídrico e térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dias Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Uniformity and percentage of seedling emergence of direct-seeded vegetables have a major impact on their yield and quality. Depending on temperature and soil water potential, carrot seeds performance in the field is poor justifying the use of techniques to accelerate the germination and seedling emergence. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of priming treatments, with and without aeration, on carrot seeds performance under water and temperature stress. Two seed lots of carrots, Brasília cultivar, were primed in PEG 6000 -1.0 and -1.2 MPa solutions, for four and eight days, at 20ºC, using two imbibition methods: priming in paper towel moistened with the respective solutions and immersion into aerated osmotic solutions. Non-primed seeds were used as control. After priming, the seeds were dried at room temperature until reach initial seed moisture content. The seeds were submitted to the following tests: germination, first count, seedling emergence in the field, germination at sub-optimal (15ºC and supra-optimal temperature (30ºC and germination under water stress (PEG 6000 at -0.4 MPa. Priming in -1.0 and -1.2 MPa PEG 6000 during four and eight days can be useful for improving carrot seedling emergence in the field and seed performance under supra and sub-optimal temperatures. Aeration of the peg solution was beneficial when seeds were primed at -1.2 MPa for eight days.Na cultura da cenoura são constantes os problemas relativos ao desempenho das sementes em campo, justificando técnicas que acelerem a germinação das sementes e a emergência das plântulas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico, com e sem uso de soluções aeradas, no desempenho de sementes de cenoura sob estresse hídrico e térmico. Para tanto, sementes de dois lotes, cv. Brasília, foram condicionadas em soluções de PEG 6000 a -1,0 e -1,2 MPa, por quatro e oito dias, a 20ºC, utilizando-se dois métodos de embebi

  1. Priming in implicit memory tasks: prior study causes enhanced discriminability, not only bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan M; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G W

    2002-03-01

    R. Ratcliff and G. McKoon (1995, 1996, 1997; R. Ratcliff, D. Allbritton, & G. McKoon, 1997) have argued that repetition priming effects are solely due to bias. They showed that prior study of the target resulted in a benefit in a later implicit memory task. However, prior study of a stimulus similar to the target resulted in a cost. The present study, using a 2-alternative forced-choice procedure, investigated the effect of prior study in an unbiased condition: Both alternatives were studied prior to their presentation in an implicit memory task. Contrary to a pure bias interpretation of priming, consistent evidence was obtained in 3 implicit memory tasks (word fragment completion, auditory word identification, and picture identification) that performance was better when both alternatives were studied than when neither alternative was studied. These results show that prior study results in enhanced discriminability, not only bias.

  2. Enhancing aesthetic appreciation by priming canvases with actions that match the artist’s painting style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Francesco Ticini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an artwork requires motor activity. To what extent is art appreciation divorced from that activity and to what extent is it linked to it? That is the question which we set out to answer. We presented participants with pointillist-style paintings featuring discernible brushstrokes and asked them to rate their liking of each canvas when it was preceded by images priming a motor act either compatible or incompatible with the simulation of the artist’s movements. We show that action priming, when congruent with the artist’s painting style, enhanced aesthetic preference. These results support the hypothesis that involuntary covert painting simulation contributes to aesthetic appreciation during passive observation of artwork.

  3. Effect of salt stress and seed priming methods on emergence and seedling characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Salehi

    2018-06-01

    8 dS/m with three replications based on CRD design with factorial arrangement. Coefficent of equation was estimated with SAS software based on NLIN and REG procedure. Results and discussion Result showed that quinoa is sensitive in emergence stage is depends to substrate and 50 % of emergence reduction in soil and cocopit occurred at 6.35 and 15.04 dS/m. Threshold in soil and cocopit was 9.52 and 0.03 dS/m. Emergence rate and percentage of seeds under saline condition in cocpit did not have significant differences up to 12 dS/m and salinity above 4 dS/m delay emergence. Seedling emergence index under nonsaline condition was 0.96 but at 4, 8 and 12 dS/m in soil had 24, 48 and 84 % reduction. Seedling height in soil and cocopit at 12 dS/m reduced 91 and 30 %, respectively. Priming could not improve quinoa emergence although hydroprime improve emergence to some extent (8%. Quinoa is sensitive to salinity at seedling stage but after this stage could produce 2-3 t ha-1 seed yield with 15 dS/m saline water in Yazd. Since, in saline area farmers don’t have fresh water and quinoa is sensitive to saline water during emergence and early establishment. It would be better use transplanting method or not coverage of seed with soil.

  4. Muskmelon seed germination and seedling development in response to seed priming Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de melão em resposta ao condicionamento osmótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Important factors affecting seed priming have not been extensively reported in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. studies. The optimization of the seed priming technique becomes very important at the commercial scale. Little information has been reported on seedling development of muskmelon subsequent to seed priming. Seeds of muskmelon were primed in darkness at 25°C in different solutions and three osmotic potentials. Seeds were also primed with and without aeration during different periods. In relation to osmotic solutions, an osmotic potential around -1.30 MPa is most adequate for muskmelon priming. Salt solutions gave better germination rate but were deleterious for seed germination, especially at higher osmotic potentials. Aeration of the soaking salt solution gave faster germination at 17°C, and because of the early germination, these treatments probably presented a better seedling development. Deleterious effect on total seed germination was observed for long soaking periods with aeration. Fungal growth increased on seeds primed in aerated solutions. Seeds from priming treatments had a better germination rate and seedling development under 17 and 25°C.Importantes fatores afetando o condicionamento osmótico não têm sido extensivamente relatados em sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L.. A otimização do condicionamento osmótico é extremamente importante em uma escala comercial. Poucas informações têm sido relatadas quanto ao desenvolvimento de plântulas em resposta ao condicionamento osmótico de sementes de melão. Sementes de melão foram condicionadas a 25°C, na ausência de luz, em diferentes soluções osmóticas utilizando três potenciais osmóticos para cada solução. Em outro estudo, sementes foram condicionadas com ou sem aeração durante vários períodos. Indiferentemente das soluções osmóticas, o potencial osmótico em torno de - 1,30 MPa foi mais adequado para o condicionamento osmótico. Sementes condicionadas em

  5. Effect of Seed Priming on Growth and Some Physiological Characteristics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity Stress Condition caused by Alkali Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bekhrad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sesame (Sesamun indicum L. is an important oil seed crop. Its seed has excellent nutritional value with a high and unique protein composition, making it a perfect food. Salinity is a serious problem in many regions of the world including Iran. Salinity stress is one of the widespread environmental constraints affecting crop productivity. Salinity generally induces osmotic stress and causes direct ion injury by disrupting ion homeostasis and the ion balance within plant cells (25. Seed priming is one of the ways to reduce negative effects of salt which is used for increasing germination percentage and seed resistance in salty zones. Seed priming is a pre-germination treatment that provides a moisture level sufficient to start pre-germination metabolic processes. It entails the partial germination of seeds by soaking them in water (or in a solution of salts for specified period of time, and then re-dry them just before radicle emerges (24. Priming stimulates many of the metabolic processes involved with the early phases of germination. Given that part of the germination processes have been initiated, seedlings from primed seed grow faster, grow more vigorously, and perform better in adverse conditions (24. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity stress caused by alkali salts on growth and some physiologic characteristics of sesame. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental factors included priming (control (unprimed, hydropriming, halopriming with NaCl and NaHCO3 and level of salinity with sodium bicarbonate salt (Zero, 15, 30 and 45 mM. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution (with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, salinty stress in

  6. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size

  7. Unravelling chemical priming machinery in plants: the role of reactive oxygen-nitrogen-sulfur species in abiotic stress tolerance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-10-01

    Abiotic stresses severely limit crop yield and their detrimental effects are aggravated by climate change. Chemical priming is an emerging field in crop stress management. The exogenous application of specific chemical agents before stress events results in tolerance enhancement and reduction of stress impacts on plant physiology and growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of chemical priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species (RONSS) are molecules playing a vital role in the stress acclimation of plants. When applied as priming agents, RONSS improve stress tolerance. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the role of RONSS in cell signalling and gene regulation contributing to abiotic stress tolerance enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study the effect of salinity levels and seed priming on germination and seedling properties of two medicinal plant species from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water sources salinity are important constrains which threat the sustainable agriculture production in Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of different antioxidants and salinity levels on germination and seedling properties of two medicinal species (Cnicus benedictus L., and (Cichorium intybus L., an experiment was conducted using a factorial based on completely randomized design with four replications at Special Crops Laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The studied factor for each plant included: seed priming at 4 levels including control (distilled water, ascorbic acid (40 mM, gibberlic acid (75 mg.lit-1 and salicylic acid (1.5 mM, and five salinity levels according to electrical conductivity by adding NaCl to distilled water (control, 5,10,15 and 20 ds.m-1. According to results, pretreatment with salicylic acid improved all of the germination and seedling properties in Cnicus benedictus L. but gibberlic acid could to improved germination and seedling properties in Cichorium intybus L. species. There were strong correlation between germination rate and radical and caulicle length especially on Cichorium intybus species. Generally, seed priming with gibberlic acid and salicylic acid could improve germination and seedling properties of these two species. Both species showed a reliable tolerance to NaCl salinity at germination stage, and germination was 60% compared with control at 20 ds.m-1 treatment.

  10. Priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemi-biotroph Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, P; Igielski, R; Pollmann, S; Kępczyńska, E

    2015-05-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was tested by seed treatment for its ability to protect tomato seedlings against fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Isolated from Solanum lycopersicon L. seeds, cv. Beta fungus was identified as F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Race 3 fungus by using phytopathological and molecular methods. MeJA applied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM reduced spore germination and mycelial growth in vitro. Soaking of tomato seeds in MeJA solution at 0.1 mM for 1 h significantly enhanced the resistance level against the tested fungus in tomato seedlings 4 weeks after inoculation. The extracts from leaves of 15-day-old seedlings obtained from previously MeJA soaked seeds had the ability to inhibit in vitro spore germination of tested fungus. In these seedlings a significant increase in the levels phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid (SA), kaempferol and quercetin was observed. Up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL5) and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) genes and down-regulation of the isochorysmate synthase (ICS) gene in response to exogenous MeJA application indicate that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), not the isochorismate (IC) pathway, is the primary route for SA production in tomato. Moreover, the increased accumulation of the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol appears closely related to the increase of PAL5, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like (FLS) genes. Elevated levels of salicylic acid in seedlings raised from MeJA-soaked seeds were simultaneously accompanied by a decrease of jasmonic acid, the precursor of MeJA, and an increase of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), the precursor of jasmonic acid. The present results indicate that the priming of tomato seeds with 0.1mM MeJA before sowing enables the seedlings grown from these seeds to reduce the attack of the soil-borne fungal pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

  11. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-11

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone receptor-based plant gene switch system and the ligand methoxyfenozide. Induction of NCED6 during imbibition increased ABA levels more than 20-fold and was sufficient to prevent seed germination. Germination suppression was prevented by fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In another study, induction of the NCED6 gene in transgenic seeds of nondormant mutants tt3 and tt4 reestablished seed dormancy. Furthermore, inducing expression of NCED6 during seed development suppressed vivipary, precocious germination of developing seeds. These results indicate that expression of a hormone metabolism gene in seeds can be a sole determinant of dormancy. This study opens the possibility of developing a robust technology to suppress or promote seed germination through engineering pathways of hormone metabolism.

  12. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple......Starting from the difficulty of creating playful representation of domain-specific abstract concepts, this study discusses the design of Prime Slaughter, a computer game aimed at facilitating individual sense-making of abstract mathematical concepts. Specifically the game proposes a transposition...

  13. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  15. Enhancing resilience of farmer seed system to climate-induced stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, Monica K.; Mastenbroek, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Given the challenges facing African agriculture resulting from climate-induced stresses, building resilience is a priority. Seed systems are important for enhancing such resilience as seed security has direct links to food security, and resilient livelihoods in general. Using data from a case

  16. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone recept...

  17. effectiveness of community based seed multiplication in enhancing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    driven CBSM and factors influencing farmers' access to improved bean seed. ... increased crop production and productivity. .... extension workers and local leaders. A total sample of 256 respondents from five ... maintenance of genetic purity.

  18. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L......In Denmark, organic vegetable seed production is possible for some of the late-maturing species when the maturing is performed in lightweight tunnels which are also relevant for the isolation of small-scale production. The tunnel system offers several advantages, e.g., it is possible to control...

  19. Electron beam irradiation: a novel technology to enhance the quality of soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Singh, Subadas; Thakur, Manju; Sharma, S.K.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, J.; Bapna, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean seeds, rich in protein and oil, maintain their germinability only for short durations under ambient conditions. Loss of viability of stored seeds often hampers soybean production in harsh environments worldwide. Physiological factors favored by high temperature and high moisture content accelerate the seed deterioration in the tropics. Several chemical and physical treatments are being used to enhance quality. Irradiation is a novel technology for food preservation and is gaining importance all over the world. Low doses of irradiation bring about improvement in quality of food/seeds, which can be beneficial in several ways. Electron Beam (EB) irradiation is a new approach in this area. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of EB irradiation in enhancing the quality of low vigour soybean seeds

  20. Enhanced priming of old, not new soil carbon at elevated atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, Mette; Reinsch, Sabine; Bengtson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations accompanied by global warming and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these global changes on carbon (C) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, as changes in net C exchange between soil and atmosphere will impact the atmos......Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations accompanied by global warming and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these global changes on carbon (C) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, as changes in net C exchange between soil and atmosphere will impact...... accelerate the decomposition of soil organic C (SOC), a phenomenon termed ‘the priming effect’, and the priming effect is most pronounced at low soil N availability. Hence, we hypothesized that priming of SOC decomposition in response to labile C addition would increase in soil exposed to long-term elevated...... decomposition of relatively old SOC fractions, i.e. SOC assimilated more than 8 years before sampling....

  1. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple...... forms of play and their integration. A simple working prototype has already been developed; it will be tested and re-designed through participatory workshops, involving a group of children in our target group....

  2. "Hot" Facilitation of "Cool" Processing: Emotional Distraction Can Enhance Priming of Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Arni; Oladottir, Berglind; Most, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli often capture attention and disrupt effortful cognitive processing. However, cognitive processes vary in the degree to which they require effort. We investigated the impact of emotional pictures on visual search and on automatic priming of search. Observers performed visual search after task-irrelevant neutral or emotionally…

  3. Overcoming dormancy and enhancing germination of Sphaeralcea munroana seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis

    2011-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments involving a variety of dormancy-breaking treatments indicate that Munro's globemallow [Sphaeralcea munroana (Douglas) Spach] seeds are physically dormant, possess a cap-like structure in the occlusion of the water gap, which inhibits imbibition, and can be artificially dislodged through boiling water scarification. The...

  4. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  5. Carica Papaya Seed Extract Enhances Cellular Response to Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the role of Carica papaya seed (CPS) extract that contains, Benzyl Isothiocyanates, one of the inducers of phase II enzymes in the regulation of cellular stress. The cellular responses were observed in U937 cells (human monocyte/macrophage cell line) at the ...

  6. The context dependency of extinction negates the effectiveness of cognitive enhancement to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Sherri; Wagner, John J

    2013-09-01

    With respect to the treatment of addiction, the objective of extinction training is to decrease drug-seeking behavior by repeatedly exposing the patient to cues in the absence of unconditioned reinforcement. Such exposure therapy typically takes place in a novel (clinical) environment. This is potentially problematic, as the effects of extinction training include a context dependent component and therefore diminished efficacy is expected upon the patient's return to former drug-seeking/taking environments. We have reported that treatment with the NMDAR coagonist d-serine is effective in facilitating the effects of extinction to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement. The present study assesses d-serine's effectiveness in reducing drug-primed reinstatement under conditions in which extinction training occurs in a novel environment. After 22 days of cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg) in context "A", animals underwent 5 extinction training sessions in context "B". Immediately after each extinction session in "B", animals received either saline or d-serine (60 mg/kg) treatment. Our results indicate that d-serine treatment following extinction in "B" had no effect on either IV or IP cocaine-primed reinstatement conducted in "A". These results stand in contrast to our previous findings where extinction occurred in "A", indicating that d-serine's effectiveness in facilitating extinction training to reduce drug-primed reinstatement is not transferable to a novel extinction environment. This inability of d-serine treatment to reduce the context specificity of extinction training may explain the inconsistent effects observed in clinical studies published to date in which adjunctive cognitive enhancement treatment has been combined with behavioral therapy without significant benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  8. Primed Physical Therapy Enhances Recovery of Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-05-01

    Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke. To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation. Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention. Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip. Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Circumvention of regulatory CD4(+) T cell activity during cross-priming strongly enhances T cell-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Antje; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Lahl, Katharina; Neuenhahn, Michael; Schmitz, Frank; Anderl, Florian; Wagner, Hermann; Sparwasser, Tim; Busch, Dirk H; Kastenmüller, Kathrin

    2008-06-01

    Immunization with purified antigens is a safe and practical vaccination strategy but is generally unable to induce sustained CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Most efforts to improve the CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines have focused on co-administration of adjuvant to support cross-presentation and dendritic cell maturation. In addition, it has been shown that CD4(+) T cell help during the priming phase contributes to the generation of protective CD8(+) memory T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the depletion of CD4(+) T cells paradoxically enhances long-lasting CD8-mediated protective immunity upon protein vaccination. Functional and genetic in vivo inactivation experiments attribute this enhancement primarily to MHC class II-restricted CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which appear to physiologically suppress the differentiation process towards long-living effector memory T cells. Since, in functional terms, this suppression by Treg largely exceeds the positive effects of conventional CD4(+) T cell help, even the absence of all CD4(+) T cells or lack of MHC class II-mediated interactions on priming dendritic cells result in enhanced CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity. These findings have important implications for the improvement of vaccines against intracellular pathogens or tumors, especially in patients with highly active Treg.

  10. CCL3 Enhances Antitumor Immune Priming in the Lymph Node via IFNγ with Dependency on Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Allen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node (LN plays a critical role in tumor cell survival outside of the primary tumor sites and dictates overall clinical response in many tumor types (1, 2. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that CCL3 plays an essential role in orchestrating T cell—antigen-presenting cell (APC encounters in the draining LN following vaccination, and such interactions enhance the magnitude of the memory T cell pool (3–5. In the current study, we investigate the cellular responses in the tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs of a CCL3-secreting CT26 colon tumor (L3TU as compared to wild-type tumor (WTTU during the priming phase of an antitumor response (≤10 days. In comparison to WTTU, inoculation of L3TU resulted in suppressed tumor growth, a phenomenon that is accompanied by altered in vivo inflammatory responses on several fronts. Autologous tumor-derived CCL3 (aCCL3 secretion by L3TU bolstered the recruitment of T- and B-lymphocytes, tissue-migratory CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs, and CD49b+ natural killer (NK cells, resulting in significant increases in the differentiation and activation of multiple Interferon-gamma (IFNγ-producing leukocytes in the TDLN. During this early phase of immune priming, NK cells constitute the major producers of IFNγ in the TDLN. CCL3 also enhances CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation by augmenting DC capacity to drive T cell activation in the TDLN. Our results revealed that CCL3-dependent IFNγ production and CCL3-induced DC maturation drive the priming of effective antitumor immunity in the TDLN.

  11. Selective attention modulates neural substrates of repetition priming and "implicit" visual memory: suppressions and enhancements revealed by FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Schwartz, Sophie; Duhoux, Stéphanie; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2005-08-01

    Attention can enhance processing for relevant information and suppress this for ignored stimuli. However, some residual processing may still arise without attention. Here we presented overlapping outline objects at study, with subjects attending to those in one color but not the other. Attended objects were subsequently recognized on a surprise memory test, whereas there was complete amnesia for ignored items on such direct explicit testing; yet reliable behavioral priming effects were found on indirect testing. Event-related fMRI examined neural responses to previously attended or ignored objects, now shown alone in the same or mirror-reversed orientation as before, intermixed with new items. Repetition-related decreases in fMRI responses for objects previously attended and repeated in the same orientation were found in the right posterior fusiform, lateral occipital, and left inferior frontal cortex. More anterior fusiform regions also showed some repetition decreases for ignored objects, irrespective of orientation. View-specific repetition decreases were found in the striate cortex, particularly for previously attended items. In addition, previously ignored objects produced some fMRI response increases in the bilateral lingual gyri, relative to new objects. Selective attention at exposure can thus produce several distinct long-term effects on processing of stimuli repeated later, with neural response suppression stronger for previously attended objects, and some response enhancement for previously ignored objects, with these effects arising in different brain areas. Although repetition decreases may relate to positive priming phenomena, the repetition increases for ignored objects shown here for the first time might relate to processes that can produce "negative priming" in some behavioral studies. These results reveal quantitative and qualitative differences between neural substrates of long-term repetition effects for attended versus unattended objects.

  12. Investigation of the optimal timing for chondrogenic priming of MSCs to enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro as a bone tissue engineering strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, F E; Haugh, M G; McNamara, L M

    2016-04-01

    Recent in vitro tissue engineering approaches have shown that chondrogenic priming of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can have a positive effect on osteogenesis in vivo. However, whether chondrogenic priming is an effective in vitro bone regeneration strategy is not yet known. In particular, the appropriate timing for chondrogenic priming in vitro is unknown albeit that in vivo cartilage formation persists for a specific period before bone formation. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum time for chondrogenic priming of MSCs to enhance osteogenic differentiation by MSCs in vitro. Pellets derived from murine and human MSCs were cultured in six different media groups: two control groups (chondrogenic and osteogenic) and four chondrogenic priming groups (10, 14, 21 and 28 days priming). Biochemical analyses (Hoechst, sulfate glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), Alkaline Phosphate (ALP), calcium), histology (Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red) and immunohistochemistry (collagen types I, II and X) were performed on the samples at specific times. Our results show that after 49 days the highest amount of sGAG production occurred in MSCs chondrogenically primed for 21 days and 28 days. Moreover we found that chondrogenic priming of MSCs in vitro for specific amounts of time (14 days, 21 days) can have optimum influence on their mineralization capacity and can produce a construct that is mineralized throughout the core. Determining the optimum time for chondrogenic priming to enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro provides information that might lead to a novel regenerative treatment for large bone defects, as well as addressing the major limitation of core degradation and construct failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Development of impurity seeding and radiation enhancement in the helical divertor of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, K.; Masuzaki, S.; Peterson, B.J.

    2014-10-01

    Impurity seeding for the reduction of the divertor heat load was conducted in the Large Helical Device (LHD) using neon (Ne) and krypton (Kr) puffing. Enhanced radiation loss and reduction of the divertor heat load were observed without significant changes in stored energy and line averaged density. In the LHD, the radiated power fraction of the heating power, P rad /P heating , where P rad and P heating are the total radiation power and the heating power, respectively, is limited up to around 30% in hydrogen plasmas even for high density plasma just below the radiative collapse (n e,bar > 1 × 10 20 m -3 ), where n e,bar is the line averaged density. With Ne seeding, the ratio could be raised to 52% in spite of much lower density (n e,bar ∼ 1.3 × 10 19 m -3 ), albeit with a slight reduction in confinement. P rad /P heating ∼ 30% could be sustained for 3.4 s using multi-pulse Ne seeding in relatively high density plasmas in this study (n e,bar ∼ 4 × 10 19 m -3 ). Radiation profile measurement with an InfraRed Imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) was conducted during Ne seeding. The localized supplemental radiation was observed along the helical divertor X-points (HDXs). The enhanced radiation structure was similar to the Ne radiation profile estimated by EMC3-EIRENE code. Kr seeding was also conducted to the plasma of n e,bar ∼ 3.1 × 10 19 m -3 . P rad /P heating ∼ 25% was obtained without significant change in stored energy. The enhancement of the plasma radiation has a slower time constant compared with the Ne seeding. The supplemental radiation area of the Kr seeded plasma moved from the HDXs to the core plasma. High-valent Kr ions are considered to be the dominant radiators from the plasma core region. (author)

  14. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  15. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  17. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    -inoculated (embryo/endosperm-localized) watermelon seeds than in vacuum-infiltrated (testa-localized) seeds. Based on these results we conclude that A. citrulli cells are not intrinsically tolerant to desiccation and that localization of the bacterium to testa tissues does not enhance A. citrulli survival. In contrast, it is likely that embryo/endosperm localization enhances the survival of A. citrulli and other bacteria in seeds.

  18. Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonai, Takeru; Kawahara, Shusuke; Tougou, Makoto; Satoh, Shigeru; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yoshioka, Toshihito

    2004-01-01

    Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high temperatures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 degrees C was prevented by the application of fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. At 33 degrees C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluridone and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogenous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabolism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 degrees C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endogenous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.

  19. Priming and drying on the physiological quality of eggplant seeds Condicionamento osmótico e secagem na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de jiló

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delineide P Gomes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of the priming with polyethyleneglicol (PEG 6000 followed or not of drying on two lots of eggplant seeds with medium and low vigor respectively. The seeds were submitted to the treatments of priming with PEG 6000 in the osmotic potentials of -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa during 48 or 96 hours of priming with and without subsequent drying. For the soaking of seeds in osmotic solutions, these were placed over three sheets of paper boxes such germitest gerbox conditioning moistened with each solution in a 3:1 ratio. The control group was represented by unprimed seeds. The priming for both lots provided higher values in relation to the vigor through the first counting of germination, seedlings and primary root length, germination and emergence rates, emergence and dry weight of seedlings when compared to the non-primed seeds. These results were not verified for germination; significant differences practically were not observed in relation to the controls. Improvements in relation to the vigour were not higher on lot 2 than those obtained on lot 1. The priming with PEG 6000 with subsequent drying increased the vigor of eggplant seeds of the cultivar Morro Grande in relation to those non-primed, however, without differences in the germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do osmocondicionamento, seguido ou não de secagem, em dois lotes de sementes de jiló com baixo e médio vigor. As sementes foram submetidas aos tratamentos de condicionamento osmótico com polietileno glicol (PEG 6000 nos potenciais osmóticos de -0,6, -0,9 e -1,2 MPa, por períodos de 48 e 96 horas, com e sem secagem após os tratamentos. Para a embebição das sementes nas soluções osmóticas, estas foram colocadas sobre três folhas de papel germitest em caixas tipo gerbox umedecidas com cada solução condicionadora na proporção de 3:1. A testemunha consistiu de sementes não condicionadas. O osmocondicionamento, para ambos os lotes

  20. Condicionamento osmótico de sementes de hortaliças visando a germinação em condições de temperaturas baixas Vegetable seed priming to improve germination at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Baixas temperaturas por ocasião do plantio podem atrasar ou inibir a germinação das sementes de várias espécies de hortaliças, incluindo berinjela, melancia, melão e tomate. O condicionamento osmótico de sementes tem sido utilizado com o objetivo de acelerar a germinação e uniformizar a emergência das plântulas em campo, especialmente em condições adversas. Sementes de berinjela 'Ciça', melancia 'Crimson Sweet', melão 'Top Net SR' e tomate 'Heinz 9425' foram osmoticamente condicionadas. A metodologia utilizada no condicionamento osmótico foi dependente da espécie, isto é, a solução osmótica, a temperatura bem como o período de condicionamento variou entre as diferentes espécies estudadas. Após o condicionamento osmótico, as sementes foram lavadas e secas. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em condições de baixas temperaturas (10; 15; 15 e 17ºC para tomate, berinjela, melancia e melão, respectivamente e em temperaturas normais (20 e 30ºC para tomate e 25ºC para as demais espécies. Baixas temperaturas diminuíram a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação das sementes das quatro espécies. Sementes osmoticamente condicionadas de todas as espécies testadas apresentaram maior germinação do que aquelas não condicionadas, principalmente em condições de baixas temperaturas. O condicionamento osmótico pode ser utilizado para melhorar a germinação de sementes de cucurbitaceas (melão e melancia e solanaceas (berinjela e tomate, principalmente nestas condições adversas de baixas temperaturas.Under low temperatures, seed germination of several species, including eggplant, watermelon, melon and tomato can be erratic or completely inhibited. Seed priming has been used to increase germination rate and seedling uniformity, mainly under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds of eggplant, cv. 'Ciça', watermelon 'Crimson Sweet', melon 'Top Net SR' and tomato 'Heinz 9425' were osmoconditioned. The

  1. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  2. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  3. Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.; Ashraf, M.; Ahmad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of two fine-rice (Shaheen and PB-95) and two coarse rice (IRRI-6 and KS-282) cultivars were soaked in varying levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mM) and then exposed to 80 mM NaCl in sand culture. Application of salt stress significantly reduced seed germinability parameters of all four rice cultivars in terms of percent seed germinated, germination index and seedling fresh and dry weights. The toxic effects of salt stress in reducing seed germinability were greater in fine rice cultivars (Shaheen and PB-95) as compared to those in coarse ones (IRRI-6 and KS-282). Although, the application of lower levels of nitric oxide (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment showed a significant improvement, 0.1 and 0.2 mM NO were found to be the most effective in improving seed germinability under salt stress. With a further increase in NO concentration (0.3 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment, the seed germinability parameters differed non-significantly from those of control plants, while the highest levels (0.4 and 0.5 mM) showed significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling growth. It was concluded that lower levels of NO (0.1 and 0.2 mM) could be used to effectively enhance seed germination of rice plants under salt stress. (author)

  4. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lu; Yong-Cai Lai; Wei-Guang Du; Wei-Qun Man; Shou-Yi Chen; Jin-Song Zhang; Qing Xiong; Tong Cheng; Qing-Tian Li; Xin-Lei Liu; Ying-Dong Bi; Wei Li; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic loci during domestication.Introgression of genes from wild soybeans could broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits.In this study,through whole-genome sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44,and mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed weight,we discovered that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase in seed weight/size.PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes.We found that PP2C-1 is associated with GmBZR1,a soybean ortholog of Arabidopsis BZR1,one of key transcription factors in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling,and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1.In contrast,the PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at the N-terminus did not exhibit this function.Moreover,we showed that GmBZR1 could promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants.Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions,we found that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele,suggesting that these accessions can be improved by introduction of this allele.Taken together,our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1,which can enhance seed weight and/or size in soybean,and pinpoints that manipulation of this allele by molecular-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  6. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, "magneto-priming" and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. "Magneto-priming" is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual 'priming' treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives related to

  7. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark

    2016-02-10

    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  8. Avaliação citoquímica durante a germinação de sementes de sorgo envelhecidas artificialmente e osmocondicionadas, sob salinidade Cytochemical evaluation during the germination of artificial aged and primed sorghum seeds under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar as alterações citoquímicas em sementes envelhecidas e osmocondicionadas de sorgo durante a germinação na ausência ou presença de NaCl a 100 mM. O lote inicial de sementes de sorgo cv. IPA-1011 foi subdividido em dois sublotes de diferentes níveis de vigor, através do envelhecimento acelerado da metade das sementes, sendo a metade de cada sublote também submetida ao condicionamento osmótico em polietileno glicol 6000 a -0,86 MPa por 48 horas. Posteriormente, quatro subamostras de 50 sementes de cada um desses grupos de sementes foram postas sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro, saturadas com água destilada ou NaCl a 100 mM e colocadas em caixas gerbox (11 x 11 x 3,5 cm tampadas, as quais foram mantidas em câmara de germinação, sob escuro contínuo e temperatura de 25 ºC, durante 72 horas. As análises citoquímicas foram feitas em sementes embebidas por 0; 24; 48 e 72 horas. As células das sementes de sorgo apresentaram formatos irregulares, variando de elíptico ao arredondado, sendo que a coloração com o azul de toluidina também revelou a presença de núcleos, principalmente em sementes osmocondicionadas, indicando que algumas células apresentaram intensa atividade celular. A presença de proteína foi detectada, principalmente em corpos protéicos no citoplasma das células cotiledonares, enquanto o amido foi identificado na forma de grânulos, principalmente no endosperma. Os tratamentos de envelhecimento acelerado e de osmocondicionamento das sementes, associados ao estresse salino, resultaram em pequenas alterações morfológicas e citoquímicas visíveis durante o período experimental.The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of water absorption and cytochemical changes in primed and aged seeds of sorghum during germination under absence or presence of 100 mM NaCl. The initial batch of seeds of sorghum cv. IPA-1011, was divided into two batches of different levels of vigor

  9. Phospholipase Dε enhances Braasca napus growth and seed production in response to nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoping; Yao, Shuaibing; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Zhou, Yongming; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), which hydrolyses phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid, has been implicated in plant response to macronutrient availability in Arabidopsis. This study investigated the effect of increased PLDε expression on nitrogen utilization in Brassica napus to explore the application of PLDε manipulation to crop improvement. In addition, changes in membrane lipid species in response to nitrogen availability were determined in the oil seed crop. Multiple PLDε over expression (PLDε-OE) lines displayed enhanced biomass accumulation under nitrogen-deficient and nitrogen-replete conditions. PLDε-OE plants in the field produced more seeds than wild-type plants but have no impact on seed oil content. Compared with wild-type plants, PLDε-OE plants were enhanced in nitrate transporter expression, uptake and reduction, whereas the activity of nitrite reductase was higher under nitrogen-depleted, but not at nitrogen-replete conditions. The level of nitrogen altered membrane glycerolipid metabolism, with greater impacts on young than mature leaves. The data indicate increased expression of PLDε has the potential to improve crop plant growth and production under nitrogen-depleted and nitrogen-replete conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Enhanced seed viability and lipid compositional changes during natural aging by suppressing phospholipase Dα in soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Welti, Ruth; Roth, Mary; Schapaugh, William T.; Li, Jiarui; Trick, Harold N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in phospholipid composition and consequent loss of membrane integrity are correlated with loss of seed viability. Furthermore, phospholipid compositional changes affect the composition of the triacylglycerols, i.e. the storage lipids. Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to phosphatidic acid, and PLDα is an abundant PLD isoform. Although wild type seeds stored for 33 months were non-viable, 30 to 50% of PLDα-knockdown (PLD-KD) soybean seeds stored for 33 months germinated. Wild type and PLD-KD seeds increased in lysophospholipid levels and in triacylglycerol fatty acid unsaturation during aging, but the levels of lysophospholipids increased more in wild type than in PLD-KD seeds. The loss of viability of wild type seeds was correlated with alterations in ultrastructure, including detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall complex and disorganization of oil bodies. The data demonstrate that, during natural aging, PLDα affects the soybean phospholipid profile and the triacylglycerol profile. Suppression of PLD activity in soybean seed has potential for improving seed quality during long-term storage. PMID:21895945

  11. Enhanced seed viability and lipid compositional changes during natural ageing by suppressing phospholipase Dα in soybean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Welti, Ruth; Roth, Mary; Schapaugh, William T; Li, Jiarui; Trick, Harold N

    2012-02-01

    Changes in phospholipid composition and consequent loss of membrane integrity are correlated with loss of seed viability. Furthermore, phospholipid compositional changes affect the composition of the triacylglycerols (TAG), i.e. the storage lipids. Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyses the hydrolysis of phospholipids to phosphatidic acid, and PLDα is an abundant PLD isoform. Although wild-type (WT) seeds stored for 33 months were non-viable, 30%-50% of PLDα-knockdown (PLD-KD) soybean seeds stored for 33 months germinated. WT and PLD-KD seeds increased in lysophospholipid levels and in TAG fatty acid unsaturation during ageing, but the levels of lysophospholipids increased more in WT than in PLD-KD seeds. The loss of viability of WT seeds was correlated with alterations in ultrastructure, including detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall complex and disorganization of oil bodies. The data demonstrate that, during natural ageing, PLDα affects the soybean phospholipid profile and the TAG profile. Suppression of PLD activity in soybean seed has potential for improving seed quality during long-term storage. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  13. Low Temperature Synthesis of Metal Oxides by a Supercritical Seed Enhanced Crystallization (SSEC) Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Brummerstedt Iversen, Steen; Joensen, Karsten Dan

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for producing crystalline nanosized metal oxides by a Supercritical Seed Enhanced Crystallization (SSEC) Process has been developed. The process is a modified sol-gel process taking place at temperatures as low as 95 ºC with supercritical CO2 as solvent and polypropylene as seeding...... material. The nanocrystalline product is obtained without having to resort to costly post-reaction processing and the product is obtained directly after the SSEC process. TiO2 powders produced by the SSEC process were shown to have a crystallinity of 60 % and a crystal size of 7.3 ± 2.6 nm....... The crystallinity can be controlled by changing the heating rate of the initial formation of the nanoparticles and the morphology can be altered by changing the process time....

  14. Inducing salt tolerance in sweet corn by magnetic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seed germination and growth of sweet corn under NaCl stress (0, 50, and 100 mM, after exposing the seeds to weak (15 mT or strong (150 mT magnetic fields (MF for different durations (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Salinity reduced seed germination and plant growth. MF treatments enhanced rate and percentage of germination and improved plant growth, regardless of salinity. Higher germination rate was obtained by the stronger MF, however, the seedling were more vigorous after priming with 15 mT MF. Proline accumulation was observed in parallel with the loss of plant water content under 100 mM NaCl stress. MF prevented proline accumulation by improving water absorption. Positive correlation between H2O2 accumulation and membrane thermostability (MTI was found after MF treatments, which revealed that MF primed the plant for salinity by H2O2 signaling. However, over-accumulation of H2O2 after prolonged MF exposure adversely affected MTI under severe salt stress. In conclusion, magnetic priming for 6 hours was suggested for enhancing germination and growth of sweet corn under salt stress.

  15. Drug priming enhances radiosensitivity of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma via downregulation of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stache, Christina; Bils, Christiane; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Flitsch, Jörg; Buchfelder, Michael; Stefanits, Harald; Czech, Thomas; Gaipl, Udo; Frey, Benjamin; Buslei, Rolf; Hölsken, Annett

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for high tumor recurrence rates of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) after radiotherapy and developed new targeted treatment protocols to minimize recurrence. ACPs are characterized by the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to mediate radioresistance in various tumor entities. The impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or CUDC-101 on radiation-induced cell death and associated regulation of survivin gene expression was evaluated. METHODS The hypothesis that activated EGFR promotes radioresistance in ACP was investigated in vitro using human primary cell cultures of ACP (n = 10). The effects of radiation (12 Gy) and combined radiochemotherapy on radiosensitivity were assessed via cell death analysis using flow cytometry. Changes in target gene expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Survivin, identified in qRT-PCR to be involved in radioresistance of ACP, was manipulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by proliferation and vitality assays to further clarify its role in ACP biology. Immunohistochemically, survivin expression was assessed in patient tumors used for primary cell cultures. RESULTS In primary human ACP cultures, activation of EGFR resulted in significantly reduced cell death levels after radiotherapy. Treatment with TKIs alone and in combination with radiotherapy increased cell death response remarkably, assessed by flow cytometry. CUDC-101 was significantly more effective than gefitinib. The authors identified regulation of survivin expression after therapeutic intervention as the underlying molecular mechanism of radioresistance in ACP. EGFR activation promoting ACP cell survival and proliferation in vitro is consistent with enhanced survivin gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. TKI treatment, as well as the combination with

  16. Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Clinton D.; Kleist, Nathan J.; Ortega, Catherine P.; Cruz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Noise pollution is a novel, widespread environmental force that has recently been shown to alter the behaviour and distribution of birds and other vertebrates, yet whether noise has cumulative, community-level consequences by changing critical ecological services is unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of noise pollution on pollination and seed dispersal and seedling establishment within a study system that isolated the effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to human-altered landscapes. Using observations, vegetation surveys and pollen transfer and seed removal experiments, we found that effects of noise pollution can reverberate through communities by disrupting or enhancing these ecological services. Specifically, noise pollution indirectly increased artificial flower pollination by hummingbirds, but altered the community of animals that prey upon and disperse Pinus edulis seeds, potentially explaining reduced P. edulis seedling recruitment in noisy areas. Despite evidence that some ecological services, such as pollination, may benefit indirectly owing to noise, declines in seedling recruitment for key-dominant species such as P. edulis may have dramatic long-term effects on ecosystem structure and diversity. Because the extent of noise pollution is growing, this study emphasizes that investigators should evaluate the ecological consequences of noise alongside other human-induced environmental changes that are reshaping human-altered landscapes worldwide. PMID:22438504

  17. Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Clinton D; Kleist, Nathan J; Ortega, Catherine P; Cruz, Alexander

    2012-07-22

    Noise pollution is a novel, widespread environmental force that has recently been shown to alter the behaviour and distribution of birds and other vertebrates, yet whether noise has cumulative, community-level consequences by changing critical ecological services is unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of noise pollution on pollination and seed dispersal and seedling establishment within a study system that isolated the effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to human-altered landscapes. Using observations, vegetation surveys and pollen transfer and seed removal experiments, we found that effects of noise pollution can reverberate through communities by disrupting or enhancing these ecological services. Specifically, noise pollution indirectly increased artificial flower pollination by hummingbirds, but altered the community of animals that prey upon and disperse Pinus edulis seeds, potentially explaining reduced P. edulis seedling recruitment in noisy areas. Despite evidence that some ecological services, such as pollination, may benefit indirectly owing to noise, declines in seedling recruitment for key-dominant species such as P. edulis may have dramatic long-term effects on ecosystem structure and diversity. Because the extent of noise pollution is growing, this study emphasizes that investigators should evaluate the ecological consequences of noise alongside other human-induced environmental changes that are reshaping human-altered landscapes worldwide.

  18. Silicon Priming Created an Enhanced Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings in Response to High Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiao-Long; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Alkaline stress as a result of higher pH usually triggers more severe physiological damage to plants than that of saline stress with a neutral pH. In the present study, we demonstrated that silicon (Si) priming of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seedlings increased their tolerance to high alkaline stress situations. Gongnong No. 1 seedlings were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 25 mM Na 2 CO 3 (pH 11.2). Alkaline stress greatly decreased the biomass and caused severe lodging or wilting of alfalfa seedlings. In contrast, the application of Si to alfalfa seedlings 36 h prior to the alkaline treatment significantly alleviated the damage symptoms and greatly increased the biomass and chlorophyll content. Because of being concomitant with increasing photosynthesis and water use efficiency, decreasing membrane injury and malondialdehyde content, and increasing peroxidase and catalase ascorbate activities in alfalfa leaves, thereby alleviating the triggered oxidative damage by alkaline stress to the plant. Furthermore, Si priming significantly decreased the accumulation of protein and proline content in alfalfa, thus reducing photosynthetic feedback repression. Si priming significantly accumulated more Na in the roots, but led to a decrease of Na accumulation and an increase of K accumulation in the leaves under alkaline stress. Meanwhile, Si priming decreased the accumulation of metal ions such as Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the roots of alfalfa seedlings under alkaline stress. Collectively, these results suggested that Si is involved in the metabolic or physiological changes and has a potent priming effect on the alkaline tolerance of alfalfa seedlings. The present study indicated that Si priming is a new approach to improve the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa and provides increasing information for further exploration of the alkaline stress response at the molecular level in alfalfa.

  19. Enhancement of seeding for electroless Cu plating of metallic barrier layers by using alkyl self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sung-Te [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Dali 412, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yu-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, Jau-Shiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 632, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Lung [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China); Chen, Giin-Shan, E-mail: gschen@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ta barrier layers are used as model substrates for seeding of electroless plating. • Ta layers seeded with Ta-OH yield seeds with limited density and large size (>10 nm). • Substantial improvement of seeding is obtained with functionalized SAMs. • The mechanism of seeding improvement by functionalized SAMs is clearly clarified. - Abstract: Tethering a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on ultralow-k (porous) dielectric materials as a seed-trapping layer for electroless Cu plating has been extensively studied. By contrast, literature on direct electroless Cu plating of metallic barrier layers assisted by SAMs is scarce. Therefore, Ta, a crucial component of barrier materials for Cu interconnect metallization, was investigated as a model substrate for a new seeding (Ni catalyst formation) process of electroless Cu plating. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies indicated that catalytic particles formed on Ta films through Ta−OH groups tend to become aggregates with an average size of 14 nm and density of 2 × 10{sup 15} m{sup −2}. By contrast, Ta films with a plasma-functionalized SAM tightly bound catalytic particles without agglomeration, thus yielding a markedly smaller size (3 nm) and higher density (3 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2}; one order greater than those formed by other novel methods). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clearly identified the types of material species and functional groups induced at each step of the seeding process. Moreover, the phase of the catalytic particles, either nickel alkoxide, Ni(OH){sub 2}, or metallic Ni, along with the seed-bonding mechanism, was also unambiguously distinguished. The enhancement of film-formation quality of Cu by the new seeding process was thus demonstrated.

  20. Characterization of a multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum that displays significant enhancement in seed number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars and germplasm display branched inflorescence or panicle, characterized by spikelets composed of a single sessile, fertile floret that develop into viable seed and one or two adjacent sterile pedicellate florets (Monoseeded [MSD] trait). Based on total nu...

  1. Enhancement of the priming efficacy of DNA vaccines encoding dendritic cell-targeted antigens by synergistic toll-like receptor ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornbluth Richard S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting of protein antigens to dendritic cells (DC via the DEC205 receptor enhances presentation of antigen-derived peptides on MHC-I and MHC-II molecules and, in the presence of costimulatory signals, antigen-specific immune responses. The immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccination can also be enhanced by fusing the encoded antigen to single chain antibodies directed against DEC205. To further improve this strategy, we evaluated different toll-like receptor ligands (TLR and CD40 ligands (CD40L as adjuvants for DNA vaccines encoding a DEC205-single-chain antibody fused to the ovalbumin model antigen or HIV-1 Gag and assessed the priming efficacy of DNA in a DNA prime adenoviral vector boost immunization regimen. Results Mice were primed with the adjuvanted DEC-205 targeted DNA vaccines and boosted with adenoviral vectors encoding the same antigens. CD8+ T cell responses were determined after the adenoviral booster immunization, to determine how well the different DNA immunization regimens prime for the adenoviral boost. In the absence of adjuvants, targeting of DNA-encoded ovalbumin to DCs suppressed CD8+ T-cell responses after the adenoviral booster immunization. CD8+ T-cell responses to the DEC205 targeted DNA vaccines increased only slightly by adding either the TLR-9 ligand CpG, the TLR-3 ligand Poly I:C, or CD40 ligand expression plasmids. However, the combination of both TLR-ligands led to a strong enhancement of CD8+ T-cell responses compared to a non-targeted DNA vaccine. This finding was confirmed using HIV Gag as antigen. Conclusion Although DNA prime adenoviral vector boost immunizations belong to the strongest inducers of cytotoxic T cell responses in different animal models and humans, the CD8+ T cell responses can be further improved by targeting the DNA encoded antigen to DEC205 in the presence of synergistic TLR ligands CpG and Poly I:C.

  2. Physical methods for seed vigourization: advantages and challenges in seed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eAraújo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical vigourization treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, magneto-priming and irradiation with microwaves or ionizing radiations are the most promissory pre-sowing seed treatments. Magneto-priming is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigour and crop yield. Ionizing radiations, as gamma-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to microwaves and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed vigourization agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination and seedling vigour. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed vigourization treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed vigourization, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and

  3. Enhancement in transport properties of seeded melt-textured YBCO by Cu-site doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yu X. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (China); Texas Center for Superconductivity and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Lo, W.; Salama, Kamel [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Tang, Tong B. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (China)

    2002-05-01

    A significant research effort has been made worldwide to introduce nanometre-scale weak superconducting regions into seeded melt-textured superconductors to enhance their critical current density, trapped magnetic field and levitation force. The enhancement in these properties is dependent on the pinning forces exerted on the magnetic flux lines. In this paper we present a substantial improvement in the transport properties of these materials by optimizing the fabrication conditions, controlling the oxygen deficiency, as well as adjusting the doping level of Zn in YBa{sub 2}(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 3}O{sub 7-}{delta} large grains. The enhancement is found to be as much as 30% by doping between about x=0.001 25 and 0.002 53. The results strongly indicate that the introduction of local nanometre-scale weak superconducting regions by Zn substitution for Cu in the CuO{sub 2} plane enhances the transport properties. Due to the simplicity of the processing conditions, these doping techniques can have a significant potential for a variety of engineering applications. (author)

  4. Rapid visualization of latent fingermarks using gold seed-mediated enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Su

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fingermarks are one of the most important and useful forms of physical evidence in forensic investigations. However, latent fingermarks are not directly visible, but can be visualized due to the presence of other residues (such as inorganic salts, proteins, polypeptides, enzymes and human metabolites which can be detected or recognized through various strategies. Convenient and rapid techniques are still needed to provide obvious contrast between the background and the fingermark ridges and to then visualize latent fingermark with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity. Results In this work, lysozyme-binding aptamer-conjugated Au nanoparticles (NPs are used to recognize and target lysozyme in the fingermark ridges, and Au+-complex solution is used as a growth agent to reduce Au+ from Au+ to Au0 on the surface of the Au NPs. Distinct fingermark patterns were visualized on a range of professional forensic within 3 min; the resulting images could be observed by the naked eye without background interference. The entire processes from fingermark collection to visualization only entails two steps and can be completed in less than 10 min. The proposed method provides cost and time savings over current fingermark visualization methods. Conclusions We report a simple, inexpensive, and fast method for the rapid visualization of latent fingermarks on the non-porous substrates using Au seed-mediated enhancement. Au seed-mediated enhancement is used to achieve the rapid visualization of latent fingermarks on non-porous substrates by the naked eye without the use of expensive or sophisticated instruments. The proposed approach offers faster detection and visualization of latent fingermarks than existing methods. The proposed method is expected to increase detection efficiency for latent fingermarks and reduce time requirements and costs for forensic investigations.

  5. Syntactic Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the syntactic priming task, a paradigm involving the presentation of a phrasal or clausal context, followed by the presentation of a target item for lexical decision or naming. Notes that response times are faster for targets syntactically congruent with the preceding context than for incongruent targets. Outlines how to administer this…

  6. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  7. Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. Seed priming is an efficient technique for improvement of seed vigor, increasing germination and seedling growth. Little information has been reported on seedling development ...

  8. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  9. A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.

  10. Introduction of a point mutation into an HLA class I single-chain trimer induces enhancement of CTL priming and antitumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Matsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously discovered one particular HLA-A*02:01 mutant that enhanced peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL recognition in vitro compared to wild-type HLA-A*02:01. This mutant contains a single amino acid substitution from histidine to leucine at position 74 (H74L that is located in the peptide-binding groove. To investigate the effect of the H74L mutation on the in vivo CTL priming, we took advantage of the technology of the HLA class I single-chain trimer (SCT in which three components involving a peptide, β2 microglobulin and the HLA class I heavy chain are joined together via flexible linkers. We generated recombinant adenovirus expressing SCT comprised influenza A matrix protein (FMP-derived peptide, β2 microglobulin and the H74L heavy chain. HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice were immunized with the adenovirus, and the induction of peptide-specific CTLs and antitumor immunity was investigated. It was clearly shown that the H74L mutation enabled the HLA-A*02:01 SCT molecule to dramatically enhance both in vivo priming of FMP-specific CTLs and protection against a lethal challenge of tumor cells expressing FMP. These data present the first evidence that a simple point mutation in the HLA class I heavy chain of SCT is beneficial for improving CTL-based immunotherapy and prophylaxis to control tumors.

  11. Short-lag spatial coherence beamforming of photoacoustic images for enhanced visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy, administered by implanting tiny radioactive seeds to treat prostate cancer, currently relies on transrectal ultrasound imaging for intraoperative visualization of the metallic seeds. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been suggested as a feasible alternative to ultrasound imaging due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, PA images suffer from poor contrast when seeds are distant from the light source. We propose a transperineal light delivery ...

  12. Potato seed dressing with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 enhances yield and reduces black scurf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhizospheric strain RZ9 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed for in-vitro growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and effectiveness to control black scurf on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. of the cultivars Spunta and Nicola, in greenhouse and field experiments. The strain RZ9 inhibited R. solani mycelial growth by more than 60% and completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia from infested potato tubers in in-vitro tests. In greenhouse assays, seed potato treatment with RZ9 cell suspension increased stem length, decreased the relative weight of infected potato tubers (by 67%, and increased the potato yield (by 16% compared to pathogen-inoculated plants for both potato cultivars. In field trials conducted on sandy soils during 2012 and 2013, strain RZ9 reduced black scurf incidence and increased potato yield by an average of 5.3 t ha-1 for ′Spunta′ and 5 t ha-1 for ′Nicola′. This study showed that the selected strain of P. aeruginosa is an efficient bacterium for enhancing yield and reducing black scurf of field-grown potatoes.

  13. Reduced abscisic acid content is responsible for enhanced sucrose accumulation by potassium nutrition in vegetable soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bingjie; Liu, Changkai; Tian, Bowen; Zhang, Qiuying; Liu, Xiaobing; Herbert, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seedling + 1% K 2 SO 4 foliar application at flowering (K2). Contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds were determined from 4 to 8 weeks after flowering. K fertilization increased the contents of IAA, GA, ZR, soluble sugar, sucrose and fresh pod yield, but reduced ABA content consistently. When the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose reached the highest level at 7 weeks after flowering for the 2 cultivars, the contents of IAA、GA、ZR all reached the lowest level in general. The content of ABA in seed was negatively correlated with the sucrose content (P abscisic acid content plays a critical role in enhancing sucrose content, which might be a partial mechanism involved in K nutrition to improve the quality of vegetable soybean.

  14. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    peroxidase and at tillering stage Anatomical traits (mesophyll area, bundle sheet area, upper and lower epidermis cells layer and both length and area of xylem and phloem vesselswere measured using image analysis technique by Dino-eyeanalysis software. Data were analyzed based on experimental design model. Means comparison was performed based on LSD test (P≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS (version 9.1 software. Results and Discussion All studied parameters, anatomical, physiological and grain yield, of genotypes were significantly affected by priming seeds with hydrogen peroxide. Positive changes in anatomical and physiological traits in response to hydrogen peroxide increased grain yield in both experimental genotypes. Priming of seeds with hydrogen peroxide produced plants with higher relative water contents, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase comparing with non -primed seeds. Plants of hydrogen peroxide primed seeds produced higher leaf area, stomata length, fresh and dry weights, and lower rate of electrolyte leakage and leaf rolling comparing to non-primed seeds. Priming seeds with hydrogen peroxide increased mesophyll area, bundle sheet area, upper and lower epidermis cells layer and both length and area of xylem and phloem vessels. Anatomical changing due to hydrogen peroxide priming in enhanced growth and yield of both genotypes was positive since primed plants with hydrogen peroxide had produced higher grain yield compared to non-primed plants. Overall, priming seeds with hydrogen peroxide improved grain yield of both wheat genotypes, especially grain yield of bread wheat Cross Sabalan cultivar. Conclusions The anatomical and physiological characteristics improved in dry conditions and lack of available water to the plant is essential for achieving high yield. The results showed that the concentration of 80 Mm hydrogen peroxide as a pre-treatment seed

  16. Optoelectronic property enhancement of conjugated polymer in poly(9,9 Prime -di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl)/titania nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji, E-mail: hafizhj@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali, E-mail: alasbahibandar@gmail.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sana' a University (Yemen); Yap, Chi Chin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laser Group, College of Science, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-12-01

    Optoelectronic property enhancement of poly(9,9 Prime -di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl) (PFO) by different weight ratios of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated. The solution blending method was used to prepare the PFO/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. The microstructure of the composites was determined using X-ray diffraction while absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded using UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrophotometer respectively. X-ray diffractograms confirmed the formation of PFO/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the PFO/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite were proportionately enhanced with the content of TiO{sub 2} NPs. The recombination between electrons of TiO{sub 2} and holes of PFO, through the interface of PFO/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites enhanced the luminescence properties. Besides, the energy gap, line width of phonon emission intensity and vibronic spacing decreased. The line width of the energy gap tails, the vibronic transition intensity and the S-factor increased resulting from higher aggregation of films as supported by field emission scanning electron microscope images. The observed turn on voltage of the indium tin oxide/(PFO/TiO{sub 2})/Al organic light emitting diode device displayed a decreasing trend, suggesting an improvement on the performance of the device as the TiO{sub 2} content was increased. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No variation in structure of poly(9,9 Prime -di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl) (PFO) and TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of PFO were enhanced with TiO{sub 2} content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increase of PFO intensity upon addition of TiO{sub 2} due to charge trapping effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inclusion of TiO{sub 2} in PFO enhanced the conformational disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of TiO{sub 2} reduced the turn-on voltage of organic light emitting diode.

  17. Kinetin Enhanced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Utilization during Alleviation of High Temperatures Stress in Lettuce Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Prusinski, J

    1989-10-01

    The thermoinhibition at 35 and 32 degrees C of pregermination ethylene production and germination in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Mesa 659) seeds was synergistically or additively alleviated by 0.05 millimolar kinetin (KIN) and 10 millimolar 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The synergistic effect of KIN + ACC on ethylene production and germination at 35 degrees C was inhibited by Co(2+) (44-46%) but not by aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG). The uptake of ACC by the seed was not influenced by KIN. Upon slitting of the seed coats (composed of pericarp, testa and endosperm), following the uptake of chemicals, ACC was readily converted into ethylene at all temperatures, and the synergistic effects of KIN + ACC at 35 degrees C were lost. At 35 degrees C, KIN acted synergistically with ACC or ethephon (ETH) in alleviating the osmotic restraint. At 25 degrees C, ETH was more active than KIN or KIN + ACC in overcoming the osmotic restraint. Thus, the integrity of the seed coats, the KIN-enhanced ACC utilization, and an interaction of KIN with the ethylene produced may be the basis for the synergistic or additive effects of KIN + ACC at high temperature.

  18. Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 enhances drought tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... treated seeds grown under drought stress was markedly lower than the ... which persists in the seedlings to alleviate the oxidative damage, leading to .... shoots of the wheat seedlings (25 plants per treatment) were har-.

  19. Enhanced ULtrasound Visualization of Brachytherapy Seeds by a Novel Magnetically Induced Motion Image Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAleavey, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    ... to determine the sensitivity of torque to geometry. We have created a finite element model of a prototype coil configuration for seed vibration and demonstrated the ability of this coil configuration to steer the magnetic field in a manner suitable...

  20. Feasibility of PRIME: A Cognitive Neuroscience-Informed Mobile App Intervention to Enhance Motivated Behavior and Improve Quality of Life in Recent Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Danielle; Campellone, Timothy; Kim, Daniel; Truong, Brandy; Vergani, Silvia; Ward, Charlie; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-04-28

    Despite improvements in treating psychosis, schizophrenia remains a chronic and debilitating disorder that affects approximately 1% of the US population and costs society more than depression, dementia, and other medical illnesses across most of the lifespan. Improving functioning early in the course of illness could have significant implications for long-term outcome of individuals with schizophrenia. Yet, current gold-standard treatments do not lead to clinically meaningful improvements in outcome, partly due to the inherent challenges of treating a population with significant cognitive and motivational impairments. The rise of technology presents an opportunity to develop novel treatments that may circumvent the motivational and cognitive challenges observed in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a Personalized Real-Time Intervention for Motivation Enhancement (PRIME), a mobile app intervention designed to target reward-processing impairments, enhance motivation, and thereby improve quality of life in recent onset schizophrenia, and (2) evaluate the empirical benefits of using an iterative, user-centered design (UCD) process. We conducted two design workshops with 15 key stakeholders, followed by a series of in-depth interviews in collaboration with IDEO, a design and innovation firm. The UCD approach ultimately resulted in the first iteration of PRIME, which was evaluated by 10 RO participants. Results from the Stage 1 participants were then used to guide the next iteration that is currently being evaluated in an ongoing RCT. Participants in both phases were encouraged to use the app daily with a minimum frequency of 1/week over a 12-week period. The UCD process resulted in the following feature set: (1) delivery of text message (short message service, SMS)-based motivational coaching from trained therapists, (2) individualized goal setting in prognostically important

  1. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  2. Adhesion-enhanced thick copper film deposition on aluminum oxide by an ion-beam-mixed Al seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Jae-Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a highly-adherent 30-μm Cu conductive-path coating on an aluminum-oxide layer anodized on an aluminum-alloy substrate for a metal-printed circuit-board application. A 50-nm Al layer was first coated with an e-beam evaporative deposition method on the anodized oxide, followed by ion bombardment to mix the interfacial region. Subsequently, a Cu coating was deposited onto the mixed seed layer to the designed thickness. Adhesions of the interface were tested by using tape adhesion test, and pull-off tests and showed commercially acceptable adhesions for such thick coating layers. The ion beam mixing (IBM) plays the role of fastening the thin seed coating layer to the substrate and enhancing the adhesion of the Cu conductive path on the anodized aluminum surface.

  3. Preparation of a Highly Conductive Seed Layer for Calcium Sensor Fabrication with Enhanced Sensing Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Rafiq

    2018-03-16

    The seed layer plays a crucial role in achieving high electrical conductivity and ensuring higher performance of devices. In this study, we report fabrication of a solution-gated field-effect transistor (FET) sensor based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) modified iron oxide nanoparticles (α-FeO NPs) grown on a highly conductive sandwich-like seed layer (ZnO seed layer/Ag nanowires/ZnO seed layer). The sandwich-like seed layer and ZnO NRs modification with α-FeO NPs provide excellent conductivity and prevent possible ZnO NRs surface damage from low pH enzyme immobilization, respectively. The highly conductive solution-gated FET sensor employed the calmodulin (CaM) immobilization on the surface of α-FeO-ZnO NRs for selective detection of calcium ions (Ca). The solution-gated FET sensor exhibited a substantial change in conductance upon introduction of different concentrations of Ca and showed high sensitivity (416.8 μA cm mM) and wide linear range (0.01-3.0 mM). In addition, the total Ca concentration in water and serum samples was also measured. Compared to the analytically obtained data, our sensor was found to measure Ca in the water and serum samples accurately, suggesting a potential alternative for Ca determination in water and serum samples, specifically used for drinking/irrigation and clinical analysis.

  4. MicroRNA-126 Priming Enhances Functions of Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Physiological and Hypoxic Conditions and Their Therapeutic Efficacy in Cerebral Ischemic Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunwen Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have shown the potential for treating ischemic stroke (IS, while microRNA-126 (miR-126 is reported to have beneficial effects on endothelial function and angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of miR-126 overexpression on EPCs and explore the efficacy of miR-126-primed EPCs (EPCmiR-126 in treating IS. The effects of miR-126 overexpression on EPC proliferation, migratory, tube formation capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and nitric oxide (NO generation were determined. In in vivo study, the effects of EPCmiR-126 on the cerebral blood flow (CBF, neurological deficit score (NDS, infarct volume, cerebral microvascular density (cMVD, and angiogenesis were determined. Moreover, the levels of circulating EPCs (cEPCs and their contained miR-126 were measured. We found (1 miR-126 overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, and tube formation abilities of EPCs; decreased ROS; and increased NO production of EPCs via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway; (2 EPCmiR-126 was more effective than EPCs in attenuating infarct volume and NDS and enhancing cMVD, CBF, and angiogenesis; and (3 infusion of EPCmiR-126 increased the number and the level of miR-126 in cEPCs. Our data indicate that miR-126 overexpression enhanced the function of EPCs in vitro and in vivo.

  5. QELBY®-Induced Enhancement of Exclusion Zone Buildup and Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrophilic powder, QELBY, from the feldspar family of clay minerals was investigated for its ability to form structured or exclusion-zone (EZ water. We demonstrated microsphere-free zones around different fractions of the QELBY powder or its hydrated pellet. Averaging approximately 100 μm, these zones grew to a size similar to that formed in the vicinity of the Nafion standard. In the case of silica (control, only occasional microsphere-free zones of about 70 μm were found. Further, studies to investigate QELBY’s energizing effect on germination and early sapling growth in brown chickpea seeds showed at least a 2-3-fold increase in root length and/or formation of shoots. This was seen in seeds bathed in QELBY supernatants or surrounded by QELBY powder outside the vials containing the seeds. This indirect effect was observed whether the QELBY was dry or hydrated.

  6. "Trans-generational immune priming": specific enhancement of the antimicrobial immune response in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Yannick

    2006-06-07

    Encounters with parasites and pathogens are often unpredictable in time. However, experience of an infection may provide the host with reliable cues about the future risk of infection for the host itself or for its progeny. If the parental environment predicts the quality of the progeny's environment, then parents may further enhance their net reproductive success by differentially providing their offspring with phenotypes to cope with potential hazards such as pathogen infection. Here, I test for the occurrence of such an adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. A pathogenic environment was mimicked by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides for two generations of insects. I found that parental challenge enhanced offspring immunity through the inducible production of antimicrobial peptides in the haemolymph.

  7. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  8. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchik, S.M.; Day, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% (open-quotes low enhancedclose quotes), or 32% (open-quotes high enhancedclose quotes) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production and viability per flower were reduced by ∼50% under both enhanced UV-B levels relative to ambient controls. While plants under high-enhanced UV-B produced over 40% more flowers than plants under the two lower UV-B treatments, whole-plant production of viable pollen was reduced under low-enhanced UV-B to 34% of ambient controls. In the second experiment, the influence of source-plant UV-B exposure on in vitro pollen from plants was examined and whether source-plant UV-B exposure influenced in vitro pollen germination and viability. Pollen from plants under both enhanced-UV-B was reduced from 65 to 18%. Viability of the pollen from plants grown under both enhanced UV-B treatments was reduced to a much lesser extent: only from ∼43 to 22%. Thus, ambient source-plant pollen was more sensitive to enhanced UV-B levels to fertilize plants growing under ambient-UV-B levels, and assessed subsequent seed production and germination. Seed abortion rates were higher in plants pollinated with pollen from the enhanced UV-B treatments, than from ambient UV-B. Despite this, seed yield (number and mass) per plant was similar, regardless of the UV-B exposure of their pollen source. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced UV-B levels associated with springtime ozone depletion events have the capacity to substantially reduce viable pollen production, and could ultimately reduce reproductive success of B. rapa. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Priming of cowpea volatile emissions with defense inducers enhances the plant's attractiveness to parasitoids when attacked by caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhy, Islam S; Bruce, Toby Ja; Turlings, Ted Cj

    2018-04-01

    The manipulation of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (HI-VOCs) via the application of the inducers benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) and laminarin (β-1,3-glucan) is known to enhance the attractiveness of caterpillar-damaged cotton and maize plants to parasitoids. To test if this is also the case for legumes, we treated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. unguiculata) with these inducers and studied the effects on HI-VOC emissions and the attraction of three generalist endoparasitoids. After the inducers had been applied and the plants subjected to either real or mimicked herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars, females of the parasitoids Campoletis sonorensis and Microplitis rufiventris showed a strong preference for BTH-treated plants, whereas Cotesia females were strongly attracted to both BTH- and laminarin-treated plants with real or mimicked herbivory. Treated plants emitted more of certain HI-VOCs, but considerably less indole and linalool and less of several sesquiterpenes. Multivariate data analysis revealed that enhanced wasp attraction after treatment was correlated with high relative concentrations of nonanal, α-pinene, (E)-β-ocimene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and with low relative concentrations of indole, (S)-linalool and (E)-β-farnesene. Inducer treatments had no significant effect on leaf consumption by the caterpillars. Our findings confirm that treating cowpea plants with inducers can enhance their attractiveness to biological control agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of Priming Duration on the Performance of Amaranths (Amaranthus cruentus L. in Sokoto Semiarid Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Musa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Fruits and Vegetable Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (located on latitude 14∘N-15∘N and longitude 4∘-5∘, to evaluate the effect of priming duration on the growth and yield of amaranth. Treatments consisted of four priming durations (2, 4, 6, and 8 hours and control (where no priming was applied. The treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated three times for the germination test and randomized complete block design (RCBD for the field trial. Data were collected on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, days to 50% emergence, and percentage emergence. Results revealed significant effect of priming duration on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, and days to 50% emergence. Soaking seeds for 2 hours reduced the number of days to 50% germination and emergence and also recorded higher germination. Thus, from the findings of this study, it could be concluded that priming amaranth seeds for 2 hours could be applied to enhance amaranth production.

  11. Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 enhances drought tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. Seedling tolerance to drought is crucial for crop growth and development through the whole season under water-limited condition. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed pretreatment by hydrogen ...

  12. Polyethylenimine-assisted seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Anish; Ankudze, Bright; Pakkanen, Tuula T.

    2018-06-01

    Large-sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized with a new polyethylenimine - assisted seed - mediated method for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies. The size and polydispersity of gold nanoparticles are controlled in the growth step with the amounts of polyethylenimine (PEI) and seeds. Influence of three silicon oxide supports having different surface morphologies, namely halloysite (Hal) nanotubes, glass plates and inverse opal films of SiO2, on the performance of gold nanoparticles in Raman scattering of a 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) analyte was investigated. Electrostatic interaction between positively charged polyethylenimine-capped AuNPs and negatively charged surfaces of silicon oxide supports was utilized in fabrication of the SERS substrates using deposition and infiltration methods. The Au-photonic crystal of the three SERS substrate groups is the most active one as it showed the highest analytical enhancement factor (AEF) and the lowest detection limit of 1x10-8 M for 4-ATP. Coupling of the optical properties of photonic crystals with the plasmonic properties of AuNPs provided Au-photonic crystals with the high SERS activity. The AuNPs clusters formed both in the photonic crystal and on the glass plate are capable of forming more hot spots as compared to sparsely distributed AuNPs on Hal nanotubes and thereby increasing the SERS enhancement.

  13. Sliding contact loading enhances the tensile properties of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of cartilage tissue engineering is to recapitulate the functional properties and structural features of native articular cartilage. While there has been some success in generating near-native compressive properties, the tensile properties of cell-seeded constructs remain poor, and key features of cartilage, including inhomogeneity and anisotropy, are generally absent in these engineered constructs. Therefore, in an attempt to instill these hallmark properties of cartilage in engineered cell-seeded constructs, we designed and characterized a novel sliding contact bioreactor to recapitulate the mechanical stimuli arising from physiologic joint loading (two contacting cartilage layers. Finite element modeling of this bioreactor system showed that tensile strains were direction-dependent, while both tensile strains and fluid motion were depth-dependent and highest in the region closest to the contact surface. Short-term sliding contact of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-seeded agarose improved chondrogenic gene expression in a manner dependent on both the axial strain applied and transforming growth factor-β supplementation. Using the optimized loading parameters derived from these short-term studies, long-term sliding contact was applied to MSC-seeded agarose constructs for 21 d. After 21 d, sliding contact significantly improved the tensile properties of MSC-seeded constructs and elicited alterations in type II collagen and proteoglycan accumulation as a function of depth; staining for these matrix molecules showed intense localization in the surface regions. These findings point to the potential of sliding contact to produce engineered cartilage constructs that begin to recapitulate the complex mechanical features of the native tissue.

  14. The Arabidopsis Phytocystatin AtCYS5 Enhances Seed Germination and Seedling Growth under Heat Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chieun; Kim, Taeyoon; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2017-08-01

    Phytocystatins (PhyCYSs) are plant-specific proteinaceous inhibitors that are implicated in protein turnover and stress responses. Here, we characterized a PhyCYS from Arabidopsis thaliana , which was designated AtCYS5. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of AtCYS5 in germinating seeds was induced by heat stress (HS) and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of the expression of the β -glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of the AtCYS5 promoter showed that AtCYS5 expression during seed germination was induced by HS and ABA. Constitutive overexpression of AtCYS5 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter led to enhanced HS tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis , which was characterized by higher fresh weight and root length compared to wild-type (WT) and knockout ( cys5 ) plants grown under HS conditions. The HS tolerance of At-CYS5 -overexpressing transgenic plants was associated with increased insensitivity to exogenous ABA during both seed germination and post-germination compared to WT and cys5 . Although no HS elements were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AtCYS5 , canonical ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) were detected. AtCYS5 was upregulated in ABA-treated protoplasts transiently co-expressing this gene and genes encoding bZIP ABRE-binding factors (ABFs and AREB3). In the absence of ABA, ABF1 and ABF3 directly bound to the ABREs in the AtCYS5 promoter, which activated the transcription of this gene in the presence of ABA. These results suggest that an ABA-dependent pathway plays a positive role in the HS-responsive expression of AtCYS5 during seed germination and post-germination growth.

  15. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  16. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  17. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  18. Viral-toxin interactions and Parkinson’s disease: poly(I:C priming enhanced the neurodegenerative effects of paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyn Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease (PD has been linked with exposure to a variety of environmental and immunological insults (for example, infectious pathogens in which inflammatory and oxidative processes seem to be involved. In particular, epidemiological studies have found that pesticide exposure and infections may be linked with the incidence of PD. The present study sought to determine whether exposure to a viral mimic prior to exposure to pesticides would exacerbate PD-like pathology. Methods Mice received a supra-nigral infusion of 5 μg of the double-stranded RNA viral analog, polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C, followed 2, 7 or 14 days later by administration of the pesticide, paraquat (nine 10 mg/kg injections over three weeks. Results As hypothesized, poly(I:C pre-treatment enhanced dopamine (DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited by subsequent paraquat treatment. The augmented neuronal loss was accompanied by robust signs of microglial activation, and by increased expression of the catalytic subunit (gp91 of the NADPH oxidase oxidative stress enzyme. However, the paraquat and poly(I:C treatments did not appreciably affect home-cage activity, striatal DA terminals, or subventricular neurogenesis. Conclusions These findings suggest that viral agents can sensitize microglial-dependent inflammatory responses, thereby rendering nigral DA neurons vulnerable to further environmental toxin exposure.

  19. Synthesis of Ag nanobars in the presence of single-crystal seeds and a bromide compound, and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Moran, Christine H; Xia, Xiaohu; Rycenga, Matthew; Li, Naixu; Xia, Younan

    2012-06-19

    This Article describes the synthesis of Ag nanobars with different aspect ratios using a seed-mediated method and evaluation of their use for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The formation of Ag nanobars was found to critically depend on the introduction of a bromide compound into the reaction system, with ionic salts being more effective than covalent molecules. We examined single-crystal seeds with both spherical and cubic shapes and found that Ag nanobars grown from spherical seeds had much higher aspect ratios than those grown from cubic seeds. The typical product of a synthesis contained nanocrystals with three different morphologies: nanocubes, nanobars with a square cross section, and nanobars with a rectangular cross section. Their formation can be attributed to the difference in growth rates along the three orthogonal directions. The SERS enhancement factor of the Ag nanobar was found to depend on its aspect ratio, its orientation relative to the laser polarization, and the wavelength of excitation.

  20. Drought priming at vegetative growth stage enhances nitrogen-use efficiency under post-anthesis drought and heat stress in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.; Li, Xiangnan; Larsen, Dorthe Horn

    2017-01-01

    reached ca. −0.9 MPa) at the 5th-leaf stage for 11 days, and leaf water relations and gas exchange rates, grain yield and yield components, and agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency (ANUE) of the primed and non-primed plants under post-anthesis drought and heat stress were investigated. Compared with the non......To study the effects of early drought priming at 5th-leaf stage on grain yield and nitrogen-use efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under post-anthesis drought and heat stress, wheat plants were first exposed to moderate drought stress (drought priming; that is, the leaf water potential......-primed plants, the drought-primed plants possessed higher leaf water potential and chlorophyll content, and consequently a higher photosynthetic rate during post-anthesis drought and heat stress. Drought priming also resulted in higher grain yield and ANUE in wheat under post-anthesis drought and heat stress...

  1. MUM ENHANCERS are important for seed coat mucilage production and mucilage secretory cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsovski, Andrej A; Villota, Maria M; Rowland, Owen; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Western, Tamara L

    2009-01-01

    Pollination triggers not only embryo development but also the differentiation of the ovule integuments to form a specialized seed coat. The mucilage secretory cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat undergo a complex differentiation process in which cell growth is followed by the synthesis and secretion of pectinaceous mucilage. A number of genes have been identified affecting mucilage secretory cell differentiation, including MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 (MUM4). mum4 mutants produce a reduced amount of mucilage and cloning of MUM4 revealed that it encodes a UDP-L-rhamnose synthase that is developmentally up-regulated to provide rhamnose for mucilage pectin synthesis. To identify additional genes acting in mucilage synthesis and secretion, a screen for enhancers of the mum4 phenotype was performed. Eight mum enhancers (men) have been identified, two of which result from defects in known mucilage secretory cell genes (MUM2 and MYB61). Our results show that, in a mum4 background, mutations in MEN1, MEN4, and MEN5 lead to further reductions in mucilage compared to mum4 single mutants, suggesting that they are involved in mucilage synthesis or secretion. Conversely, mutations in MEN2 and MEN6 appear to affect mucilage release rather than quantity. With the exception of men4, whose single mutant exhibits reduced mucilage, none of these genes have a single mutant phenotype, suggesting that they would not have been identified outside the compromised mum4 background.

  2. RNA interference of GhPEPC2 enhanced seed oil accumulation and salt tolerance in Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Zhengjie; Hua, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression profile of GhPEPC2 transgenic seeds were investigated using RNA-seq, most lipid synthesis related genes were up-regulated, but amino acid metabolic related genes were down-regulated. In addition, the GhPEPC2 transgenic cotton seedlings were stressed using sodium salts at seedling stage, and the salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. Our observations of GhPEPC2 in cotton would shade light on understanding the regulation of oil content, protein accumulation and salt tolerance enhancement in other plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel use of Moringa oleifera seed powder in enhancing the primary treatment of paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaadjoul, Soumia; Zemmouri, Hassiba; Bendjama, Zoubida; Drouiche, Nadjib

    2018-05-02

    In this study, Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) performance as an eco-friendly coagulant in the enhanced primary treatment of paper mill effluent was investigated. Its performance in terms of turbidity removal and COD abatement was examined. Local M. oleifera seed powder from ADRAR-city, South of Algeria, was used. Conventional jar tests were conducted for enhancing the primary treatment of paper mill effluent from paper factory. For this reason, comparative coagulation tests were performed using aluminum sulfate (alum). Indeed, in terms of turbidity abatement, 96.02% and 97.1% were obtained for Moringa and alum, respectively. However, in the case of COD abatement, the abatement rate of M. oleifera seeds was slightly higher than that of alum, 97.28% and 92.67%, respectively. Because M. oleifera is a natural resource that is locally available, an eco-friendly coagulant, non-toxic, and biodegradable and does not affect the pH of water; thus, its use allows to avoid numerous disadvantages of conventional coagulants like alum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Aging and Priming on Physiological and Biochemical Traits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging and deterioration (artificial aging are the most effective factors on the seed vigour. In order to study the changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of common bean under aging and priming treatments a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design conducted with three replications. Seed aging (control, 90 and 80% of control germination and seed invigoration with priming including control, hydro (distilled water, osmo (PEG 6000, hormone (gibberellic acid and halo (NaCl priming were considered as experimental factors. Results showed that osmo-priming had the ability to relatively ameliorate the aging effect and recover some of the seed aspects like germination rate, protein and phytin content for invigorate germination and seedling establishment. Priming indirectly increased seed vigour via germination rate and it can provide homogeny of emergence in the field and obtaining appropriate plant population.

  5. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  6. Enhancement of germination, growth, and photosynthesis in soybean by pre-treatment of seeds with magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of static magnetic fields on the seeds of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var: JS-335) by exposing the seeds to different magnetic field strengths from 0 to 300 mT in steps of 50 mT for 30, 60, and 90 min. Treatment with magnetic fields improved germination-related parameters like water uptake, speed of germination, seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigor indices of soybean seeds under laboratory conditions. Improvement over untreated control was 5-42% for speed of germination, 4-73% for seedling length, 9-53% for fresh weight, 5-16% for dry weight, and 3-88% and 4-27% for vigor indices I and II, respectively. Treatment of 200 mT (60 min) and 150 mT (60 min), which were more effective than others in increasing most of the seedling parameters, were further explored for their effect on plant growth, leaf photosynthetic efficiency, and leaf protein content under field conditions. Among different growth parameters, leaf area, and leaf fresh weight showed maximum enhancement (more than twofold) in 1-month-old plants. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at the J-I-P phase. The total soluble protein map (SDS-polyacrylamide gel) of leaves showed increased intensities of the bands corresponding to a larger subunit (53 KDa) and smaller subunit (14 KDa) of Rubisco in the treated plants. We report here the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  8. Enhanced Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Through Selective Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this laboratory based study, varying quantities of oil, corresponding to 20 % w/w, 25 % w/w and 30 % w/w kernel weight extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds ( S1, S2, S3 respectively  were applied in the coagulation of model turbid water (kaolin suspension and turbid river water samples from River Batang Kali and River Selangor in Malaysia to determine the percentage oil removed which gave the best coagulation efficiency. For model turbid water (kaolin suspension coagulation of low turbidity of 35 NTU, medium turbidity of 100 NTU and high turbidity of 300 NTU, sample S2  gave the best turbidity removal corresponding to 91.7%, 95.5% and 99% respectively. Application of sample S2 to River Batang Kali with low initial turbidity of 32 NTU and high initial turbidity of 502 NTU gave a highest turbidity removal of 69% and 99% respectively. Application to River Selangor with medium initial turbidity- of 87 NTU and high initial turbidity of 466 NTU gave a highest residual turbidity' of 94% and 98.9%,  respectively.Key words: Moringa oleifera seed, selective oil extraction, coagulation, model turbid water (kaolin suspension, river water, turbidity removal.

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanorod-based dye-sensitized solar cells by using Ga doped ZnO seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Yuanyao [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Wu, Fang, E-mail: fang01234@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Mao, Caiying [Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Guo, Shengchun [Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Zhou, Miao [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on Ga-doped ZnO seed layers using hydrothermal method. • Using the ZnO nanorods as photoanodes for fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells. • The highest η of 1.23% can be achieved in a DSSC with 3 at.% Ga-doped in seeds. • The effects of ZnO seed layers on electron transport properties were investigated. • The enhancement performance of DSSCs contributed to higher dye loading and η{sub cc}. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were grown on FTO substrates with a Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) seed layer by a hydrothermal method. GZO seed layers were obtained via sol–gel technology with Ga concentration in the range of 0–4 at.%. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using ZnO nanorod arrays as the photoanode layers were prepared. The effect of Ga dopant concentrations in ZnO seed layer on the morphology features of ZnO nanorod arrays and the performance of DSSCs were systematically investigated. Results indicate that the average diameter and density of ZnO nanorod arrays decrease with increasing Ga concentration, but their length shows an opposite trend. The photocurrent density–voltage (J–V) characteristics reveal that the DSSCs with GZO seed layer exhibit significantly improved photovoltaic performance. In particular, the highest energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.23% can be achieved in a DSSC with 3 at.% Ga doping, which is increased by 86.36% compared with that of the undoped DSSC. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to explore the photon-to-electron conversion process in DSSCs. It is demonstrated that the performance enhancement of DSSCs based on GZO seed layer can be attributed to higher amount of dye loading, more efficient electron transportation and better electrons collection efficiency.

  10. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  11. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were firstly twice heat-primed at 32/24 °C, and subsequently subjected to a more severe high temperature stress at 35/27 °C. The later high temperature stress significantly decreased plant biomass and leaf total soluble sugars concentration. However......, plants experienced priming (PH) up-regulated the Rubisco activase B encoding gene RcaB, which was in accordance with the higher photosynthesis rate in relation to the non-primed plants (NH) under the later high temperature stress. In relation to NH, the major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene Cab...... was down-regulated in PH plants, implying a reduction of the light absorption to protect the photosystem II from excitation energy under high temperature stress. At the same time, under the later high temperature stress PH plants showed significantly higher actual photochemical efficiency, indicating...

  12. Optimization of heterologous DNA-prime, protein boost regimens and site of vaccination to enhance therapeutic immunity against human papillomavirus-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Qiu, Jin; Yang, Andrew; Yang, Benjamin; Jeang, Jessica; Wang, Joshua W; Chang, Yung-Nien; Brayton, Cory; Roden, Richard B S; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary etiologic factor of cervical cancer as well as subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. The two HPV viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are uniquely and consistently expressed in all HPV infected cells and are therefore promising targets for therapeutic vaccination. Both recombinant naked DNA and protein-based HPV vaccines have been demonstrated to elicit HPV-specific CD8+ T cell responses that provide therapeutic effects against HPV-associated tumor models. Here we examine the immunogenicity in a preclinical model of priming with HPV DNA vaccine followed by boosting with filterable aggregates of HPV 16 L2E6E7 fusion protein (TA-CIN). We observed that priming twice with an HPV DNA vaccine followed by a single TA-CIN booster immunization generated the strongest antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response compared to other prime-boost combinations tested in C57BL/6 mice, whether naïve or bearing the HPV16 E6/E7 transformed syngeneic tumor model, TC-1. We showed that the magnitude of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response generated by the DNA vaccine prime, TA-CIN protein vaccine boost combinatorial strategy is dependent on the dose of TA-CIN protein vaccine. In addition, we found that a single booster immunization comprising intradermal or intramuscular administration of TA-CIN after priming twice with an HPV DNA vaccine generated a comparable boost to E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses. We also demonstrated that the immune responses elicited by the DNA vaccine prime, TA-CIN protein vaccine boost strategy translate into potent prophylactic and therapeutic antitumor effects. Finally, as seen for repeat TA-CIN protein vaccination, we showed that the heterologous DNA prime and protein boost vaccination strategy is well tolerated by mice. Our results provide rationale for future clinical testing of HPV DNA vaccine prime, TA-CIN protein vaccine boost immunization regimen for the control of HPV-associated diseases.

  13. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  14. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

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    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  15. Surface modification of cellulose isolated from Sesamun indicum underutilized seed: A means of enhancing cellulose hydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose (SC isolated from sesame seed (SS was surface modified with the introduction of an ester functional group via a simple reaction to produce the modified product (SA. SS, SC and SA were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, particle size distribution (PSD, zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SC and SA were evaluated for their water holding capacity (WC, oil holding capacity (OC, swelling capacity (SW and their ability to adsorb heavy metals. The FTIR revealed peaks corresponding to the formation of the ester functional group at the surface of SA. The crystallinity of SC was 28.02% but after the modification, it increased to 77.03% in SA. The PSD of SC and SA was both monomodal with sizes of 10.1305 μm in SC and 10.2511 μm in SA. The adsorption capacity of SC towards Pb (II and Cu (II ions was higher than that of SA. However, SA was unable to adsorb Cu (II ions. SA exhibited the lower WC and SW values as compared to SC which suggested an improved hydrophobicity after the modification. This study has shown that hydrophobicity can be improved in cellulose via surface modification.

  16. SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matena, Julia; Petersen, Svea; Gieseke, Matthias; Kampmann, Andreas; Teske, Michael; Beyerbach, Martin; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Haferkamp, Heinz; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Nolte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    To improve well-known titanium implants, pores can be used for increasing bone formation and close bone-implant interface. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables the production of any geometry and was used for implant production with 250-µm pore size. The used pore size supports vessel ingrowth, as bone formation is strongly dependent on fast vascularization. Additionally, proangiogenic factors promote implant vascularization. To functionalize the titanium with proangiogenic factors, polycaprolactone (PCL) coating can be used. The following proangiogenic factors were examined: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12). As different surfaces lead to different cell reactions, titanium and PCL coating were compared. The growing into the porous titanium structure of primary osteoblasts was examined by cross sections. Primary osteoblasts seeded on the different surfaces were compared using Live Cell Imaging (LCI). Cross sections showed cells had proliferated, but not migrated after seven days. Although the cell count was lower on titanium PCL implants in LCI, the cell count and cell spreading area development showed promising results for titanium PCL implants. HMGB1 showed the highest migration capacity for stimulating the endothelial cell line. Future perspective would be the incorporation of HMGB1 into PCL polymer for the realization of a slow factor release. PMID:25849656

  17. SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Matena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve well-known titanium implants, pores can be used for increasing bone formation and close bone-implant interface. Selective Laser Melting (SLM enables the production of any geometry and was used for implant production with 250-µm pore size. The used pore size supports vessel ingrowth, as bone formation is strongly dependent on fast vascularization. Additionally, proangiogenic factors promote implant vascularization. To functionalize the titanium with proangiogenic factors, polycaprolactone (PCL coating can be used. The following proangiogenic factors were examined: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12. As different surfaces lead to different cell reactions, titanium and PCL coating were compared. The growing into the porous titanium structure of primary osteoblasts was examined by cross sections. Primary osteoblasts seeded on the different surfaces were compared using Live Cell Imaging (LCI. Cross sections showed cells had proliferated, but not migrated after seven days. Although the cell count was lower on titanium PCL implants in LCI, the cell count and cell spreading area development showed promising results for titanium PCL implants. HMGB1 showed the highest migration capacity for stimulating the endothelial cell line. Future perspective would be the incorporation of HMGB1 into PCL polymer for the realization of a slow factor release.

  18. The enhancement of the nutritive value of mango seed kernel through radiation processing and other treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The raw seed kernels of local mango (MSK) varieties (Magnifier indica L.)were analyzed for proximate composition, levels of trypsin inhibitor's, tannins, cyano genetic glucosides, in vitro protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AME n ) as being affected by boiling, autoclaving, autoclaving as well as radiation processing at doses 5, 10, and 20 KGy. The air-dry mango kernels were found to contain 70, 128, and 67 g kg - 1 of crude protein, crude fat and tannins, respectively. Compared with raw samples the contents of trypsin inhibitory activity (30 TIU g - 1) and cyano genetic glucosides, as hydrocyanic acid, (71 mg g kg - 1) were lowered by boiling, autoclaving and radiation treatments. Only boiling and autoclaving lowered tannins (67.2 g kg - 1) but radiation processing did not have any effect. The in vitro protein digestibility and AME n value by 139% and 72%, respectively. These results indicate that tannins, trypsin inhibitors and cyano genetic glucosides, are responsible for poor nutritive value of MSK

  19. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli He

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  20. Gm1-MMP is involved in growth and development of leaf and seed, and enhances tolerance to high temperature and humidity stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sushuang; Liu, Yanmin; Jia, Yanhong; Wei, Jiaping; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhou, Yali; Zhu, Yajing; Gu, Weihong; Ma, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases. Gm1-MMP was found to play an important role in soybean tissue remodeling during leaf expansion. In this study, Gm1-MMP was isolated and characterized. Its encoding protein had a relatively low phylogenetic relationship with the MMPs in other plant species. Subcellular localization indicated that Gm1-MMP was a plasma membrane protein. Gm1-MMP showed higher expression levels in mature leaves, old leaves, pods, and mature seeds, as well as was involved in the development of soybean seed. Additionally, it was involved in response to high temperature and humidity (HTH) stress in R7 leaves and seeds in soybean. The analysis of promoter of Gm1-MMP suggested that the fragment from -399 to -299 was essential for its promoter activity in response to HTH stress. The overexpression of Gm1-MMP in Arabidopsis affected the growth and development of leaves, enhanced leaf and developing seed tolerance to HTH stress and improved seed vitality. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ROS in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds were lower than those in wild type seeds under HTH stress. Gm1-MMP could interact with soybean metallothionein-II (GmMT-II), which was confirmed by analysis of yeast two-hybrid assay and BiFC assays. All the results indicated that Gm1-MMP plays an important role in the growth and development of leaves and seeds as well as in tolerance to HTH stress. It will be helpful for us understanding the functions of Gm1-MMP in plant growth and development, and in response to abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new marine measure enhancing Zostera marina seed germination and seedling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Ana I.; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass global distribution has declined in the last decades due to many causes, and the implementation of recovery programmes as well as the development of new restoration techniques are needed. This work describes the development of an innovative restoration measure to enhance Zostera marina (...

  2. Detennination Qf Optimuni on-fann Seed Pri~ing Time for Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maize seed to on-far111 priming is an important development which can be used to improve ... Key words: semi-arid: crop establishment; sorghum; maize: on-farm seed priming; Zimbapwe. ... faster growth and higher yield after seed prim-, ing.

  3. Pilot Study on the Use of DNA Priming Immunization to Enhance Y. pestis LcrV-Specific B Cell Responses Elicited by a Recombinant LcrV Protein Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that DNA immunization is powerful in eliciting antigen-specific antibody responses in both animal and human studies. However, there is limited information on the mechanism of this effect. In particular, it is not known whether DNA immunization can also enhance the development of antigen-specific B cell development. In this report, a pilot study was conducted using plague LcrV immunogen as a model system to determine whether DNA immunization is able to enhance LcrV-specific B cell development in mice. Plague is an acute and often fatal infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis. Humoral immune responses provide critical protective immunity against plague. Previously, we demonstrated that a DNA vaccine expressing LcrV antigen can protect mice from lethal mucosal challenge. In the current study, we further evaluated whether the use of a DNA priming immunization is able to enhance the immunogenicity of a recombinant LcrV protein vaccine, and in particular, the development of LcrV-specific B cells. Our data indicate that DNA immunization was able to elicit high-level LcrV antibody responses when used alone or as part of a prime-boost immunization approach. Most significantly, DNA immunization was also able to increase the levels of LcrV-specific B cell development. The finding that DNA immunization can enhance antigen-specific B cell responses is highly significant and will help guide similar studies in other model antigen systems.

  4. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  5. TLR1/2 activation during heterologous prime-boost vaccination (DNA-MVA enhances CD8+ T Cell responses providing protection against Leishmania (Viannia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jayakumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Viannia parasites present particular challenges, as human and murine immune responses to infection are distinct from other Leishmania species, indicating a unique interaction with the host. Further, vaccination studies utilizing small animal models indicate that modalities and antigens that prevent infection by other Leishmania species are generally not protective.Using a newly developed mouse model of chronic L. (Viannia panamensis infection and the heterologous DNA prime - modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA boost vaccination modality, we examined whether the conserved vaccine candidate antigen tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP could provide protection against infection/disease.Heterologous prime - boost (DNA/MVA vaccination utilizing TRYP antigen can provide protection against disease caused by L. (V. panamensis. However, protection is dependent on modulating the innate immune response using the TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 during DNA priming. Prime-boost vaccination using DNA alone fails to protect. Prior to infection protectively vaccinated mice exhibit augmented CD4 and CD8 IFNγ and memory responses as well as decreased IL-10 and IL-13 responses. IL-13 and IL-10 have been shown to be independently critical for disease in this model. CD8 T cells have an essential role in mediating host defense, as CD8 depletion reversed protection in the vaccinated mice; vaccinated mice depleted of CD4 T cells remained protected. Hence, vaccine-induced protection is dependent upon TLR1/2 activation instructing the generation of antigen specific CD8 cells and restricting IL-13 and IL-10 responses.Given the general effectiveness of prime-boost vaccination, the recalcitrance of Leishmania (Viannia to vaccine approaches effective against other species of Leishmania is again evident. However, prime-boost vaccination modality can with modulation induce protective responses, indicating that the delivery system is critical. Moreover, these results suggest that

  6. Biorregulador e pré-condicionamento osmótico na germinação de sementes e no crescimento inicial da muda de carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença - Bignoniaceae Bioregulator and priming on seed germination and initial growth of "carobinha" (Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença - Bignoniaceae seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kissmann

    2011-01-01

    ão interferiram na vitalidade e no vigor das sementes osmocondicionadas por até 12 horas. Não houve diferença entre as temperaturas de 10 e 20ºC para germinabilidade (60 % e IVG, porém a temperatura de 10ºC originou plântulas com maior massa fresca (95,7 mg e comprimento médio de raiz (3,2 cm e de parte aérea (2,6 cm. O osmocondicionamento por 24 horas causou redução na qualidade das sementes e vigor das plântulas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of pregerminative treatments on the emergence and initial growth of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença seedlings. Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, seeds were separated into light and dark seeds and were subjected to the following pregerminative treatments: 1 KNO3 (20000 mg L-1; 2 Gibberellic acid (GA3 50 mg L-1, 3 GA3 100 mg L-1 4 GA3 200 mg L-1; 5 Stimulate 5 mL 0.5 kg-1 seeds; 6 Stimulate 10 mL 0.5 kg-1 seeds; 7 Water 24h; and 8 Control. The sowing was performed on polystyrene trays filled with land + commercial substrate. The five best treatments were selected to evaluate seedling growth. Plants aged 120 days from treatments 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 were transplanted to plastic bags (3kg filled with land + sand + poultry manure (1:1:1 - v:v, kept under 50% shading and evaluated at 70, 130, 170 and 210 days after transplanting. In general, light seeds had higher germinability and germination speed index (GSI than the dark ones. However, the plants obtained from these seeds had lower growth than plants from dark seeds. In the second experiment, seeds were primed in the solutions: 1 PEG 6000 (-1.0 MPa; 2 PEG 6000 (-1.0 MPa + KNO3 (20000 mg L-1 (-1.0 MPa; 3 KNO3 (20000 mg L-1 (-1.0 MPa; 4 Water; and 5 Deionized water, and incubated in a BOD chamber at 10 and 20ºC for 0 (control, 6, 12 and 24h. Then, seeds were dried at room temperature until reaching the matter presented before priming and incubated in a BOD chamber at 20-30ºC with 8h dark - 12h light. The

  7. Low-Dose Priming before Vaccination with the Phase I Chloroform-Methanol Residue Vaccine against Q Fever Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Coxiella burnetii▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M.; England, Marilyn J.; Bolt, Christopher R.; Williams, Jim C.

    2008-01-01

    Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 μg, followed by a booster dose of 30 μg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection. PMID:18701647

  8. Low-dose priming before vaccination with the phase I chloroform-methanol residue vaccine against Q fever enhances humoral and cellular immune responses to Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M; England, Marilyn J; Bolt, Christopher R; Williams, Jim C

    2008-10-01

    Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 microg, followed by a booster dose of 30 microg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection.

  9. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  10. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611}high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H_2PtCl_6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells. (paper)

  11. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  12. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  13. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  14. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  15. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  16. Sputtering-growth of seeded Au nanoparticles for nanogap-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chit Yaw; U. S., Dinish; Rautela, Shashi; Goh, Douglas Wenda; Olivo, Malini

    2011-12-01

    Gold-coated array patterned with tightly-packed nanospheres was developed as a substrate base for constructing SERSenriched nanogaps with Au-nanoparticles (GNPs). Using 1,2-ethanedithiol as a linker, Au-NPs (=17-40nm) were anchored covalently on the sphere-array. Thin Au layer was sputtered on the substrate to mask the citrate coating of GNPs that could demote the sensing mechanism. The negatively-charged GNP surface warrants the colloidal stability, but the resulting repulsive force keeps the immobilized NPs apart by about 40nm. The attained gap size is inadequately narrow to sustain any intense enhancement owing to the near-field nature of SERS. Minimal amount of NaCl was then added to slightly perturb the colloidal stability by reducing their surface charge. Notably, the interparticle-gap reduces at increasing amount of salt, giving rise to increased packing density of GNPs. The SERS enhancement is also found to exponentially increase at decreasing gap size. Nevertheless, the minimum gap achieved is limited to merely 7nm. Excessive addition of salt would eventually induce complete aggregation of particles, forming clustered NPs on the array. A simple sputtering-growth approach is therefore proposed to further minimize the interparticle gap by enlarging the seeded NPs based on mild sputtering. The SEM images confirm that the gap below 7nm is achievable. With advent of the colloidal chemistry, the combined salt-induced aggregation and sputtering-growth techniques can be applied to engineer interparticle gap that is crucial to realize an ultrasensitive SERS biosensor. The proposed two-step preparation can be potentially adopted to fabricate the SERS-enriched nanogaps on the microfluidics platform.

  17. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  18. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  19. Seed treatments enhance photosynthesis in maize seedlings by reducing infection with Fusarium spp. and consequent disease development in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a seed treatment on early season growth, seedling disease development, incidence Fusarium spp. infection, and photosynthetic performance of maize were evaluated at two locations in Iowa in 2007. Maize seed was either treated with Cruiser 2Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + me...

  20. Edge effects enhance selfing and seed harvesting efforts in the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, R; Sebbenn, A M; Kageyama, P Y; Vencovsky, R

    2013-06-01

    Edge effects may affect the mating system of tropical tree species and reduce the genetic diversity and variance effective size of collected seeds at the boundaries of forest fragments because of a reduction in the density of reproductive trees, neighbour size and changes in the behaviour of pollinators. Here, edge effects on the genetic diversity, mating system and pollen pool of the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii were investigated using eight microsatellite loci. Open-pollinated seeds were collected from 17 seed trees within continuous savannah woodland (SW) and were compared with seeds from 11 seed trees at the edge of the savannah remnant. Seeds collected from the SW had significantly higher heterozygosity levels (Ho=0.780; He=0.831) than seeds from the edge (Ho=0.702; He=0.800). The multilocus outcrossing rate was significantly higher in the SW (tm=0.859) than in the edge (tm=0.759). Pollen pool differentiation was significant, however, it did not differ between the SW (=0.105) and the edge (=0.135). The variance effective size within the progenies was significantly higher in the SW (Ne=2.65) than at the edge (Ne=2.30). The number of seed trees to retain the reference variance effective size of 500 was 189 at the SW and 217 at the edge. Therefore, it is preferable that seed harvesting for conservation and environmental restoration strategies be conducted in the SW, where genetic diversity and variance effective size within progenies are higher.

  1. Masked priming effect reflects evidence accumulated by the prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In the same-different match task, masked priming is observed with the same responses but not different responses. Norris and Kinoshita's (2008) Bayesian reader account of masked priming explains this pattern based on the same principle as that explaining the absence of priming for nonwords in the lexical decision task. The pattern of priming follows from the way the model makes optimal decisions in the two tasks; priming does not depend on first activating the prime and then the target. An alternative explanation is in terms of a bias towards responding "same" that exactly counters the facilitatory effect of lexical access. The present study tested these two views by varying both the degree to which the prime predicts the response and the visibility of the prime. Unmasked primes produced effects expected from the view that priming is influenced by the degree to which the prime predicts the response. In contrast, with masked primes, the size of priming for the same response was completely unaffected by predictability. These results rule out response bias as an explanation of the absence of masked priming for different responses and, in turn, indicate that masked priming is not a consequence of automatic lexical access of the prime.

  2. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  3. Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase accumulate enhanced levels of cysteine and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Chronis, Demosthenis; Juergens, Matthew; Schroeder, Amy C; Hyun, Seung Won; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2012-01-01

    Soybeans provide an excellent source of protein in animal feed. Soybean protein quality can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids. Previous attempts to increase the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids through the expression of heterologous proteins have met with limited success. Here, we report a successful strategy to increase the cysteine content of soybean seed through the overexpression of a key sulfur assimilatory enzyme. We have generated several transgenic soybean plants that overexpress a cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). These transgenic soybean plants exhibit a four- to tenfold increase in OASS activity when compared with non-transformed wild-type. The OASS activity in the transgenic soybeans was significantly higher at all the stages of seed development. Unlike the non-transformed soybean plants, there was no marked decrease in the OASS activity even at later stages of seed development. Overexpression of cytosolic OASS resulted in a 58-74% increase in protein-bound cysteine levels compared with non-transformed wild-type soybean seeds. A 22-32% increase in the free cysteine levels was also observed in transgenic soybeans overexpressing OASS. Furthermore, these transgenic soybean plants showed a marked increase in the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, a cysteine-rich protein. The overall increase in soybean total cysteine content (both free and protein-bound) satisfies the recommended levels required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals.

  4. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in ...

  5. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography findings of recurrent ovarian steroid cell tumor presenting with peritoneal seeding: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, A Lan; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Han Ah; Choi, Keum Ha

    2013-01-01

    We present ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) findings of a case of recurrent ovarian steroid cell tumor presenting with peritoneal seeding in a 45-year-old woman. On abdominal ultrasonography, there were multiple hypoechoic round masses in the peritoneal cavity including the perihepatic area. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed intense homogenous enhancement on the arterial phase and delayed prolonged enhancement of the masses. CT revealed multiple peritoneal solid masses with strong enhancement. Five years ago, the patient had been diagnosed with a steroid cell tumor of the left ovary. At that time, the CT showed a well-enhancing, lobulating, large solid mass at the left adnexa. Imaging findings of the peritoneal masses suggested peritoneal seeding from the preexisting ovarian steroid cell tumor. For treatment of the metastatic lesions in the perihepatic area, ultrasonography-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed, and debulking surgery for the peritoneal masses was done. Six months later, complete ablation of the perihepatic metastases by RFA and a marked decrease in the peritoneal metastases by surgery were found on the follow-up CT.

  7. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  8. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  9. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde Derived from Prunus mume Seed Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Enhances Estradiol Secretion in Human Ovarian Granulosa Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Ryohei; Nomura, Sachiko; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Maeno, Akihiro; Kagiya, Tomoko; Tokuda, Akihiko; Inada, Ken-ichi; Matsuno, Akira; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Granulosa cells form ovarian follicles and play important roles in the growth and maturation of oocytes. The protection of granulosa cells from cellular injury caused by oxidative stress is an effective therapy for female infertility. We here investigated an effective bioactive compound derived from Prunus mume seed extract that protects granulosa cells from hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptosis. We detected the bioactive compound, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHBA), via bioactivity-guided isolation and found that it inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of granulosa cells. We also showed that 3,4-DHBA promoted estradiol secretion in granulosa cells and enhanced the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic factor 1, a promoter of key steroidogenic enzymes. These results suggest that P. mume seed extract may have clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of female infertility

  10. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of nickel oxide seed layers on annealed-amorphous titanium oxide thin films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Hong, Shao-Chyang; Hwang, Fu-Tsai; Lai, Li-Wen; Lin, Tan-Wei; Liu, Day-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a nickel oxide (NiO x ) seed layer on the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of the sequentially plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited amorphous titanium oxide (TiO x ) thin film processed by a post-annealing process was investigated. The evolution of the crystalline structures, chemical bond configurations, and surface/cross-sectional morphologies of the annealed TiO x films, with and without a NiO x seed layer, was examined using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope measurements. Thermo- and photo-induced hydrophilicity was determined by measuring the contact angle of water droplet. Photocatalytic activity after UV light irradiation was evaluated from the decolorization of a methylene blue solution. The crystallization temperature of the TiO x film, deposited on a NiO x seed layer, was found to be lower than that of a pure TiO x film, further improving the thermo- and photo-induced surface super-hydrophilicity. The TiO x film deposited onto the NiO x seed layer, resulting in significant cluster boundaries, showed a rough surface morphology and proved to alleviate the anatase crystal growth by increasing the post-annealing temperature, which yielded a more active surface area and prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The photocatalytic activity of the NiO x /TiO x system with such a textured surface therefore was enhanced and optimized through an adequate post-annealing process.

  12. Effect of nickel oxide seed layers on annealed-amorphous titanium oxide thin films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Hong, Shao-Chyang [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Fu-Tsai [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li, 36003, Taiwan (China); Lai, Li-Wen [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Liujia, Tainan, 73445, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tan-Wei [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Day-Shan, E-mail: dsliu@sunws.nfu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-31

    The effect of a nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) seed layer on the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of the sequentially plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited amorphous titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) thin film processed by a post-annealing process was investigated. The evolution of the crystalline structures, chemical bond configurations, and surface/cross-sectional morphologies of the annealed TiO{sub x} films, with and without a NiO{sub x} seed layer, was examined using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope measurements. Thermo- and photo-induced hydrophilicity was determined by measuring the contact angle of water droplet. Photocatalytic activity after UV light irradiation was evaluated from the decolorization of a methylene blue solution. The crystallization temperature of the TiO{sub x} film, deposited on a NiO{sub x} seed layer, was found to be lower than that of a pure TiO{sub x} film, further improving the thermo- and photo-induced surface super-hydrophilicity. The TiO{sub x} film deposited onto the NiO{sub x} seed layer, resulting in significant cluster boundaries, showed a rough surface morphology and proved to alleviate the anatase crystal growth by increasing the post-annealing temperature, which yielded a more active surface area and prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The photocatalytic activity of the NiO{sub x}/TiO{sub x} system with such a textured surface therefore was enhanced and optimized through an adequate post-annealing process.

  13. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos...... moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition...... in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among...

  14. Prime Time Light Exposures Do Not Seem to Improve Maximal Physical Performance in Male Elite Athletes, but Enhance End-Spurt Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many sports competitions take place during television prime time, a time of the day when many athletes have already exceeded their time of peak performance. We assessed the effect of different light exposure modalities on physical performance and melatonin levels in athletes during prime time. Seventy-two young, male elite athletes with a median (interquartile range age of 23 (21; 29 years and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max of 63 (58; 66 ml/kg/min were randomly assigned to three different light exposure groups: bright light (BRIGHT, blue monochromatic light (BLUE, and control light (CONTROL. Each light exposure lasted 60 min and was scheduled to start 17 h after each individual's midpoint of sleep (median time: 9:17 pm. Immediately after light exposure, a 12-min time trial was performed on a bicycle ergometer. The test supervisor and participants were blinded to the light condition each participant was exposed to. The median received light intensities and peak wavelengths (photopic lx/nm measured at eye level were 1319/545 in BRIGHT, 203/469 in BLUE, and 115/545 in CONTROL. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for individual VO2max, total work performed in 12 min did not significantly differ between the three groups. The amount of exposure to non-image forming light was positively associated with the performance gain during the time trial, defined as the ratio of the work performed in the first and last minute of the time trial, and with stronger melatonin suppression. Specifically, a tenfold increase in the exposure to melanopic light was associated with a performance gain of 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.6, 13.3; P = 0.004 and a melatonin decrease of −0.9 pg/ml (95% confidence interval: −1.5, −0.3; P = 0.006. Exposure to bright or blue light did not significantly improve maximum cycling performance in a 12-min all-out time trial. However, it is noteworthy that the estimated difference of 4.1 kJ between BRIGHT and CONTROL might represent

  15. Prime Time Light Exposures Do Not Seem to Improve Maximal Physical Performance in Male Elite Athletes, but Enhance End-Spurt Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaier, Raphael; Schäfer, Juliane; Rossmeissl, Anja; Klenk, Christopher; Hanssen, Henner; Höchsmann, Christoph; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2017-01-01

    Many sports competitions take place during television prime time, a time of the day when many athletes have already exceeded their time of peak performance. We assessed the effect of different light exposure modalities on physical performance and melatonin levels in athletes during prime time. Seventy-two young, male elite athletes with a median (interquartile range) age of 23 (21; 29) years and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 63 (58; 66) ml/kg/min were randomly assigned to three different light exposure groups: bright light (BRIGHT), blue monochromatic light (BLUE), and control light (CONTROL). Each light exposure lasted 60 min and was scheduled to start 17 h after each individual's midpoint of sleep (median time: 9:17 pm). Immediately after light exposure, a 12-min time trial was performed on a bicycle ergometer. The test supervisor and participants were blinded to the light condition each participant was exposed to. The median received light intensities and peak wavelengths (photopic lx/nm) measured at eye level were 1319/545 in BRIGHT, 203/469 in BLUE, and 115/545 in CONTROL. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for individual VO2max, total work performed in 12 min did not significantly differ between the three groups. The amount of exposure to non-image forming light was positively associated with the performance gain during the time trial, defined as the ratio of the work performed in the first and last minute of the time trial, and with stronger melatonin suppression. Specifically, a tenfold increase in the exposure to melanopic light was associated with a performance gain of 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.6, 13.3; P = 0.004) and a melatonin decrease of −0.9 pg/ml (95% confidence interval: −1.5, −0.3; P = 0.006). Exposure to bright or blue light did not significantly improve maximum cycling performance in a 12-min all-out time trial. However, it is noteworthy that the estimated difference of 4.1 kJ between BRIGHT and CONTROL might represent an

  16. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception.......Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...

  17. Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    Full Text Available The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4% was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  19. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA. The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds.

  1. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhu, Fugui; Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xin; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC) was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4%) was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  2. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B.S.; Trimble, Cornelia L.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Experimental Design Here we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than IM delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16+ cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). Results We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8+ T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Conclusions Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. PMID:26420854

  3. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  4. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  5. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ding Qu, Junjie He, Congyan Liu, Jing Zhou, Yan ChenKey Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549 cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer.Keywords: microemulsion, Ganoderma lucidum, triterpene, adlay seed oil, lung cancer

  6. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Woo

    Full Text Available Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  7. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee-Jong; Qin, Yang; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Soon Ki; Cho, Yong-Gu; Shin, Kong-Sik; Lim, Myung-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  8. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  9. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  12. Gel-free proteomics reveal potential biomarkers of priming-induced salt tolerance in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercha, Azzedine; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Gherroucha, Hocine; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Lagana, Aldo

    2013-10-08

    Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to be an efficient method to improve crop productivity under stressful conditions. As a first step toward better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the priming-induced salt stress tolerance in durum wheat, and to overcome the limitations of the gel-based approach, a comparative gel-free proteomic analysis was conducted with durum wheat seed samples of varying vigor as generated by hydro- and ascorbate-priming treatments. Results indicate that hydro-priming was accompanied by significant changes of 72 proteins, most of which are involved in proteolysis, protein synthesis, metabolism and disease/defense response. Ascorbate-priming was, however, accompanied by significant changes of 83 proteins, which are mainly involved in protein metabolism, antioxidant protection, repair processes and, interestingly, in methionine-related metabolism. The present study provides new information for understanding how 'priming-memory' invokes seed stress tolerance. The current work describes the first study in which gel-free shotgun proteomics were used to investigate the metabolic seed protein fraction in durum wheat. A combined approach of protein fractionation, hydrogel nanoparticle enrichment technique, and gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis allowed us to identify over 380 proteins exhibiting greater molecular weight diversity (ranging from 7 to 258kDa). Accordingly, we propose that this approach could be useful to acquire a wider perspective and a better understanding of the seed proteome. In the present work, we employed this method to investigate the potential biomarkers of priming-induced salt tolerance in durum wheat. In this way, we identified several previously unrecognized proteins which were never been reported before, particularly for the ascorbate-priming treatment. These findings could provide new avenues for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. © 2013.

  13. Bivalent promoter marks and a latent enhancer may prime the leukaemia oncogene LMO1 for ectopic expression in T-cell leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, S H; Thoms, J; Sive, J I; Calero-Nieto, F J; Kinston, S J; Schütte, J; Knezevic, K; Lock, R B; Pimanda, J E; Göttgens, B

    2013-06-01

    LMO1 is a transcriptional regulator and a T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) oncogene. Although first identified in association with a chromosomal translocation in T-ALL, the ectopic expression of LMO1 occurs far more frequently in the absence of any known mutation involving its locus. Given that LMO1 is barely expressed in any haematopoietic lineage, and activation of transcriptional drivers in leukaemic cells is not well described, we investigated the regulation of this gene in normal haematopoietic and leukaemic cells. We show that LMO1 has two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in transgenic mice to neural tissues known to express endogenous LMO1. The LMO1 promoters display bivalent histone marks in multiple blood lineages including T-cells, and a 3' flanking region at LMO1 +57 contains a transcriptional enhancer that is active in developing blood cells in transgenic mouse embryos. The LMO1 promoters become activated in T-ALL together with the 3' enhancer, which is bound in primary T-ALL cells by SCL/TAL1 and GATA3. Taken together, our results show that LMO1 is poised for expression in normal progenitors, where activation of SCL/TAL1 together with a breakdown of epigenetic repression of LMO1 regulatory elements induces ectopic LMO1 expression that contributes to the development and maintenance of T-ALL.

  14. Seed-mediated photodeposition route to Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang; Tian, Guanghui; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres (SiO2@TiO2-Ag) with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity were successfully fabricated by combining both coating anatase TiO2 on the surface of SiO2 spheres and subsequent depositing face-centered cubic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the coated TiO2 surface via novel sol-gel method and Ag-seed-mediated photodeposition (PD) route, respectively. The morphology, structure, composition and optical properties of the resulting composites were characterized in detail. The results reveal that the monodisperse SiO2 spheres of ∼260 nm were covered uniformly and perfectly by the TiO2 nanoparticle coating layer with the thickness of ca. 55 nm by the novel sol-gel method. Further, homogeneously and highly dispersed Ag NPs with an average size of 8 ± 1.5 nm were strongly anchored onto the TiO2 surface in SiO2@TiO2 core-shell spheres by the modified PD process (Ag-seed-mediated PD route), whereas polydispersed Ag aggregates and detached Ag NPs were irregularly deposited over the TiO2 surface in previous works, which is the inherent problem and has not been effectively solved for depositing noble metal NPs such as Au, Ag, Pt, Pd on TiO2 surface by conventional PD method. The formation mechanism of small and uniformly dispersed Ag NPs with narrow size distribution via the modified PD method is tentatively explained by both nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics. The key reason is that the pre-deposited seeds firmly tethered on SiO2@TiO2 spheres served as nucleation sites and anchoring points for the further nucleation and subsequent growth of Ag via photoreduction of Ag+.

  15. Co-Seeding Human Endothelial Cells with Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Calcium Phosphate Scaffold Enhances Osteogenesis and Vascularization in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Chen, Wenchuan; Zhang, Chi; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Hu, Kevin; Reynolds, Mark A; Bao, Chongyun; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-06-01

    A major challenge in repairing large bone defects with tissue-engineered constructs is the poor vascularization in the defect. The lack of vascular networks leads to insufficient oxygen and nutrients supply, which compromises the survival of seeded cells. To achieve favorable regenerative effects, prevascularization of tissue-engineered constructs by co-culturing of endothelial cells and bone cells is a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for prevascularization of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold on bone regeneration in vivo for the first time. HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs formed microcapillary-like structures in vitro. HUVECs promoted mineralization of hiPSC-MSCs on CPC scaffolds. Four groups were tested in a cranial bone defect model in nude rats: (1) CPC scaffold alone (CPC control); (2) HUVEC-seeded CPC (CPC-HUVEC); (3) hiPSC-MSC-seeded CPC (CPC-hiPSC-MSC); and (4) HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs on CPC scaffolds (co-culture group). After 12 weeks, the co-culture group achieved the greatest new bone area percentage of 46.38% ± 3.8% among all groups (p < 0.05), which was more than four folds of the 10.61% ± 1.43% of CPC control. In conclusion, HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs substantially promoted bone regeneration. The novel construct of HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs delivered via CPC scaffolds is promising to enhance bone and vascular regeneration in orthopedic applications.

  16. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  17. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  18. Intracellular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with thermally stable gold nanoflowers grown from Pt and Pd seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2013-01-01

    SERS provides great sensitivity at low concentrations of analytes. SERS combined with near infrared (NIR)-resonant gold nanomaterials are important candidates for theranostic agents due to their combined extinction properties and sensing abilities stemming from the deep penetration of laser light in the NIR region. Here, highly branched gold nanoflowers (GNFs) grown from Pd and Pt seeds are prepared and their SERS properties are studied. The growth was performed at 80°C without stirring, and this high temperature growth method is assumed to provide great shape stability of sharp tips in GNFs. We found that seed size must be large enough (>30 nm in diameter) to induce the growth of those SERS-active and thermally stable GNFs. We also found that the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is important to induce sharp tip growth and shape stability. Incubation with Hela cells indicates that GNFs are taken up and reside in the cytoplasm. SERS was observed in those cells incubated with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen)-loaded GNFs. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Enhancing the recovery of oilseed rape seed oil bodies (oleosomes) using bicarbonate-based soaking and grinding media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Chirico, Simone; di Bari, Vincenzo; Foster, Tim; Gray, David

    2018-02-15

    An aqueous process for the recovery of oil bodies from rapeseed using sodium bicarbonate-based soaking and grinding media (pH 9.5) was investigated. The effect of the ratio between seed and mass of media during grinding and molarity of the medium used on oil body integrity, purity and storage stability have been studied. The grinding of seeds in solution at a ratio of 1:7 (w/w) significantly improved the quality of oil body suspension to a size more in-line with that seen in vivo (average D 4,3 of 1.19µm). The purity and the composition of the recovered oil bodies depends on the molarity of medium used; the use of a sodium bicarbonate solution (pH 9.5, 0.1M) in the grinding and washing steps produced oil body preparations with the same purity as that resulting from washing a crude preparation with 9M urea. The resultant emulsion had improved physical stability over a storage period of one month. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Intracellular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with thermally stable gold nanoflowers grown from Pt and Pd seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyon Min; Deng, Lin; Khashab, Niveen M

    2013-05-21

    SERS provides great sensitivity at low concentrations of analytes. SERS combined with near infrared (NIR)-resonant gold nanomaterials are important candidates for theranostic agents due to their combined extinction properties and sensing abilities stemming from the deep penetration of laser light in the NIR region. Here, highly branched gold nanoflowers (GNFs) grown from Pd and Pt seeds are prepared and their SERS properties are studied. The growth was performed at 80 °C without stirring, and this high temperature growth method is assumed to provide great shape stability of sharp tips in GNFs. We found that seed size must be large enough (>30 nm in diameter) to induce the growth of those SERS-active and thermally stable GNFs. We also found that the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is important to induce sharp tip growth and shape stability. Incubation with Hela cells indicates that GNFs are taken up and reside in the cytoplasm. SERS was observed in those cells incubated with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen)-loaded GNFs.

  1. Single-Step Seeded-Growth of Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs) via Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C.-C.; Yang, K.; Tseng, W.-S.; Li, Yiliang; Li, Yilun; Tour, J. M.; Yeh, N.-C.

    One of the main challenges in the fabrication of GNRs is achieving large-scale low-cost production with high quality. Current techniques, including lithography and unzipped carbon nanotubes, are not suitable for mass production. We have recently developed a single-step PECVD growth process of high-quality graphene sheets without any active heating. By adding some substituted aromatic as seeding molecules, we are able to rapidly grow GNRs vertically on various transition-metal substrates. The morphology and electrical properties of the GNRs are dependent on the growth parameters such as the growth time, gas flow and species of the seeding molecules. On the other hand, all GNRs exhibit strong infrared and optical absorption. From studies of the Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopic images, and x-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectra of these GNRs as functions of the growth parameters, we propose a model for the growth mechanism. Our findings suggest that our approach opens up a pathway to large-scale, inexpensive production of GNRs for applications to supercapacitors and solar cells. This work was supported by the Grubstake Award and NSF through IQIM at Caltech.

  2. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Wei, Hui [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ma, Guojie [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Antunes, Mauricio S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Vogt, Stefan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Cox, Joseph [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Zhang, Xiao [Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Liu, Xiping [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Bu, Lintao [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Gleber, S. Charlotte [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Carpita, Nicholas C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Makowski, Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Himmel, Michael E. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; McCann, Maureen C. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Murphy, Angus S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Peer, Wendy A. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA

    2016-04-07

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  3. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace (2005) showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the present study, we used a modified experimental paradigm, originally used by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (2008), to study IAMs under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Participants completed a monotonous vigilance task twice and reported the occurrence of any spontaneous thoughts that were later classed as IAMs or other thoughts. Priming was manipulated by having experimental participants reminiscing about high school period between the two vigilance tasks and control participants playing simple games. Results showed that participants in the experimental group reported IAMs relating to high school period more frequently during the second vigilance task than those in the control group. In the experimental group, the number of high school memories was marginally higher in the second vigilance task compared to the first vigilance task with the medium effect size, but this within subjects effect was not significant in the control group. Finally, priming also enhanced the retrieval of more remote IAMs in the experimental group compared to the control group. These results suggest that priming may play a significant role in the activation and recall of IAMs and open up interesting avenues for future research.

  4. An extracellular subtilase switch for immune priming in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ramírez

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, induced resistance associates with acquisition of a priming state of the cells for a more effective activation of innate immunity; however, the nature of the components for mounting this type of immunological memory is not well known. We identified an extracellular subtilase from Arabidopsis, SBT3.3, the overexpression of which enhances innate immune responses while the loss of function compromises them. SBT3.3 expression initiates a durable autoinduction mechanism that promotes chromatin remodeling and activates a salicylic acid(SA-dependent mechanism of priming of defense genes for amplified response. Moreover, SBT3.3 expression-sensitized plants for enhanced expression of the OXI1 kinase gene and activation of MAP kinases following pathogen attack, providing additional clues for the regulation of immune priming by SBT3.3. Conversely, in sbt3.3 mutant plants pathogen-mediated induction of SA-related defense gene expression is drastically reduced and activation of MAP kinases inhibited. Moreover, chromatin remodeling of defense-related genes normally associated with activation of an immune priming response appear inhibited in sbt3.3 plants, further indicating the importance of the extracellular SBT3.3 subtilase in the establishment of immune priming. Our results also point to an epigenetic control in the regulation of plant immunity, since SBT3.3 is up-regulated and priming activated when epigenetic control is impeded. SBT3.3 represents a new regulator of primed immunity.

  5. Oxygen transfer rate identifies priming compounds in parsley cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jana Viola; Schillheim, Britta; Mahr, Stefan; Reufer, Yannik; Sanjoyo, Sandi; Conrath, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-11-25

    In modern agriculture, the call for an alternative crop protection strategy increases because of the desired reduction of fungicide and pesticide use and the continuously evolving resistance of pathogens and pests to agrochemicals. The direct activation of the plant immune system does not provide a promising plant protection measure because of high fitness costs. However, upon treatment with certain natural or synthetic compounds, plant cells can promote to a fitness cost-saving, primed state of enhanced defense. In the primed state, plants respond to biotic and abiotic stress with faster and stronger activation of defense, and this is often associated with immunity and abiotic stress tolerance. Until now, the identification of chemical compounds with priming-inducing activity (so-called plant activators) relied on tedious and invasive approaches, or required the late detection of secreted furanocoumarin phytoalexins in parsley cell cultures. Thus, simple, fast, straightforward, and noninvasive techniques for identifying priming-inducing compounds for plant protection are very welcome. This report demonstrates that a respiration activity-monitoring system (RAMOS) can identify compounds with defense priming-inducing activity in parsley cell suspension in culture. RAMOS relies on the quasi-continuous, noninvasive online determination of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Treatment of parsley culture cells with the known plant activator salicylic acid (SA), a natural plant defense signal, resulted in an OTR increase. Addition of the defense elicitor Pep13, a cell wall peptide of Phythophthora sojae, induced two distinctive OTR peaks that were higher in SA-primed cells than in unprimed cells upon Pep13 challenge. Both, the OTR increase after priming with SA and the Pep13 challenge were dose-dependent. Furthermore, there was a close correlation of a compound's activity to enhance the oxygen consumption in parsley cells and its capacity to prime Pep13-induced furanocoumarin

  6. Past Their Prime

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Rebecca E

    2012-01-01

    Past Their Prime is a half-hour documentary about Colo— the oldest living gorilla in captivity — on her 55th birthday, and her place in the world of geriatric zoo animal care.                It’s winter at the Columbus Zoo in Columbus, Ohio. In the ape house elderly visitors browse slowly, wrapped in down jackets. Children run from exhibit to exhibit, pointing at the animals they see and announcing each one to their grandparents. Behind the glass, Colo, the...

  7. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  8. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark A.; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  9. Rhizobium Impacts on Seed Productivity, Quality, and Protection of Pisum sativum upon Disease Stress Caused by Didymella pinodes: Phenotypic, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ranjbar Sistani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs. Besides these growth promoting effects, Rhizobium symbiosis has been shown to have a priming impact on the plants immune system that enhances resistance against environmental perturbations. This is the first integrative study that investigates the effect of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae (Rlv on phenotypic seed quality, quantity and fungal disease in pot grown pea (Pisum sativum cultivars with two different resistance levels against D. pinodes through metabolomics and proteomics analyses. In addition, the pathogen effects on seed quantity components and quality are assessed at morphological and molecular level. Rhizobium inoculation decreased disease severity by significant reduction of seed infection level. Rhizobium symbiont enhanced yield through increased seed fresh and dry weights based on better seed filling. Rhizobium inoculation also induced changes in seed proteome and metabolome involved in enhanced P. sativum resistance level against D. pinodes. Besides increased redox and cell wall adjustments light is shed on the role of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and metabolites such as the seed triterpenoid Soyasapogenol. The results of this study open new insights into the significance of symbiotic Rhizobium interactions for crop yield, health and seed quality enhancement and reveal new metabolite candidates involved in pathogen resistance.

  10. Random reward priming is task-contingent: The robustness of the 1-trial reward priming effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árni Gunnar Ásgeirsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings are thought to reflect that rewarded features become more salient than unrewarded ones on the subsequent trial. Here we attempt to conceptually replicate this effect, testing its generalizability. In three versions of an analogous paradigm to the additional singleton paradigm involving singleton search for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm.

  11. Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    Full Text Available Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.

  12. Prime time sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  13. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  14. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  15. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  16. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  17. Impact of Intensity and Exposure Duration of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan FEIZI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of seed hydro priming and magnetic field on tomato seed germination an experiment was conducted in laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. The experimental treatments were all combinations of two levels of hydro priming (use of dry seed and soaked seed for five h in distilled water and eight levels of magnetic field treatments (pretreatment of seeds in 15 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, pretreatment of seeds in 25 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, continuous magnetic field with 3 mT and control with four replications. Results indicated that hydro priming of seeds reduced mean germination time significantly. Root length increased by 14 percent in seed hydro priming treatment in comparison with dry seed treatment. Shoot length, seedling length and vigor index of hydro primed seeds increased by 7, 12 and 13 percent, respectively compared with dry seeds. Exposure of seeds with 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min increased root length by 29 and 25 percents, respectively in comparison with control. The highest shoot length, seedling length and vigor index were obtained in 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min.

  18. Sonication of seeds increase germination performance of sesame under low temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effect of ultrasound (US exposure time on germination behavior of sesame seeds. All tests were carried out at 20 kHz in a water bath ultrasonic device varying two factors, treatment duration (10, 20 and 30 min and germination temperature (15, 20 and 25 ºC. Parallel tests were run in which seeds were soaked in water without sonication in order to eliminate the effect of water from US test results. US treatments enhanced seeds water uptake. At mild exposure time it improved sesame seed germination performance and seedling growth at suboptimal temperatures as indicated by higher germination percentage and germination rate. US applying for 20 min had relatively high superoxide dismutase activity; however, had not significant differences with control and US duration for 10 min. The catalase activity was strongly increased by applying the US for a 10 and 20 min. Among the treatments, application of US vibration for 10 and 20 min reduced both of malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents, however high US duration (30 min increased both of the traits. In general, ultrasonic priming technique can be useful for early planting the sesame seeds, and lead to higher yields.

  19. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  20. Sequential experiments with primes

    CERN Document Server

    Caragiu, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    With a specific focus on the mathematical life in small undergraduate colleges, this book presents a variety of elementary number theory insights involving sequences largely built from prime numbers and contingent number-theoretic functions. Chapters include new mathematical ideas and open problems, some of which are proved in the text. Vector valued MGPF sequences, extensions of Conway’s Subprime Fibonacci sequences, and linear complexity of bit streams derived from GPF sequences are among the topics covered in this book. This book is perfect for the pure-mathematics-minded educator in a small undergraduate college as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduate students looking for a significant high-impact learning experience in mathematics.

  1. Continued Funding for Prime Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    PHP language with the help of CMF Drupal-6. The standard modules of the Drupal core set are developed by third parties and obtained from the...repository drupal.org. Part of the modules was modified specifically for the PrIMe portal. The PrIMe portal uses MySQL for the database technology. It is

  2. Mechanisms of subliminal response priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2008-07-15

    Subliminal response priming has been considered to operate on several stages, e.g. perceptual, central or motor stages might be affected. While primes' impact on target perception has been clearly demonstrated, semantic response priming recently has been thrown into doubt (e.g. Klinger, Burton, & Pitts, 2000). Finally, LRP studies have revealed that subliminal primes evoke motor processes. Yet, the premises for such prime-evoked motor activation are not settled. A transfer of priming to stimuli that have never been presented as targets appears particularly interesting because it suggests a level of processing that goes beyond a reactivation of previously acquired S-R links. Yet, such transfer has not always withstood empirical testing. To account for these contradictory results, we proposed a two-process model (Kunde, Kiesel, & Hoffmann, 2003): First, participants build up expectations regarding imperative stimuli for the required responses according to experience and/or instructions. Second, stimuli that match these "action triggers" directly activate the corresponding motor responses irrespective of their conscious identification. In line with these assumptions, recent studies revealed that non-target primes induce priming when they fit the current task intentions and when they are expected in the experimental setting.

  3. MPQS with three large primes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, P.; Lenstra, A.K.; Dodson, B.; Muffett, A.; Wagstaff, S.; Fieker, C.; Kohel, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We report the factorization of a 135-digit integer by the triple-large-prime variation of the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve. Previous workers [6][10] had suggested that using more than two large primes would be counterproductive, because of the greatly increased number of false reports from

  4. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  5. Preventing thermoinhibition in a thermosensitive lettuce genotype by seed imbibition at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed germination is strongly temperature dependent and under high temperatures, germination of most of genotypes can be erratic or completely inhibited. Lettuce seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB were incubated at temperatures ranging from 15degrees to 35degreesC at light and dark conditions. Other seeds were imbibed in dark at 20degrees; 25degrees; 30degrees; and 35degreesC for 8 and 16 hours and then transferred to 20 or 35degreesC, in dark. Seeds were also incubated at constant temperature of 20degrees and 35 degreesC, in the dark, as control. In another treatment, seeds were primed for 3 days at 15degreesC with constant light. DGB lettuce seeds required light to germinate adequately at temperatures above 25degreesC. Seeds incubated at 20degreesC had 97% germination, whereas seeds incubated at 35degreesC did not germinate. Seeds imbibed at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours had germination. At 35degreesC, seeds imbibed initially at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours, had 89 and 97% germination, respectively. Seeds imbibed at 25degreesC for 16 hours, germinated satisfactory at 35degreesC. High temperatures of imbibition led to no germination. Primed and non-primed seeds had 100% germination at 20degreesC. Primed seeds had 100% germination at 35degreesC, whereas non-primed seeds germinate only 4%. The first hours of imbibition are very critical for lettuce seed germination at high temperatures.

  6. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  7. Enhancement of TiO2 NPs Activity by Fe3O4 Nano-Seeds for Removal of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, synthesized in the presence of a very small amount of magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles, is here presented and discussed. From X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses, the crystallinity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs seems to be affected by Fe3O4, acting as nano-seeds to improve the tetragonal TiO2 anatase structure with respect to the amorphous one. Photocatalytic activity data, i.e., the degradation of methylene blue and the Ofloxacin fluoroquinolone emerging pollutant, give evidence that the increased crystalline structure of the NPs, even if correlated to a reduced surface to mass ratio (with respect to commercial TiO2 NPs, enhances the performance of this type of catalyst. The achievement of a relatively well-defined crystal structure at low temperatures (Tmax = 150 °C, preventing the sintering of the TiO2 NPs and, thus, preserving the high density of active sites, seems to be the keystone to understand the obtained results.

  8. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  9. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  10. Priming semantico e museografia / Semantic priming and museography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Banzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Il priming è una tipologia di memoria implicita che facilita l’apprendimento di stimoli di diversa natura (stimoli visivi, semantici, etc.. Un allestimento museale che adotti strumenti basati sul priming potrebbe aiutare il pubblico a selezionare i contenuti relativi agli oggetti esposti. In questo articolo viene descritta l’applicazione del priming semantico allo spazio museale. Questa operazione in prima battutta potrebbe essere letta come una mancanza di fiducia nelle capacità cognitive del visitatore nel discriminare il significato delle informazioni. In realtà è una forma di sostegno per aiutare il visitatore a sviluppare gradualmente una propria metodologia di approccio ai contenuti proposti nel museo. Grazie al priming, il pubblico riceve una serie di stimoli che possono aiutare a costituire la base delle proprie conoscenze in ambito storico-artistico ed essere il punto di partenza sul quale costruire un metodo critico.   Many psychological aspects such as motivation, emotion, and attention, affect human learning. Among these, priming triggers and tunes implicit memory processes. Hence the goal of this paper is to check whether semantic priming can be used as an effective tool to design a supportive museum environment where people can easily learn. Moreover, the resulting stronger and more persistent memories could encourage museum visitors to learn more and better, and to develop a method to “read” the artworks. After a brief overview of current models of semantic priming, practical and theoretical issues are considered and discussed.

  11. The Prime Numbers Hidden Symmetric Structure and its Relation to the Twin Prime Infinitude and an Improved Prime Number Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Mikoss, I

    2006-01-01

    Due to the sieving process represented by a Secondary Sieving Map; during the generation of the prime numbers, geometric structures with definite symmetries are formed which become evident through their geometrical representations. The study of these structures allows the development of a constructive prime generating formula. This defines a mean prime density yielding a second order recursive and discrete prime producing formula and a second order differential equation whose solutions produce an improved Prime Number Theorem. Applying these results to twin prime pairs is possible to generate a Twin Prime Number Theorem and important conclusions about the infinitude of the twin primes.

  12. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  13. Synergistic enhancement of ethylene production and germination with kinetin and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid in lettuce seeds exposed to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Huang, X L

    1988-08-01

    Relief of salt (0.1 molar NaCl) stress on germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv Mesa 659) seeds occurred with applications of 0.05 millimolar kinetin (KIN) and 1 to 10 millimolar 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Treatment with KIN enhanced the pregermination ethylene production under saline condition. A synergistic or an additive enhancement of pregermination ethylene production and germination occurred under saline condition in the presence of KIN and a saturating dose (10 millimolar) of ACC. No KIN-ACC synergism was noted in ethylene production or germination under nonsaline condition. Addition of 1 millimolar aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) inhibited the KIN-enhanced pregermination ethylene production (85 to 89%) and germination (58%) under saline condition but not the synergistic effect of KIN + ACC on ethylene production. Under nonsaline condition, AVG had no effect on germination even though ethylene production was strongly inhibited. Alleviation of salt stress by KIN was inhibited in a competitive manner by 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) (0.02-0.2 milliliter per liter), and the addition of ACC and/or ethylene reduced this inhibition. An increase in the pregermination ethylene production and germination occurred also by cotylenin E (CN) under saline condition. However, neither AVG (1 millimolar) nor NBD (0.02 to 0.2 milliliter per liter) prevented the relief of salt stress by CN. Thus, KIN may alleviate salt stress on germination by promoting both ACC production and its conversion to ethylene. Rapid utilization of ACC may be the basis for the synergistic or the additive effect of KIN plus ACC. The need for ethylene production and action for the relief of salt stress is circumvented by a treatment with CN.

  14. Modified Multi Prime RSA Cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Aminudin, N.; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini

    2018-04-01

    RSA [1] is one of the mostly used cryptosystem in securing data and information. Though, it has been recently discovered that RSA has some weaknesses and in advance technology, RSA is believed to be inefficient especially when it comes to decryption. Thus, a new algorithm called Multi prime RSA, an extended version of the standard RSA is studied. Then, a modification is made to the Multi prime RSA where another keys is shared secretly between the receiver and the sender to increase the securerity. As in RSA, the methodology used for modified Multi-prime RSA also consists of three phases; 1. Key Generation in which the secret and public keys are generated and published. In this phase, the secrecy is improved by adding more prime numbers and addition of secret keys. 2. Encryption of the message using the public and secret keys given. 3. Decryption of the secret message using the secret key generated. For the decryption phase, a method called Chinese Remainder Theorem is used which helps to fasten the computation. Since Multi prime RSA use more than two prime numbers, the algorithm is more efficient and secure when compared to the standard RSA. Furthermore, in modified Multi prime RSA another secret key is introduced to increase the obstacle to the attacker. Therefore, it is strongly believed that this new algorithm is better and can be an alternative to the RSA.

  15. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  16. Rapid on-site detection of Acidovorax citrulli by cross-priming amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Qian; Zhu, Shui-fang; Zhao, Wen-jun; Liu, Feng-quan

    2012-08-01

    Cross-priming amplification (CPA) for Acidovorax citrulli detection was evaluated in this study. The sensitivity of CPA assay for pure bacterial culture was 3.7 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Bacteria on naturally infected watermelon seeds were detected using CPA assay, suggesting this method is suitable for A. citrulli on-site detection from watermelon seeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of priming with silicon on the growth and tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ِArafat eAbdel Latef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has been known to augment plant defense against biotic and abiotic pressures. Maize (Zea maize L. is classified as a Si accumulator and is relatively susceptible to alkaline stress. In this work, grains of maize were grown in pots and exposed to various concentrations of Na2CO3 (0, 25, 50 and 75 mM with or without 1.5 mM Si in the form of sodium metasilicate Na2O3Si.5H2O for 25 days. Alkaline-stressed plants showed a decrease in growth parameters, leaf relative water content (LRWC, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total phenols and potassium ion (K+, as well as potassium/sodium ion (K+/Na+ ratio. By contrast, alkaline stress increased the contents of soluble proteins, total free amino acids, proline, Na+ and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD in stressed plants. On the other hand, application of Si by grain priming improved growth of stressed plants, which was accompanied by the enhancement in LRWC, levels of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids, K+ and activities of SOD, CAT and POD enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplement resulted in a decrease in the contents of proline, MDA and Na+, which together with enhanced K+ level led to a favorable adjustment of K+/Na+ ratio, in stressed plants relative to plants treated with alkaline stress alone. Taken together, these results indicate that Si plays a pivotal role in alleviating the negative effects of alkaline stress on the maize growth by improving water status, enhancing photosynthetic pigments, accumulating osmoprotectants rather than proline, activating the antioxidant machinery, and maintaining the balance of K+/Na+. Thus, our findings demonstrate that seed priming with Si is an efficient strategy that can be used to boost tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress.

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  19. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  20. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 (lmm9150, exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H2O2. Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610 in lmm9150. Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150. Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150. Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  1. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yongxiang; Bai, Que; Xu, Peizhou; Wu, Tingkai; Guo, Daiming; Peng, Yongbin; Zhang, Hongyu; Deng, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xiaoqiong; Luo, Ming; Ali, Asif; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun

    2018-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 ( lmm9150 ), exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H 2 O 2 . Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610) in lmm9150 . Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150 . Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150 . Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  2. Physiological Response to Salinity Stress by Primed Seedsof Three Species of Lawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Sedaghathoor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most important ecological stresses which have undesirable effects on seed germination. This study was carried out to evaluate the germination of three species of lawn (Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne, Cynodon dactylon seeds under salinity stress. The effect of different treatments (Gibberellins 50 mgl-1, 2% CaCl2 and hydroprimig in 24 hours was evaluated on total germination, mean daily germination, maximum and mean germination percent in three species of lawn, under four levels of salinity (0, 3, 6, 9 dS/m. Priming factor (Gibberellins and water was more effective than salinity on the seed germination. Among lawn types, Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon indicated greater seed germination percentage and germination rate. The least rate and percentage of germination belonged to Poa pratensis. Among priming treatments, gibberellins had the greatest effect on germination, followed by hydropriming. However, interaction effects of "Lolium × CaCl2" were greater than other treatments on the mean daily germination and germination value. Based on the results, seed priming specially Gibberellins could be an appropriate substrate to improve seed germination in lawns, when grown under salinity.

  3. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  4. Low-temperature formation of crystalline Si:H/Ge:H heterostructures by plasma-enhanced CVD in combination with Ni-nanodots seeding nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yimin; Makihara, Katsunori; Takeuchi, Daichi; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Ohta, Akio; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline (µc) Si/Ge heterostructures were prepared on quartz substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from VHF inductively coupled plasma of SiH4 just after GeH4 employing Ni nanodots (NDs) as seeds for crystalline nucleation. The crystallinity of the films and the progress of grain growth were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. When the Ge films were grown on Ni-NDs at 250 °C, the growth of µc-Ge films with crystallinity as high as 80% was realized without an amorphous phase near the Ge film/quartz substrate interface. After the subsequent Si film deposition at 250 °C, fine grains were formed in the early stages of film growth on µc-Ge films with compositional mixing (µc-Si0.85Ge0.15:H) caused by the release of large lattice mismatch between c-Si and c-Ge. With further increase in Si:H film thickness, the formation of large grain structures accompanied by fine grains was promoted. These results suggest that crystalline Si/Ge heterojunctions can be used for efficient carrier collection in solar cell application.

  5. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  6. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar

    2010-01-01

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils.

  7. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (author)

  8. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  9. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  10. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  11. Heat processing of peanut seed enhances the sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Blanche; Bernard, Hervé; Drumare, Marie-Françoise; Hazebrouck, Stéphane; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2016-12-01

    Processing of food has been shown to impact IgE binding and functionality of food allergens. In the present study, we investigated the impact of heat processing on the sensitization capacity of Ara h 6, a major peanut allergen and one of the most potent elicitors of the allergic reaction. Peanut extracts obtained from raw or heat-processed peanut and some fractions thereof were biochemically and immunochemically characterized. These extracts/fractions, purified Ara h 6, or recombinant Ara h 6 including Ara h 6 mutants lacking disulfide bridges were used in in vitro digestion tests and mouse models of experimental sensitization. Peanut roasting led to the formation of complexes of high molecular weight, notably between Ara h 6 and Ara h 1, which supported the induction of IgE specific to native Ara h 6. On the contrary, a fraction containing free monomeric 2S albumins or purified native Ara h 6 displayed no intrinsic allergenicity. In addition to complex formation, heat denaturation and/or partial destabilization enhanced Ara h 6 immunogenicity and increased its sensitivity to digestion. These results suggest that sensitization potency and IgE binding capacity can be supported by different structures, modified and/or produced during food processing in interaction with other food constituents. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Salt tolerance and regulation of gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis by auxin-priming in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the regulatory effects of auxin-priming on gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis in spring wheat subjected to saline conditions. Seeds of MH-97 (salt-intolerant and Inqlab-91 (salt-tolerant cultivars were subjected to 11 priming treatments (three hormones x three concentrations + two controls and evaluated under saline (15 dS m-1 and nonsaline (2.84 dS m-1 conditions. The priming treatments consisted of: 5.71, 8.56, and 11.42 × 10-4 mol L-1 indoleacetic acid; 4.92, 7.38, and 9.84 × 10-4 mol L-1 indolebutyric acid; 4.89, 7.34, and 9.79 × 10-4 mol L-1 tryptophan; and a control with hydroprimed seeds. A negative control with nonprimed seeds was also evaluated. All priming agents diminished the effects of salinity on endogenous abscisic acid concentration in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Grain yield was positively correlated with net CO2 assimilation rate and endogenous indoleacetic acid concentration, and it was negatively correlated with abscisic acid and free polyamine concentrations. In general, the priming treatment with tryptophan at 4.89 × 10-4 mol L-1 was the most effective in minimizing yield losses and reductions in net CO2 assimilation rate, under salt stress conditions. Hormonal homeostasis increases net CO2 assimilation rate and confers tolerance to salinity on spring wheat.

  13. Sulforaphane Modifies Histone H3, Unpacks Chromatin, and Primes Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillheim, Britta; Jansen, Irina; Baum, Stephani; Beesley, Alexander; Bolm, Carsten; Conrath, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound. While elucidating SFN's mode of action in defense priming, we found that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) the isothiocyanate provokes covalent modification (K4me3, K9ac) of histone H3 in the promoter and promoter-proximal region of defense genes WRKY6 and PDF1 2 , but not PR1 SFN-triggered H3K4me3 and H3K9ac coincide with chromatin unpacking in the WRKY6 and PDF1 2 regulatory regions, primed WRKY6 expression, unprimed PDF1 2 activation, and reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease ( Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis ). Because SFN also directly inhibits H arabidopsidis and other plant pathogens, the isothiocyanate is promising for the development of a plant protectant with a dual mode of action. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Physical, metabolic and developmental functions of the seed coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2014-01-01

    The conventional understanding of the role of the seed coat is that it provides a protective layer for the developing zygote. Recent data show that the picture is more nuanced. The seed coat certainly represents a first line of defense against adverse external factors, but it also acts as channel for transmitting environmental cues to the interior of the seed. The latter function primes the seed to adjust its metabolism in response to changes in its external environment. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive view of the structure and functionality of the seed coat, and to expose its hidden interaction with both the endosperm and embryo. Any breeding and/or biotechnology intervention seeking to increase seed size or modify seed features will have to consider the implications on this tripartite interaction. PMID:25346737

  15. Plant growth regulators and ascorbic acid effects on physiological quality of wheat seedlings obtained from deteriorated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moori, S.; Eisv, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the effect of seed priming using plant growth regulators and vitamin C on the physiological traits of non-aged and aged seeds of wheat and their obtained seedlings. Accelerated aging (AA) method (40 degree C, RH=100% for 72h) was used for aging seeds. The seeds were pre-treated by gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), brassinosteroid (BR), and ascorbic acid (AS). Some seed traits such as germination and electric conductivity (EC) and seedling traits such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein content (SP), soluble sugar (SS), and proline were measured seven days after germination. The results showed that accelerated aging of seeds reduces the germination percentage and speed, increases soluble sugar, and reduces soluble protein, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedling. Pre-treatment of the aged seed by GA had the maximum positive impact on seed germination and seedling growth. Priming improved germination indices, quality of seedling, and seedling resistance against the oxidative stress caused by AA. It also improved cell membrane integrity and thus reduced seeds’ EC. Priming increased the activity of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes in both aged and non-aged seeds. When the deteriorated seeds were primed, proline and SS contents of the seedling increased significantly, but SP and MDA decreased. In general, pre-treatment of the non-aged and aged seeds by gibberellin improved the physiological quality of the seed and seedling. (author)

  16. Effect of priming on growth, biochemical parameters and mineral composition of different cultivars of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fredj Meriem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At Higher Institute of Agriculture of Chott Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia, this study was conducted to evaluate the interactive effect of salinity and seed priming on coriander. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications consisting of four coriander genotypes (Tunisian cv, Algerian cv, Syrian cv and Egyptian cv at two seed conditions (seed priming with 4 g/l NaCl for 12h or no seed priming. Results revealed that seed priming and salinity had significantly (p≤0.05 affected all the parameters under study. On the first hand, salinity stress had adversely affected growth, chlorophyll content, mineral composition (K+ and Ca2+ of coriander in all genotypes. Also, it activated Na+ accumulation and synthesis of proline, soluble sugars and proteins. However, seed priming with NaCl had diminished the negative impact of salt stress in all cultivars and primed plants showed better response to salinity compared to unprimed plants. Maximum values were recorded in tolerant cultivar which is Tunisian one whereas minimum values were noted in sensitive cultivar (Algerian cv.

  17. Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrated seeds can be re-dried for four hours without loss of physiological ..... nature of the variety as it displays heterosis, the ... characters and hence dry matter production and yield. .... effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon.

  18. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  19. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  20. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  1. Beta Regression Finite Mixture Models of Polarization and Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; Merkle, Edgar C.; Verkuilen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of finite-mixture general linear models based on the beta distribution to modeling response styles, polarization, anchoring, and priming effects in probability judgments. These models, in turn, enhance our capacity for explicitly testing models and theories regarding the aforementioned phenomena. The mixture…

  2. The structure factor of primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Martelli, F.; Torquato, S.

    2018-03-01

    Although the prime numbers are deterministic, they can be viewed, by some measures, as pseudo-random numbers. In this article, we numerically study the pair statistics of the primes using statistical-mechanical methods, particularly the structure factor S(k) in an interval M ≤slant p ≤slant M + L with M large, and L/M smaller than unity. We show that the structure factor of the prime-number configurations in such intervals exhibits well-defined Bragg-like peaks along with a small ‘diffuse’ contribution. This indicates that primes are appreciably more correlated and ordered than previously thought. Our numerical results definitively suggest an explicit formula for the locations and heights of the peaks. This formula predicts infinitely many peaks in any non-zero interval, similar to the behavior of quasicrystals. However, primes differ from quasicrystals in that the ratio between the location of any two predicted peaks is rational. We also show numerically that the diffuse part decays slowly as M and L increases. This suggests that the diffuse part vanishes in an appropriate infinite-system-size limit.

  3. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  4. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  5. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  6. New vaccine strategies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: II: Enhanced systemic and secreted antibody responses against the CFA/I fimbriae by priming with DNA and boosting with a live recombinant Salmonella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lásaro

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of systemic (IgG and mucosal (IgA antibody responses against the colonization factor I antigen (CFA/I of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC was evaluated in mice primed with an intramuscularly delivered CFA/I-encoding DNA vaccine followed by two oral immunizations with a live recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing the ETEC antigen. The booster effect induced by the oral immunization was detected two weeks and one year after the administration of the DNA vaccine. The DNA-primed/Salmonella-boosted vaccination regime showed a synergistic effect on the induced CFA/I-specific systemic and secreted antibody levels which could not be attained by either immunization strategy alone. These results suggest that the combined use of DNA vaccines and recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains can be a useful immunization strategy against enteric pathogens.

  7. Melatonin alleviates low PS I-limited carbon assimilation under elevated CO2 and enhances the cold tolerance of offspring in chlorophyll b-deficient mutant wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Brestic, Marian; Tan, Dun-xian

    2018-01-01

    the activities of ATPase and sucrose synthesis and maintaining a relatively higher level of total chlorophyll concentration in leaves. In addition, melatonin priming in maternal plants at grain filling promoted the seed germination in offspring by accelerating the starch degradation and improved the cold...... tolerance of seedlings through activating the antioxidant enzymes and enhancing the photosynthetic electron transport efficiency. These findings suggest the important roles of melatonin in plant response to future climate change, indicating that the melatonin priming at grain filling in maternal plants...

  8. Extending the photon energy coverage of an x-ray self-seeding FEL via the reverse taper enhanced harmonic generation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kaiqing; Qi, Zheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao, E-mail: fengchao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Haixiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Zhentang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-05-11

    In this paper, a simple method is proposed to extend the photon energy range of a soft x-ray self-seeding free-electron laser (FEL). A normal monochromator is first applied to purify the FEL spectrum and provide a coherent seeding signal. This coherent signal then interacts with the electron beam in the following reverse tapered undulator section to generate strong coherent microbunchings while maintain the good quality of the electron beam. After that, the pre-bunched electron beam is sent into the third undulator section which resonates at a target high harmonic of the seed to amplify the coherent radiation at shorter wavelength. Three dimensional simulations have been performed and the results demonstrate that the photon energy gap between 1.5 keV and 4.5 keV of the self-seeding scheme can be fully covered and 100 GW-level peak power can be achieved by using the proposed technique.

  9. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  10. Stock enhancement or sea ranching? Insights from monitoring the genetic diversity, relatedness and effective population size in a seeded great scallop population (Pecten maximus)

    OpenAIRE

    Morvezen, R; Boudry, P; Laroche, J; Charrier, G

    2016-01-01

    The mass release of hatchery-propagated stocks raises numerous questions concerning its efficiency in terms of local recruitment and effect on the genetic diversity of wild populations. A seeding program, consisting of mass release of hatchery-produced juveniles in the local naturally occurring population of great scallops (Pecten maximus L.), was initiated in the early 1980s in the Bay of Brest (France). The present study aims at evaluating whether this seeding program leads to actual popula...

  11. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  12. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  13. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  14. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  15. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  16. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  18. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  19. On primes in Lucas sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 2-23 ISSN 0015-0517 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lucas sequence * primes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.fq.math.ca/Abstracts/53-1/somer.pdf

  20. Osmopriming-induced salt tolerance during seed germination of alfalfa most likely mediates through H2O2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The present study showed that osmopriming or pretreatment with low H 2 O 2 doses (2 mM) for 6 h alleviated salt-reduced seed germination. The NADPH oxidase activity was the main source, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity might be a secondary source of H 2 O 2 generation during osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment. Hematin pretreatment similar to osmopriming improved salt-reduced seed germination that was coincident with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment was able to upregulate heme oxygenase HO-1 transcription, while the application of N,N-dimethyl thiourea (DMTU as trap of endogenous H 2 O 2 ) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI as inhibitor of NADPHox) not only blocked the upregulation of HO but also reversed the osmopriming-induced salt attenuation. The addition of CO-saturated aqueous rescued the inhibitory effect of DMTU and DPI on seed germination and α-amylase activity during osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment, but H 2 O 2 could not reverse the inhibitory effect of ZnPPIX (as HO inhibitor) or Hb (as CO scavenger) that indicates that the CO acts downstream of H 2 O 2 in priming-driven salt acclimation. The antioxidant enzymes and proline synthesis were upregulated in roots of seedlings grown from primed seeds, and these responses were reversed by adding DMTU, ZnPPIX, and Hb during osmopriming. These findings for the first time suggest that H 2 O 2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase play a crucial role in priming-driven salt tolerance.

  1. Diuretics Prime Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application. PMID:23144763

  2. Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in 'Coreano' garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Zavala-Gutiérrez, Karla G; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2013-11-06

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.

  3. Structural priming, action planning, and grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Maryellen C; Weiss, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.

  4. Priming methods in semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Mora; Spector, Benjamin; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a powerful method to inform linguistic theories. We argue that this method extends nicely beyond syntax to theories of meaning. Priming, however, should still be seen as only one of the tools available for linguistic data collection. Specifically, because priming can occur at different, potentially conflicting levels, it cannot detect every aspect of linguistic representations.

  5. Aggressive priming online: Facebook adverts can prime aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Through the process of priming, incidental stimuli in our environments can influence our thoughts, feelings and behavior. This may be true of incidental stimuli in online environments, such as adverts on websites. Two experiments (N=325, N=331) showed that the mere presence of advertisements with violent content on a simulated Facebook page induced higher levels of aggression-related cognition in comparison to non-violent adverts (d=0.56 , d=0.71). In a subsequent word recognition task, parti...

  6. Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses

    OpenAIRE

    NOUMAN, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in amino acids, ascorbate, zeatin, minerals, and many other compounds known for their growth-promoting potential. This study was planned to explore the potential of MLE as a seed priming agent to increase the germination rate and plant vigor of 3 range grasses, i.e. Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale, and Echinochloa crusgalli. The priming strategies used were hydropriming, CaCl2, PEG-8000 (-1.1 M Pa), MLE (concentrate; 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40...

  7. Weed seed predation in organic and conventional fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Wratten, S.D.; Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological control of weed seeds may improve sustainability of agricultural production. Biological control due to seed predation may be higher in organic fields because organic production generally supports more seed predators. To investigate such a difference, weed seed predation...... University and in two of the fields used for estimating seed predation. Recording of predators had therefore limited overlap with seed predation assays but was expected to give important information on key seed predators in the region. The mean seed removal rate was 17% in organic fields compared with 10...... edges. Overall, there was no consistent effect of distance from the field edge. Vegetation had a significant influence on the predation rates, with maximum rates at a medium-dense plant cover. Based on the video images, birds were the most important seed predators. The higher weed seed predation rate...

  8. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  9. Priming motivation through unattended speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Sarrazin, Philippe; Jehu, Marie; Pelletier, Luc

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether motivation can be primed through unattended speech. Study 1 used a dichotic-listening paradigm and repeated strength measures. In comparison to the baseline condition, in which the unattended channel was only composed by neutral words, the presence of words related to high (low) intensity of motivation led participants to exert more (less) strength when squeezing a hand dynamometer. In a second study, a barely audible conversation was played while participants' attention was mobilized on a demanding task. Participants who were exposed to a conversation depicting intrinsic motivation performed better and persevered longer in a subsequent word-fragment completion task than those exposed to the same conversation made unintelligible. These findings suggest that motivation can be primed without attention. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Z(prime) Phenomenology and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z(prime) gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z(prime) properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z(prime) nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z(prime) studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z(prime)

  11. Kinetic and metabolic studies on the priming effect of interferon in L cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosztoczy, I.

    1977-01-01

    In cultures primed by interferon pretreatment before stimulation by polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid interferon was detected one hour earlier, its production followed an enhanced pattern and became resistant to actinomycin D 30 min sooner than in unprimed cultures. The kinetics of development of the primed state was found to be a time- and dose-dependent phenomenon. The continuous presence of interferon during the pretreatment period was not required for the development of the primed state. Actinomycin D at a concentration inhibitory for nuclear RNA synthesis did not influence the development of priming. Higher concentrations of the drug and long term α-amanitin or cycloheximide pretreatments, inhibitory for heterogeneous nuclear RNA synthesis, prevented the establishment of the primed state. (author)

  12. An adaptive-learning approach to affect regulation: strategic influences on evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Peter; Bluemke, Matthias; Fiedler, Klaus

    2011-04-01

    An adaptive cognition approach to evaluative priming is not compatible with the view that the entire process is automatically determined by prime stimulus valence alone. In addition to the evaluative congruity of individual prime-target pairs, an adaptive regulation function should be sensitive to the base rates of positive and negative stimuli as well as to the perceived contingency between prime and target valence. The present study was particularly concerned with pseudocontingent inferences that offer a proxy for the assessment of contingencies from degraded or incomplete stimulus input. As expected, response latencies were shorter for the more prevalent target valence and for evaluatively congruent trials. However, crucially, the congruity effect was eliminated and overridden by pseudocontingencies inferred from the stimulus environment. These strategic inferences were further enhanced when the task called for the evaluation of both prime stimuli and target stimuli. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  13. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  14. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  15. Synergistic Exposure of Rice Seeds to Different Doses of γ-Ray and Salinity Stress Resulted in Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Gene-Specific Modulation of TC-NER Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Macovei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ-rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ-rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ-irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ-rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival.

  16. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  17. Attention and Implicit Memory: Priming-Induced Benefits and Costs Have Distinct Attentional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Margaret M.; Cruz, Matt E.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Attention at encoding plays a critical and ubiquitous role in explicit memory performance, but its role in implicit memory performance (i.e., priming) is more variable: Some, but not all, priming effects are reduced by division of attention at encoding. A wealth of empirical and theoretical work has aimed to define the critical features of priming effects that do or do not require attention at encoding. This work, however, has focused exclusively on priming effects that are beneficial in nature (wherein performance is enhanced by prior exposure to task stimuli), and has overlooked priming effects that are costly in nature (wherein performance is harmed by prior exposure to task stimuli). The present study takes up this question by examining the effect of divided attention on priming-induced costs and benefits in a speeded picture-naming task. Experiment 1 shows that the costs, but not the benefits, are eliminated by division of attention at encoding. Experiment 2 shows that the costs (as well as the benefits) in this task are intact in amnesic participants, demonstrating that the elimination of the cost in the divided attention condition in Experiment 1 was not an artifact of the reduced availability of explicit memory in that condition. We suggest that the differential role of attention in priming-induced performance costs and benefits is linked to differences in response competition associated with these effects. This interpretation situates the present findings within a theoretical framework that has been applied to a broad range of facilitatory priming effects. PMID:25257650

  18. Attention and implicit memory: priming-induced benefits and costs have distinct attentional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Margaret M; Cruz, Matt E; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-02-01

    Attention at encoding plays a critical and ubiquitous role in explicit memory performance, but its role in implicit memory performance (i.e., priming) is more variable: some, but not all, priming effects are reduced by division of attention at encoding. A wealth of empirical and theoretical work has aimed to define the critical features of priming effects that do or do not require attention at encoding. This work, however, has focused exclusively on priming effects that are beneficial in nature (wherein performance is enhanced by prior exposure to task stimuli), and has overlooked priming effects that are costly in nature (wherein performance is harmed by prior exposure to task stimuli). The present study takes up this question by examining the effect of divided attention on priming-induced costs and benefits in a speeded picture-naming task. Experiment 1 shows that the costs, but not the benefits, are eliminated by division of attention at encoding. Experiment 2 shows that the costs (as well as the benefits) in this task are intact in amnesic participants, demonstrating that the elimination of the cost in the divided attention condition in Experiment 1 was not an artifact of the reduced availability of explicit memory in that condition. We suggest that the differential role of attention in priming-induced performance costs and benefits is linked to differences in response competition associated with these effects. This interpretation situates the present findings within a theoretical framework that has been applied to a broad range of facilitatory priming effects.

  19. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  20. Natural gas prime movers: A prime income opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Although almost every factory, for example, uses compressed air to operate and control equipment--from power tools to packaging machinery--most air compressors are driven by electric motors. Similarly, although industry uses refrigeration for everything from freezing food to chilling warehouses to making chemicals and ice to operating skating rinks, natural gas powers only about 100 industrial refrigeration units in North America. But several factors are beginning to make natural gas more attractive as a prime mover. For one thing, the rising cost of electricity, with its demand or time-of-day and summer on-peak charges, has everyone looking for ways to cut their electric bills. At the same time, in the wake of deregulation of the nation's electric industry, customers can build on-site power plants that use natural gas to generate their own electricity, or have outside power suppliers or energy service companies (ESCOs) do it for them. Waste and exhaust heat, which can represent up to 60% of the total energy supplied from both engines and turbines, can be captured and used. Finally, growing concern over electric power outages has made natural gas more attractive for mission-critical operations, while new financing options let people buy and install natural gas prime movers more easily

  1. Ectopic phytocystatin expression leads to enhanced drought stress tolerance in soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis thaliana through effects on strigolactone pathways and can also result in improved seed traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Márquez-García, Belén; Comadira, Gloria; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Olmos, Enrique; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic cystatin expression has long been used in plant pest management, but the cysteine protease, targets of these inhibitors, might also have important functions in the control of plant lifespan and stress tolerance that remain poorly characterized. We therefore characterized the effects of expression of the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI), on the growth, development and stress tolerance of crop (soybean) and model (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Ectopic OCI expression in soybean enhanced shoot branching and leaf chlorophyll accumulation at later stages of vegetative development and enhanced seed protein contents and decreased the abundance of mRNAs encoding strigolactone synthesis enzymes. The OCI-expressing A. thaliana showed a slow-growth phenotype, with increased leaf numbers and enhanced shoot branching at flowering. The OCI-dependent inhibition of cysteine proteases enhanced drought tolerance in soybean and A. thaliana, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation being much less sensitive to drought-induced inhibition in the OCI-expressing soybean lines. Ectopic OCI expression or treatment with the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 increased lateral root densities in A. thaliana. E64 treatment also increased lateral root densities in the max2-1 mutants that are defective in strigolactone signalling, but not in the max3-9 mutants that are defective in strigolactone synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that OCI-inhibited cysteine proteases participate in the control of growth and stress tolerance through effects on strigolactones. We conclude that cysteine proteases are important targets for manipulation of plant growth, development and stress tolerance, and also seed quality traits. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation of soybean seeds on seed mycoflora, growth, nodulation, and resistance to Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouf, S.A.; Abdel-Hady, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Laser irradiation of soybean seeds for 3 min caused a clear reduction in the number of seed-borne fungi which became more pronounced as the irradiation time was extended. Pretreatment of the seeds with methylene blue, methyl red and carmine enhanced the effect of laser. Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora kikuchii and Colletotrichum truncatum were completely eliminated when the seeds were pretreated with a dye and irradiated for 10 min. Seed germination was stimulated on exposure of the seed to 1-min irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content of developed plants differed, depending on the irradiation dose and dye treatment of the seeds. The number and dry mass of nodules were mostly greater (as compared to the corresponding control), when the seeds irradiated for 1 or 3 min were pretreated with methyl red, chlorophenol red, crystal violet and methylene blue. Irradiation of pre-sowing seeds greatly protected soybean stands against F. solani

  3. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  5. The specificity of immune priming in silkworm, Bombyx mori, is mediated by the phagocytic ability of granular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Li, Mei; Liu, Yi; Ding, Ying; Yi, Yunhong

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, the phenomenon of immune priming was documented in many invertebrates in a large number of studies; however, in most of these studies, behavioral evidence was used to identify the immune priming. The underlying mechanism and the degree of specificity of the priming response remain unclear. We studied the mechanism of immune priming in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and analyzed the specificity of the priming response using two closely related Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and P. luminescens H06) and one Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1). Primed with heat-killed bacteria, the B. mori larvae were more likely to survive subsequent homologous exposure (the identical bacteria used in the priming and in the subsequent challenge) than heterologous (different bacteria used in the priming and subsequent exposure) exposure to live bacteria. This result indicated that the B. mori larvae possessed a strong immune priming response and revealed a degree of specificity to TT01, H06 and HD-1 bacteria. The degree of enhanced immune protection was positively correlated with the level of phagocytic ability of the granular cells and the antibacterial activity of the cell-free hemolymph. Moreover, the granular cells of the immune-primed larvae increased the phagocytosis of a previously encountered bacterial strain compared with other bacteria. Thus, the enhanced immune protection of the B. mori larvae after priming was mediated by the phagocytic ability of the granular cells and the antibacterial activity of the hemolymph; the specificity of the priming response was primarily attributed to the phagocytosis of bacteria by the granular cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Kuprewicz

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although

  7. Stimulus Intensity-dependent Modulations of Hippocampal Long-term Potentiation by Basolateral Amygdala Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zexuan eLi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing realization that the relationship between memory and stress/emotionality is complicated, and may include both memory enhancing and memory impairing aspects. It has been suggested that the underlying mechanisms involve amygdalar modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP. We recently reported that while in CA1 basolateral amygdala (BLA priming impaired theta stimulation induced LTP, it enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG. However, emotional and stressfull experiences were found to activate synaptic plasticity within the BLA, rasing the possibility that BLA modulation of other brain regions may be altered as well, as it may depend on the way the BLA is activated or is responding. In previous studies BLA priming stimulation was relatively weak (1V, 50 µs pulse duration. In the present study we assessed the effects of two stronger levels of BLA priming stimulation (1V or 2V, 100 µs pulse duration on LTP induction in hippocampal DG and CA1, in anesthetized rats. Results show that 1V-BLA priming stimulation enhanced but 2V-BLA priming stimulation impaired DG LTP; however, both levels of BLA priming stimulation impaired CA1 LTP, suggesting that modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by amygdala is dependent on the degree of amygdala activation. These findings suggest that plasticity induced within the amygdala, by stressful experiences induces a form of metaplasticity that would alter the way the amygdala may modulate memory-related processes in other brain areas, such as the hippocampus.

  8. Priming in concert: Assimilation and contrast with multiple affective and gender primes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockenberg, D.A.; Koole, S.L.; Semin, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of multiple sequential primes on social categorization processes. Study 1 examined an evaluative decision task in which targets were preceded and succeeded by two primes. As expected, the temporally closest forward primes had assimilative effects on

  9. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  10. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ).

  11. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5 is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5, which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF. GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel and stolon as well as in reproductive organs (stamen, and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6 and RD29B. Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via Virus Induced Gene Silence (VIGS promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B. The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ.

  12. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  13. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T-cell-Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B S; Trimble, Cornelia L; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2016-02-01

    Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T-cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Here, we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than intramuscular (IM) delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16(+) cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8(+) T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8(+) T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8(+) T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Stacking faults of {gamma}{prime}{prime} phase precipitated in a Ni-15Cr-8Fe-6Nb alloy; Ni-15Cr-8Fe-6Nb gokin ni sekishutsusuru {gamma}{prime}{prime} sonai no sekiso kekkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusabiraki, K; Ikeuchi, S [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-09-01

    The stacking faults of a metastable {gamma}{prime}{prime} phase precipitated in a nickel-base superalloy, a modified NCF 3 type alloy (X-750M) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method. The {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates are circular shaped plates at the early stage of aging and they become elliptic or irregular shaped plates at the latter stage of aging up to 1033K. Contrast which suggests the existence of stacking faults on {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}{prime}} planes can be seen in many of large {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates extracted from the specimens aged at 1033K. It is clear that the values of {gamma}{prime}{prime}/{gamma} lattice mismatch increase with increasing the aging time from the measurement of lattice constants of the {gamma} and the {gamma}{prime}{prime} phase. The formation of stacking faults on {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}{prime}} in the large {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates is due to the movement of an a/6 [111] partial dislocation introduced by {gamma}{prime}{prime} /{gamma} coherency strain. Since a part of stacking sequence has a similar crystal structure to that of a stable {delta} phase precipitates in {gamma} phase, the formation of stacking faults in the {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates is considered to be favorable for the stabilization of them. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Contrast of dry and water-saturated arabidopsis seeds irradiated by MeV energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Tao; Qin Huaili; Xue Jianming; Wang Yugang

    2007-01-01

    The dry and water-saturated seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were irradiated by H + ions with 6.5 MeV in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can penetrate the whole seed. The experiment shows that the fluence-response curves for the dry seeds and water-saturated seeds had distinct shoulders and reduced rapidly. The experimental results show that the water-imbibed seeds were more sensitive than the dry seeds and the reason is from free radicals reaction. A model has been constructed, and primely simulates the experiment data. (authors)

  16. Additive theory of prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, L K

    2009-01-01

    Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

  17. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  18. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  19. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  20. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  1. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hall

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL. Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2 signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect. Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming operates similarly in sign and speech.

  2. Priming in the Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system triggers strand-independent spacer acquisition, bi-directionally from the primed protospacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Corinna; Dy, Ron L; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Watson, Bridget N J; Taylor, Corinda; Chang, James T; McNeil, Matthew B; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process is the least characterized step in CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we used Pectobacterium atrosepticum to investigate adaptation in Type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Pre-existing spacers that matched plasmids stimulated hyperactive primed acquisition and resulted in the incorporation of up to nine new spacers across all three native CRISPR arrays. Endogenous expression of the cas genes was sufficient, yet required, for priming. The new spacers inhibited conjugation and transformation, and interference was enhanced with increasing numbers of new spacers. We analyzed ∼ 350 new spacers acquired in priming events and identified a 5'-protospacer-GG-3' protospacer adjacent motif. In contrast to priming in Type I-E systems, new spacers matched either plasmid strand and a biased distribution, including clustering near the primed protospacer, suggested a bi-directional translocation model for the Cas1:Cas2-3 adaptation machinery. Taken together these results indicate priming adaptation occurs in different CRISPR-Cas systems, that it can be highly active in wild-type strains and that the underlying mechanisms vary. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  4. Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  6. False memories and lexical decision: even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2002-03-01

    Semantic priming effects are usually obtained only if the prime is presented shortly before the target stimulus. Recent evidence obtained with the so-called false memory paradigm suggests, however, that in both explicit and implicit memory tasks semantic relations between words can result in long-lasting effects when multiple 'primes' are presented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these effects would generalize to lexical decision. In four experiments we showed that even as many as 12 primes do not cause long-term semantic priming. In all experiments, however, a repetition priming effect was obtained. The present results are consistent with a number of other results showing that semantic information plays a minimal role in long-term priming in visual word recognition.

  7. Drying and osmotic conditioning in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa is a native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado whose seeds are desiccation sensitive. In this study, we aimed to evaluate drying and osmotic conditioning in H. speciosa seeds. We used fresh seeds with 48% moisture content, which were slowly dried until they attained contents of 20%, 15%, 10% and 5%. To evaluate osmotic conditioning, the seeds were imbibed in 12 mL osmotic solutions at 0.0; -0.2; -0.4 and -0.6 MPa for two days. After that, they were dehydrated until their original moisture content. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions with 50 seeds each. Reduction in moisture content from 20% to 5% decreased the physiological potential of seeds. H. speciosa seeds do not require osmotic priming with PEG solutions, because imbibition of seeds in osmotic solutions of up to -0.6 MPa results in reduction of germination rate and seedling length.

  8. Seed-specific overexpression of AtFAX1 increases seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yinshuai; Lv, Xueyan; Xie, Guilan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-02

    Biosynthesis of plant seed oil is accomplished through the coordinate action of multiple enzymes in multiple subcellular compartments. Fatty acid (FA) has to be transported from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for TAG synthesis. However, the role of plastid FA transportation during seed oil accumulation has not been evaluated. AtFAX1 (Arabidopsis fatty acid export1) mediated the FA export from plastid. In this study, we overexpressed AtFAX1 under the control of a seed specific promoter in Arabidopsis. The resultant overexpression lines (OEs) produced seeds which contained 21-33% more oil and 24-30% more protein per seed than those of the wild type (WT). The increased oil content was probably because of the enhanced FA and TAG synthetic activity. The seed size and weight were both increased accordingly. In addition, the seed number per silique and silique number per plant had no changes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated that seed specific overexpression of AtFAX1 could promote oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds and manipulating FA transportation is a feasible strategy for increasing the seed oil content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TurkPrime.com: A versatile crowdsourcing data acquisition platform for the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Leib; Robinson, Jonathan; Abberbock, Tzvi

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has revolutionized social science by providing a way to collect behavioral data with unprecedented speed and efficiency. However, MTurk was not intended to be a research tool, and many common research tasks are difficult and time-consuming to implement as a result. TurkPrime was designed as a research platform that integrates with MTurk and supports tasks that are common to the social and behavioral sciences. Like MTurk, TurkPrime is an Internet-based platform that runs on any browser and does not require any downloads or installation. Tasks that can be implemented with TurkPrime include: excluding participants on the basis of previous participation, longitudinal studies, making changes to a study while it is running, automating the approval process, increasing the speed of data collection, sending bulk e-mails and bonuses, enhancing communication with participants, monitoring dropout and engagement rates, providing enhanced sampling options, and many others. This article describes how TurkPrime saves time and resources, improves data quality, and allows researchers to design and implement studies that were previously very difficult or impossible to carry out on MTurk. TurkPrime is designed as a research tool whose aim is to improve the quality of the crowdsourcing data collection process. Various features have been and continue to be implemented on the basis of feedback from the research community. TurkPrime is a free research platform.

  10. A New Prime Code for Synchronous Optical Code Division Multiple-Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Saleh Abbas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new spreading code based on a prime code for synchronous optical code-division multiple-access networks that can be used in monitoring applications has been proposed. The new code is referred to as “extended grouped new modified prime code.” This new code has the ability to support more terminal devices than other prime codes. In addition, it patches subsequences with “0s” leading to lower power consumption. The proposed code has an improved cross-correlation resulting in enhanced BER performance. The code construction and parameters are provided. The operating performance, using incoherent on-off keying modulation and incoherent pulse position modulation systems, has been analyzed. The performance of the code was compared with other prime codes. The results demonstrate an improved performance, and a BER floor of 10−9 was achieved.

  11. Dissociating mere exposure and repetition priming as a function of word type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Laurie T; Berry, Dianne C; Helman, Shaun

    2004-07-01

    The mere exposure effect is defined as enhanced attitude toward a stimulus that has been repeatedly exposed. Repetition priming is defined as facilitated processing of a previously exposed stimulus. We conducted a direct comparison between the two phenomena to test the assumption that the mere exposure effect represents an example of repetition priming. In two experiments, having studied a set of words or nonwords, participants were given a repetition priming task (perceptual identification) or one of two mere exposure (affective liking or preference judgment) tasks. Repetition priming was obtained for both words and nonwords, but only nonwords produced a mere exposure effect. This demonstrates a key boundary for observing the mere exposure effect, one not readily accommodated by a perceptual representation systems (Tulving & Schacter, 1990) account, which assumes that both phenomena should show some sensitivity to nonwords and words.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  13. Nitrogen availability drives priming effect by altering microbial carbon-use efficiency after permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Liu, L.; Zhang, Q.; Mao, C.; Liu, F.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced vegetation growth can potentially aggravate soil C loss by accelerating the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) ("priming effect"), thereby reinforcing the positive C-climate feedback in permafrost ecosystems. However, the degree to which priming effect alters permafrost C dynamics is expected to be modified by nitrogen (N) availability after permafrost thaw. Despite this recognition, experimental evidence for the linkage between priming effect and post-thaw N availability is still lacking. Particularly, the microbial mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here, using a thermokarst-induced natural N gradient combined with an isotope-labeled glucose and N addition experiment, we presented a strong linkage between soil N availability and priming effect in Tibetan permafrost. We observed that the magnitude of priming effect along the thaw gradient was negatively associated with soil total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration. This negative effect of post-thaw N availability was further proved by a sharply reduced priming effect following mineral N supply. These two lines of evidence jointly illustrated that the priming effect along the thaw chronosequence was controlled by N availability, supporting the `N mining theory'. In contrast to the prevailing assumption, this N-regulated priming effect was independent from changes in C- or N-acquiring enzyme activities, but positively associated with the change in metabolic quotients (△SOM-qCO2), highlighting that decreased microbial metabolism efficiency rather than increased enzyme activities account for greater priming effect under reduced N availability. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that C dynamics in melting permafrost largely depends on post-thaw N availability due to its effect of retarding SOM mineralization. This C-N interaction and the relevant microbial metabolic efficiency should be considered in Earth System Models for a better understanding of soil C dynamics after permafrost thaw.

  14. Improved tolerance to post-anthesis drought stress by pre-drought priming at vegetative stages in drought-tolerant and -sensitive wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Liu, Yang; Cui, Yakun; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-09-01

    Wheat crop endures a considerable penalty of yield reduction to escape the drought events during post-anthesis period. Drought priming under a pre-drought stress can enhance the crop potential to tolerate the subsequent drought stress by triggering a faster and stronger defense mechanism. Towards these understandings, a set of controlled moderate drought stress at 55-60% field capacity (FC) was developed to prime the plants of two wheat cultivars namely Luhan-7 (drought tolerant) and Yangmai-16 (drought sensitive) during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) and jointing (Feekes 6 stage), respectively. The comparative response of primed and non-primed plants, cultivars and priming stages was evaluated by applying a subsequent severe drought stress at 7 days after anthesis. The results showed that primed plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress through improved leaf water potential, more chlorophyll, and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase contents, enhanced photosynthesis, better photoprotection and efficient enzymatic antioxidant system leading to less yield reductions. The primed plants of Luhan-7 showed higher capability to adapt the drought stress events than Yangmai-16. The positive effects of drought priming to sustain higher grain yield were pronounced in plants primed at tillering than those primed at jointing. In consequence, upregulated functioning of photosynthetic apparatus and efficient enzymatic antioxidant activities in primed plants indicated their superior potential to alleviate a subsequently occurring drought stress, which contributed to lower yield reductions than non-primed plants. However, genotypic and priming stages differences in response to drought stress also contributed to affect the capability of primed plants to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress conditions in wheat. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Cognate status and cross-script translation priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, Madeleine; Grainger, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    Greek-French bilinguals were tested in three masked priming experiments with Greek primes and French targets. Related primes were the translation equivalents of target words, morphologically related to targets, or phonologically related to targets. In Experiment 1, cognate translation equivalents (phonologically similar translations) showed facilitatory priming, relative to matched phonologically related primes, in conditions in which morphologically related primes showed no effect (50-msec prime exposure). Cross-language morphological priming emerged at longer prime exposure durations (66 msec), but cognate primes continued to generate more priming than did those in the morphological condition. In Experiments 2 and 3, the level of phonological overlap across translation equivalents was varied, and priming effects were measured against those for matched phonologically related primes and those in an unrelated prime condition. When measured against the unrelated baseline, cognate primes showed the typical advantage over noncognate primes. However, this cognate advantage disappeared when priming was measured against the phonologically related prime condition. The results are discussed in terms of how translation equivalents are represented in bilingual memory.

  16. The effect of cold priming on the fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under natural and controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Müller, Klaus; Baier, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Priming improves an organism's performance upon a future stress. To test whether cold priming supports protection in spring and how it is affected by cold acclimation, we compared seven Arabidopsis accessions with different cold acclimation potentials in the field and in the greenhouse for growth......, photosynthetic performance and reproductive fitness in March and May after a 14 day long cold-pretreatment at 4 °C. In the plants transferred to the field in May, the effect of the cold pretreatment on the seed yield correlated with the cold acclimation potential of the accessions. In the March transferred...

  17. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  18. Enhanced stresses tolerance of soybean during seed germination by maize / soybean intercropping system%玉米/大豆间作增强大豆种子在萌发期间的抗逆能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 舒凯; 刘鑫; 孟永杰; 帅海威; 周文冠; 杨峰; 刘卫国; 雍太文; 杨文钰

    2017-01-01

    In maize - soybean intercropping system,soybean was shaded by the taller crop maize,and conse-quently,soybean seeds were under shade stress conditions during their entire developmental stages. The objectives of this study were to find out whether and how the shade stress influence the abiotic stresses tolerance of soybean seeds during germination. Soybean cultivar "Hedou 19"and maize cultivar "Jundan 26"were employed as the ex-perimental materials. The maize - soybean intercropping (IC)system was two rows of maize and soybean crossed planting (1: 1),and the soybean monocropping (MC)was as control. After soybean was harvested,the quality traits including 100 - seed weight,protein content and fat content were measured and the ability of resisting adver-sity (high temperature,mannitol,glucose,PEG,NaCl and abscisic acid)during germination was analyzed. The expression of genes related to signal transduction of ABA was further analyzed by qRT - PCR assay. Results showed that there was no significant difference in 100 - seed weight,fat content and protein content between monocropping and intercropping soybean seeds. Intercropping soybean seeds germinated faster than monocropping soybean seeds under abiotic stresses conditions (high temperature,mannitol,glucose,PEG,NaCl and ABA)and showed strong resistance to abiotic stresses. qRT - PCR demonstrated that the transcription levels of GmABI4 and GmABI5,posi-tive regulators in abscisic acid (ABA)signaling pathway,in the intercropping soybean seeds were lower than that in monocropping soybean seeds. Therefore soybean quality did not change in maize - soybean intercropping system, it could enhance the abiotic stresses tolerance during germination processes,maybe primarily through weakening ABA signaling strength.%玉米/大豆间作模式下,低位作物大豆受到高位作物玉米的遮荫,导致大豆种子在发育期间受到荫蔽胁迫.为研究荫蔽胁迫对大豆种子在随后的萌发期间抗逆性的影响,

  19. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea...

  20. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  1. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  2. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  3. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  4. Spatial auditory attention is modulated by tactile priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Hans; Ackermann, Hermann; Hertrich, Ingo; Mathiak, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cross-modal processing affects perception at a variety of neuronal levels. In this study, event-related brain responses were recorded via whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG). Spatial auditory attention was directed via tactile pre-cues (primes) to one of four locations in the peripersonal space (left and right hand versus face). Auditory stimuli were white noise bursts, convoluted with head-related transfer functions, which ensured spatial perception of the four locations. Tactile primes (200-300 ms prior to acoustic onset) were applied randomly to one of these locations. Attentional load was controlled by three different visual distraction tasks. The auditory P50m (about 50 ms after stimulus onset) showed a significant "proximity" effect (larger responses to face stimulation as well as a "contralaterality" effect between side of stimulation and hemisphere). The tactile primes essentially reduced both the P50m and N100m components. However, facial tactile pre-stimulation yielded an enhanced ipsilateral N100m. These results show that earlier responses are mainly governed by exogenous stimulus properties whereas cross-sensory interaction is spatially selective at a later (endogenous) processing stage.

  5. Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, vanillin, and their aerosols to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyung Wook; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-01-01

    The repellency of Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil (ZA-SO), alone or in combination with vanillin (VA), its six major constituents, and another four major previously known Zanthoxylum piperitum fruit oil constituents, as well as aerosol products containing 5 or 10% ZA-SO and 5% VA, was evaluated against female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field studies. Results were then compared with those of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) as a standard. Hand in cage laboratory tests showed that 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/cm2 ZA-SO resulted in > 92% protection through 30-min postexposure and was not significantly different than 0.05 mg/cm2 DEET. Skin treated with linalool and limonene (from Z. armatum) provided > 80% repellency to female Ae. aegypti at 10-min exposure, whereas cuminaldehyde, citronellal, geranyl acetate, and cuminyl alcohol (from Zanthoxylum piperitum) provided > 90% protection during this same time period. Only cuminaldehyde and citronellal provided complete protection comparable to DEET at 10-min postexposure. After that time, repellency of all plant constituents to mosquitoes was considerably decreased (biting and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  6. A seed preferential heat shock transcription factor from wheat provides abiotic stress tolerance and yield enhancement in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat stress environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Chauhan

    Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.

  7. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network to enhance the release of reducing sugars from non-edible seed cake by autoclave assisted HCl hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Vinayaka B; Palan, Anusha M; Rao, Shama U; Varun, C; Aishwarya, Uday; Raja, Selvaraj; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Vaman Rao, C; Ujwal, P

    2018-02-01

    In the current investigation, statistical approaches were adopted to hydrolyse non-edible seed cake (NESC) of Pongamia and optimize the hydrolysis process by response surface methodology (RSM). Through the RSM approach, the optimized conditions were found to be 1.17%v/v of HCl concentration at 54.12 min for hydrolysis. Under optimized conditions, the release of reducing sugars was found to be 53.03 g/L. The RSM data were used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) and the predictive ability of both models was compared by calculating various statistical parameters. A three-layered ANN model consisting of 2:12:1 topology was developed; the response of the ANN model indicates that it is precise when compared with the RSM model. The fit of the models was expressed with the regression coefficient R 2 , which was found to be 0.975 and 0.888, respectively, for the ANN and RSM models. This further demonstrated that the performance of ANN was better than that of RSM.

  8. Enhancing emulsification and antioxidant ability of egg albumin by moderately acid hydrolysis: Modulating an emulsion-based system for mulberry seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Kang, Xu; Yuan, Jiang-Lan

    2018-07-01

    Mulberry seed oil (MSO) is a kind of potential health-care lipids. This study, we investigated unsaturated fatty acids profiles of freshly squeezed MSO by GC-MS and modulated an oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by acid hydrolyzed egg albumin (AHEA) to protect MSO from oxidation. The results showed that the content of total unsaturated fatty acids in MSO was almost 80%, of which 9, 12- and 10, 13-linoleic acid was over 60% and 10% respectively. In the case of the MSO-in-AHEA emulsions, it was observed that acid hydrolysis improved emulsifying effect, emulsifying stability and antioxidant activity of egg albumin (EA). The hydrolysates of EA (1%, w/w) acid hydrolyzed for 4 h at 85 °C had the best DPPH radical scavenging efficiency. It was suitable for EA to hydrolyze for 4 to 12 h at pH 2.5 and 85 °C because of their better emulsification and oxidation stability than the others. The results about AHEA could be valuable for designing delivery and protect systems for MSO or other bioactive component to avoid their oxidative damage or control their release. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactiv...

  10. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  11. Seed vigour and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch-Savage, W E; Bassel, G W

    2016-02-01

    Seeds are central to crop production, human nutrition, and food security. A key component of the performance of crop seeds is the complex trait of seed vigour. Crop yield and resource use efficiency depend on successful plant establishment in the field, and it is the vigour of seeds that defines their ability to germinate and establish seedlings rapidly, uniformly, and robustly across diverse environmental conditions. Improving vigour to enhance the critical and yield-defining stage of crop establishment remains a primary objective of the agricultural industry and the seed/breeding companies that support it. Our knowledge of the regulation of seed germination has developed greatly in recent times, yet understanding of the basis of variation in vigour and therefore seed performance during the establishment of crops remains limited. Here we consider seed vigour at an ecophysiological, molecular, and biomechanical level. We discuss how some seed characteristics that serve as adaptive responses to the natural environment are not suitable for agriculture. Past domestication has provided incremental improvements, but further actively directed change is required to produce seeds with the characteristics required both now and in the future. We discuss ways in which basic plant science could be applied to enhance seed performance in crop production. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Priming with ceramide-1 phosphate promotes the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on pulmonary artery hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jisun; Kim, YongHwan; Heo, Jinbeom; Kim, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Seungun; Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, In-Gyu; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2016-01-01

    Some molecules enriched in damaged organs can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating the mobilization of stem cells. These so-called “priming” factors include bioactive lipids, complement components, and cationic peptides. However, their therapeutic significance remains to be determined. Here, we show that priming of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) with ceramide-1 phosphate (C1P), a bioactive lipid, enhances their therapeutic efficacy in pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs treated with 100 or 200 μM C1P showed improved migration activity in Transwell assays compared with non-primed MSCs and concomitantly activated MAPK p42/44 and AKT signaling cascades. Although C1P priming had little effect on cell surface marker phenotypes and the multipotency of MSCs, it potentiated their proliferative, colony-forming unit-fibroblast, and anti-inflammatory activities. In a monocrotaline-induced PAH animal model, a single administration of human MSCs primed with C1P significantly attenuated the PAH-related increase in right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and thickness of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells around the vessel wall. Thus, this study shows that C1P priming increases the effects of MSC therapy by enhancing the migratory, self-renewal, and anti-inflammatory activity of MSCs and that MSC therapy optimized with priming protocols might be a promising option for the treatment of PAH patients. - Highlights: • Human BM-derived MSCs primed with C1P have enhanced migratory activity. • C1P primed MSCs increase proliferation, self-renewal, and anti-inflammatory capacity. • C1P priming enhances the therapeutic capacity of MSCs in a PAH animal model.

  13. Priming with ceramide-1 phosphate promotes the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on pulmonary artery hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jisun [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43 gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, YongHwan; Heo, Jinbeom; Kim, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Seungun [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sei Won [Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyunggon [Department of Convergence Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Clinical Proteomics Core Lab, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-Gyu, E-mail: igkim@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43 gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Myung, E-mail: d0shin03@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-22

    Some molecules enriched in damaged organs can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating the mobilization of stem cells. These so-called “priming” factors include bioactive lipids, complement components, and cationic peptides. However, their therapeutic significance remains to be determined. Here, we show that priming of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) with ceramide-1 phosphate (C1P), a bioactive lipid, enhances their therapeutic efficacy in pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs treated with 100 or 200 μM C1P showed improved migration activity in Transwell assays compared with non-primed MSCs and concomitantly activated MAPK{sup p42/44} and AKT signaling cascades. Although C1P priming had little effect on cell surface marker phenotypes and the multipotency of MSCs, it potentiated their proliferative, colony-forming unit-fibroblast, and anti-inflammatory activities. In a monocrotaline-induced PAH animal model, a single administration of human MSCs primed with C1P significantly attenuated the PAH-related increase in right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and thickness of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells around the vessel wall. Thus, this study shows that C1P priming increases the effects of MSC therapy by enhancing the migratory, self-renewal, and anti-inflammatory activity of MSCs and that MSC therapy optimized with priming protocols might be a promising option for the treatment of PAH patients. - Highlights: • Human BM-derived MSCs primed with C1P have enhanced migratory activity. • C1P primed MSCs increase proliferation, self-renewal, and anti-inflammatory capacity. • C1P priming enhances the therapeutic capacity of MSCs in a PAH animal model.

  14. The prime numbers and their distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Tenenbaum, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    One notable new direction this century in the study of primes has been the influx of ideas from probability. The goal of this book is to provide insights into the prime numbers and to describe how a sequence so tautly determined can incorporate such a striking amount of randomness. The book opens with some classic topics of number theory. It ends with a discussion of some of the outstanding conjectures in number theory. In between are an excellent chapter on the stochastic properties of primes and a walk through an elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem. This book is suitable for anyone who has had a little number theory and some advanced calculus involving estimates. Its engaging style and invigorating point of view will make refreshing reading for advanced undergraduates through research mathematicians.

  15. Priming in Episodic and Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)

  16. Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ngai Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.

  17. Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, M; Goodglass, H; Milberg, W

    1996-09-01

    BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation.

  18. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  19. Prime alternative algebras that are nearly commutative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pchelintsev, S V

    2004-01-01

    We prove that by deforming the multiplication in a prime commutative alternative algebra using a C-operation we obtain a prime non-commutative alternative algebra. Under certain restrictions on non-commutative algebras this relation between algebras is reversible. Isotopes are special cases of deformations. We introduce and study a linear space generated by the Bruck C-operations. We prove that the Bruck space is generated by operations of rank 1 and 2 and that 'general' Bruck operations of rank 2 are independent in the following sense: a sum of n operations of rank 2 cannot be written as a linear combination of (n-1) operations of rank 2 and an arbitrary operation of rank 1. We describe infinite series of non-isomorphic prime non-commutative algebras of bounded degree that are deformations of a concrete prime commutative algebra

  20. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  1. Syntactic Variance and Priming Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Srinivas; Behrens, Bergljot; Carl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the relationship between syntactic variation and priming in translation. It is based on the claim that languages share a common cognitive network of neural activity. When the source and target languages are solicited in a translation context, this shared network can...... lead to facilitation effects, so-called priming effects. We suggest that priming is a default setting in translation, a special case of language use where source and target languages are constantly co-activated. Such priming effects are not restricted to lexical elements, but do also occur...... on the syntactic level. We tested these hypotheses with translation data from the TPR database, more specifically for three language pairs (English-German, English-Danish, and English-Spanish). Our results show that response times are shorter when syntactic structures are shared. The model explains this through...

  2. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  3. Degree of handedness and priming: Further evidence for a distinction between production and identification priming mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. LaVoie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between implicit and explicit forms of memory retrieval is long-standing, and important to the extent it reveals how different neural architecture supports different aspects of memory function. Similarly, distinctions have been made between kinds of repetition priming, a form of implicit memory retrieval. This study focuses on the production-identification priming distinction, which delineates priming tasks involving verification of stimulus features as compared to priming tasks that require use of a cue to guide response retrieval. Studies investigating this dissociation in dementia or similar patient populations indicate that these forms of priming may differ in their neural bases. The current study looks at degree of handedness as a way of investigating inferred neural architecture supporting these two forms of priming. A growing body of research indicates that degree of handedness (consistent, or CH, versus inconsistent, or ICH is associated with greater interhemispheric interaction and functional access to right hemisphere processing in ICH, with superior performance seen in ICH on memory tasks reliant on this processing. Arguments about the theoretical mechanisms underlying identification and production forms of perceptual priming tasks suggest that performance on these tasks will differ as a function of degree of handedness. We tested this question in a group of CH and ICH young adults, who were asked to study lists of words prior to performing a production priming task (word stem completion, a perceptual word identification task, and a word stem cued recall task. While both handedness groups exhibited reliable priming across tasks, word stem completion priming was greater in ICH than CH participants, with identification priming not differing between groups. This dissociation supports the argument that production and identification forms of priming have different underlying neural bases.

  4. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1 Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1 when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5, at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress.

  5. Short communication. Enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of Quillaja saponaria-A and extracts of Cochinchina momordica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Xiao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of extracts from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS or Quillaja saponaria-A (Quil-A on the immune responses in mice immunized with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV-serotype O vaccine. Forty-two imprinting control region (ICR mice were randomly divided into seven groups of 6 animals in each group, and a dose of 400 μg of Quil-A or ECMS was orally administered for 1,, 2 or 3 days. After that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with FMD vaccine at 3-week intervals and blood samples were collected 2-weeks after boosting for measurement of FMDV-specific IgG and its subclasses. Spleens were collected for lymphocytes proliferation assay. Results indicated that serum FMDV-specific IgG and the IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced in mice orally administered ECMS or Quil-A when compared with the control group (p<0.05. Lymphocytes proliferation response to FMD vaccine was significantly enhanced by ECMS compared with the control (p<0.05. This study illustrates that ECMS induced immunomodulatory effects and performed better than Quil-A.

  6. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab

    OpenAIRE

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories. Showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the prese...

  7. On the last digits of consecutive primes

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Oliver and Soundararajan made conjectures based on computational enumerations about the frequency of occurrence of pairs of last digits for consecutive primes. By studying Eratosthenes sieve, we have identified discrete dynamic systems that exactly model the populations of gaps across stages of Eratosthenes sieve. Our models provide some insight into the observed biases in the occurrences of last digits in consecutive primes, and the models suggest that the biases will ultimately be ...

  8. Getting genes: Rethinking seed system analysis and reform for sorghum in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crop improvement and seed supply are central activities in agricultural development. Many interventions have sought to involve farmers more closely in crop development and seed supply, to improve the effectiveness of plant science, enhance biodiversity conservation, or empower farmers, with

  9. Evaluating a seed technology for sagebrush restoration across an elevation gradient: support for bet hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) restoration is needed across vast areas, especially after large wildfires, to restore important ecosystem services. Sagebrush restoration success is inconsistent with a high rate of seeding failures, particularly at lower elevations. Seed enhancement tech...

  10. Molecular dynamics in germinating, endophyte-colonized quinoa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aims The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach. Cellulolytic and pectinolytic abilities of bacteria were assessed biochemically, and cellular movement, biofilm, elicitor and antimicrobial compound synthesis genes sequenced. GyrA-based, cultivation-independent studies provided first insight into endophyte diversity. Results Quinoa seeds and seedlings exhibit remarkably complex and dynamic MAPK activity profiles. Depending on seed origin, variances exist in MAPK patterns and probably also in endophyte assemblages. Mucilage-degrading activities enable endophytes to colonize seed surfaces of a non-host species, chia, without apparent adverse effects. Conclusions Owing to their motility, cell wall-loosening and elicitor-generating abilities, quinoa endophytes have the potential to drive cell expansion, move across cell walls, generate damage-associated molecular patterns and activate MAPKs in their host. Bacteria may thus facilitate rapid germination and confer a primed state directly upon seed rehydration. Transfer into non-native crops appears both desirable and feasible. PMID:29416180

  11. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2017-06-01

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  12. Prime implicants in dynamic reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrväinen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an improved definition of a prime implicant for the needs of dynamic reliability analysis. Reliability analyses often aim to identify minimal cut sets or prime implicants, which are minimal conditions that cause an undesired top event, such as a system's failure. Dynamic reliability analysis methods take the time-dependent behaviour of a system into account. This means that the state of a component can change in the analysed time frame and prime implicants can include the failure of a component at different time points. There can also be dynamic constraints on a component's behaviour. For example, a component can be non-repairable in the given time frame. If a non-repairable component needs to be failed at a certain time point to cause the top event, we consider that the condition that it is failed at the latest possible time point is minimal, and the condition in which it fails earlier non-minimal. The traditional definition of a prime implicant does not account for this type of time-related minimality. In this paper, a new definition is introduced and illustrated using a dynamic flowgraph methodology model. - Highlights: • A new definition of a prime implicant is developed for dynamic reliability analysis. • The new definition takes time-related minimality into account. • The new definition is needed in dynamic flowgraph methodology. • Results can be represented by a smaller number of prime implicants.

  13. Subliminal semantic priming changes the dynamic causal influence between the left frontal and temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging experiments have revealed that subliminal priming of a target stimulus leads to the reduction of neural activity in specific regions concerned with processing the target. Such findings lead to questions about the degree to which the subliminal priming effect is based only on decreased activity in specific local brain regions, as opposed to the influence of neural mechanisms that regulate communication between brain regions. To address this question, this study recorded EEG during performance of a subliminal semantic priming task. We adopted an information-based approach that used independent component analysis and multivariate autoregressive modeling. Results indicated that subliminal semantic priming caused significant modulation of alpha band activity in the left inferior frontal cortex and modulation of gamma band activity in the left inferior temporal regions. The multivariate autoregressive approach confirmed significant increases in information flow from the inferior frontal cortex to inferior temporal regions in the early time window that was induced by subliminal priming. In the later time window, significant enhancement of bidirectional causal flow between these two regions underlying subliminal priming was observed. Results suggest that unconscious processing of words influences not only local activity of individual brain regions but also the dynamics of neural communication between those regions.

  14. Changing the threshold-Signals and mechanisms of mast cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halova, Ivana; Rönnberg, Elin; Draberova, Lubica; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Nilsson, Gunnar P; Draber, Petr

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells play a key role in allergy and other inflammatory diseases involving engagement of multivalent antigen with IgE bound to high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRIs). Aggregation of FcεRIs on mast cells initiates a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to degranulation, secretion of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, and cytokine and chemokine production contributing to the inflammatory response. Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, bacterial and viral products, as well as some other biological products and drugs, induces mast cell transition from the basal state into a primed one, which leads to enhanced response to IgE-antigen complexes. Mast cell priming changes the threshold for antigen-mediated activation by various mechanisms, depending on the priming agent used, which alone usually do not induce mast cell degranulation. In this review, we describe the priming processes induced in mast cells by various cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukins-4, -6 and -33), chemokines, other agents acting through G protein-coupled receptors (adenosine, prostaglandin E 2 , sphingosine-1-phosphate, and β-2-adrenergic receptor agonists), toll-like receptors, and various drugs affecting the cytoskeleton. We will review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms behind priming of mast cells leading to degranulation and cytokine production and discuss the biological effects of mast cell priming induced by several cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  16. Preliminary report into the effects of nitrogen ion bombardment treatment on mustard seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Al-Hashmi, S.A.R.; Ahmed, N.A.G.; Pollard, M.

    1988-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been subjected to nitrogen ion bombardment. A range of conditions was found within which there was an enhancement in the growth of seedlings from the ion bombardment treated seeds relative to those grown from control seeds. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine seeds after treatment. It appeared that there had been an etching of the seed coating by the ion bombardment. This view was supported by experiments which showed that the rate of capillary water uptake by the treated seeds had been enhanced. (author)

  17. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  18. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  19. The impact of depressed mood, working memory capacity, and priming on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhany, Kristin L; MacKenzie, Danny; Otto, Michael W

    2018-09-01

    The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants. All participants completed a DD task and assessment of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Priming effects were evaluated relative to WMC of participants. Higher WMC and lower depression scores were associated with greater relative preference for larger, delayed rewards. The effects of a WM prime were moderated by WMC; benefits of the prime were only evident for individuals with lower WMC. No effects were found for an alternative inhibition task. Limitations included depression scores mainly in subclinical range, use of hypothetical instead of real rewards in the DD task, and no examination of the time course of effects. This study provides support for the effectiveness of a brief WM prime in enhancing ability to delay rewards. Priming may be a useful adjunctive intervention for individuals with WM dysfunction or conditions in which impulsive decision-making may derail long-term goals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Notch signaling mediates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor priming-induced transendothelial migration of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L Y; Wang, H; Xenakis, J J; Spencer, L A

    2015-07-01

    Priming with cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances eosinophil migration and exacerbates the excessive accumulation of eosinophils within the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics. However, mechanisms that drive GM-CSF priming are incompletely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates cellular processes, including migration, by integrating exogenous and cell-intrinsic cues. This study investigates the hypothesis that the priming-induced enhanced migration of human eosinophils requires the Notch signaling pathway. Using pan Notch inhibitors and newly developed human antibodies that specifically neutralize Notch receptor 1 activation, we investigated a role for Notch signaling in GM-CSF-primed transmigration of human blood eosinophils in vitro and in the airway accumulation of mouse eosinophils in vivo. Notch receptor 1 was constitutively active in freshly isolated human blood eosinophils, and inhibition of Notch signaling or specific blockade of Notch receptor 1 activation during GM-CSF priming impaired priming-enhanced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro. Inclusion of Notch signaling inhibitors during priming was associated with diminished ERK phosphorylation, and ERK-MAPK activation was required for GM-CSF priming-induced transmigration. In vivo in mice, eosinophil accumulation within allergic airways was impaired following systemic treatment with Notch inhibitor, or adoptive transfer of eosinophils treated ex vivo with Notch inhibitor. These data identify Notch signaling as an intrinsic pathway central to GM-CSF priming-induced eosinophil tissue migration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  2. Repetition priming in selective attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    . Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure...

  3. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  4. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  5. Shifting evaluation windows : predictable forward primes with long SOAs eliminate the impact of backward primes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockenberg, D. A. F.; Koole, S.L.; Lakens, D.; Semin, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that people evaluate target stimuli within short and flexible time periods called evaluation windows. Stimuli that briefly precede a target (forward primes) or briefly succeed a target (backward primes) are often included in the target's evaluation. In this article, the authors

  6. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A Smeets

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming.

  7. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, “magneto-priming” and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. “Magneto-priming” is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives

  8. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  9. A Prime Example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for Sound Symbolic Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-09-01

    Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure-a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect (Experiments 1a and 1b) before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes (Experiment 2). We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy. We next examined whether nonword primes affected categorization of ambiguous shapes, using visual (Experiment 3) and auditory primes (Experiment 4). We found that ambiguous shapes were categorized as round (sharp) more often following the presentation of a round (sharp) nonword. This suggests that phonemes may activate related shape information which then affects the processing of shapes, and that this association emerges even when participants are not explicitly searching for it. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Repetition Priming Magnitude Depends on Affirmative Prime Responses: A Test of Two Congruity Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, Paula; Sorensen, Linda; Mayne, Zachary; Corgiat, Damon; Woltz, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to evaluate the impact of positive prime responses on repetition priming effects while decoupling this impact from content congruity and specific evaluation operations. Our first experiment consisted of word-meaning comparison trials that required participants to evaluate synonyms or antonyms. A crossing of evaluation operation with semantic content allowed us to test the goal-content congruity hypothesis against the semantic congruity explanation for greater facilitation from positive response primes. Results suggested that operation-based priming is affected by goal-content congruity. A second experiment tested the observed effect of positive responses on repetition priming using mental rotation of irregular shapes, affording a test of the impact of congruity in evaluation goals and content in a nonverbal stimulus domain. Both experiments produced a pattern of results inconsistent with Schulman's (1974) semantic congruity account and instead implicated a different form of congruity that affects memory for prior operations rather than memory for semantic and episodic content.

  11. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  12. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  13. Immune priming of microglia in a DNA repair deficient model of accelerated aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, D. A.; Jaarsma, D.; Brouwer, N.; Hoeijmakers, J. H. J.; Eggen, B. J. L.; Biber, K. P. H.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Ageing of brain tissue has been associated with enhanced activity and immune priming of microglia in mice, rats and primates. It is, however, not clear yet whether this age-related microglia activation is due to the intrinsic process of microglia aging or is an adapted response of microglia to the

  14. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Shanks

    Full Text Available Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  15. A computational approach to negative priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  16. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  17. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  18. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Diane L; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-09-07

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag immunization alone elicited robust measles-specific humoral and cellular responses, but failed to elicit transgene (Gag)-specific immune responses, following aerosol or intratracheal/intramuscular delivery. However, when administered as a priming vaccine to a heterologous boost with recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the same transgene, rMV-Gag significantly enhanced Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses following rAd5 immunization. Gag-specific humoral responses were not enhanced, however, which may be due to either the transgene or the vector. Cellular response priming by rMV against the transgene was highly effective even when using a suboptimal dose of rAd5 for the boost. These data demonstrate feasibility of using rMV as a priming component of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for pathogens requiring strong cellular responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leading, but not trailing, primes influence temporal order perception: further evidence for an attentional account of perceptual latency priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlau, Ingrid

    2002-11-01

    Presenting a masked prime leading a target influences the perceived onset of the masking target (perceptual latency priming; Scharlau & Neumann, in press). This priming effect is explained by the asynchronous updating model (Neumann, 1982; Scharlau & Neumann, in press): The prime initiates attentional allocation toward its location, which renders a trailing target at the same place consciously available earlier. In three experiments, this perceptual latency priming by leading primes was examined jointly with the effects of trailing primes in order to compare the explanation of the asynchronous updating model with the onset-averaging and the P-center hypotheses. Experiment 1 showed that an attended, as well as an unattended, prime leads to perceptual latency priming. In addition, a large effect of trailing primes on the onset of a target was found. As Experiment 2 demonstrated, this effect is quite robust, although smaller than that of a leading prime. In Experiment 3, masked primes were used. Under these conditions, no influence of trailing primes could be found, whereas perceptual latency priming persisted. Thus, a nonattentional explanation for the effect of trailing primes seems likely.

  20. Investigating the relationship between implicit and explicit memory: Evidence that masked repetition priming speeds the onset of recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Donaldson, David I

    2016-10-01

    Memory theories assume that unconscious processes influence conscious remembering, but the exact nature of the relationship between implicit and explicit memory remains an open question. Within the context of episodic recognition tests research typical shows that priming impacts behavioral and neural indices of familiarity. By this account, implicit memory leads to enhanced fluency of processing, which is then attributed to 'oldness' in the context of recognition judgments. Recently, however, behavioral and neuroimaging evidence has emerged to suggest that priming can also influence recollection, suggesting that the rate of recollection increases following priming. Here, we examine the relationship between priming and recollection, using Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to assess changes in the timecourse of processing. Participants studied a series of words, and episodic memory was assessed using a standard item recognition test, but masked repetition priming preceded half of the test cues. Results confirmed that implicit memory was engaged: priming produced robust facilitation of recognition Reaction Times (RTs), with larger effects for studied than unstudied words. Mapping onto the RT data, ERPs recorded during recognition testing over centro-parietal electrodes revealed N400-like priming effects (250-500ms) that were larger in magnitude for studied than unstudied words. More importantly, priming also had a clear impact on explicit memory, as measured by recollection-related left-parietal old/new effects. While old/new effects for unprimed trials were present during the typical 500-800ms latency interval, the old/new effects seen for primed trials were equivalent in magnitude and topography, but onset ~300ms earlier. ERPs reveal that repetition priming speeds the onset of recollection, providing a novel demonstration that unconscious memory processes can have a measureable, functional, influence on conscious remembering. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published

  1. Perceptual processing during trauma, priming and the development of intrusive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Oliver; Hauschildt, Marit; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrusive reexperiencing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly triggered by stimuli with perceptual similarity to those present during the trauma. Information processing theories suggest that perceptual processing during the trauma and enhanced perceptual priming contribute to the easy triggering of intrusive memories by these cues. Methods Healthy volunteers (N = 51) watched neutral and trauma picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects that were unrelated to the content of the stories briefly appeared in the interval between the pictures. Dissociation and data-driven processing (as indicators of perceptual processing) and state anxiety during the stories were assessed with self-report questionnaires. After filler tasks, participants completed a blurred object identification task to assess priming and a recognition memory task. Intrusive memories were assessed with telephone interviews 2 weeks and 3 months later. Results Neutral objects were more strongly primed if they occurred in the context of trauma stories than if they occurred during neutral stories, although the effect size was only moderate (ηp2=.08) and only significant when trauma stories were presented first. Regardless of story order, enhanced perceptual priming predicted intrusive memories at 2-week follow-up (N = 51), but not at 3 months (n = 40). Data-driven processing, dissociation and anxiety increases during the trauma stories also predicted intrusive memories. Enhanced perceptual priming and data-driven processing were associated with lower verbal intelligence. Limitations It is unclear to what extent these findings generalize to real-life traumatic events and whether they are specific to negative emotional events. Conclusions The results provide some support for the role of perceptual processing and perceptual priming in reexperiencing symptoms. PMID:23207970

  2. Positions priming in briefly presented search arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Arni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Repetition priming in visual search has been a topic of extensive research since Maljkovic & Nakayama [1994, Memory & Cognition, 22, 657-672] presented the first detailed studies of such effects. Their results showed large reductions in reaction times when target color was repeated on consecutive...... the targets are oddly colored alphanumeric characters. The effects arise at very low exposure durations and benefit accuracy at all exposure durations towards the subjects’ ceiling. We conclude that temporally constricted experimental conditions can add to our understanding priming in visual search...... pop-out search trials. Such repetition effects have since been generalized to a multitude of target attributes. Priming has primarily been investigated using self-terminating visual search paradigms, comparing differences in response times. Response accuracy has predominantly served as a control...

  3. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  4. Methods to overcome dormancy in tree tomato (Solanum betaceum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kosera Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum is a poorly known species that has fruits with great economic potential, as it can be consumed in natura or industrialized. However, for reaching this potential, it is necessary the development of technologies for seedlings production. The propagation of this species is mainly done by seeds, but the seed germination process is usually slow, especially under stress conditions. This study aimed at verifying whether tree tomato seeds have dormancy and which is the best method to obtain fast and uniform germination. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement (methods to overcome dormancy x light, with four replications of 50 or 60 seeds, depending on the production cycle. The methods tested were cold stratification, hydropriming, priming with GA3 solution and control, with or without light. Seed germination and germination rate index, as well as the beginning and average time of germination, were also evaluated. The use of GA3 at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 or 300 mg L-1 is recommended to the germination of tree tomato seeds.

  5. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  6. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Flexas

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms and extended (SOA = 300 ms conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  7. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  8. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  9. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  10. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  11. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revo