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Sample records for seed plant chloroplasts

  1. The role of chloroplasts in plant pathology.

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    Sowden, Robert G; Watson, Samuel J; Jarvis, Paul

    2018-04-13

    Plants have evolved complex tolerance systems to survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Central to these programmes is a sophisticated conversation of signals between the chloroplast and the nucleus. In this review, we examine the antagonism between abiotic stress tolerance (AST) and immunity: we propose that to generate immunogenic signals, plants must disable AST systems, in particular those that manage reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the pathogen seeks to reactivate or enhance those systems to achieve virulence. By boosting host systems of AST, pathogens trick the plant into suppressing chloroplast immunogenic signals and steer the host into making an inappropriate immune response. Pathogens disrupt chloroplast function, both transcriptionally-by secreting effectors that alter host gene expression by interacting with defence-related kinase cascades, with transcription factors, or with promoters themselves-and post-transcriptionally, by delivering effectors that enter the chloroplast or alter the localization of host proteins to change chloroplast activities. These mechanisms reconfigure the chloroplast proteome and chloroplast-originating immunogenic signals in order to promote infection. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Analyses of charophyte chloroplast genomes help characterize the ancestral chloroplast genome of land plants.

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    Civaň, Peter; Foster, Peter G; Embley, Martin T; Séneca, Ana; Cox, Cymon J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the significance of the relationships between embryophytes and their charophyte algal ancestors in deciphering the origin and evolutionary success of land plants, few chloroplast genomes of the charophyte algae have been reconstructed to date. Here, we present new data for three chloroplast genomes of the freshwater charophytes Klebsormidium flaccidum (Klebsormidiophyceae), Mesotaenium endlicherianum (Zygnematophyceae), and Roya anglica (Zygnematophyceae). The chloroplast genome of Klebsormidium has a quadripartite organization with exceptionally large inverted repeat (IR) regions and, uniquely among streptophytes, has lost the rrn5 and rrn4.5 genes from the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene cluster operon. The chloroplast genome of Roya differs from other zygnematophycean chloroplasts, including the newly sequenced Mesotaenium, by having a quadripartite structure that is typical of other streptophytes. On the basis of the improbability of the novel gain of IR regions, we infer that the quadripartite structure has likely been lost independently in at least three zygnematophycean lineages, although the absence of the usual rRNA operonic synteny in the IR regions of Roya may indicate their de novo origin. Significantly, all zygnematophycean chloroplast genomes have undergone substantial genomic rearrangement, which may be the result of ancient retroelement activity evidenced by the presence of integrase-like and reverse transcriptase-like elements in the Roya chloroplast genome. Our results corroborate the close phylogenetic relationship between Zygnematophyceae and land plants and identify 89 protein-coding genes and 22 introns present in the chloroplast genome at the time of the evolutionary transition of plants to land, all of which can be found in the chloroplast genomes of extant charophytes.

  3. Characterization of the snowy cotyledon 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of chloroplast elongation factor G on chloroplast development and plant vitality.

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    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    During seedling development chloroplast formation marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. The development and activity of chloroplasts may differ in cotyledons that initially serve as a storage organ and true leaves whose primary function is photosynthesis. A genetic screen was used for the identification of genes that affect selectively chloroplast function in cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several mutants exhibiting pale cotyledons and green true leaves were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). One of the mutants, sco1, was characterized in more detail. The mutated gene was identified using map-based cloning. The mutant contains a point mutation in a gene encoding the chloroplast elongation factor G, leading to an amino acid exchange within the predicted 70S ribosome-binding domain. The mutation results in a delay in the onset of germination. At this early developmental stage embryos still contain undifferentiated proplastids, whose proper function seems necessary for seed germination. In light-grown sco1 seedlings the greening of cotyledons is severely impaired, whereas the following true leaves develop normally as in wild-type plants. Despite this apparent similarity of chloroplast development in true leaves of mutant and wild-type plants various aspects of mature plant development are also affected by the sco1 mutation such as the onset of flowering, the growth rate, and seed production. The onset of senescence in the mutant and the wild-type plants occurs, however, at the same time, suggesting that in the mutant this particular developmental step does not seem to suffer from reduced protein translation efficiency in chloroplasts.

  4. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins - Function and Impact on Plant Physiology.

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    López-Millán, Ana F; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today's cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field.

  5. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

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    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  6. Protein disorder in plants: a view from the chloroplast

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    Yruela Inmaculada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intrinsically unstructured state of some proteins, observed in all living organisms, is essential for basic cellular functions. In this field the available information from plants is limited but it has been reached a point where these proteins can be comprehensively classified on the basis of disorder, function and evolution. Results Our analysis of plant genomes confirms that nuclear-encoded proteins follow the same trend than other multi-cellular eukaryotes; however, chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their phylogenetic origin. Based on current knowledge about gene transference from the chloroplast to the nucleus, we report a strong correlation between the rate of disorder of transferred and nuclear-encoded proteins, even for polypeptides that play functional roles back in the chloroplast. We further investigate this trend by reviewing the set of chloroplast ribosomal proteins, one of the most representative transferred gene clusters, finding that the ribosomal large subunit, assembled from a majority of nuclear-encoded proteins, is clearly more unstructured than the small one, which integrates mostly plastid-encoded proteins. Conclusions Our observations suggest that the evolutionary dynamics of the plant nucleus adds disordered segments to genes alike, regardless of their origin, with the notable exception of proteins currently encoded in both genomes, probably due to functional constraints.

  7. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

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    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  8. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  9. Orthodox seeds and resurrection plants

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    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias; Cooper, Keren; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.; Farrant, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Although staple crops do not survive extended periods of drought, their seeds possess desiccation tolerance (DT), as they survive almost complete dehydration (desiccation) during the late maturation phase of development. Resurrection plants are plant species whose seeds and vegetative tissues are

  10. Chloroplast Movement May Impact Plant Phenotyping and Photochemistry Results

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    Malas, J.; Pleban, J. R.; Wang, D. R.; Riley, C.; Mackay, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating phenotypic responses of crop species across environmental conditions is vital to improving agricultural productivity. Crop production is closely linked with photosynthetic activity, which can be evaluated using parameters such as relative chlorophyll, SPAD, and variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Recently, a handheld device known as the MultispeQ emerged on the market as an open-source instrument that aims to provide high-output, high-quality field data at a low cost to the plant research community. MultispeQ takes measurements of both environmental conditions (light intensity, temperature, humidity, etc.) and photosynthetic parameters (relative chlorophyll, SPAD, photosystem II quantum efficiency (FII), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)). Data are automatically backed up and shared on the PhotosynQ network, which serves as a collaborative platform for researchers and professionals. Here, we used the instrument to quantify photosynthetic time-courses of two Brassica rapa genotypes in response to two contrasting nutrient management strategies (Control; High Nitrogen). Previous research found that chloroplast movement is one strategy plants use to optimize photosynthesis across varying light conditions. We were able to detect chloroplast movement throughout the day using the MultispeQ device. Our results support the idea that chloroplast movement serves both as an intrinsic feature of the circadian clock and as a light avoidance strategy. Under low light conditions (PAR 0-300) more light at the near-infrared and red regions was absorbed than under higher light conditions (PAR 500-800). In one genotype by treatment combination, absorbance at 730nm was around 60% at low light, versus only 30% at high light conditions. In light of our results that relative chlorophyll may change throughout a day, we suggest that it is important to take note of these effects when collecting photosynthesis efficiency data in order to avoid bias in measurements. We also

  11. Functional Disruption of a Chloroplast Pseudouridine Synthase Desensitizes Arabidopsis Plants to Phosphate Starvation

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    Shan Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate (Pi deficiency is a common nutritional stress of plants in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Plants respond to Pi starvation in the environment by triggering a suite of biochemical, physiological, and developmental changes that increase survival and growth. The key factors that determine plant sensitivity to Pi starvation, however, are unclear. In this research, we identified an Arabidopsis mutant, dps1, with greatly reduced sensitivity to Pi starvation. The dps1 phenotypes are caused by a mutation in the previously characterized SVR1 (SUPPRESSION OF VARIAGATION 1 gene, which encodes a chloroplast-localized pseudouridine synthase. The mutation of SVR1 results in defects in chloroplast rRNA biogenesis, which subsequently reduces chloroplast translation. Another mutant, rps5, which contains a mutation in the chloroplast ribosomal protein RPS5 and has reduced chloroplast translation, also displayed decreased sensitivity to Pi starvation. Furthermore, wild type plants treated with lincomycin, a chemical inhibitor of chloroplast translation, showed similar growth phenotypes and Pi starvation responses as dps1 and rps5. These results suggest that impaired chloroplast translation desensitizes plants to Pi starvation. Combined with previously published results showing that enhanced leaf photosynthesis augments plant responses to Pi starvation, we propose that the decrease in responses to Pi starvation in dps1, rps5, and lincomycin-treated plants is due to their reduced demand for Pi input from the environment.

  12. Ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast of algae: lessons from land plants.

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    Marchand, Justine; Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2018-06-01

    Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites. Despite the importance of transport proteins for the optimal functioning of the chloroplast in algae, and that many land plant homologues have been predicted, experimental evidence and molecular characterization are missing in most cases. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast from algae. The main aspects reviewed are localization and activity of the transport proteins from algae and/or of homologues from other organisms including land plants. Most chloroplast transporters were identified in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, reside in the envelope and participate in carbon acquisition and metabolism. Only a few identified algal transporters are located in the thylakoid membrane and play role in ion transport. The presence of genes for putative transporters in green algae, red algae, diatoms, glaucophytes and cryptophytes is discussed, and roles in the chloroplast are suggested. A deep knowledge in this field is required because algae represent a potential source of biomass and valuable metabolites for industry, medicine and agriculture.

  13. Redirecting the Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transporters BicA and SbtA to the Chloroplast Envelope: Soluble and Membrane Cargos Need Different Chloroplast Targeting Signals in Plants.

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    Vivien eRolland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most major crops used for human consumption are C3 plants, which yields are limited by photosynthetic inefficiency. To circumvent this, it has been proposed to implement the cyanobacterial CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM, principally consisting of bicarbonate transporters and carboxysomes, into plant chloroplasts. As it is currently not possible to recover homoplasmic transplastomic monocots, foreign genes must be introduced in these plants via nuclear transformation. Consequently, it is paramount to ensure that resulting proteins reach the appropriate sub-cellular compartment, which for cyanobacterial transporters BicA and SbtA, is the chloroplast inner-envelope membrane (IEM. At present, targeting signals to redirect large transmembrane proteins from non-chloroplastic organisms to plant chloroplast envelopes are unknown. The goal of this study was to identify such signals, using agrobacteria-mediated transient expression and confocal microscopy to determine the sub-cellular localization of ~37 GFP-tagged chimeras. Initially, fragments of chloroplast proteins known to target soluble cargos to the stroma were tested for their ability to redirect BicA, but they proved ineffective. Next, different N-terminal regions from Arabidopsis IEM transporters were tested. We demonstrated that the N-terminus of AtHP59, AtPLGG1 or AtNTT1 (92-115 amino acids, containing a cleavable chloroplast transit peptide (cTP and a membrane protein leader (MPL, was sufficient to redirect BicA or SbtA to the chloroplast envelope. This constitutes the first evidence that nuclear-encoded transmembrane proteins from non-chloroplastic organisms can be targeted to the envelope of plant chloroplasts; a finding which represents an important advance in chloroplast engineering by opening up the door to further manipulation of the chloroplastic envelope.

  14. Cadmium Disrupts Subcellular Organelles, Including Chloroplasts, Resulting in Melatonin Induction in Plants

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    Hyoung-Yool Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a well-known elicitor of melatonin synthesis in plants, including rice. However, the mechanisms by which cadmium induces melatonin induction remain elusive. To investigate whether cadmium influences physical integrities in subcellular organelles, we treated tobacco leaves with either CdCl2 or AlCl3 and monitored the structures of subcellular organelles—such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER—using confocal microscopic analysis. Unlike AlCl3 treatment, CdCl2 (0.5 mM treatment significantly disrupted chloroplasts, mitochondria, and ER. In theory, the disruption of chloroplasts enabled chloroplast-expressed serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT to encounter serotonin in the cytoplasm, leading to the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin followed by melatonin synthesis. In fact, the disruption of chloroplasts by cadmium, not by aluminum, gave rise to a huge induction of melatonin in rice leaves, which suggests that cadmium-treated chloroplast disruption plays an important role in inducing melatonin in plants by removing physical barriers, such as chloroplast double membranes, allowing SNAT to gain access to the serotonin substrate enriched in the cytoplasm.

  15. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  16. Formation and Change of Chloroplast-Located Plant Metabolites in Response to Light Conditions

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    Yiyong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is the central energy conversion process for plant metabolism and occurs within mature chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are also the site of various metabolic reactions involving amino acids, lipids, starch, and sulfur, as well as where the production of some hormones takes place. Light is one of the most important environmental factors, acting as an essential energy source for plants, but also as an external signal influencing their growth and development. Plants experience large fluctuations in the intensity and spectral quality of light, and many attempts have been made to improve or modify plant metabolites by treating them with different light qualities (artificial lighting or intensities. In this review, we discuss how changes in light intensity and wavelength affect the formation of chloroplast-located metabolites in plants.

  17. Combined analysis of the chloroplast genome and transcriptome of the Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica Desv.

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    Lee, Jungeun; Kang, Yoonjee; Shin, Seung Chul; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.) is the only natural grass species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been researched as an important ecological marker and as an extremophile plant for studies on stress tolerance. Despite its importance, little genomic information is available for D. antarctica. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome, transcriptome profiles of the coding/noncoding genes, and the posttranscriptional processing by RNA editing in the chloroplast system. The complete chloroplast genome of D. antarctica is 135,362 bp in length with a typical quadripartite structure, including the large (LSC: 79,881 bp) and small (SSC: 12,519 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of identical inverted repeats (IR: 21,481 bp). It contains 114 unique genes, including 81 unique protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Sequence divergence analysis with other plastomes from the BEP clade of the grass family suggests a sister relationship between D. antarctica, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne of the Poeae tribe, based on the whole plastome. In addition, we conducted high-resolution mapping of the chloroplast-derived transcripts. Thus, we created an expression profile for 81 protein-coding genes and identified ndhC, psbJ, rps19, psaJ, and psbA as the most highly expressed chloroplast genes. Small RNA-seq analysis identified 27 small noncoding RNAs of chloroplast origin that were preferentially located near the 5'- or 3'-ends of genes. We also found >30 RNA-editing sites in the D. antarctica chloroplast genome, with a dominance of C-to-U conversions. We assembled and characterized the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. antarctica and investigated the features of the plastid transcriptome. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of D. antarctica within the Poaceae family for use in molecular phylogenetic studies and may also help researchers understand the characteristics of the chloroplast

  18. Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

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    Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism. PMID:11457962

  19. The Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Boea hygrometrica: Insights into the Evolution of Plant Organellar Genomes

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    Wang, Xumin; Deng, Xin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Bh, Gesneriaceae) have been determined with the lengths of 153,493 bp and 510,519 bp, respectively. The smaller chloroplast genome contains more genes (147) with a 72% coding sequence, and the larger mitochondrial genome have less genes (65) with a coding faction of 12%. Similar to other seed plants, the Bh cp genome has a typical quadripartite organization with a conserved gene in each region. The Bh mt genome has three recombinant sequence repeats of 222 bp, 843 bp, and 1474 bp in length, which divide the genome into a single master circle (MC) and four isomeric molecules. Compared to other angiosperms, one remarkable feature of the Bh mt genome is the frequent transfer of genetic material from the cp genome during recent Bh evolution. We also analyzed organellar genome evolution in general regarding genome features as well as compositional dynamics of sequence and gene structure/organization, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organellar genomes in plants. The cp-derived sequences including tRNAs found in angiosperm mt genomes support the conclusion that frequent gene transfer events may have begun early in the land plant lineage. PMID:22291979

  20. Purification of intact chloroplasts from marine plant Posidonia oceanica suitable for organelle proteomics.

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    Piro, Amalia; Serra, Ilia Anna; Spadafora, Antonia; Cardilio, Monica; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Santos, Rui; Mazzuca, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm, or seagrass, adapted to grow to the underwater life from shallow waters to 50 m depth. This raises questions of how their photosynthesis adapted to the attenuation of light through the water column and leads to the assumption that biochemistry and metabolism of the chloroplast are the basis of adaptive capacity. In the present study, we described a protocol that was adapted from those optimized for terrestrial plants, to extract chloroplasts from as minimal tissue as possible. We obtained the best balance between tissue amount/intact chloroplasts yield using one leaf from one plant. After isopynic separations, the chloroplasts purity and integrity were evaluated by biochemical assay and using a proteomic approach. Chloroplast proteins were extracted from highly purified organelles and resolved by 1DE SDS-PAGE. Proteins were sequenced by nLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS of 1DE gel bands and identified against NCBInr green plant databases, Dr. Zompo database for seagrasses in a local customized dataset. The curated localization of proteins in sub-plastidial compartments (i.e. envelope, stroma and thylakoids) was retrieved in the AT_CHLORO database. This purification protocol and the validation of compartment markers may serve as basis for sub-cellular proteomics in P. oceanica and other seagrasses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of a medicinal plant Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Berberidaceae).

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    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Na-Rae; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Young-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Epimedium koreanum is a perennial medicinal plant distributed in Eastern Asia. The complete chloroplast genome sequences of E. koreanum was obtained by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genome of E. koreanum was 157 218 bp in length and separated into four distinct regions such as large single copy region (89 600 bp), small single copy region (17 222 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (25 198 bp). The genome contained a total of 112 genes including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that E. koreanum is most closely related to Berberis bealei, a traditional medicinal plant in the Berberidaceae family.

  2. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

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    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  3. A tiling microarray for global analysis of chloroplast genome expression in cucumber and other plants

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    Pląder Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastids are small organelles equipped with their own genomes (plastomes. Although these organelles are involved in numerous plant metabolic pathways, current knowledge about the transcriptional activity of plastomes is limited. To solve this problem, we constructed a plastid tiling microarray (PlasTi-microarray consisting of 1629 oligonucleotide probes. The oligonucleotides were designed based on the cucumber chloroplast genomic sequence and targeted both strands of the plastome in a non-contiguous arrangement. Up to 4 specific probes were designed for each gene/exon, and the intergenic regions were covered regularly, with 70-nt intervals. We also developed a protocol for direct chemical labeling and hybridization of as little as 2 micrograms of chloroplast RNA. We used this protocol for profiling the expression of the cucumber chloroplast plastome on the PlasTi-microarray. Owing to the high sequence similarity of plant plastomes, the newly constructed microarray can be used to study plants other than cucumber. Comparative hybridization of chloroplast transcriptomes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato and spinach showed that the PlasTi-microarray is highly versatile.

  4. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure of pepper plants (Research Note

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    S. DONCHEVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zlaten Medal were grown on nutrient solution without nitrogen, and photosynthetic response of plants was examined by determination of leaf CO2 fixation and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The absence of nitrogen in the medium resulted in a decrease of the leaf area and of plant biomass accumulation, and in an increase of the root-shoot dry weight ratio. The photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased significantly under nitrogen deprivation. Examination of nitrogen deficient leaves by transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in chloroplast ultrastructure. The proportion of starch granules and plastoglobules in the stroma matrix was increased and internal membrane system was greatly reduced. It seems that nitrogen plays an important role in the formation of chloroplast structure and hence to the photosynthetic intensity and productivity of pepper plants.

  5. Chloroplast overexpression of rice caffeic acid O-methyltransferase increases melatonin production in chloroplasts via the 5-methoxytryptamine pathway in transgenic rice plants.

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    Choi, Geun-Hee; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2017-08-01

    Recent analyses of the enzymatic features of various melatonin biosynthetic genes from bacteria, animals, and plants have led to the hypothesis that melatonin could be synthesized via the 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) pathway. 5-MT is known to be synthesized in vitro from serotonin by the enzymatic action of O-methyltransferases, including N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), leading to melatonin synthesis by the subsequent enzymatic reaction with serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). Here, we show that 5-MT was produced and served as a precursor for melatonin synthesis in plants. When rice seedlings were challenged with senescence treatment, 5-MT levels and melatonin production were increased in transgenic rice seedlings overexpressing the rice COMT in chloroplasts, while no such increases were observed in wild-type or transgenic seedlings overexpressing the rice COMT in the cytosol, suggesting a 5-MT transport limitation from the cytosol to chloroplasts. In contrast, cadmium treatment led to results different from those in senescence. The enhanced melatonin production was not observed in the chloroplast COMT lines relative over the cytosol COMT lines although 5-MT levels were equally induced in all genotypes upon cadmium treatment. The transgenic seedlings with enhanced melatonin in their chloroplasts exhibited improved seedling growth vs the wild type under continuous light conditions. This is the first report describing enhanced melatonin production in chloroplasts via the 5-MT pathway with the ectopic overexpression of COMT in chloroplasts in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

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    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  7. Noncoding RNA mediated traffic of foreign mRNA into chloroplasts reveals a novel signaling mechanism in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gómez

    Full Text Available Communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus is one of the milestones of the evolution of plants on earth. Proteins encoded by ancestral chloroplast-endogenous genes were transferred to the nucleus during the endosymbiotic evolution and originated this communication, which is mainly dependent on specific transit-peptides. However, the identification of nuclear-encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast lacking these canonical signals suggests the existence of an alternative cellular pathway tuning this metabolic crosstalk. Non-coding RNAS (NcRNAs are increasingly recognized as regulators of gene expression as they play roles previously believed to correspond to proteins. Avsunviroidae family viroids are the only noncoding functional RNAs that have been reported to traffic inside the chloroplasts. Elucidating mechanisms used by these pathogens to enter this organelle will unearth novel transport pathways in plant cells. Here we show that a viroid-derived NcRNA acting as a 5'UTR-end mediates the functional import of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP mRNA into chloroplast. This claim is supported by the observation at confocal microscopy of a selective accumulation of GFP in the chloroplast of the leaves expressing the chimeric vd-5'UTR/GFP and by the detection of the GFP mRNA in chloroplasts isolated from cells expressing this construct. These results support the existence of an alternative signaling mechanism in plants between the host cell and chloroplasts, where an ncRNA functions as a key regulatory molecule to control the accumulation of nuclear-encoded proteins in this organelle. In addition, our findings provide a conceptual framework to develop new biotechnological tools in systems using plant chloroplast as bioreactors. Finally, viroids of the family Avsunviroidae have probably evolved to subvert this signaling mechanism to regulate their differential traffic into the chloroplast of infected cells.

  8. Seed bank characteristics of Dutch plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Schaminee, JHJ; Bakker, JP; Thompson, K

    With the recent appearances of a new and well-documented classification of the Dutch plant communities (Schaminee et al 1995a,b; 1996) and a database on the seed longevity of plant species of North West Europe (Thompson ct al. 1997a) it was possible to investigate patterns of seed longevity in Dutch

  9. Overexpression of yeast ArDH gene in chloroplasts confers salinity tolerance in plants (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Kanwal, B.; Khalid, A.M.; Zafar, Y.; Malik, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress due to salinity and drought is the main limiting factor for plant growth, productivity and quality. A common response to water deficit is the accumulation of osmoprotectants such as sugars and amino acids. In yeast, arabitol dehydrogenase is found responsible for the production of arabitol from ribulose-5-phosphate. All plants synthesize ribulose-5-phosphate via pentose pathway in chloroplasts.. Therefore, osmotolerance of the plants could be enhanced through metabolic engineering of chloroplasts by introducing ArDH gene into the plastome, which is responsible for the conversion of ribulose-5- phosphate to arabitol. Here we report high-level expression of arabitol dehydrogenase (ArDH) in chloroplasts. Homoplasmic transgenic plants were recovered on spectinomycin-containing regeneration medium. Transformed tobacco plants survived whereas non-transformed were severely stressed or killed when two weeks old seedlings were exposed to NaCl (up to 400 mM), suggesting a role for arabitol in salt tolerance. Seedlings survived up to five weeks on medium containing high salt concentrations (350-400 mM). Nevertheless, seedlings remained green and grew normal on concentrations up to 350 mM NaCl for several weeks. Hypothesis that membranes are protected under stress conditions due to the arabitol accumulation in chloroplasts, seedlings were grown in liquid medium containing polyethylene glycol (PEG, up to 6%). Seedlings were tolerant to 6% PEG, suggesting that ArDH enzyme protects membranes integrity under stress. Therefore, it is concluded that ArDH gene could be expressed in crop plants to withstand abiotic stresses. (author)

  10. Production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants via the chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry

    2006-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer many advantages, including low cost of production (by elimination of fermenters), storage and transportation; heat stability; and absence of human pathogens. When therapeutic proteins are orally delivered, plant cells protect antigens in the stomach through bioencapsulation and eliminate the need for expensive purification and sterile injections, in addition to development of both systemic and mucosal immunity. Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, transgene containment via maternal inheritance and multi-gene expression in a single transformation event. Hyper-expression of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague or canine parvovirus (4-31% of total soluble protein, tsp) in transgenic chloroplasts (leaves) or non-green plastids (carrots, tomato), as well as the availability of antibiotic-free selectable markers or the ability to excise selectable marker genes, facilitate oral delivery. Hyper-expression of several therapeutic proteins, including human serum albumin (11.1% tsp), somatotropin (7% tsp), interferon-gamma (6% tsp), anti-microbial peptide (21.5% tsp), facilitates efficient and economic purification. Also, the presence of chaperones and enzymes in chloroplasts facilitate assembly of complex multi-subunit proteins and correct folding of human blood proteins with proper disulfide bonds. Functionality of chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated by several assays, including the macrophage lysis assay, GM1-ganglioside binding assay, protection of HeLa cells or human lung carcinoma cells against encephalomyocarditis virus, systemic immune response, protection against pathogen challenge, and growth or inhibition of cell cultures. Thus, transgenic chloroplasts are ideal bioreactors for production of functional human and animal therapeutic proteins in an environmentally friendly manner.

  11. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of the Medicinal Plant Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Forsythia suspensa is an important medicinal plant and traditionally applied for the treatment of inflammation, pyrexia, gonorrhea, diabetes, and so on. However, there is limited sequence and genomic information available for F. suspensa. Here, we produced the complete chloroplast genomes of F. suspensa using Illumina sequencing technology. F. suspensa is the first sequenced member within the genus Forsythia (Oleaceae. The gene order and organization of the chloroplast genome of F. suspensa are similar to other Oleaceae chloroplast genomes. The F. suspensa chloroplast genome is 156,404 bp in length, exhibits a conserved quadripartite structure with a large single-copy (LSC; 87,159 bp region, and a small single-copy (SSC; 17,811 bp region interspersed between inverted repeat (IRa/b; 25,717 bp regions. A total of 114 unique genes were annotated, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA, and four rRNA. The low GC content (37.8% and codon usage bias for A- or T-ending codons may largely affect gene codon usage. Sequence analysis identified a total of 26 forward repeats, 23 palindrome repeats with lengths >30 bp (identity > 90%, and 54 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with an average rate of 0.35 SSRs/kb. We predicted 52 RNA editing sites in the chloroplast of F. suspensa, all for C-to-U transitions. IR expansion or contraction and the divergent regions were analyzed among several species including the reported F. suspensa in this study. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-plastome revealed that F. suspensa, as a member of the Oleaceae family, diverged relatively early from Lamiales. This study will contribute to strengthening medicinal resource conservation, molecular phylogenetic, and genetic engineering research investigations of this species.

  12. Multiple RNA processing defects and impaired chloroplast function in plants deficient in the organellar protein-only RNase P enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Zhou

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA precursors undergo endoribonucleolytic processing of their 5' and 3' ends. 5' cleavage of the precursor transcript is performed by ribonuclease P (RNase P. While in most organisms RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein that harbors a catalytically active RNA component, human mitochondria and the chloroplasts (plastids and mitochondria of seed plants possess protein-only RNase P enzymes (PRORPs. The plant organellar PRORP (PRORP1 has been characterized to some extent in vitro and by transient gene silencing, but the molecular, phenotypic and physiological consequences of its down-regulation in stable transgenic plants have not been assessed. Here we have addressed the function of the dually targeted organellar PRORP enzyme in vivo by generating stably transformed Arabidopsis plants in which expression of the PRORP1 gene was suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi. PRORP1 knock-down lines show defects in photosynthesis, while mitochondrial respiration is not appreciably affected. In both plastids and mitochondria, the effects of PRORP1 knock-down on the processing of individual tRNA species are highly variable. The drastic reduction in the levels of mature plastid tRNA-Phe(GAA and tRNA-Arg(ACG suggests that these two tRNA species limit plastid gene expression in the PRORP1 mutants and, hence, are causally responsible for the mutant phenotype.

  13. Chloroplasts as source and target of cellular redox regulation: a discussion on chloroplast redox signals in the context of plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Margarete; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2005-06-01

    During the evolution of plants, chloroplasts have lost the exclusive genetic control over redox regulation and antioxidant gene expression. Together with many other genes, all genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants were transferred to the nucleus. On the other hand, photosynthesis bears a high risk for photo-oxidative damage. Concomitantly, an intricate network for mutual regulation by anthero- and retrograde signals has emerged to co-ordinate the activities of the different genetic and metabolic compartments. A major focus of recent research in chloroplast regulation addressed the mechanisms of redox sensing and signal transmission, the identification of regulatory targets, and the understanding of adaptation mechanisms. In addition to redox signals communicated through signalling cascades also used in pathogen and wounding responses, specific chloroplast signals control nuclear gene expression. Signalling pathways are triggered by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, the thioredoxin system, and the acceptor availability at photosystem I, in addition to control by oxolipins, tetrapyrroles, carbohydrates, and abscisic acid. The signalling function is discussed in the context of regulatory circuitries that control the expression of antioxidant enzymes and redox modulators, demonstrating the principal role of chloroplasts as the source and target of redox regulation.

  14. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ping; Shao, Yanhua; Li, Qian; Gao, Junli; Zhang, Runjing; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Deqin; Zhang, Huiye

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Andrographis paniculata, an important medicinal plant with great economic value, has been studied in this article. The genome size is 150,249 bp in length, with 38.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,300 bp) are separated by a large single copy region (LSC, 82,459 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,190 bp). The chloroplast genome contains 114 unique genes, 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. In these genes, 15 genes contained 1 intron and 3 genes comprised of 2 introns.

  15. Emergence of native plant seeds in response to seed pelleting, planting depth, scarification, and soil anti-crusting treatment, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Seed of native plants is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Reliable commercial seed production is desirable to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. Establishment of native seed crops has been difficult, because fall-planted seed is susceptible to bird damage, soil crusting, and soil erosion. Fall planting is important for...

  16. The KAC family of kinesin-like proteins is essential for the association of chloroplasts with the plasma membrane in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Kasahara, Masahiro; Imaizumi, Takato; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Wada, Masamitsu

    2012-11-01

    Chloroplasts require association with the plasma membrane for movement in response to light and for appropriate positioning within the cell to capture photosynthetic light efficiently. In Arabidopsis, CHLOROPLAST UNUSUAL POSITIONING 1 (CHUP1), KINESIN-LIKE PROTEIN FOR ACTIN-BASED CHLOROPLAST MOVEMENT 1 (KAC1) and KAC2 are required for both the proper movement of chloroplasts and the association of chloroplasts with the plasma membrane, through the reorganization of short actin filaments located on the periphery of the chloroplasts. Here, we show that KAC and CHUP1 orthologs (AcKAC1, AcCHUP1A and AcCHUP1B, and PpKAC1 and PpKAC2) play important roles in chloroplast positioning in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The knockdown of AcKAC1 and two AcCHUP1 genes induced the aggregation of chloroplasts around the nucleus. Analyses of A. capillus-veneris mutants containing perinuclear-aggregated chloroplasts confirmed that AcKAC1 is required for chloroplast-plasma membrane association. In addition, P. patens lines in which two KAC genes had been knocked out showed an aggregated chloroplast phenotype similar to that of the fern kac1 mutants. These results indicate that chloroplast positioning and movement are mediated through the activities of KAC and CHUP1 proteins, which are conserved in land plants.

  17. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  19. Characterization of Chloroplastic Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolases as Lysine-methylated Proteins in Plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininno, Morgane; Brugière, Sabine; Pautre, Virginie; Gilgen, Annabelle; Ma, Sheng; Ferro, Myriam; Tardif, Marianne; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum), the protein-lysine methyltransferase (PsLSMT) catalyzes the trimethylation of Lys-14 in the large subunit (LS) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the enzyme catalyzing the CO2 fixation step during photosynthesis. Homologs of PsLSMT, herein referred to as LSMT-like enzymes, are found in all plant genomes, but methylation of LS Rubisco is not universal in the plant kingdom, suggesting a species-specific protein substrate specificity of the methyltransferase. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of the LSMT-like enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLSMT-L), with a focus on its substrate specificity. We show that, in Arabidopsis, LS Rubisco is not naturally methylated and that the physiological substrates of AtLSMT-L are chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase isoforms. These enzymes, which are involved in the assimilation of CO2 through the Calvin cycle and in chloroplastic glycolysis, are trimethylated at a conserved lysyl residue located close to the C terminus. Both AtLSMT-L and PsLSMT are able to methylate aldolases with similar kinetic parameters and product specificity. Thus, the divergent substrate specificity of LSMT-like enzymes from pea and Arabidopsis concerns only Rubisco. AtLSMT-L is able to interact with unmethylated Rubisco, but the complex is catalytically unproductive. Trimethylation does not modify the kinetic properties and tetrameric organization of aldolases in vitro. The identification of aldolases as methyl proteins in Arabidopsis and other species like pea suggests a role of protein lysine methylation in carbon metabolism in chloroplasts. PMID:22547063

  20. Molecular Evolution of the Substrate Specificity of Chloroplastic Aldolases/Rubisco Lysine Methyltransferases in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sheng; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Mininno, Morgane; Gigarel, Océane; Brugière, Sabine; Bastien, Olivier; Tardif, Marianne; Ravanel, Stéphane; Alban, Claude

    2016-04-04

    Rubisco and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) are involved in CO2 fixation in chloroplasts. Both enzymes are trimethylated at a specific lysine residue by the chloroplastic protein methyltransferase LSMT. Genes coding LSMT are present in all plant genomes but the methylation status of the substrates varies in a species-specific manner. For example, chloroplastic FBAs are naturally trimethylated in both Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the Rubisco large subunit is trimethylated only in the former species. The in vivo methylation status of aldolases and Rubisco matches the catalytic properties of AtLSMT and PsLSMT, which are able to trimethylate FBAs or FBAs and Rubisco, respectively. Here, we created chimera and site-directed mutants of monofunctional AtLSMT and bifunctional PsLSMT to identify the molecular determinants responsible for substrate specificity. Our results indicate that the His-Ala/Pro-Trp triad located in the central part of LSMT enzymes is the key motif to confer the capacity to trimethylate Rubisco. Two of the critical residues are located on a surface loop outside the methyltransferase catalytic site. We observed a strict correlation between the presence of the triad motif and the in vivo methylation status of Rubisco. The distribution of the motif into a phylogenetic tree further suggests that the ancestral function of LSMT was FBA trimethylation. In a recent event during higher plant evolution, this function evolved in ancestors of Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Rosaceae to include Rubisco as an additional substrate to the archetypal enzyme. Our study provides insight into mechanisms by which SET-domain protein methyltransferases evolve new substrate specificity. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reductive evolution of chloroplasts in non-photosynthetic plants, algae and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadariová, Lucia; Vesteg, Matej; Hampl, Vladimír; Krajčovič, Juraj

    2018-04-01

    Chloroplasts are generally known as eukaryotic organelles whose main function is photosynthesis. They perform other functions, however, such as synthesizing isoprenoids, fatty acids, heme, iron sulphur clusters and other essential compounds. In non-photosynthetic lineages that possess plastids, the chloroplast genomes have been reduced and most (or all) photosynthetic genes have been lost. Consequently, non-photosynthetic plastids have also been reduced structurally. Some of these non-photosynthetic or "cryptic" plastids were overlooked or unrecognized for decades. The number of complete plastid genome sequences and/or transcriptomes from non-photosynthetic taxa possessing plastids is rapidly increasing, thus allowing prediction of the functions of non-photosynthetic plastids in various eukaryotic lineages. In some non-photosynthetic eukaryotes with photosynthetic ancestors, no traces of plastid genomes or of plastids have been found, suggesting that they have lost the genomes or plastids completely. This review summarizes current knowledge of non-photosynthetic plastids, their genomes, structures and potential functions in free-living and parasitic plants, algae and protists. We introduce a model for the order of plastid gene losses which combines models proposed earlier for land plants with the patterns of gene retention and loss observed in protists. The rare cases of plastid genome loss and complete plastid loss are also discussed.

  2. Desiccation tolerance in seeds and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias Costa, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The interest of research groups in desiccation tolerance (DT) has increased substantially over the last decades. The emergence of germinated orthodox seeds and resurrection plants as main research models has pushed the limits of our knowledge beyond boundaries. At the same time, new questions and

  3. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of MD-2 pineapple and its comparative analysis among nine other plants from the subclass Commelinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, R M; Saidin, A; Kumar, S V

    2015-08-12

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is known as the king of fruits for its crown and is the third most important tropical fruit after banana and citrus. The plant, which is indigenous to South America, is the most important species in the Bromeliaceae family and is largely traded for fresh fruit consumption. Here, we report the complete chloroplast sequence of the MD-2 pineapple that was sequenced using the PacBio sequencing technology. In this study, the high error rate of PacBio long sequence reads of A. comosus's total genomic DNA were improved by leveraging on the high accuracy but short Illumina reads for error-correction via the latest error correction module from Novocraft. Error corrected long PacBio reads were assembled by using a single tool to produce a contig representing the pineapple chloroplast genome. The genome of 159,636 bp in length is featured with the conserved quadripartite structure of chloroplast containing a large single copy region (LSC) with a size of 87,482 bp, a small single copy region (SSC) with a size of 18,622 bp and two inverted repeat regions (IRA and IRB) each with the size of 26,766 bp. Overall, the genome contained 117 unique coding regions and 30 were repeated in the IR region with its genes contents, structure and arrangement similar to its sister taxon, Typha latifolia. A total of 35 repeats structure were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions with a majority being tandem repeats. In addition, 205 SSRs were detected in the genome with six protein-coding genes contained more than two SSRs. Comparative chloroplast genomes from the subclass Commelinidae revealed a conservative protein coding gene albeit located in a highly divergence region. Analysis of selection pressure on protein-coding genes using Ka/Ks ratio showed significant positive selection exerted on the rps7 gene of the pineapple chloroplast with P less than 0.05. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the recent taxonomical relation among the member of

  4. Effective plague vaccination via oral delivery of plant cells expressing F1-V antigens in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Philip A; Singleton, Michael; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Ding, Yi; Davoodi-Semiromi, Abdolreza; Daniell, Henry

    2008-08-01

    The chloroplast bioreactor is an alternative to fermentation-based systems for production of vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. We report here expression of the plague F1-V fusion antigen in chloroplasts. Site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy were confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. Mature leaves showed the highest level of transgene expression on the third day of continuous illumination, with a maximum level of 14.8% of the total soluble protein. Swiss Webster mice were primed with adjuvant-containing subcutaneous (s.c.) doses of F1-V and then boosted with either adjuvanted s.c. doses (s.c. F1-V mice) or unadjuvanted oral doses (oral F1-V mice). Oral F1-V mice had higher prechallenge serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) titers than s.c. F1-V mice. The corresponding serum levels of antigen-specific IgG2a and IgA were 2 and 3 orders of magnitude lower, respectively. After vaccination, mice were exposed to an inhaled dose of 1.02 x 10(6) CFU of aerosolized Yersinia pestis CO92 (50% lethal dose, 6.8 x 10(4) CFU). All control animals died within 3 days. F1-V given s.c. (with adjuvant) protected 33% of the immunized mice, while 88% of the oral F1-V mice survived aerosolized Y. pestis challenge. A comparison of splenic Y. pestis CFU counts showed that there was a 7- to 10-log reduction in the mean bacterial burden in survivors. Taken together, these data indicate that oral booster doses effectively elicit protective immune responses in vivo. In addition, this is the first report of a plant-derived oral vaccine that protected animals from live Y. pestis challenge, bringing the likelihood of lower-cost vaccines closer to reality.

  5. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Chloroplast DNA Supports DNA Barcoding of Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2016-03-01

    Species identification from extracted DNA is sometimes needed for botanical samples. DNA quantification is required for an accurate and effective examination. If a quantitative assay provides unreliable estimates, a higher quantity of DNA than the estimated amount may be used in additional analyses to avoid failure to analyze samples from which extracting DNA is difficult. Compared with conventional methods, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) requires a low amount of DNA and enables quantification of dilute DNA solutions accurately. The aim of this study was to develop a qPCR assay for quantification of chloroplast DNA from taxonomically diverse plant species. An absolute quantification method was developed using primers targeting the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene using SYBR Green I-based qPCR. The calibration curve was generated using the PCR amplicon as the template. DNA extracts from representatives of 13 plant families common in Japan. This demonstrates that qPCR analysis is an effective method for quantification of DNA from plant samples. The results of qPCR assist in the decision-making will determine the success or failure of DNA analysis, indicating the possibility of optimization of the procedure for downstream reactions.

  6. Hypergravity of 10 g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-12-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10 g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate ( A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10 g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  7. Challenge towards plant recombinant protein expression: instability in nuclear and chloroplast transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, M.; Jalali-Javaran, M.; Ehsani, P.; Haddad, R.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to maintain the stability of transgene and its expression level. It seems the transformation method and the target organ can influence this instability. To this aim, two transformation systems, Agrobacterium-mediated and particle bombardment systems which have been applied to introduce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) into nuclear and chloroplast respectively, have been compared to determine transformation efficiency and tPA expression and stability. The presence of tPA gene in transformants has been confirmed by PCR analysis. The gene expression in nuclear transformants and homoplasmy in transplastomic plants have been assayed by ELISA and southern blot, respectively. Some of the Agrobacterium-derived transformants have shown the heritability and stability of the integrated T-DNA harboring the transgene which encodes the tissue plasminogen activator and instability of its expression in T1 generation. Using Southern blot analysis of bombardment-mediated transformants has surprisingly led to detecting the inheritability of tPA. There are several factors lead to silencing of transgene in transgenic plants which should be considered. Possible reasons for these silencing are like vector designing, methylation, copy number, and genome rearrangement.

  8. Challenge towards plant recombinant protein expression: instability in nuclear and chloroplast transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, M.; Jalali-Javaran, M.; Ehsani, P.; Haddad, R.

    2016-07-01

    It is crucial to maintain the stability of transgene and its expression level. It seems the transformation method and the target organ can influence this instability. To this aim, two transformation systems, Agrobacterium-mediated and particle bombardment systems which have been applied to introduce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) into nuclear and chloroplast respectively, have been compared to determine transformation efficiency and tPA expression and stability. The presence of tPA gene in transformants has been confirmed by PCR analysis. The gene expression in nuclear transformants and homoplasmy in transplastomic plants have been assayed by ELISA and southern blot, respectively. Some of the Agrobacterium-derived transformants have shown the heritability and stability of the integrated T-DNA harboring the transgene which encodes the tissue plasminogen activator and instability of its expression in T1 generation. Using Southern blot analysis of bombardment-mediated transformants has surprisingly led to detecting the inheritability of tPA. There are several factors lead to silencing of transgene in transgenic plants which should be considered. Possible reasons for these silencing are like vector designing, methylation, copy number, and genome rearrangement.

  9. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pelargonium xhortorum: Or ganization and evolution of the largest and most highlyrearranged chloroplast genome of land plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumley, Timothy W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Calie, Patrick J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen,Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    The chloroplast genome of Pelargonium e hortorum has beencompletely sequenced. It maps as a circular molecule of 217,942 bp, andis both the largest and most rearranged land plant chloroplast genome yetsequenced. It features two copies of a greatly expanded inverted repeat(IR) of 75,741 bp each, and consequently diminished single copy regionsof 59,710 bp and 6,750 bp. It also contains two different associations ofrepeated elements that contribute about 10 percent to the overall sizeand account for the majority of repeats found in the genome. Theyrepresent hotspots for rearrangements and gene duplications and include alarge number of pseudogenes. We propose simple models that account forthe major rearrangements with a minimum of eight IR boundary changes and12 inversions in addition to a several insertions of duplicated sequence.The major processes at work (duplication, IR expansion, and inversion)have disrupted at least one and possibly two or three transcriptionaloperons, and the genes involved in these disruptions form the core of thetwo major repeat associations. Despite the vast increase in size andcomplexity of the genome, the gene content is similar to that of otherangiosperms, with the exceptions of a large number of pseudogenes as partof the repeat associations, the recognition of two open reading frames(ORF56 and ORF42) in the trnA intron with similarities to previouslyidentified mitochondrial products (ACRS and pvs-trnA), the loss of accDand trnT-GGU, and in particular, the lack of a recognizably functionalrpoA. One or all of three similar open reading frames may possibly encodethe latter, however.

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around ten species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA, was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp ge-nome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for relat-ed species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostro-boides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyp-tostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the conif-erous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systemat-ics and evolution.

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Xu, Haibin; Yang, Liming; Liu, Guangxin; Sheng, Yu; Zheng, Chen; Zheng, Weiwei; Cheng, Tielong; Shi, Jisen

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around 10 species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats, and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR) region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA), was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp genome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for related species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostroboides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F.) D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyptostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the coniferous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systematics and evolution.

  12. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  13. Environmental control of plant nuclear gene expression by chloroplast redox signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette ePfalz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant photosynthesis takes place in specialised cell organelles, the chloroplasts, which perform all essential steps of this process. The proteins involved in photosynthesis are encoded by genes located on the plastid and nuclear genomes. Proper function and regulation of light harvesting and energy fixation thus requires a tight coordination of the gene expression machineries in the two genetic compartments. This is achieved by a bi-directional exchange of information between nucleus and plastids. Signals emerging from plastids report the functional and developmental state of the organelle to the nucleus and initiate distinct nuclear gene expression profiles, which trigger responses that support or improve plastid functions. Recent research indicated that this signalling is absolutely essential for plant growth and development. Reduction/oxidation (redox signals from photosynthesis are key players in this information network since they do report functional disturbances in photosynthesis, the primary energy source of plants. Such disturbances are caused by environmental fluctuations for instance in illumination, temperature or water availability. These environmental changes affect the linear electron flow of photosynthesis and result in changes of the redox state of the components involved (e.g. the plastoquinone pool or coupled to it (e.g. the thioredoxin pool. Thus, the changes in redox state directly reflect the environmental impact and serve as immediate plastidial signals to the nucleus. The triggered responses range from counterbalancing reactions within the physiological range up to severe stress responses including cell death. This review focuses on physiological redox signals from photosynthetic electron transport, their relation to the environment, potential transduction pathways to the nucleus and their impact on nuclear gene expression.

  14. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome of traditional Chinese medical plants Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Xu, Jin; Chen, NaiZhong; Li, MingFu

    2017-03-01

    Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a perennial medical plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The genome is 157 675 bp in length including a small single-copy region (SSC, 18 319 bp) and a large single-copy region (LSC, 84 108 bp) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27 624 bp). The genome contained 115 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 2 contained a couple of introns. The overall G + C content of the cpDNA is 37.4%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 35.71%, 31.43%, and 41.87%, respectively. A Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis suggested that genus Trillium, Paris, Fritillaria, and Lilium were strongly supported as monophyletic and the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is closely related to Trillium.

  16. SURVEY OF WILD PLANT SEEDS AND THEIR VALUE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, asthma, dysentery and piles. Seeds from tree species accounted for 23 ... SURVEY OF WILD PLANT SEEDS AND THEIR VALUE IN TRADITONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA. INTRODUCTION. Seeds are fertilized ..... dynamics and regeneration of a logged over secondary regrowth forest.Ph.D.

  17. A database of PCR primers for the chloroplast genomes of higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Berthold

    2007-01-01

    Background Chloroplast genomes evolve slowly and many primers for PCR amplification and analysis of chloroplast sequences can be used across a wide array of genera. In some cases 'universal' primers have been designed for the purpose of working across species boundaries. However, the essential information on these primer sequences is scattered throughout the literature. Results A database is presented here which assembles published primer information for chloroplast DNA. Additional primers were designed to fill gaps where little or no primer information could be found. Amplicons are either the genes themselves (typically useful in studies of sequence variation in higher-order phylogeny) or they are spacers, introns, and intergenic regions (for studies of phylogeographic patterns within and among species). The current list of 'generic' primers consists of more than 700 sequences. Wherever possible, we give the locations of the primers in the thirteen fully sequenced chloroplast genomes (Nicotiana tabacum, Atropa belladonna, Spinacia oleracea, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Oryza sativa, Pinus thunbergii, Marchantia polymorpha, Zea mays, Oenothera elata, Acorus calamus, Eucalyptus globulus, Medicago trunculata). Conclusion The database described here is designed to serve as a resource for researchers who are venturing into the study of poorly described chloroplast genomes, whether for large- or small-scale DNA sequencing projects, to study molecular variation or to investigate chloroplast evolution. PMID:17326828

  18. A database of PCR primers for the chloroplast genomes of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Berthold

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplast genomes evolve slowly and many primers for PCR amplification and analysis of chloroplast sequences can be used across a wide array of genera. In some cases 'universal' primers have been designed for the purpose of working across species boundaries. However, the essential information on these primer sequences is scattered throughout the literature. Results A database is presented here which assembles published primer information for chloroplast DNA. Additional primers were designed to fill gaps where little or no primer information could be found. Amplicons are either the genes themselves (typically useful in studies of sequence variation in higher-order phylogeny or they are spacers, introns, and intergenic regions (for studies of phylogeographic patterns within and among species. The current list of 'generic' primers consists of more than 700 sequences. Wherever possible, we give the locations of the primers in the thirteen fully sequenced chloroplast genomes (Nicotiana tabacum, Atropa belladonna, Spinacia oleracea, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Oryza sativa, Pinus thunbergii, Marchantia polymorpha, Zea mays, Oenothera elata, Acorus calamus, Eucalyptus globulus, Medicago trunculata. Conclusion The database described here is designed to serve as a resource for researchers who are venturing into the study of poorly described chloroplast genomes, whether for large- or small-scale DNA sequencing projects, to study molecular variation or to investigate chloroplast evolution.

  19. Effect of planting dates on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chureerat Satjipanon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of planting dates on seed yield and quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates spaced at about 30-day intervals from 23 May to 23 August 2003.The results revealed that planting date had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots planted on 23 July produced the highest seed yield and PGSY of 630 and 601 kg/ha, respectively followed by plots planted on 23 June and 23 May (514 and 501; 443 and 421 kg/ha, respectively. Plots planted on 23 August produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY of 269 and 262 kg/ha, respectively. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among planting dates. Based on this research, it was concluded that late- July was the optimum planting date for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  20. Improving the traditional sesame seed planting with seed pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 1Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey. 2Fethiye ... the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly ... Sesame holds a special importance in the world's oil.

  1. Brassinosteroid-induced CO{sub 2} assimilation is associated with increased stability of redox-sensitive photosynthetic enzymes in the chloroplasts in cucumber plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu Ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan Hong; Xia, Xiao Jian; Mao, Wei Hua; Shi, Kai [Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Zhi Xiang [Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054 (United States); Yu, Jing Quan, E-mail: jqyu@zju.edu.cn [Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plants Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity of certain Calvin cycle enzymes and CO{sub 2} assimilation are induced by BRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BRs upregulate the activity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in the chloroplasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BRs increase the chloroplast thiol reduction state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A BR-induced reducing environment increases the stability of photosynthetic enzymes. -- Abstract: Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth, development, photosynthesis and stress tolerance; however, the mechanism underlying BR-enhanced photosynthesis is currently unclear. Here, we provide evidence that an increase in the BR level increased the quantum yield of PSII, activities of Rubisco activase (RCA) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and CO{sub 2} assimilation. BRs upregulated the transcript levels of genes and activity of enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in the chloroplasts, leading to an increased ratio of reduced (GSH) to oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the chloroplasts. An increased GSH/GSSG ratio protected RCA from proteolytic digestion and increased the stability of redox-sensitive enzymes in the chloroplasts. These results strongly suggest that BRs are capable of regulating the glutathione redox state in the chloroplasts through the activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. The resulting increase in the chloroplast thiol reduction state promotes CO{sub 2} assimilation, at least in part, by enhancing the stability and activity of redox-sensitive photosynthetic enzymes through post-translational modifications.

  2. Brassinosteroid-induced CO2 assimilation is associated with increased stability of redox-sensitive photosynthetic enzymes in the chloroplasts in cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu Ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan Hong; Xia, Xiao Jian; Mao, Wei Hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi Xiang; Yu, Jing Quan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Activity of certain Calvin cycle enzymes and CO 2 assimilation are induced by BRs. ► BRs upregulate the activity of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle in the chloroplasts. ► BRs increase the chloroplast thiol reduction state. ► A BR-induced reducing environment increases the stability of photosynthetic enzymes. -- Abstract: Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth, development, photosynthesis and stress tolerance; however, the mechanism underlying BR-enhanced photosynthesis is currently unclear. Here, we provide evidence that an increase in the BR level increased the quantum yield of PSII, activities of Rubisco activase (RCA) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and CO 2 assimilation. BRs upregulated the transcript levels of genes and activity of enzymes involved in the ascorbate–glutathione cycle in the chloroplasts, leading to an increased ratio of reduced (GSH) to oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the chloroplasts. An increased GSH/GSSG ratio protected RCA from proteolytic digestion and increased the stability of redox-sensitive enzymes in the chloroplasts. These results strongly suggest that BRs are capable of regulating the glutathione redox state in the chloroplasts through the activation of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle. The resulting increase in the chloroplast thiol reduction state promotes CO 2 assimilation, at least in part, by enhancing the stability and activity of redox-sensitive photosynthetic enzymes through post-translational modifications.

  3. Complete chloroplast genome and 45S nrDNA sequences of the medicinal plant species Glycyrrhiza glabra and Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun Oh; Ahn, Byoung Ohg; Won, So Youn; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Jung Sun

    2017-10-06

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively. The three chloroplast genomes harbored 110 annotated genes, including 76 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The 45S nrDNA sequences were either 5,947 or 5,948 bp in length. Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. glabra × G. uralensis showed two types of nrDNA, while G. uralensis contained a single type. The complete 45S nrDNA sequence unit contains 18S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 26S rRNA. We identified simple sequence repeat and tandem repeat sequences. We also developed four reliable markers for analysis of Glycyrrhiza diversity authentication.

  4. Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Cheng, Yuchang; Vincent, Thomas M.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the five groups of extant seed plants are presently quite unclear. For example, morphological studies consistently identify the Gnetales as the extant sister group to angiosperms (the so-called “anthophyte” hypothesis), whereas a number of molecular studies recover gymnosperm monophyly, and few agree with the morphology-based placement of Gnetales. To better resolve these and other unsettled issues, we have generated a new molecular data set of mitochondrial small subunit rRNA sequences, and have analyzed these data together with comparable data sets for the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene and the chloroplast rbcL gene. All nuclear analyses strongly ally Gnetales with a monophyletic conifers, whereas all mitochondrial analyses and those chloroplast analyses that take into account saturation of third-codon position transitions actually place Gnetales within conifers, as the sister group to the Pinaceae. Combined analyses of all three genes strongly support this latter relationship, which to our knowledge has never been suggested before. The combined analyses also strongly support monophyly of extant gymnosperms, with cycads identified as the basal-most group of gymnosperms, Ginkgo as the next basal, and all conifers except for Pinaceae as sister to the Gnetales + Pinaceae clade. According to these findings, the Gnetales may be viewed as extremely divergent conifers, and the many morphological similarities between angiosperms and Gnetales (e.g., double fertilization and flower-like reproductive structures) arose independently. PMID:10760277

  5. Effects of rare earth and acid rain pollution on plant chloroplast ATP synthase and element contents at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    Combined rare earth and acid rain pollution has become a new environmental problem, seriously affecting plant survival. The effects of these two kinds of pollutants on plant photosynthesis have been reported, but the micro mechanisms are not very clear. In this research, we studied the effects of lanthanum [La(III), 0.08, 1.20 and 2.40 mM] and acid rain (pH value = 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) on the ATPase activity and gene transcription level and the functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts. The results showed that the combined 0.08 mM La(III) and pH 4.5 acid rain increased the ATPase activity and gene transcription level as well as contents of some functional elements. But other combined treatments of acid rain and La(III) reduced the ATPase activity and gene transcription level as well as functional element contents. The change magnitude of the above indexes at rice booting stage was greater than that in seedling stage or grain filling stage. These results reveal that effects of La(III) and acid rain on ATPase activity and functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts are related to the combination of La(III) dose and acid rain intensity and the plant growth stage. In addition, the changes in the ATPase activity were related to ATPase gene transcription level. This study would provide a reference for understanding the microcosmic mechanism of rare earth and acid rain pollution on plant photosynthesis and contribute to evaluate the possible environmental risks associated with combined La(III) and acid rain pollution. The effects of La(III) and acid rain on activity and gene transcription level of rice chloroplast ATPase and contents of functional elements were different at different growth stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncoupling the effects of seed predation and seed dispersal by granivorous ants on plant population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arnan

    Full Text Available Secondary seed dispersal is an important plant-animal interaction, which is central to understanding plant population and community dynamics. Very little information is still available on the effects of dispersal on plant demography and, particularly, for ant-seed dispersal interactions. As many other interactions, seed dispersal by animals involves costs (seed predation and benefits (seed dispersal, the balance of which determines the outcome of the interaction. Separate quantification of each of them is essential in order to understand the effects of this interaction. To address this issue, we have successfully separated and analyzed the costs and benefits of seed dispersal by seed-harvesting ants on the plant population dynamics of three shrub species with different traits. To that aim a stochastic, spatially-explicit individually-based simulation model has been implemented based on actual data sets. The results from our simulation model agree with theoretical models of plant response dependent on seed dispersal, for one plant species, and ant-mediated seed predation, for another one. In these cases, model predictions were close to the observed values at field. Nonetheless, these ecological processes did not affect in anyway a third species, for which the model predictions were far from the observed values. This indicates that the balance between costs and benefits associated to secondary seed dispersal is clearly related to specific traits. This study is one of the first works that analyze tradeoffs of secondary seed dispersal on plant population dynamics, by disentangling the effects of related costs and benefits. We suggest analyzing the effects of interactions on population dynamics as opposed to merely analyzing the partners and their interaction strength.

  7. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  8. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  9. Isolation of intact and pure chloroplasts from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to low irradiance for studies on Rubisco regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Grabsztunowicz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is presented for low-cost and fast isolation of intact and pure chloroplasts from leaves of plants acclimated to low irradiance. The protocol is based on a differential centrifugation of cleared leaf homogenate and omits a centrifugation on Percoll gradient step. The intactness and purity of the chloroplasts isolated from leaves of low irradiance-acclimated plants by using this protocol (confirmed by phase contrast microscopy as well as enzymatic and immunological approaches allows plausible studies on low irradiance-dependent Rubisco regulation.

  10. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: The compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2016-05-01

    Discovery of cupulate ovules of Doylea tetrahedrasperma within a compact, compound seed cone highlights the rich diversity of fructification morphologies, pollination biologies, postpollination enclosure of seeds, and systematic diversity of Early Cretaceous gymnosperms. Specimens were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique, three-dimensional reconstructions (in AVIZO), and morphological phylogenetic analyses (in TNT). Doylea tetrahedrasperma has bract/fertile short shoot complexes helically arranged within a compact, compound seed cone. Complexes diverge from the axis as a single unit and separate distally into a free bract tip and two sporophylls. Each sporophyll bears a single, abaxial seed, recurved toward the cone axis, that is enveloped after pollinaton by sporophyll tissue, forming a closed cupule. Ovules are pollinated by bisaccate grains captured by micropylar pollination horns. The unique combination of characters shown by D. tetrahedrasperma includes the presence of cupulate seeds borne in conifer-like compound seed cones, an ovuliferous scale analogue structurally equivalent to the ovulate stalk of Ginkgo biloba, gymnospermous pollination, and nearly complete enclosure of mature seeds. These features characterize the Doyleales ord. nov., clearly distinguish it from the seed fern order Corystospermales, and allow for recognition of another recently described Early Cretaceous seed plant as a second species in genus Doylea. A morphological phylogenetic analysis highlights systematic relationships of the Doyleales ord. nov. and emphasizes the explosive phylogenetic diversification of gymnosperms that was underway at the time when flowering plants may have originated and/or first began to radiate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Planting time and mulching effect on onion development and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of planting time and mulches on bulb growth and seed production of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Taherpuri. Planting time and mulches had significant influence on almost all parameters studied. Onion planted on 21 November had better agronomic traits contributing ...

  12. [Identification of medicinal plant Dendrobium based on the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Ma, Shuang-jiao; Song, Jing-yuan; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacers of 18 species of Dendrobium and their adulterants were amplified and sequenced, and then the sequence characteristics were analyzed. The sequence lengths of chloroplast psbK-psbI regions of Dendrobium ranged from 474 to 513 bp and the GC contents were 25.4%-27.6%. The variable sites were 71 while the informative sites were 46. The inter-specific genetic distances calculated by Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) of Dendrobium were 0.006 1-0.058 1, with an average of 0.028 4. The K2P genetic distances between Dendrobium species and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum were 0.093 2-0.120 4. The NJ tree showed that the Dendrobium species can be easily differentiated from each other and 6 samples of the inspected Dendrobium species were identified successfully through sequencing the psbK-psbI intergenic spacer. Therefore, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer can be used as a candidate marker to identify Dendrobium species and its adulterants.

  13. ChloroSSRdb: a repository of perfect and imperfect chloroplastic simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) of green plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Aditi; Rai, Piyush Kant; Shanker, Asheesh

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are regions in DNA sequence that contain repeating motifs of length 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are ubiquitously present and are found in both coding and non-coding regions of genome. A total of 534 complete chloroplast genome sequences (as on 18 September 2014) of Viridiplantae are available at NCBI organelle genome resource. It provides opportunity to mine these genomes for the detection of SSRs and store them in the form of a database. In an attempt to properly manage and retrieve chloroplastic SSRs, we designed ChloroSSRdb which is a relational database developed using SQL server 2008 and accessed through ASP.NET. It provides information of all the three types (perfect, imperfect and compound) of SSRs. At present, ChloroSSRdb contains 124 430 mined SSRs, with majority lying in non-coding region. Out of these, PCR primers were designed for 118 249 SSRs. Tetranucleotide repeats (47 079) were found to be the most frequent repeat type, whereas hexanucleotide repeats (6414) being the least abundant. Additionally, in each species statistical analyses were performed to calculate relative frequency, correlation coefficient and chi-square statistics of perfect and imperfect SSRs. In accordance with the growing interest in SSR studies, ChloroSSRdb will prove to be a useful resource in developing genetic markers, phylogenetic analysis, genetic mapping, etc. Moreover, it will serve as a ready reference for mined SSRs in available chloroplast genomes of green plants. Database URL: www.compubio.in/chlorossrdb/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Gamma radiation of cotton seeds pre-planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyamov, M-K.; Atadzhanov, M.; Narimov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The study of pre-planting irradiation of the cotton plant seeds with gamma rays is summed up. It is for the first time that for the industrial grades stimulating doses for preplanting gamma irradiation of seeds have been offered depending on the power of a radiation source, time before planting, reproduction and the site of origin of seeds. In the Tashkent area doses stimulating the growth, development, and productivity of the cotton plant G. hirsutum L. for seeds, resting in the dry condition are 0.5-2 krad by Co 60 gamma-rays. The early maturing kinds of the type C-4727 should be irradiated with slightly lowered doses (0.5-1 krad) while the usual types of the kind 108-F require doses nearer to 2 krad. Time from irradiation of the seed to planting influences not only the character of changes in the plants, but also heredity. Study during the vegetation period shows that at a dose of 1 krad a much earlier maturity (by 2 days) is observed for irradiation 10 days before planting. Irradiation 20 days before planting shows considerable delay in maturing and productivity as compared to controls

  15. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-borne fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68% was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (p"less than"0.001 higher normal germination (82% and 77%, respectively than that from the mid-season planting date (58%. Irrespective of planting date, unsorted seed and discoloured seed had higher levels of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. than the non-discoloured seed. Removal of discoloured seed by hand sorting eliminated Rhizoctonia spp. from all seed lots. Farmers can eliminate this pathogen by simply removing discoloured seed. Non-discoloured seed from the early-planted crop had the lowest level of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. The results indicate that planting date is an important consideration in improving the quality of hand-sorted farm-retained bean seed.

  16. Seeds that give: Participatory plant breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    Faced with a unique economic crisis, Cuba's national agriculture system was near collapse ... tion, and distribution of improved maize and bean seeds. A secondary but ... ers rate 50 percent of the newly introduced varieties to be superior to ...

  17. Native Plants and Seeds, Oh My! Fifth Graders Explore an Unfamiliar Subject While Learning Plant Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Lauren; Weege, Kendra; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-01-01

    Native plants are not typically the kinds of plants that are used in elementary classroom studies of plant biology. More commonly, students sprout beans or investigate with fast plants. At the time the authors started their plant unit (November), the school-yard garden had an abundance of native plants that had just started seeding, including…

  18. Metabolic engineering of the chloroplast genome reveals that the yeast ArDH gene confers enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sarwar Khan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmoprotectants stabilize proteins and membranes against the denaturing effect of high concentrations of salts and other harmful solutes. In yeast, arabitol dehydrogenase (ArDH reduces D-ribulose to D-arabitol where D-ribulose is derived by dephosphorylating D-ribulose-5-PO4 in the oxidized pentose pathway. Osmotolerance in plants could be developed through metabolic engineering of chloroplast genome by introducing genes encoding polyols. Here, we report that ArDH expression in chloroplasts confers tolerance to NaCl (up to 400 mM. Transgenic plants compared to wild type survived for four to five weeks on 400 mM NaCl. Nevertheless, plants remained green and grew normal on concentrations up to 350 mM NaCl. Further, a-week-old seedlings were also challenged with poly ethylene glycol (PEG, up to 6% in the liquid medium, considering that membranes and proteins are protected under stress conditions due to accumulation of arabitol in chloroplasts. Seedlings were tolerant to 6% PEG, suggesting that ARDH enzyme maintains integrity of membranes in chloroplasts under drought conditions via metabolic engineering. Hence, the gene could be expressed in agronomic plants to withstand abiotic stresses.

  19. Origins of the plant chloroplasts and mitochondria based on comparisons of 5S ribosomal RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delihas, N.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we provide macromolecular comparisons utilizing the 5S ribosomal RNA structure to suggest extant bacteria that are the likely descendants of chloroplast and mitochondria endosymbionts. The genetic stability and near universality of the 5S ribosomal gene allows for a useful means to study ancient evolutionary changes by macromolecular comparisons. The value in current and future ribosomal RNA comparisons is in fine tuning the assignment of ancestors to the organelles and in establishing extant species likely to be descendants of bacteria involved in presumed multiple endosymbiotic events.

  20. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and maternal plant sex on seed germination and early plant establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi usually enhance overall plant performance, yet their effects on seed germination and early plant establishment, crucial steps in plant cycles, are generally overlooked. In gynodioecious species, sexual dimorphism in these traits has been reported, with females producing seeds that germinate at a faster rate than seeds from hermaphrodites.• Using the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum, I investigated in a greenhouse experiment whether the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores affects seed germination and early plant establishment, examining at the same time whether the sex of the mother producing the seeds also influences these parameters and whether sex-specific interactions between these two factors exist.• The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores in the soil decreased seed germination, did not affect plant survival, but did increase plant growth. Moreover, no significant differences in seed traits were detected between the sexes of the plants producing the seeds.• This study demonstrates that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may have contrasting effects for plants during early life stages and that mycorrhizal effects can take place even at the precolonization stage. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was measured by ...

  2. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İbrahim Demir

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was.

  3. Overexpression of a natural chloroplast-encoded antisense RNA in tobacco destabilizes 5S rRNA and retards plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern David B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of non-coding RNAs in regulating gene expression have been extensively studied in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, however few reports exist as to their roles in organellar gene regulation. Evidence for accumulation of natural antisense RNAs (asRNAs in chloroplasts comes from the expressed sequence tag database and cDNA libraries, while functional data have been largely obtained from artificial asRNAs. In this study, we used Nicotiana tabacum to investigate the effect on sense strand transcripts of overexpressing a natural chloroplast asRNA, AS5, which is complementary to the region which encodes the 5S rRNA and tRNAArg. Results AS5-overexpressing (AS5ox plants obtained by chloroplast transformation exhibited slower growth and slightly pale green leaves. Analysis of AS5 transcripts revealed four distinct species in wild-type (WT and AS5ox plants, and additional AS5ox-specific products. Of the corresponding sense strand transcripts, tRNAArg overaccumulated several-fold in transgenic plants whereas 5S rRNA was unaffected. However, run-on transcription showed that the 5S-trnR region was transcribed four-fold more in the AS5ox plants compared to WT, indicating that overexpression of AS5 was associated with decreased stability of 5S rRNA. In addition, polysome analysis of the transformants showed less 5S rRNA and rbcL mRNA associated with ribosomes. Conclusions Our results suggest that AS5 can modulate 5S rRNA levels, giving it the potential to affect Chloroplast translation and plant growth. More globally, overexpression of asRNAs via chloroplast transformation may be a useful strategy for defining their functions.

  4. A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanuk; Lee, Hwa Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-04-16

    Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of CFM4-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CFM4 is localized to chloroplasts. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants for CFM4 (cfm4) displayed retarded growth and delayed senescence, suggesting that CFM4 plays a role in growth and development of plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, cfm4 mutants showed retarded seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. No alteration in the splicing patterns of intron-containing chloroplast genes was observed in the mutant plants, but the processing of 16S and 4.5S rRNAs was abnormal in the mutant plants. Importantly, CFM4 was determined to possess RNA chaperone activity. These results suggest that the chloroplast-targeted CFM4, one of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a single CRM domain-containing protein, harbors RNA chaperone activity and plays a role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response by affecting rRNA processing in chloroplasts.

  5. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  6. Evolution of the YABBY gene family in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finet, Cédric; Floyd, Sandra K; Conway, Stephanie J; Zhong, Bojian; Scutt, Charles P; Bowman, John L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the YABBY gene family of transcription factors in angiosperms have been shown to be involved in the initiation of outgrowth of the lamina, the maintenance of polarity, and establishment of the leaf margin. Although most of the dorsal-ventral polarity genes in seed plants have homologs in non-spermatophyte lineages, the presence of YABBY genes is restricted to seed plants. To gain insight into the origin and diversification of this gene family, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of YABBY gene lineages in seed plants. Our findings suggest that either one or two YABBY genes were present in the last common ancestor of extant seed plants. We also examined the expression of YABBY genes in the gymnosperms Ephedra distachya (Gnetales), Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoales), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Coniferales). Our data indicate that some YABBY genes are expressed in a polar (abaxial) manner in leaves and female cones in gymnosperms. We propose that YABBY genes already acted as polarity genes in the last common ancestor of extant seed plants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chloroplast Redox Poise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steccanella, Verdiana

    the redox status of the plastoquinone pool and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the plant cell, the equilibrium between redox reactions and ROS signals is also maintained by various balancing mechanisms among which the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin system (TR-Trx) stands out as a mediator......The redox state of the chloroplast is maintained by a delicate balance between energy production and consumption and is affected by the need to avoid increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox power and ROS generated in the chloroplast are essential for maintaining physiological...... metabolic pathways and for optimizing chloroplast functions. The redox poise of photosynthetic electron transport components like plastoquinone is crucial to initiate signaling cascades and might also be involved in key biosynthetic pathways such as chlorophyll biosynthesis. We, therefore, explored...

  8. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Kosmos 1887

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeeva, I.D.; Vaulina, E.N.; Kostina, L.N.; Benton, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied. The seeds were located either inside the satellite or in open space, protected with aluminium foil or exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminium foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival rate and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles. The seeds can be thus regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors. (author)

  9. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Kuprewicz

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although

  10. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements

  11. Germination and Seed Bank Studies of Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), a Federally Theatened Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Madsen Schulze; John L. Walker; Timothy P. Spira

    2002-01-01

    Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae) is a Federally threatened plant endemic to Florida. Seedlings are rarely observed in natural populations, but seed production has been documented. We assessed the germinability of dry-stored seeds and of experimentally buried seeds, and sampled soil to detect a persistent seed bank.More than 20% of recorded seeds...

  12. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  13. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  14. Iron Deficiency Prolongs Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Murgia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of seed dormancy, germination and longevity are important goals in plant biology, with relevant applications for agriculture, food industry and also human nutrition. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS are key molecules involved in the release of dormancy, when their concentrations fall within the so called ‘oxidative window.’ The mechanisms of ROS distribution and sensing in seeds, from dormant to germinating ones, still need elucidation. Also, the impact of iron (Fe deficiency on seed dormancy is still unexplored; this is surprising, given the known pro-oxidant role of Fe when in a free form. We provide evidence of a link between plant Fe nutrition and dormancy of progeny seeds by using different Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants with different dormancy strengths grown in control soil or under severe Fe deficiency. The latter condition extends the dormancy in several genotypes. The focus on the mechanisms involved in the Fe deficiency-dependent alteration of dormancy and longevity promises to be a key issue in seed (redox biology.

  15. Heat shock and plant leachates regulate seed germination of the endangered carnivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gómez-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In fire-prone ecosystems, many plant species have specialized mechanisms of seed dormancy that ensure a successful recruitment after fire. A well-documented mechanism is the germination stimulated by fire-related cues, such as heat shock and smoke. However, less is known about the role of inhibitory germination signals (e.g. allelopathy in regulating post-fire recruitment. Plant leachates derived from the unburned vegetation can enforce dormancy by means of allelopathic compounds, acting as a signal of unfavourable (highly competitive niche for germination in pyrophyte species. Here, we assessed the separate effects of heat shock and plant leachates on seed germination of Drosophyllum lusitanicum, an endangered carnivorous plant endemic to Mediterranean fire-prone heathlands. We performed a germination experiment in which seeds were subjected to three treatments: (1 5 min at 100 °C, (2 watering with plant leachate, and (3 control. Germination rate and seed viability was determined after 63 days. Heat shock stimulated seed germination in D. lusitanicum while plant leachates had inhibitory germination effects without reducing seed viability. Thus, both positive and negative signals could be involved in its successful post-fire recruitment. Fire would break seed dormancy and stimulate seed germination of D. lusitanicum through high temperatures, but also by eliminating allelochemical compounds from the soil. These results help to understand the population dynamics patterns found for D. lusitanicum in natural populations, and highlight the role of fire in the ecology and conservation of this endangered species. Seed dormancy imposed by plant-derived leachates as an adaptive mechanism should be considered more in fire ecology theory.

  16. Thermoluminescence studies on plant seeds of different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki; Eguchi, Hoshio; Koizumi, Yoshinobu.

    1975-01-01

    The thermoluminescence was found when the pulverized powders from the whole seeds of six plant species or the hypocotyls from the seeds of five soybean varieties were irradiated at a liquid nitrogen temperature with gamma-rays. The spectra of luminescence emitted, the light peak temperature, the decaying after irradiation and the dose relationship of luminescence were determined. A high yield of the rapidly-decaying luminescence occurred in the more radiosensitive variety when irradiated with relatively lower doses. The very drastic decrease of the thermoluminescence was observed in the samples irradiated at room temperature prior to the exposure at 77 0 K. (auth.)

  17. Seeds That Give: Participatory Plant Breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The full text of the book is available online and leads the reader into a virtual ..... They select plant types (rather than varieties) based on their own .... Farmers and breeders, and other stakeholders — such as traders, processors, distributors, ...

  18. Ants sow the seeds of global diversification in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Gove, Aaron D; Latimer, Andrew M; Majer, Jonathan D; Dunn, Robert R

    2009-01-01

    The extraordinary diversification of angiosperm plants in the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods has produced an estimated 250,000-300,000 living angiosperm species and has fundamentally altered terrestrial ecosystems. Interactions with animals as pollinators or seed dispersers have long been suspected as drivers of angiosperm diversification, yet empirical examples remain sparse or inconclusive. Seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) may drive diversification as it can reduce extinction by providing selective advantages to plants and can increase speciation by enhancing geographical isolation by extremely limited dispersal distances. Using the most comprehensive sister-group comparison to date, we tested the hypothesis that myrmecochory leads to higher diversification rates in angiosperm plants. As predicted, diversification rates were substantially higher in ant-dispersed plants than in their non-myrmecochorous relatives. Data from 101 angiosperm lineages in 241 genera from all continents except Antarctica revealed that ant-dispersed lineages contained on average more than twice as many species as did their non-myrmecochorous sister groups. Contrasts in species diversity between sister groups demonstrated that diversification rates did not depend on seed dispersal mode in the sister group and were higher in myrmecochorous lineages in most biogeographic regions. Myrmecochory, which has evolved independently at least 100 times in angiosperms and is estimated to be present in at least 77 families and 11 000 species, is a key evolutionary innovation and a globally important driver of plant diversity. Myrmecochory provides the best example to date for a consistent effect of any mutualism on large-scale diversification.

  19. A functional phylogenomic view of the seed plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest K Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel result of the current research is the development and implementation of a unique functional phylogenomic approach that explores the genomic origins of seed plant diversification. We first use 22,833 sets of orthologs from the nuclear genomes of 101 genera across land plants to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. One of the more salient results is the resolution of some enigmatic relationships in seed plant phylogeny, such as the placement of Gnetales as sister to the rest of the gymnosperms. In using this novel phylogenomic approach, we were also able to identify overrepresented functional gene ontology categories in genes that provide positive branch support for major nodes prompting new hypotheses for genes associated with the diversification of angiosperms. For example, RNA interference (RNAi has played a significant role in the divergence of monocots from other angiosperms, which has experimental support in Arabidopsis and rice. This analysis also implied that the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV and V (NRPD2 played a prominent role in the divergence of gymnosperms. This hypothesis is supported by the lack of 24nt siRNA in conifers, the maternal control of small RNA in the seeds of flowering plants, and the emergence of double fertilization in angiosperms. Our approach takes advantage of genomic data to define orthologs, reconstruct relationships, and narrow down candidate genes involved in plant evolution within a phylogenomic view of species' diversification.

  20. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  1. Dynamics of Chloroplast Translation during Chloroplast Differentiation in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakitchai Chotewutmontri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast genomes in land plants contain approximately 100 genes, the majority of which reside in polycistronic transcription units derived from cyanobacterial operons. The expression of chloroplast genes is integrated into developmental programs underlying the differentiation of photosynthetic cells from non-photosynthetic progenitors. In C4 plants, the partitioning of photosynthesis between two cell types, bundle sheath and mesophyll, adds an additional layer of complexity. We used ribosome profiling and RNA-seq to generate a comprehensive description of chloroplast gene expression at four stages of chloroplast differentiation, as displayed along the maize seedling leaf blade. The rate of protein output of most genes increases early in development and declines once the photosynthetic apparatus is mature. The developmental dynamics of protein output fall into several patterns. Programmed changes in mRNA abundance make a strong contribution to the developmental shifts in protein output, but output is further adjusted by changes in translational efficiency. RNAs with prioritized translation early in development are largely involved in chloroplast gene expression, whereas those with prioritized translation in photosynthetic tissues are generally involved in photosynthesis. Differential gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts results primarily from differences in mRNA abundance, but differences in translational efficiency amplify mRNA-level effects in some instances. In most cases, rates of protein output approximate steady-state protein stoichiometries, implying a limited role for proteolysis in eliminating unassembled or damaged proteins under non-stress conditions. Tuned protein output results from gene-specific trade-offs between translational efficiency and mRNA abundance, both of which span a large dynamic range. Analysis of ribosome footprints at sites of RNA editing showed that the chloroplast translation machinery

  2. Planting seeds for the future of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broun, Pierre; Cakmak, Ismail; Condon, Liam; Fedoroff, Nina; Gonzalez‐Valero, Juan; Graham, Ian; Lewis, Josette; Moloney, Maurice; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Sanginga, Nteranya; Shewry, Peter; Roulin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The health and wellbeing of future generations will depend on humankind's ability to deliver sufficient nutritious food to a world population in excess of 9 billion. Feeding this many people by 2050 will require science‐based solutions that address sustainable agricultural productivity and enable healthful dietary patterns in a more globally equitable way. This topic was the focus of a multi‐disciplinary international conference hosted by Nestlé in June 2015, and provides the inspiration for the present article. The conference brought together a diverse range of expertise and organisations from the developing and industrialised world, all with a common interest in safeguarding the future of food. This article provides a snapshot of three of the recurring topics that were discussed during this conference: soil health, plant science and the future of farming practice. Crop plants and their cultivation are the fundamental building blocks for a food secure world. Whether these are grown for food or feed for livestock, they are the foundation of food and nutrient security. Many of the challenges for the future of food will be faced where the crops are grown: on the farm. Farmers need to plant the right crops and create the right conditions to maximise productivity (yield) and quality (e.g. nutritional content), whilst maintaining the environment, and earning a living. New advances in science and technology can provide the tools and know‐how that will, together with a more entrepreneurial approach, help farmers to meet the inexorable demand for the sustainable production of nutritious foods for future generations. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26619956

  3. Universality of phloem transport in seed plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kåre Hartvig; Liesche, Johannes; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    predictions. The compiled data allowed calculating stem sieve element conductivity and predicting phloem sap flow velocity. The central finding of this work is that all vascular plants seem to have evolved efficient osmotic pumping units, despite their huge disparity in size and morphology. This contribution......Since Münch in the 1920s proposed that sugar transport in the phloem vascular system is driven by osmotic pressure gradients, his hypothesis has been strongly supported by evidence from herbaceous angiosperms. Experimental constraints made it difficult to test this proposal in large trees, where...

  4. The presence of Alternaria spp. on the seed of Apiaceae plants and their influence on seed emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable damping-off of the seedlings of several commercial Apiaceae plant species was observed in Serbia. The infection of a total of 48 seed samples of nine vegetable and spice plants with phytopathogenic Alternaria spp. was established using the deep-freeze-blotter method. Identification of Alternaria species was performed using both conventional methods and PCR. Four different plant-pathogenic Alternaria species were detected in Serbia: A. dauci, A. radicina, A. petroselini, and A. alternata, all of which caused reduction of carrot, parsley, parsnip, and celery seed emergence. Alternaria dauci, A. radicina, and A. petroselini were relatively more aggressive compared to A. alternata. Substantial seed infection levels and strong influence of Alternaria spp. on seed emergence indicated that production of Apiaceae seed needs to be improved in order to obtain pathogen-free seed.

  5. European orchid cultivation – from seed to mature plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for growing orchids of the genera Dactylorhiza and Ophrys, two European members of the subfamily Orchidoideae, from seeds to mature plants using asymbiotic in vitro cultures and glasshouse pot cultures. Four media were used: two new media 1/4–2 and Mo2 and two modifications of Michl medium (Michl 1988. We also describe a highly efficient technique for seed disinfection using a syringe. We tested the effects of ethanol treatment on Anacmaptis morio (L R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. seeds, sugar media composition on Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb. P. F. Hunt & Summerh., Oeceoclades decaryana (H. Perrier ex Guillaumin & Manguin Garay & Taylor and Ophrys lojaconoi P. Delforge and the effect of kinetin on Dactylorhiza majalis protocorm growth. Sucrose was the best carbon source, while hexose resulted in the inhibition of protocorm development at early stages. The addition of kinetin at 10 mg/l resulted in the formation of the largest protocorms. Ethanol can have positive effect on seed germination when applied for a short time (2 min, while long-time ethanol exposure (60 min can kill the seeds.

  6. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-01-01

    Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp) genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC) region (82,805 bp), with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA)/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19) was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23) genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP) gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  7. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Raman

    Full Text Available Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC region (82,805 bp, with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19 was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23 genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  8. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le

    2015-02-26

    Many ovules of Late Devonian (Famennian) seed plants have been well studied. However, because few taxa occur with anatomically preserved stems and/or petioles, the vascular system of these earliest spermatophytes is little understood and available data come mostly from Euramerica. There remains great controversy over the anatomical differentiation of Late Devonian and Carboniferous seed plant groups of Buteoxylonales, Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales. Protostele evolution of these early spermatophytes needs more research. A new taxon Yiduxylon trilobum gen. et sp. nov. with seed plant affinities has been discovered in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Tizikou Formation of Hubei Province, China. It is represented by stems, helically arranged and bifurcate fronds with two orders of pinnae and planate pinnules. Both secondary pinnae and pinnules are borne alternately. Stems contain a small protostele with three primary xylem ribs possessing a single peripheral protoxylem strand. Thick secondary xylem displays multiseriate bordered pitting on the tangential and radial walls of the tracheids, and has biseriate to multiseriate and high rays. A narrow cortex consists of inner cortex without sclerotic nests and sparganum-type outer cortex with peripheral bands of vertically aligned sclerenchyma cells. Two leaf traces successively arise tangentially from each primary xylem rib and they divide once to produce four circular-oval traces in the stem cortex. Four vascular bundles occur in two C-shaped groups at each petiole base with ground tissue and peripheral bands of sclerenchyma cells. Yiduxylon justifies the assignment to a new genus mainly because of the protostele with protoxylem strands only near the periphery of primary xylem ribs, leaf trace origination and petiolar vascular supply structure. It shares many definitive characters with Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales, further underscoring the anatomical similarities among early seed plants. The primary vascular

  9. Effects of seed size and habitat on recruitment patterns in grassland and forest plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lönnberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    A trade-off between seed size and seed number is central in seed ecology, and has been suggested to be related to a trade-off between competition and colonization, as well as to a trade-off between stress tolerance and fecundity. Large seeds endure hazards during establishment, such as shading, drought, litter coverage and competition from other plants, better than do small seeds, due to a larger amount of stored resources in the seed. Small seeds, however, are numerous and small-seeded speci...

  10. Insights from the complete chloroplast genome into the evolution of Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the oldest oilseed crops. In order to investigate the evolutionary characters according to the Sesame Genome Project, apart from sequencing its nuclear genome, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of S. indicum cv. Yuzhi 11 (white seeded using Illumina and 454 sequencing. Comparisons of chloroplast genomes between S. indicum and the 18 other higher plants were then analyzed. The chloroplast genome of cv. Yuzhi 11 contains 153,338 bp and a total of 114 unique genes (KC569603. The number of chloroplast genes in sesame is the same as that in Nicotiana tabacum, Vitis vinifera and Platanus occidentalis. The variation in the length of the large single-copy (LSC regions and inverted repeats (IR in sesame compared to 18 other higher plant species was the main contributor to size variation in the cp genome in these species. The 77 functional chloroplast genes, except for ycf1 and ycf2, were highly conserved. The deletion of the cp ycf1 gene sequence in cp genomes may be due either to its transfer to the nuclear genome, as has occurred in sesame, or direct deletion, as has occurred in Panax ginseng and Cucumis sativus. The sesame ycf2 gene is only 5,721 bp in length and has lost about 1,179 bp. Nucleotides 1-585 of ycf2 when queried in BLAST had hits in the sesame draft genome. Five repeats (R10, R12, R13, R14 and R17 were unique to the sesame chloroplast genome. We also found that IR contraction/expansion in the cp genome alters its rate of evolution. Chloroplast genes and repeats display the signature of convergent evolution in sesame and other species. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Sesamum and other higher plants.

  11. Effect of maize seed laser irradiation on plant photosynthetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, M.; Stanev, V.; Velichkov, D.; Tsonev, Ts.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were made with the two hybrids, H-708 and P x -20. The seeds were irradiated by a helium-neon quantum generator (L'vov-1 Electronica) with output power of 24 MW and 632.8 nm wave length. Once and twice irradiated seeds were sown on the 2nd, 5th and 10th day post irradiation. Changes in leaf area, chlorophyll content in the leaves, photosynthetic rate and its dependence on temperature and light, transpiration, stomatal resistance to CO 2 and total dry matter of the overground plant part were traced. Seed irradiation with laser rays did not affect the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The photosynthetic rate did not depend on the cultivar characteristics of the crop. Single and repeated irradiation of the hybrid H-708 in most case enhanced photosynthetic rate, but a similar effect was not observed in P x -20. Transpiration and CO 2 stomatal resistance were not equally affected by radiation. Laser rays enhanced the ability of the photosynthetic apparatus of the entire plants to use more efficiently high light intensities. The leaf area and the total plant dry matter increased in case of sowing on the 2nd and 5th day and a single irradiation and in case of sowing on the 5th and 10th day and twice repeated irradiations

  12. Role of CBFs as Integrators of Chloroplast Redox, Phytochrome and Plant Hormone Signaling during Cold Acclimation

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    Norman P. A. Hüner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold acclimation of winter cereals and other winter hardy species is a prerequisite to increase subsequent freezing tolerance. Low temperatures upregulate the expression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1 which in turn induce the expression of COLD-REGULATED (COR genes. We summarize evidence which indicates that the integration of these interactions is responsible for the dwarf phenotype and enhanced photosynthetic performance associated with cold-acclimated and CBF-overexpressing plants. Plants overexpressing CBFs but grown at warm temperatures mimic the cold-tolerant, dwarf, compact phenotype; increased photosynthetic performance; and biomass accumulation typically associated with cold-acclimated plants. In this review, we propose a model whereby the cold acclimation signal is perceived by plants through an integration of low temperature and changes in light intensity, as well as changes in light quality. Such integration leads to the activation of the CBF-regulon and subsequent upregulation of COR gene and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox expression which results in a dwarf phenotype coupled with increased freezing tolerance and enhanced photosynthetic performance. We conclude that, due to their photoautotrophic nature, plants do not rely on a single low temperature sensor, but integrate changes in light intensity, light quality, and membrane viscosity in order to establish the cold-acclimated state. CBFs appear to act as master regulators of these interconnecting sensing/signaling pathways.

  13. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation of some quantitative indices of wheat and the ultrastructure of wheat chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J; Marek, J; Hraska, S [Vysoka Skola Polnohospodarska, Nitra (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Slachtenia a Obrany Rastlin

    1977-01-01

    The effects were observed of acute gamma irradiation on dry seeds of Triticum aestivum var. erythrospermum (Koern.) Mansf., variety Kosutska, and Triticum monococcum (L.). Gamma radiation doses ranged from 0.258 C.kg/sup -1/ (1 kR) to 5.160 C.kg/sup -1/ (20 kR). Plant samples from pot experiments were analyzed as to the lengths of the first three leaves, production of dry matter and chloroplast ultrastructure. The studied quantitative indices, their variability and correlations are substantially dependent on the genotype of the tested species and on the applied radiation dose. Gamma radiation caused vesiculation and increase of chloroplasts, an increase in the grain number, a decline in the number of disks, a reduction of stroma thylakoids and a grouping of grana in the chloroplasts. The frequency of these changes is significantly influenced by the genotype of the tested species and by the applied radiation dose level.

  15. Germination and field survival of white-topped pitcher plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina Connor; Hilliard Gibbs

    2012-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine longevity of white-topped pitcher plant (Sarracenia leucophylla, Raf.) seeds in the field and in cold storage. Thirty seed pods were harvested in August 2009 from plants located in Alabama 38 miles from the Gulf Coast. Of the 10,000+ seeds extracted from the pods, some were buried outside in screen-wire bags and...

  16. Limitations to postfire seedling establishment: The role of seeding technology, water availability, and invasive plant abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony Svejcar

    2010-01-01

    Seeding rangeland following wildfire is a central tool managers use to stabilize soils and inhibit the spread of invasive plants. Rates of successful seeding on arid rangeland, however, are low. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which water availability, invasive plant abundance, and seeding technology influence postfire seedling establishment...

  17. Chloroplast Redox Status Modulates Genome-Wide Plant Responses during the Non-host Interaction of Tobacco with the Hemibiotrophic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pierella Karlusich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast. We have previously reported that down-regulation of ROS build-up in chloroplasts by expression of a plastid-targeted flavodoxin (Fld suppressed LCD in tobacco leaves inoculated with the non-host bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, while other defensive responses were unaffected, suggesting that chloroplast ROS and/or redox status play a major role in the progress of LCD. To better understand these effects, we compare here the transcriptomic alterations caused by Xcv inoculation on leaves of Fld-expressing tobacco plants and their wild-type siblings. About 29% of leaf-expressed genes were affected by Xcv and/or Fld. Surprisingly, 5.8% of them (1,111 genes were regulated by Fld in the absence of infection, presumably representing pathways responsive to chloroplast ROS production and/or redox status during normal growth conditions. While the majority (∼75% of pathogen-responsive genes were not affected by Fld, many Xcv responses were exacerbated, attenuated, or regulated in opposite direction by expression of this protein. Particularly interesting was a group of 384 genes displaying Xcv responses that were already triggered by Fld in the absence of infection, suggesting that the transgenic plants had a larger and more diversified suite of constitutive defenses against the attacking microorganism compared to the wild type. Fld modulated many genes involved in pathogenesis, signal

  18. Ants sow the seeds of global diversification in flowering plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Lengyel

    Full Text Available The extraordinary diversification of angiosperm plants in the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods has produced an estimated 250,000-300,000 living angiosperm species and has fundamentally altered terrestrial ecosystems. Interactions with animals as pollinators or seed dispersers have long been suspected as drivers of angiosperm diversification, yet empirical examples remain sparse or inconclusive. Seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory may drive diversification as it can reduce extinction by providing selective advantages to plants and can increase speciation by enhancing geographical isolation by extremely limited dispersal distances.Using the most comprehensive sister-group comparison to date, we tested the hypothesis that myrmecochory leads to higher diversification rates in angiosperm plants. As predicted, diversification rates were substantially higher in ant-dispersed plants than in their non-myrmecochorous relatives. Data from 101 angiosperm lineages in 241 genera from all continents except Antarctica revealed that ant-dispersed lineages contained on average more than twice as many species as did their non-myrmecochorous sister groups. Contrasts in species diversity between sister groups demonstrated that diversification rates did not depend on seed dispersal mode in the sister group and were higher in myrmecochorous lineages in most biogeographic regions.Myrmecochory, which has evolved independently at least 100 times in angiosperms and is estimated to be present in at least 77 families and 11 000 species, is a key evolutionary innovation and a globally important driver of plant diversity. Myrmecochory provides the best example to date for a consistent effect of any mutualism on large-scale diversification.

  19. Analysis of plant soil seed banks and seed dispersal vectors: Its potential and limits for forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumberová, Kateřina; Ducháček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography. These specialists, if made aware of the forensic uses of seeds, could help in development of new, more sophisticated approaches. We aim to bridge the gap between forensic analysts and botanists. Therefore, we explore the available literature and compare it with our own experiences to reveal both the potential and limits of soil seed bank and seed dispersal analysis in forensic investigations. We demonstrate that habitat-specific and thus relatively rare species are of the greatest forensic value. Overall species composition, in terms of species presence/absence and relative abundance can also provide important information. In particular, the ecological profiles of seeds found on any moving object can help us identify the types of environments through which the object had travelled. We discuss the applicability of this approach to various European environments, with the ability to compare seed samples with georeferenced vegetation databases being particularly promising for forensic investigations. We also explore the forensic limitations of soil seed bank and seed dispersal vector analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chloroplast Genome of the Folk Medicine and Vegetable Plant Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.: Gene Organization, Comparative and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2018-04-09

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes. Fifty one (51) repeat units and ninety two (92) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the genome. The pseudogene rpl23 (Ribosomal protein L23) was insert AATT than other Caryophyllale species by sequence alignment, which located in IRs region. The gene of trnK-UUU (tRNA-Lys) and rpl16 (Ribosomal protein L16) have larger introns in T. paniculatum , and the existence of matK (maturase K) genes, which usually located in the introns of trnK-UUU , rich sequence divergence in Caryophyllale. Complete cp genome comparison with other eight Caryophyllales species indicated that the differences between T. paniculatum and P. oleracea were very slight, and the most highly divergent regions occurred in intergenic spacers. Comparisons of IR boundaries among nine Caryophyllales species showed that T. paniculatum have larger IRs region and the contraction is relatively slight. The phylogenetic analysis among 35 Caryophyllales species and two outgroup species revealed that T. paniculatum and P. oleracea do not belong to the same family. All these results give good opportunities for future identification, barcoding of Talinum species, understanding the evolutionary mode of Caryophyllale cp genome and molecular breeding of T. paniculatum with high pharmaceutical efficacy.

  1. Utilization of complete chloroplast genomes for phylogenetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramlee, Shairul Izan Binti

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequence polymorphisms are a primary source of data in many plant phylogenetic studies. The chloroplast genome is relatively conserved in its evolution making it an ideal molecule to retain phylogenetic signals. The chloroplast genome is also largely, but not completely, free from

  2. Structure of cells chloroplasts and mitochondria of cotton leaves following gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanova, S V [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Biologii Rastenij

    1975-01-01

    The article investigates the structural changes in the plastides and mitochondria of cotton leaf cells after irradiation. Cotton seeds that had been moistened for 24 hours were irradiated by a gamma source with a dose of 10 kR (intensity: 19 R/s.). For the study of the plastides and mitochondria of the leaf cells samples were taken in the cotyledonous leaf and flowering phases of the cotton. The cells of the cotton leaf mesophillum in the standard consists of chloroplast with developed interior structures. Study of the ultrastructure of the cells of the mesophilic tissue of the cotyledonous leaf in irradiated cotton plants showed that the chloroplastide membranes are not damaged. A change in the form of the chloroplasts, an accumulation of starch and plastic substances in the chloroplasts, and a reduction in the number of inter-grain bonds were noted. It was discovered that gamma irradiation produces an excessive build-up of starch in the chloroplasts. The mitochondria are often located close to the plastides. The optical density is typical of the matrix of the mitochondria in non-irradiated plants. After cotton seeds that have sprouted are irradiated with a dose of 10 kR in the cotyledonous leaf phase, part of the mitochondria swells. The matrix becomes more transparent, and the number of chrysts decreases. Part of the mitochondria remains intact. The optical density and internal membranes of the mitochondria remain the same as in the control group. The disturbances of the chloroplast and the mitochondria are also observed in the budding and flowering phases (under conditions of a natural day). It was noted that a shortened day facilitated to some extent a normalization of metabolism, and this produced in turn a normal development of the chloroplasts, leaf mitochondria and ATF generation, which reduces the final biological effect of the radiation.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast psbD Promoters in Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shimmura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription of photosynthesis genes encoded by the plastid genome is mainly mediated by a prokaryotic-type RNA polymerase called plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP. Standard PEP-dependent promoters resemble bacterial sigma-70-type promoters containing the so-called -10 and -35 elements. On the other hand, an unusual light- and stress-responsive promoter (psbD LRP that is regulated by a 19-bp AAG-box immediately upstream of the -35 element has been mapped upstream of the psbD-psbC operon in some angiosperms. However, the occurrence of the AAG-box containing psbD LRP in plant evolution remains elusive. We have mapped the psbD promoters in eleven embryophytes at different evolutionary stages from liverworts to angiosperms. The psbD promoters were mostly mapped around 500–900 bp upstream of the psbD translational start sites, indicating that the psbD mRNAs have unusually long 5′-UTR extensions in common. The -10 elements of the psbD promoter are well-conserved in all embryophytes, but not the -35 elements. We found that the AAG-box sequences are highly conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms except for gnetaceae plants. Furthermore, partial AAG-box-like sequences have been identified in the psbD promoters of some basal embryophytes such as moss, hornwort, and lycophyte, whereas liverwort has the standard PEP promoter without the AAG-box. These results suggest that the AAG-box sequences of the psbD LRP may have evolved from a primitive type of AAG-box of basal embryophytes. On the other hand, monilophytes (ferns use another type of psbD promoter composed of a distinct cis-element upstream of the potential -35 element. Furthermore, we found that psbD expression is not regulated by light in gymnosperms or basal angiosperms, although they have the well-conserved AAG-box sequences. Thus, it is unlikely that acquisition of the AAG-box containing psbD promoter is directly associated with light-induced transcription of the psb

  4. Phylogenomic Analysis and Dynamic Evolution of Chloroplast Genomes in Salicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast genomes of plants are highly conserved in both gene order and gene content. Analysis of the whole chloroplast genome is known to provide much more informative DNA sites and thus generates high resolution for plant phylogenies. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of three Salix species in family Salicaceae. Phylogeny of Salicaceae inferred from complete chloroplast genomes is generally consistent with previous studies but resolved with higher statistical support. Incongruences of phylogeny, however, are observed in genus Populus, which most likely results from homoplasy. By comparing three Salix chloroplast genomes with the published chloroplast genomes of other Salicaceae species, we demonstrate that the synteny and length of chloroplast genomes in Salicaceae are highly conserved but experienced dynamic evolution among species. We identify seven positively selected chloroplast genes in Salicaceae, which might be related to the adaptive evolution of Salicaceae species. Comparative chloroplast genome analysis within the family also indicates that some chloroplast genes are lost or became pseudogenes, infer that the chloroplast genes horizontally transferred to the nucleus genome. Based on the complete nucleus genome sequences from two Salicaceae species, we remarkably identify that the entire chloroplast genome is indeed transferred and integrated to the nucleus genome in the individual of the reference genome of P. trichocarpa at least once. This observation, along with presence of the large nuclear plastid DNA (NUPTs and NUPTs-containing multiple chloroplast genes in their original order in the chloroplast genome, favors the DNA-mediated hypothesis of organelle to nucleus DNA transfer. Overall, the phylogenomic analysis using chloroplast complete genomes clearly elucidates the phylogeny of Salicaceae. The identification of positively selected chloroplast genes and dynamic chloroplast-to-nucleus gene transfers in

  5. Splash-cup plants accelerate raindrops to disperse seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Yamada, Yasukuni; McCurley, Matthew; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The conical flowers of splash-cup plants Chrysosplenium and Mazus catch raindrops opportunistically, exploiting the subsequent splash to disperse their seeds. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate their mechanism for maximizing dispersal distance. We fabricate conical plant mimics using three-dimensional printing, and use high-speed video to visualize splash profiles and seed travel distance. Drop impacts that strike the cup off-centre achieve the largest dispersal distances of up to 1 m. Such distances are achieved because splash speeds are three to five times faster than incoming drop speeds, and so faster than the traditionally studied splashes occurring upon horizontal surfaces. This anomalous splash speed is because of the superposition of two components of momentum, one associated with a component of the drop's motion parallel to the splash-cup surface, and the other associated with film spreading induced by impact with the splash-cup. Our model incorporating these effects predicts the observed dispersal distance within 6–18% error. According to our experiments, the optimal cone angle for the splash-cup is 40°, a value consistent with the average of five species of splash-cup plants. This optimal angle arises from the competing effects of velocity amplification and projectile launching angle. PMID:23235266

  6. The electrical potential as a gauge of photosynthetic performance in plant chloroplasts : a patch-clamp study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuysen, van T.

    1997-01-01

    The earliest events in the energisation of the photosynthetic membrane upon light capture are the formation of a transmembrane electrical potential (AV) and a transmembrane proton gradient (ΔpH). In this thesis ΔΨis employed for the study of the bioenergetics of chloroplast photosynthesis

  7. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  8. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  9. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiments on Growth and Variation of Spaceship Loaded Plant Seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. Y.; Lee, G. J.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, J. B.

    2008-08-15

    This educational experiment was designed (1)to obtain the basic information on the effects of the space environments on plant growth and mutagenesis, (2)to evaluate plant germination and seedling growth under the effect of microgravity and light conditions and (3)to improve a child's scientific mind through the real-time observations of a seedling growth for two plants conducted both in space and on earth. This project was implemented?as one of the missions in the Korean Astronaut Program. Seeds of eleven plant species (rice, soybean, rape, radish, hot pepper, perilla, arabidopsis, orchids, dandelion, hibiscus, cosmos) was vacuum-sealed in aluminium bags. Those seeds was loaded in the 'Progress' spaceship in Feb. 2008, traveled in the 'Progress', placed in the Russian Sector-International Space Station (RS-ISS), and then was brought by the Korean astronaut from the RS-ISS, and handed over to us at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The germination rate, plant growth and mutation type/frequency of the returned plants are under testing in the lab and field in KAERI now. The first Korean astronaut, Dr. So-Yeon Yi, who had returned to earth on April 19, 2008 after successfully completing her scientific mission for 12 days in Space, performed the experiment of plant germination and seedling growth in the International Space Station (ISS), and a similarly designed experiment kit was distributed to conduct the experiment by student and adult volunteers in Korea at the same time. The experiment was to observe the effects of microgravity and light on a seedling growth for soybean and radish. We designed a growth kit that was an all-in-one package consisting of seeds (12 seeds in each chamber) and rock wool as a growing medium filled in four polycarbonate growing chambers in a light proof textile bag or carton paper. The bottom of the chamber was filled with a tightly-fitted rock wool which can hold water and provide moisture during a

  11. Experiments on Growth and Variation of Spaceship Loaded Plant Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. Y.; Lee, G. J.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, J. B.

    2008-08-01

    This educational experiment was designed (1)to obtain the basic information on the effects of the space environments on plant growth and mutagenesis, (2)to evaluate plant germination and seedling growth under the effect of microgravity and light conditions and (3)to improve a child's scientific mind through the real-time observations of a seedling growth for two plants conducted both in space and on earth. This project was implemented?as one of the missions in the Korean Astronaut Program. Seeds of eleven plant species (rice, soybean, rape, radish, hot pepper, perilla, arabidopsis, orchids, dandelion, hibiscus, cosmos) was vacuum-sealed in aluminium bags. Those seeds was loaded in the 'Progress' spaceship in Feb. 2008, traveled in the 'Progress', placed in the Russian Sector-International Space Station (RS-ISS), and then was brought by the Korean astronaut from the RS-ISS, and handed over to us at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The germination rate, plant growth and mutation type/frequency of the returned plants are under testing in the lab and field in KAERI now. The first Korean astronaut, Dr. So-Yeon Yi, who had returned to earth on April 19, 2008 after successfully completing her scientific mission for 12 days in Space, performed the experiment of plant germination and seedling growth in the International Space Station (ISS), and a similarly designed experiment kit was distributed to conduct the experiment by student and adult volunteers in Korea at the same time. The experiment was to observe the effects of microgravity and light on a seedling growth for soybean and radish. We designed a growth kit that was an all-in-one package consisting of seeds (12 seeds in each chamber) and rock wool as a growing medium filled in four polycarbonate growing chambers in a light proof textile bag or carton paper. The bottom of the chamber was filled with a tightly-fitted rock wool which can hold water and provide moisture during a seedling growth. The

  12. No Evidence for Differential Biomass and Mineral Content in Adult Plants Grown from Dimorphic Suaeda Aralocaspica Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, C. Y.; Huang, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The production of two or more seed types by a single plant is known as seed heteromorphism. There have been many comparisons of seed traits or growth between plants grown from heteromorphic seeds. However, information is scarce regarding the mineral contents of adult plants from heteromorphic seeds. We herein present biomass and mineral profiles of adult plants grown from dimorphic seeds (non-dormant brown seeds and black seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy) of the annual desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica at different nutrient and salinity levels. Although nutrient and salinity treatments affected dry weight and mineral content, there were no significant differences among S. aralocaspica seed-dimorphic plants under the same experimental conditions. This study is one of the few to compare the physiological responses between seed-heteromorphic plants, and reveals that mineral status corresponds with growth performance in these plants. (author)

  13. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  14. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  15. Gene flow and population subdivision in a pantropical plant with sea-drifted seeds Hibiscus tiliaceus and its allied species: evidence from microsatellite analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; Tateishi, Yoichi; Murata, Jin; Kajita, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    The genetic differentiation and structure of Hibiscus tiliaceus, a pantropical plant with sea-drifted seeds, and four allied species were studied using six microsatellite markers. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed among H. tiliaceus populations in the Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, similar to the results of a previous chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) study. Frequent gene flow by long-distance seed dispersal is responsible for species integration of H. tiliaceus in the wide distribution range. On the other hand, highly differentiated populations of H. tiliaceus were detected in West Africa, as well as of Hibiscus pernambucensis in southern Brazil. In the former populations, the African continent may be a geographical barrier that prevents gene flow by sea-drifted seeds. In the latter populations, although there are no known land barriers, the bifurcating South Equatorial Current at the north-eastern horn of Brazil can be a potential barrier to gene flow and may promote the genetic differentiation of these populations. Our results also suggest clear species segregation between H. tiliaceus and H. pernambucensis, which confirms the introgression scenario between these two species that was suggested by a previous cpDNA study. Our results also provide good evidence for recent transatlantic long-distance seed dispersal by sea current. Despite the distinct geographical structure observed in the cpDNA haplotypes, a low level of genetic differentiation was found between Pacific and Atlantic populations of H. pernambucensis, which could be caused by transisthmian gene flow.

  16. Phylogeography and genetic structure of Hibiscus tiliaceus--speciation of a pantropical plant with sea-drifted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; Kajita, Tadashi; Murata, Jin; Tateishi, Yoichi

    2006-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and the spatial genetic structure of a pantropical plant with sea-drifted seeds, Hibiscus tiliaceus L., and its allied species were investigated. The combined distribution range of these species is over almost the entire littoral area of the tropics worldwide, which might result from the dispersal of their sea-drifted seeds and from recurrent speciation in local populations. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the nucleotide sequences of a c. 7500-bp portion of chloroplast DNA suggested the possibility that recurrent speciation from H. tiliaceus has given rise to all of its allied species. Three major sequence haplotypes of H. tiliaceus had wide and overlapping distributions throughout the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions. This distribution pattern was also confirmed by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction amplification with single-strand conformation polymorphism) and PCR-SSP (PCR amplification with sequence specific primers) analyses performed on more than 1100 samples from 65 populations worldwide. Statistical analysis using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance did not show significant genetic differentiation among the H. tiliaceus populations in the three oceanic regions. The results reported here suggested substantial gene flow occurred between populations in the different oceanic regions due to sea-drifted seeds. A strong genetic difference between the Pacific and Atlantic populations of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda was observed, which indicates that gene flow in this species between the two regions has been prevented. The wide and dominant distribution of a haplotype shared by H. pernambucensis and H. tiliaceus in the Atlantic region suggests significant introgression between the two species in this region.

  17. Potential of plant growth regulator and chlormequat chloride on alfalfa seed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. S.; Lin, H.; Han, W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our Results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality. (author)

  18. Effect of space flight on seeds and plant growth of Dianthus barbatus in SP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuejun; Teng Wenjun; Yuan Xiaohuan; Chao Gongping; Zhang Jianfang; Sun Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    The dry seeds of Dianthus barbatus were carried by recoverable satellite No.21 of China, and seeds were sown after returning back to the ground. The growth characteristic were observed, including seed vitality, emergence rate, plant growth and chlorophyll content of SP 1 generation. The results showed that the seed vitality, emergence rate and plant height, flower stalk length in SP 1 generation were significantly decreased and the floret size were significantly increased. The leaf width, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while crown diameter and floret number increased in SP 1 generation plants. (authors)

  19. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  20. Use of tetrazolium (TTC, Germ's and greenhouse plant emergences methods for testing seed vigour of selected ornamental plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996-1997 the experiments were carried out on methods to investigate seed vigour of tassel flower (Amaranthus caudatus L., sand pink (Dianthus chinensis L., babies' breath (Gypsophila elegans M.B., sweet pea (Lathyrus odorathus L., African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. and zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jasq.. The main goals of this research were to specify conditions for accelerated ageing (AA of the seeds of a few selected ornamental plant species and to choose the most appropriate methods for their seed vigour evaluation in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. All used in the experiments seeds came from the commercial seed lots from Polish seed company. Evaluation was carried out on the seed samples with high and low vigour. The latter ones were received through subjecting the seed samples to AA, i.e. by placing them in 100% relative humidity (RH at 44°C, except African marigold-at 42°C, in the darkness and keeping them for 144, 88, 100, 48, 72 and 72 hours, respectively. The tested seed vigour estimated methods included the Germ's method, the 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazoilum chloride (TTC method and the test of plant emergences in the greenhouse. The high vigour seeds samples were used as a check. The Germ's method was found to be useful to evaluate sand pink, babies' breath and African marigold seed vigour, whereas the TTC method was found to be suitable for vigour evaluation of sand pink, babies' breath and zinnia. At present stage of our knowledge about seed vigour, the plant emergences in the greenhouse method was found to be the best for evaluation of seed vigour of tassel flower, sand pink, babies' breath, sweet pea and zinnia. It is reasonable to combine a few methods of seed vigour evaluation for ornamental plant species.

  1. Floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhou, Jiawei; DU, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species (AISPS) in China. There are a total of five hundred and thirteen AISPS, belonging to seventy families and two hundred and eighty-three genera. Seventy families were classified into nine areal types at the family level, and "Cosmopolitan" and "Pantropic" are the two main types. Two hundred and eighty-three genera were classified into twelve areal types at the genus level, and "Pantropic", "Trop. Asia & Amer. disjuncted", and "Cosmopolitan" are the three main types. These results reveal a certain degree of diversity among AISPS in China. The floristic characteristics at the family level exhibit strong pantropic characteristics. Two possible reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, southeastern China is heavily invaded by alien invasive plant species and this region has a mild climate. Secondly, southeastern China is more disturbed by human activities than other regions in China. The floristic characteristics at the genus level display strong pantropic but with abundant temperate characteristics. This may be due to that China across five climatic zones and the ecosystems in which the most alien invasive plant species occur have the same or similar climate with their natural habitat.

  2. Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-11-01

    Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider

  3. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-19

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  4. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna S. Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  5. Design, Development and Evaluation of a Pneumatic Seeder for Automatic Planting of Seeds in Cellular Trays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Movahedi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For planting fine seeds in cellular trays, an automatic pneumatic seeder was designed, constructed and evaluated. CATIA software was used to design and analysis the system parts of the seeder. Different parts of the seeder, including vibrating seed hopper, vacuum boom, seed picking nozzles, seed tube, pneumatic system and electronic control unit for automation of the seeder, were designed and constructed. The area of nozzle orifice was used to calculate the required pressure of nozzle tip. The seeder was evaluated using two sizes of trays. Experiments were performed with five replications and the error of planting the seeds in the 105 and 390-cellular trays were 1.9 and 0.46 percent, respectively. The time of planting for 105 and 390 cellular trays reduced from 20 min (for manual seeding to 35 s and from 90 min to 160 s, respectively.

  6. Role of Heavy Metal Pumps in Transport of Zinc from Soil to Seeds of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Irene

    . In Arabidopsis roots, the heavy metal ATPases AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 are localized to the pericycle cells and are important for the export of zinc, in order for zinc to enter the xylem and get to the shoot. I have identified a new novel role for AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 in the developing seed. The Arabidopsis seed consists...... at this location actively export zinc from the mother plant seed coat. Mutant plants that lack AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 accumulate zinc in the seed coat, and consequently have vastly reduced amounts of zinc inside the seed. The finding that AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 are involved in pumping zinc out of the mother plant seed coat...

  7. Motif analysis unveils the possible co-regulation of chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Ding, Jun; Daniell, Henry; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Xiaoman

    2012-09-01

    Chloroplasts play critical roles in land plant cells. Despite their importance and the availability of at least 200 sequenced chloroplast genomes, the number of known DNA regulatory sequences in chloroplast genomes are limited. In this paper, we designed computational methods to systematically study putative DNA regulatory sequences in intergenic regions near chloroplast genes in seven plant species and in promoter sequences of nuclear genes in Arabidopsis and rice. We found that -35/-10 elements alone cannot explain the transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes. We also concluded that there are unlikely motifs shared by intergenic sequences of most of chloroplast genes, indicating that these genes are regulated differently. Finally and surprisingly, we found five conserved motifs, each of which occurs in no more than six chloroplast intergenic sequences, are significantly shared by promoters of nuclear-genes encoding chloroplast proteins. By integrating information from gene function annotation, protein subcellular localization analyses, protein-protein interaction data, and gene expression data, we further showed support of the functionality of these conserved motifs. Our study implies the existence of unknown nuclear-encoded transcription factors that regulate both chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast protein, which sheds light on the understanding of the transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes.

  8. The legacy of plant invasions: changes in the soil seed bank of invaded plant communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, Margherita; Pyšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2016), s. 40-53 ISSN 0006-3568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13491S; GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * soil seed bank * impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.378, year: 2016

  9. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  10. Pre-sowing laser biostymulation of seeds of cultivated plants and its results in agrotechnics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies carried out in University of Agriculture in Lublin made it possible to elaborate our own technology of making laser biostimulation of seeds of selected cultivated plants. The machine for laser biostimulation has been constructed. Pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds of some studied plants resulted in the following increase of crops: maize from 10 to 20%, spring wheat 20-30%, spring barley 20-25%, sugar beets 10-35%. Better plant seedlings, higher resistance to cold and earlier plant maturation are the additional effects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of plants. In the case of corn the vegetation period is shortened by about 10 days. The quality of plants grown from the seeds which underwent the laser biostimulation is also higher. Initial studies proved that it is possible to diminish nitrogen fertilization when applying laser biostimulation of seeds without essential decrease in crops. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  11. Application of genetic markers in seed testing and plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers have been used at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad for a number of years, both for seed quality control and for research purposes. The Laboratory for Seed Testing was the first in the former Yugoslavia to use the method of control of hybrid seed genetic purity based on enzymatic polymorphism. This paper presents the application of protein markers, isozymes, seed storage proteins and DNA markers for evaluation of seed and breeding materials of various agricultural crops in Serbia.

  12. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustey, A; Leighs, J A; Appleby, G J; Wood, D C; Hazael, R; McMillan, P F; Hazell, P J

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  13. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustey, A.; Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  14. Intra-specific downsizing of frugivores affects seed germination of fleshy-fruited plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Méndez, Néstor; Rodríguez, Airam; Nogales, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The loss of largest-bodied individuals within species of frugivorous animals is one of the major consequences of defaunation. The gradual disappearance of large-bodied frugivores is expected to entail a parallel deterioration in seed dispersal functionality if the remaining smaller-sized individuals are not so effective as seed dispersers. While the multiple impacts of the extinction of large bodied species have been relatively well studied, the impact of intraspecific downsizing (i.e. the extinction of large individuals within species) on seed dispersal has rarely been evaluated. Here we experimentally assessed the impact of body-size reduction in the frugivorous lizard Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae), an endemic species of the Canary Islands, on the seed germination patterns of two fleshy-fruited plant species (Rubia fruticosa and Withania aristata). Seed germination curves and the proportions of germinated seeds were compared for both plant species after being defecated by large-sized individuals and small-sized individuals. The data show that seeds of W. aristata defecated by larger-sized lizards germinated faster and in a higher percentage than those defecated by small-sized lizards, while no differences were found for R. fruticosa seeds. Our results suggest that disappearance of the largest individuals of frugivorous species may impair recruitment of some plant species by worsening seed germination. They also warn us of a potential cryptic loss of seed dispersal functionality on defaunated ecosystems, even when frugivorous species remain abundant.

  15. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Gris,Cristiane Fortes; Pinho,Edila Vilela de Resende Von; Carvalho,Maria Laene de Moreira; Diniz,Rafael Parreira; Andrade,Thaís de

    2013-01-01

    Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the muni...

  16. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Lortie, C. J.; Lambert, A. M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant ...

  17. Complex chloroplast RNA metabolism: just debugging the genetic programme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz-Linneweber Christian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and maturation of RNA. Mature chloroplast RNA is generated by a plethora of nuclear-encoded proteins acquired or recruited during plant evolution, comprising additional RNA polymerases and sigma factors, and sequence-specific RNA maturation factors promoting RNA splicing, editing, end formation and translatability. Despite years of intensive research, we still lack a comprehensive explanation for this complexity. Results We inspected the available literature and genome databases for information on components of RNA metabolism in land plant chloroplasts. In particular, new inventions of chloroplast-specific mechanisms and the expansion of some gene/protein families detected in land plants lead us to suggest that the primary function of the additional nuclear-encoded components found in chloroplasts is the transgenomic suppression of point mutations, fixation of which occurred due to an enhanced genetic drift exhibited by chloroplast genomes. We further speculate that a fast evolution of transgenomic suppressors occurred after the water-to-land transition of plants. Conclusion Our inspections indicate that several chloroplast-specific mechanisms evolved in land plants to remedy point mutations that occurred after the water-to-land transition. Thus, the complexity of chloroplast gene expression evolved to guarantee the functionality of chloroplast genetic information and may not, with some exceptions, be involved in regulatory functions.

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Seed and Seed Oil of the Potentially Medicinal Plant Ziziphus oenoplia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Joseph, Kadanthottu Sebastian; Madiwal, Abhishek; Gerald, Dinesh Rajen; Badiger, Mahananda; Kolkar, Lakshmi; Hiremath, Reshma

    2017-11-02

    The proximate composition of seeds, physicochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of Ziziphus oenoplia seed oil were determined in this study. The seeds possessed low moisture (4.54%) and high carbohydrate (42.96%) and protein content (40%), making the seed oil suitable for storage and consumption. The saponification value (197.80) of the seed oil makes it a promising source for the soap and shampoo industry. The iodine and saponification values are comparable to those of major edible seed oils such as groundnut and soybean. The high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (53.41%), especially oleic acid (53.38%), present in the oil makes it a better source for a low-fat diet and may reduce the risk of various heart-related diseases.

  19. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From an economic viewpoint, tomato is considered as the second most valuable crop after potato. It is also preceded by the potato in terms of per capita consumption in the world. In 2008, the cultivation area used for the tomato as equal to 163,539 hectares in Iran and the production of it was equal to 5,887,715 tons with an average production of 117,887 tons in 4352 hectares in the provinces, respectively. Having high production volume and quality, costly hybrid seeds are currently used for the major planting areas of vegetable in Iran. Most of the used transplanted seedlings are 83%. Since the seeds are expensive, the percentage of seedlings and healthy and disease-free seeds should be used for maximized germination and be transferred to the fields of open space. Preparing seedlings in transplanting trays is a technology to respond to this need. Trays are covered with a layer of Peat and Miculite fertilizers. Then, one seed is manually placed in each cell after gauging and preparing a suitable field. However, manually placing seeds is time-consuming and requires hard labor. Sixteen working labors per hour are required for 15 × 7 cell in order to have 10200 seedlings grown in 100 trays. Due to lack of adequate labor, production capacity of greenhouses is reduced, especially in the farming season when finding labor for planting vegetable sprouts is laborious. Therefore, mechanizing tray seeding operations is essential to increase the capacity of the growing industry of greenhouses in Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, the tomato seeds were examined in the laboratory. The most important parameters of the study included size, shape, weight, the speed of getting out of the tank and the minimum carrying speed. Then, a vacuum-based single seed picking unit was prepared to investigate the factors influencing the design, so that a single tomato seed can be harvested from the masses. The most important factors considered in the

  20. A potyvirus vector efficiently targets recombinant proteins to chloroplasts, mitochondria and nuclei in plant cells when expressed at the amino terminus of the polyprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Eszter; Navarro, José-Antonio; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Plant virus-based expression systems allow quick and efficient production of recombinant proteins in plant biofactories. Among them, a system derived from tobacco etch virus (TEV; genus potyvirus) permits coexpression of equimolar amounts of several recombinant proteins. This work analyzed how to target recombinant proteins to different subcellular localizations in the plant cell using this system. We constructed TEV clones in which green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a chloroplast transit peptide (cTP), a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a mitochondrial targeting peptide (mTP) was expressed either as the most amino-terminal product or embedded in the viral polyprotein. Results showed that cTP and mTP mediated efficient translocation of GFP to the corresponding organelle only when present at the amino terminus of the viral polyprotein. In contrast, the NLS worked efficiently at both positions. Viruses expressing GFP in the amino terminus of the viral polyprotein produced milder symptoms. Untagged GFPs and cTP and NLS tagged amino-terminal GFPs accumulated to higher amounts in infected tissues. Finally, viral progeny from clones with internal GFPs maintained the extra gene better. These observations will help in the design of potyvirus-based vectors able to coexpress several proteins while targeting different subcellular localizations, as required in plant metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, R. H.; Olesen, Jens Mogens; Nogales, M.

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Gala´pagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most......, followed by small ground finch, two mockingbirds, the giant tortoise and two insectivorous birds. Most animals dispersed alien seeds, but these formed a relatively small proportion of the interactions. Nevertheless, the integration of aliens was higher in the island that has been invaded for longest......, suggesting a time-lag between alien plant introductions and their impacts on seed dispersal networks. Alien plants become more specialized with advancing invasion, favouring more simplified plant and disperser communities. However, only habitat type significantly affected the overall network structure. Alien...

  2. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment on plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustey, Adrian; Leighs, James; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds have both been previously investigated (primarily driven by an interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia respectively). However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods of applying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in such data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder set-up and shock compression via employment of a 50-mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer-plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set.

  3. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert M; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E; Stavoe, Andrea K; Sinkler, Christopher A; Brandizzi, Federica; Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2016-02-23

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and to FRIENDLY, which was previously shown to promote the normal distribution of mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. We conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1.

  4. Seed bank and big sagebrush plant community composition in a range margin for big sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Trace E.; Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Laurenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    The potential influence of seed bank composition on range shifts of species due to climate change is unclear. Seed banks can provide a means of both species persistence in an area and local range expansion in the case of increasing habitat suitability, as may occur under future climate change. However, a mismatch between the seed bank and the established plant community may represent an obstacle to persistence and expansion. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in Montana, USA, we compared the seed bank to the established plant community. There was less than a 20% similarity in the relative abundance of species between the established plant community and the seed bank. This difference was primarily driven by an overrepresentation of native annual forbs and an underrepresentation of big sagebrush in the seed bank compared to the established plant community. Even though we expect an increase in habitat suitability for big sagebrush under future climate conditions at our sites, the current mismatch between the plant community and the seed bank could impede big sagebrush range expansion into increasingly suitable habitat in the future.

  5. Pantoea allii sp. nov., isolated from onion plants and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2011-04-01

    Eight yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria were isolated from onion seed in South Africa and from an onion plant exhibiting centre rot symptoms in the USA. The isolates were assigned to the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD sequences, confirmed the allocation of the isolates to the genus Pantoea. MLSA further indicated that the isolates represented a novel species, which was phylogenetically most closely related to Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also placed the isolates into a cluster separate from P. ananatis and P. stewartii. Compared with type strains of species of the genus Pantoea that showed >97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain BD 390(T), the isolates exhibited 11-55 % whole-genome DNA-DNA relatedness, which confirmed the classification of the isolates in a novel species. The most useful phenotypic characteristics for the differentiation of the isolates from their closest phylogenetic neighbours are production of acid from amygdalin and utilization of adonitol and sorbitol. A novel species, Pantoea allii sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain BD 390(T) ( = LMG 24248(T)).

  6. Phytogeographical analysis of seed plant genera in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Wang, Silong; He, Jin-Sheng; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Lisong; Wang, Xianli; Guo, Ke

    2006-11-01

    A central goal of biogeography and ecology is to uncover and understand distributional patterns of organisms. China has long been a focus of attention because of its rich biota, especially with respect to plants. Using 290 floras from across China, this paper quantitatively characterizes the composition of floristic elements at multiple scales (i.e. national, provincial and local), and explores the extent to which climatic and geographical factors associated with each flora can jointly and independently explain the variation in floristic elements in local floras. A study was made of 261 local floras, 28 province-level floras and one national-level flora across China. Genera of seed plants in each flora were assigned to 14 floristic elements according to their worldwide geographical distributions. The composition of floristic elements was related to climatic and geographical factors. Variations in percentages of cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate genera among local floras tend to be greater at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Latitude is strongly correlated with the proportions of 13 of the 14 floristic elements. Correlations of the proportions of floristic elements with longitude are much weaker than those with latitude. Climate represented by the first principal component of a principal component analysis was strongly correlated with the proportions of floristic elements in local floras (|r| = 0.75 +/- 0.18). Geographical coordinates independently explained about four times as much variation in floristic elements as did climate. Further research is necessary to examine the roles of water-energy dynamics, geology, soils, biotic interactions, and historical factors such as land connections between continents in the past and at present in creating observed floristic patterns.

  7. A rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence does not alter the cytoplasmic localization of sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase expressed in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Lee, Kyungjin; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic overexpression of melatonin biosynthetic genes of animal origin has been used to generate melatonin-rich transgenic plants to examine the functional roles of melatonin in plants. However, the subcellular localization of these proteins expressed in the transgenic plants remains unknown. We studied the localization of sheep (Ovis aries) serotonin N-acetyltransferase (OaSNAT) and a translational fusion of a rice SNAT transit peptide to OaSNAT (TS:OaSNAT) in plants. Laser confocal microscopy analysis revealed that both OaSNAT and TS:OaSNAT proteins were localized to the cytoplasm even with the addition of the transit sequence to OaSNAT. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing the TS:OaSNAT fusion transgene exhibited high SNAT enzyme activity relative to untransformed wild-type plants, but lower activity than transgenic rice plants expressing the wild-type OaSNAT gene. Melatonin levels in both types of transgenic rice plant corresponded well with SNAT enzyme activity levels. The TS:OaSNAT transgenic lines exhibited increased seminal root growth relative to wild-type plants, but less than in the OaSNAT transgenic lines, confirming that melatonin promotes root growth. Seed-specific OaSNAT expression under the control of a rice prolamin promoter did not confer high levels of melatonin production in transgenic rice seeds compared with seeds from transgenic plants expressing OaSNAT under the control of the constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Arabidopsis EMB1990 Encoding a Plastid-Targeted YlmG Protein Is Required for Chloroplast Biogenesis and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, embryo development originated from fertilized egg cell is the first step of the life cycle. The chloroplast participates in many essential metabolic pathways, and its function is highly associated with embryo development. However, the mechanisms and relevant genetic components by which the chloroplast functions in embryogenesis are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe the Arabidopsis EMB1990 gene, encoding a plastid-targeted YlmG protein which is required for chloroplast biogenesis and embryo development. Loss of the EMB1990/YLMG1-1 resulted in albino seeds containing abortive embryos, and the morphological development of homozygous emb1990 embryos was disrupted after the globular stage. Our results showed that EMB1990/YLMG1-1 was expressed in the primordia and adaxial region of cotyledon during embryogenesis, and the encoded protein was targeted to the chloroplast. TEM observation of cellular ultrastructure showed that chloroplast biogenesis was impaired in emb1990 embryo cells. Expression of certain plastid genes was also affected in the loss-of-function mutants, including genes encoding core protein complex subunits located in the thylakoid membrane. Moreover, the tissue-specific genes of embryo development were misexpressed in emb1990 mutant, including genes known to delineate cell fate decisions in the SAM (shoot apical meristem, cotyledon and hypophysis. Taken together, we propose that the nuclear-encoded YLMG1-1 is targeted to the chloroplast and required for normal plastid gene expression. Hence, YLMG1-1 plays a critical role in Arabidopsis embryogenesis through participating in chloroplast biogenesis.

  9. Does an ant-dispersed plant, Viola reichenbachiana, suffer from reduced seed dispersal under inundation disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzing, A.; Dauber, J.; Hammer, E.; Hammouti, N.; Bohning-Gaese, K.

    2008-01-01

    Many plant species use ants as seed dispersers. This dispersal mode is considered to be susceptible to disturbances, but the effect of natural, small-scale disturbances is still unknown. We investigated how small-scale disturbances due to inundation affect seed dispersal in Viola reichenbachiana, a

  10. [Plant biomorphology and seed germination of pioneer species of the Kamchatka volcanoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkova, N M; Kholina, A B; Verkholat, V P

    2008-01-01

    Biomorphology, quantitative characters and seed germination of 17 pioneer plant species friable materials of volcanic eruptions (Kamchatka Peninsula) were studied. Adaptive trends in survival stress conditions are discussed. To evaluate a possibility of the cryogenic seed storage, their response to ultra low temperatures (-196 degrees C) was determine.

  11. Nutrient content of seeds of some wild plants | Nkafamiya | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saponification values were in the range 122 ± 0.14 to 201 ± 0.05 mg KOH. Proximate values of the protein, oil and carbohydrate content of the seeds suggest that they may be adequate for the formulation of animal feeds. The mineral elements present also suggest that the seeds could contribute partially to the overall daily ...

  12. Calibrating the Truax Rough Rider seed drill for restoration plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Brent Cornforth; Boyd Simonson; Dan Ogle; Derek Tilley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a step-by-step approach to calibrating the Truax Rough Rider range drill, a relatively new, state-of-the-art rangeland drill. To achieve the desired outcome of a seeding project, an important step following proper weed control and seedbed preparation is the calibration of the seeding equipment to ensure the recommended...

  13. Soil Seed Bank and Plant Community Development in Passive Restoration of Degraded Sandy Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui Miao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of passive restoration on soil seed bank and vegetation recovery, we measured the species composition and density of the soil seed bank, as well as the species composition, density, coverage, and height of the extant vegetation in sites passively restored for 0, 4, 7, and 12 years (S0, S4, S7, and S12 in a degraded grassland in desert land. Compared with S0, three more species in the soil seed bank at depths of 0–30 cm and one more plant species in the community was detected in S12. Seed density within the topsoil (0–5 cm was five times higher in S12 than that in S0. Plant densities in S7 and S12 were triple and quadruple than that in S0. Plant coverage was increased by 1.5 times (S4, double (S7, and triple (S12 compared with S0. Sørensen’s index of similarity in species composition between the soil seed bank and the plant community were high (0.43–0.63, but it was lower in short-term restoration sites (S4 and S7 than that in no and long-term restoration sites (S0 and S12. The soil seed bank recovered more slowly than the plant community under passive restoration. Passive restoration is a useful method to recover the soil seed bank and vegetation in degraded grasslands.

  14. Plant seeds as sources of potential industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and pest control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard G

    2009-03-27

    Investigations of natural products isolated from seeds have resulted in a remarkable variety of compounds having unusual structures. Seeds of many plant species contain uncommon fatty acids and lipids, some of which have found uses in the cosmetic industry or as renewable (non-petroleum based) industrial raw materials. In addition to proteins and energy storage substances such as carbohydrates and lipids, seeds generally contain, or have the ability to produce, protective compounds that are active as plant growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, and repellents of herbivores; seeds occasionally contain compounds that are toxic to most other organisms. These compounds may also be present in other plant parts, but often are found at higher concentrations in seeds. Other compounds of interest have been associated with plant-endophyte interactions that are of mutual benefit to both organisms. Tests of seed extracts for cytotoxic and antitumor activity, toxicity to insects, and relationships to several animal disease syndromes have been revealing. Examples of compounds isolated from plant seeds that have served as lead compounds for additional research, or that continue to be of interest to researchers in multiple areas, are reviewed.

  15. Expression of Trichoderma reesei β-mannanase in tobacco chloroplasts and its utilization in lignocellulosic woody biomass hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agrawal

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plant-based production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost-effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β-mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, the man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed site-specific transgene integration into the tobacco chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy. Transplastomic plants were fertile and set viable seeds. Germination of seeds in the selection medium showed inheritance of transgenes into the progeny without any Mendelian segregation. Expression of endo-β-mannanase for the first time in plants facilitated its characterization for use in enhanced lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Gel diffusion assay for endo-β-mannanase showed the zone of clearance confirming functionality of chloroplast-derived mannanase. Endo-β-mannanase expression levels reached up to 25 units per gram of leaf (fresh weight. Chloroplast-derived mannanase had higher temperature stability (40 °C to 70 °C and wider pH optima (pH 3.0 to 7.0 than E.coli enzyme extracts. Plant crude extracts showed 6-7 fold higher enzyme activity than E.coli extracts due to the formation of disulfide bonds in chloroplasts, thereby facilitating their direct utilization in enzyme cocktails without any purification. Chloroplast-derived mannanase when added to the enzyme cocktail containing a combination of different plant-derived enzymes yielded 20% more glucose equivalents from pinewood than the

  16. Rodent seed predation as a biotic filter influencing exotic plant abundance and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; J. L. Hierro; M. Chiuffo; D. Villarreal

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is commonly invoked to explain why many exotic plants fail to thrive in introduced ranges, but the role of seed predation as an invasion filter is understudied. Abiotic conditions may also influence plant populations and can interact with consumers to determine plant distributions, but how these factors jointly influence invasions is poorly understood...

  17. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  18. Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fennell, Mark; Gallagher, Tommy; Vintro, Luis Leon; Osborne, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most research on the genetics of invasive plant species has focused on analyzing spatial differences among existing populations. Using a long-established Gunnera tinctoria population from Ireland, we evaluated the potential of using plants derived from seeds associated with different soil layers to track genetic variation through time. This species and site were chosen because (1) G. tinctoria produces a large and persistent seed bank; (2) it has been present in this locality, Sraheens, for ∼...

  19. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  20. Vegetative growth response of cotton plants due to growth regulator supply via seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Ferrari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global cotton industry is distinguished by its numerous industrial uses of the plume as well as by high production costs. Excessive vegetative growth can interfere negatively with productivity, and thus, applying growth regulators is essential for the development of the cotton culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of the cotton cultivar FMT 701 with the application of mepiquat chloride to seeds and leaves. The experimental design used a randomized block design with four replications, arranged in bands.The treatments consisted of mepiquat chloride rates (MC (0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g a.i. kg-1 of seeds applied directly to the cotton seeds and MC management by foliar spray using a 250 mL ha-1 rates that was administered under the following conditions: divided into four applications (35, 45, 55 and 65 days after emergence; as a single application at 70 days; and without the application of the product. The mepiquat chloride applied to cotton seeds controls the initial plant height and stem diameter, while foliar application reduces the height of the plants. After application to seed, foliar spraying MC promotes increase mass of 20 bolls, however no direct influence amount bolls per plant and yield of cotton seed. Higher cotton seed yield was obtained with a rate of 3.4 g a.i. MC kg-1 seeds.

  1. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed δ15N and δ13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-watered. Foliar boron (FB) in the form of boric acid was applied twice at a rate of 1.1 kg ha−1. The first application was during flowering stage, and the second application was during seed-fill stage. Treatments were water stressed plants with no FB (WS–B); water stressed plants with FB (WS+B); watered plants without FB (W–B), and watered plants with FB (W+B). The treatment W–B was used as a control. Comparing with WS–B plants, B concentration was the highest in leaves and seed of W+B plants (84% increase in leaves and 73% in seed). Seeds of W+B plants had higher protein (11% increase), oleic acid (27% increase), sucrose (up to 40% increase), glucose, and fructose comparing with W–B. However, seed stachyose concentrations increased by 43% in WS–B plants seed compared with W–B plants. Cell wall (structural) B concentration in leaves was higher in all plants under water stress, especially in WS–B plants where the percentage of cell wall B reached up to 90%. Water stress changed seed δ15N and δ13C values in both B applied and non-B applied plants, indicating possible effects on nitrogen and carbon metabolism. This research demonstrated that FB increased B accumulation in leaves and seed, and altered seed composition of well-watered and water stressed plants, indicating a possible involvement of B in seed protein, and oleic and linolenic fatty acids. Further research is needed to explain mechanisms of B involvement in seed protein and fatty acids. PMID:23888163

  2. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  3. Allelopathic Effects of Plant-Derived Aerosol Smoke on Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennacchio, M.; Jefferson, L.V.; Havens, K.

    2007-01-01

    The role that plant-derived smoke plays in promoting seed germination is well documented, but little is known about its ability to inhibit seed germination. To better understand this phenomenon, we tested the effects of eight aerosol smoke treatments on the Columbia-3 ecotype of non dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seeds. Our results revealed that aerosol smoke significantly inhibits germination when seeds were exposed to prolonged periods of aerosol smoke. Short durations of smoke treatments significantly promoted the rate of germination of A. thaliana seed. We briefly discuss this dual regulation of smoke and its possible impact on conservation and restoration practices. We also propose that plant-derived smoke may be another vehicle by which allelo chemicals can be introduced into the environment.

  4. Impact of anthropogenic forest contamination on radioresistance of woody plant seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Radioresistance of seeds of bay willow (Salix pentandra L.) and great sallow willow (Salix caprea L.) from forests chronically affected and non-affected by acidic (SO 2 , NO x , HF, etc.) industries has been studied and compared. Bay willow seeds of 6 harvests showed no difference in radioresistance. However, seeds of both species manifested strong synchronous variability in resistance to preplant exposure. Also, no influence was observed of mother plant gas content on great sallow willow seeds of different harvests. Data obtained confirm similar results of previous studies conducted by the author (1987) to identify the impact of plant gas content on radioresistance of seeds and seedlings of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula verrucosa Erh.). (author)

  5. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  6. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrin Abdullah; Ahdin Gassa; Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin; Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conduc...

  7. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Gassa, Ahdin; Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Agus, Nurariaty; Fattah, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted...

  8. Gemination seeds of medicinal plant of yellow gentian (Gentiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oem

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... The purpose of this study was to show the effect of cold-stratification, gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on ... major problem in cultivating gentian is the seed which .... germination until 120 days of optimum germination.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on some quantitative indices of wheat and the ultrast of wheat and the ultrast of wheat and the ultrastructure of wheat chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.; Marek, J.; Hraska, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effects were observed of acute gamma irradiation on dry seeds of Triticum aestivum var. erythrospermum (Koern.) Mansf., variety Kosutska, and Triticum monococcum (L.). Gamma radiation doses ranged from 0.258 C.kg -1 (1 kR) to 5.160 C.kg -1 (20 kR). Plant samples from pot experiments were analyzed as to the lengths of the first three leaves, production of dry matter and chloroplast ultrastructure. The studied quantitative indices, their variability and correlations are substantially dependent on the genotype of the tested species and on the applied radiation dose. Gamma radiation caused vesiculation and increase of chloroplasts, an increase in the grain number, a decline in the number of disks, a reduction of stroma thylakoids and a grouping of grana in the chloroplasts. The frequency of these changes is significantly influenced by the genotype of the tested species and by the applied radiation dose level. (author)

  10. Space radiation measurement of plant seeds boarding on the Shijian-8 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Duicai; Huang Zengxin; Zhao Yali; Wang Genliang; Jia Xianghong; Guo Huijun; Liu Luxiang; Li Chunhua; Zhang Long

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify cause of mutagenesis of plant seeds induced by space flight, especially to ascertain the interrelation between space radiation and mutagenesis, a 'photograph location' experimental setup was designed in this study. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to detect space heavy particles. The plant seeds and their position hit by space heavy ions were checked based on relative position between track and seeds in the setup. The low LET part of the spectrum was also measured by thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD, LiF). The results showed that the 'photograph location' experimental method was convenient, practicable and economical. This new method also greatly saved time for microscopical analysis. On Shijian-8 satellite, the average ion flux of space heavy ions was 4.44 ions/cm 2 ·d and the average dosage of low LET space radiation to the plant seeds was 4.79 mGy. (authors)

  11. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  12. A protocol for expression of foreign genes in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dheeraj; Samson, Nalapalli P; Koya, Vijay; Daniell, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Several major costs associated with the production of biopharmaceuticals or vaccines in fermentation-based systems could be minimized by using plant chloroplasts as bioreactors, which facilitates rapid scale-up. Oral delivery of chloroplast-derived therapeutic proteins through plant cells eliminates expensive purification steps, low temperature storage, transportation and sterile injections for their delivery. Chloroplast transformation technology (CTT) has also been successfully used to engineer valuable agronomic traits and for the production of industrial enzymes and biomaterials. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the construction of chloroplast expression and integration vectors, selection and regeneration of transformants, evaluation of transgene integration and inheritance, confirmation of transgene expression and extraction, and quantitation and purification of foreign proteins. Integration of appropriate transgenes into chloroplast genomes and the resulting high levels of functional protein expression can be achieved in approximately 6 months in lettuce and tobacco. CTT is eco-friendly because transgenes are maternally inherited in most crop plants.

  13. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Comparative studies on codon usage pattern of chloroplasts and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    different genomic organization and mutation pressures in nuclear and chloroplast genes. The results of Nc-plots and neutrality plots ... As an important organelle of plants, the chloroplast has its own genomic environment and ... leading to the suggestion that the translation mechanism and patterns of codon usage in ...

  15. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  16. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Razzaq, A.; Ullah, R.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  17. Increased yield of heterologous viral glycoprotein in the seeds of homozygous transgenic tobacco plants cultivated underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackaberry, Eilleen S; Prior, Fiona; Bell, Margaret; Tocchi, Monika; Porter, Suzanne; Mehic, Jelica; Ganz, Peter R; Sardana, Ravinder; Altosaar, Illimar; Dudani, Anil

    2003-06-01

    The use of transgenic plants in the production of recombinant proteins for human therapy, including subunit vaccines, is being investigated to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these emerging biopharmaceutical products. We have previously shown that synthesis of recombinant glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus can be targeted to seeds of transgenic tobacco when directed by the rice glutelin 3 promoter, with gB retaining critical features of immunological reactivity (E.S. Tackaberry et al. 1999. Vaccine, 17: 3020-3029). Here, we report development of second generation transgenic plant lines (T1) homozygous for the transgene. Twenty progeny plants from two lines (A23T(1)-2 and A24T(1)-3) were grown underground in an environmentally contained mine shaft. Based on yields of gB in their seeds, the A23T(1)-2 line was then selected for scale-up in the same facility. Analyses of mature seeds by ELISA showedthat gB specific activity in A23T(1)-2 seeds was over 30-fold greater than the best T0 plants from the same transformation series, representing 1.07% total seed protein. These data demonstrate stable inheritance, an absence of transgene inactivation, and enhanced levels of gB expression in a homozygous second generation plant line. They also provide evidence for the suitability of using this environmentally secure facility to grow transgenic plants producing therapeutic biopharmaceuticals.

  18. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  19. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the municipality of Lavras, MG, in the agricultural year 2007/08. The experiment was arranged in a splitplot design with four replicates, considering the treatments hand weeding and herbicide glyphosate as plots, and five RR soybean cultivars (BRS 245 RR, BRS 247 RR, Valiosa RR, Silvânia RR and Baliza RR as splitplots. In the greenhouse, the cultivars tested were BRS 245 RR and Valiosa RR in a randomized block design with four replicates. The sprayings were carried out at stages V3, V7 and early R5 (3L/ha. The 1000 seed weight, mechanical injury, germination and germination velocity index, emergence velocity index, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and water soaking seed test, lignin content in the seed coat, in the stem and legumes were determined. The spraying of glyphosate herbicide, in greenhouse and field, did not alter the physiological quality of seeds and the lignin contents in the plant.

  20. Breaking of Judas tree seed dormancy by plant hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of growth regulators on the germination of Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum L. seed which is double dormant. We simultaneously tested seeds prepared in the conventional procedure: scarification + stratification and scarified seeds treated with phytohormones from the groups of gibberellins, auxin and cytokinins. The results indicate a positive effect of gibberellic acid (GA, as well as some combinations of this phytohormone with others. Recommendations for practice are to combine the conventional procedure with GA. The procedure may shorten the duration of stratification; the application of GA should follow stratification because the temperature of 4°C does not provide growth regulators activity. The study results can serve as the base for easier generative reproduction of this valuable woody ornamental species which could have a wide use in changed climate conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  1. Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

  2. The influence of row width and seed spacing on uniformity of plant spatial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Olsen, Jannie Maj; Weiner, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    width and evenness of spacing within rows influences two-dimensional spatial quality. The results can be used to define new requirements for improved seeding technologies to achieve higher benefits in sustainable crop production systems. In general it can be concluded that more even plant distributions...... are expected to result in a better crop plant performance....

  3. Stimulation of growth and yield of cucumber plant through seeds treatments with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, R.; Gonzalez Nunez, L.M.; Garcia Rodriguez, B.; Licea Castro, L.; Porras Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of seed irradiation with low doses of x rays on several growth and yield indicators of cucumbers plants was studied in laboratory and in organoponic conditions. The results showed that the stimulation doses for this crop were between 6-18 Gy, and the better dose for the stimulation of plant yield was 8.58 Gy

  4. Evidence-based review of seeding in post-fire rehabilitation and native plant market feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin

    2009-01-01

    A changing climate and fire regime shifts in the western United States have led to an increase in revegetation activities, in particular post-wildfire rehabilitation and the need for locally-adapted plant materials. Broadcast seeding is one of the most widely used post-wildfire emergency response treatments to minimize soil erosion, promote plant community recovery,...

  5. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  6. The effect of autumn and spring planting time on seed yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of autumn and spring plantings on seed yield and quality of chickpea genotypes. Fourteen chickpea genotypes were grown over the consecutive two growing seasons in northwest Turkey. The results showed that planting time had significant effects on the investigated ...

  7. What Is There in Seeds? Vertically Transmitted Endophytic Resources for Sustainable Improvement in Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytobeneficial microbes, particularly endophytes, such as fungi and bacteria, are concomitant partners of plants throughout its developmental stages, including seed germination, root and stem growth, and fruiting. Endophytic microbes have been identified in plants that grow in a wide array of habitats; however, seed-borne endophytic microbes have not been fully explored yet. Seed-borne endophytes are of great interest because of their vertical transmission; their potential to produce various phytohormones, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, and other secondary metabolites; and improve plant biomass and yield under biotic and abiotic stresses. This review addresses the current knowledge on endophytes, their ability to produce metabolites, and their influence on plant growth and stress mitigation.

  8. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  9. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  10. Phytotracker, an information management system for easy recording and tracking of plants, seeds and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Jeroen; Sornay, Emily; Marchbank, Angela; de Graaf, Barend Hj; Murray, James Ah

    2012-10-13

    A large number of different plant lines are produced and maintained in a typical plant research laboratory, both as seed stocks and in active growth. These collections need careful and consistent management to track and maintain them properly, and this is a particularly pressing issue in laboratories undertaking research involving genetic manipulation due to regulatory requirements. Researchers and PIs need to access these data and collections, and therefore an easy-to-use plant-oriented laboratory information management system that implements, maintains and displays the information in a simple and visual format would be of great help in both the daily work in the lab and in ensuring regulatory compliance. Here, we introduce 'Phytotracker', a laboratory management system designed specifically to organise and track plasmids, seeds and growing plants that can be used in mixed platform environments. Phytotracker is designed with simplicity of user operation and ease of installation and management as the major factor, whilst providing tracking tools that cover the full range of activities in molecular genetics labs. It utilises the cross-platform Filemaker relational database, which allows it to be run as a stand-alone or as a server-based networked solution available across all workstations in a lab that can be internet accessible if desired. It can also be readily modified or customised further. Phytotracker provides cataloguing and search functions for plasmids, seed batches, seed stocks and plants growing in pots or trays, and allows tracking of each plant from seed sowing, through harvest to the new seed batch and can print appropriate labels at each stage. The system enters seed information as it is transferred from the previous harvest data, and allows both selfing and hybridization (crossing) to be defined and tracked. Transgenic lines can be linked to their plasmid DNA source. This ease of use and flexibility helps users to reduce their time needed to organise

  11. Phytotracker, an information management system for easy recording and tracking of plants, seeds and plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwland Jeroen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of different plant lines are produced and maintained in a typical plant research laboratory, both as seed stocks and in active growth. These collections need careful and consistent management to track and maintain them properly, and this is a particularly pressing issue in laboratories undertaking research involving genetic manipulation due to regulatory requirements. Researchers and PIs need to access these data and collections, and therefore an easy-to-use plant-oriented laboratory information management system that implements, maintains and displays the information in a simple and visual format would be of great help in both the daily work in the lab and in ensuring regulatory compliance. Results Here, we introduce ‘Phytotracker’, a laboratory management system designed specifically to organise and track plasmids, seeds and growing plants that can be used in mixed platform environments. Phytotracker is designed with simplicity of user operation and ease of installation and management as the major factor, whilst providing tracking tools that cover the full range of activities in molecular genetics labs. It utilises the cross-platform Filemaker relational database, which allows it to be run as a stand-alone or as a server-based networked solution available across all workstations in a lab that can be internet accessible if desired. It can also be readily modified or customised further. Phytotracker provides cataloguing and search functions for plasmids, seed batches, seed stocks and plants growing in pots or trays, and allows tracking of each plant from seed sowing, through harvest to the new seed batch and can print appropriate labels at each stage. The system enters seed information as it is transferred from the previous harvest data, and allows both selfing and hybridization (crossing to be defined and tracked. Transgenic lines can be linked to their plasmid DNA source. This ease of use and flexibility

  12. Metabolites change in Jatropha plants due to seed treatment with rhizobacteria and Rhizoctonia bataticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the metabolite [salicylic acid (SA, jasmonicacid (JA, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and chitinase activity] changes owing to seed treatment with pathogen, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs - (P. maltophilia, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis alone and in combination was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Jatropha curcas plants raised from root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola treated seeds showed an initial increase in SA and hydrocyanic acid HCN content and an opposite trend was observed for JA level and chitinase activity. Though, PGPRs inoculation resulted in higher increase in SA level, JA level and chitinaseactivity in both the cases alone as well as in integration with pathogen, however, maximum increase in JA content was explicited in plants raised after seed treatment with P. fluorescens, the most effective rhizobacteria amongst PGPRs studied. Highest increase in HCN content (45 μg g-1 over control (24 μg g-1 was noticed for P. fluorescens followed by co-seed inoculation with P. fluorescens + pathogen (43 μg g-1 at 10 DPI. The co-seed inoculation elicited 68 units at 10 DPI whereas the pathogen challenged plants showed lower chitinase activity with 42 units. All the metabolites declinedslightly or sharply with age of the plant irrespective of inoculations.

  13. Metabolites change in Jatropha plants due to seed treatment with rhizobacteria and Rhizoctonia bataticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the metabolite [salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and chitinase activity] changes owing to seed treatn1ent with pathogen, plant growth pron1oting rhizobacteria (PGPRs - (P. maltophilia, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis alone and in combination was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Jatropha curcas plants raised from root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola treated seeds showed an initial increase in SA and hydrocyanic acid HCN content and an opposite trend was observed for JA level and chitinase activity. Though, PGPRs inoculation resulted in higher increase in SA level, JA level and chitinase activity in both the cases alone as well as in integration with pathogen, however, maximun1 increase in JA content was explicited in plants raised after seed treatment with P. fluorescens, the most effective rhizobacteria amongst PGPRs studied. Highest increase in HCN content (45 micrograms g-1 over control (24 micrograms g-1 was noticed for P. fluorescens followed by co-seed inoculation with P. fluorescens + pathogen (43 micrograms g-1 at 10 DPL. The co-seed inoculation elicited 68 units at 10 DPI, whereas the pathogen challenged plants showed lower chitinase activity with 42 units. All the metabolites declined slightly or sharply with age of the plant irrespective of inoculations.

  14. an assessment of seed propagation of oilferous plant species with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    production on 4 potting media forest, sandy, clay and loamy soil using seeds. Investigation ... An ANOVA was conducted to test for the significance of the treatments while Tukey-Kramer. Multiple ... In agriculture, one factor that is required to ...

  15. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S.; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to bet...

  16. Seed origin and size of ponderosa pine planting stock grown at several California nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Baron; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    Ponderosa pine planting stock (1-0 and 2-0) grown from five different seed collection zones in the California pine region differed noticeably in size. On the west side of the Sierra Nevada, seeds from zones above 4,000 feet yielded smaller seedlings than those from lower zones, but larger seedlings than those from east-side sources. Average dimensions (seedling weight...

  17. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactiv...

  18. Modification of γ-irradiation damaging effect on the seeds of radiosensitive and radioresistant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.S.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Khvostova, V.V.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Tsitologii i Genetiki)

    1975-01-01

    Low and high temperature treatment of seeds during irradiation has shown to result in a decrease of the general deleterious effect of radiation in both relatively radiosensitive (bean) and radioresistant (flax, mustard) species. The protective effect of the treatment is supposed to be due to its influence on short-half-life radicals and this is supportted by experiments with storage of irradiated seeds. The treatment allows to obtain high mutation frequencies in both radiosensitive and radioresistant plants

  19. New chloroplast microsatellite markers suitable for assessing genetic diversity of Lolium perenne and other related grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Kerstin; Hodkinson, Trevor R; Barth, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is the most important forage grass species of temperate regions. We have previously released the chloroplast genome sequence of L. perenne 'Cashel'. Here nine chloroplast microsatellite markers are published, which were designed based on knowledge about genetically variable regions within the L. perenne chloroplast genome. These markers were successfully used for characterizing the genetic diversity in Lolium and different grass species. Chloroplast genomes of 14 Poaceae taxa were screened for mononucleotide microsatellite repeat regions and primers designed for their amplification from nine loci. The potential of these markers to assess genetic diversity was evaluated on a set of 16 Irish and 15 European L. perenne ecotypes, nine L. perenne cultivars, other Lolium taxa and other grass species. All analysed Poaceae chloroplast genomes contained more than 200 mononucleotide repeats (chloroplast simple sequence repeats, cpSSRs) of at least 7 bp in length, concentrated mainly in the large single copy region of the genome. Nucleotide composition varied considerably among subfamilies (with Pooideae biased towards poly A repeats). The nine new markers distinguish L. perenne from all non-Lolium taxa. TeaCpSSR28 was able to distinguish between all Lolium species and Lolium multiflorum due to an elongation of an A(8) mononucleotide repeat in L. multiflorum. TeaCpSSR31 detected a considerable degree of microsatellite length variation and single nucleotide polymorphism. TeaCpSSR27 revealed variation within some L. perenne accessions due to a 44-bp indel and was hence readily detected by simple agarose gel electrophoresis. Smaller insertion/deletion events or single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by these new markers could be visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or DNA sequencing, respectively. The new markers are a valuable tool for plant breeding companies, seed testing agencies and the wider scientific community due to

  20. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  1. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  2. Plants arrangement and number of seeds per hole in the agroeconomic yield of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissandra Pacito Torales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the ‘luciana 50’ pea, cultivated with different numbers of rows of plants in the plot and with two and three seeds per hill. The work carried out in Dourados-MS, between March-July 2010. Treatments were arranged in 3 x 2 factorial in randomized complete block design with six replicates. Populations corresponding to the sowing with two, three and four rows per plot were 264,000, 396,000 and 528,000 plants ha-1, respectively, with two seeds per hill, and 396,000, 594,000 and 792,000 plants ha-1, respectively, with three seeds per hill. The harvest was done at 108 days after sowing. In cultivation with four rows of plants and two seeds per hill, were obtained the highest yields of fresh and dry weight of grains and pods commercial, with increases of 29.88%, 33.85%, 29.14% and 32.22%, respectively, and higher number of grains and pods commercial, with increases of 28.13% and 27.12%, respectively, over two rows of plants with two seeds per hill. The highest yield of fresh weight of shoots, of bark and of non-commercial pods were with four rows of plants, with increases of 1.75 t ha-1, 0.44 t ha-1 and 0.47 t ha-1 respectively, compared to two rows. Considering the yield of commercial pods and grains and the estimated net income, it can be concluded that sowing of ‘Luciana 50’ pea should be performed with four rows of plants and two seeds per hill.

  3. Reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer. What are the optimal sowing rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marion; Prestele, Julia; Fischer, Christina; Kollmann, Johannes; Albrecht, Harald

    2016-08-01

    During the past decades, agro-biodiversity has markedly declined and some species are close to extinction in large parts of Europe. Reintroduction of rare arable plant species in suitable habitats could counteract this negative trend. The study investigates optimal sowing rates of three endangered species (Legousia speculum-veneris (L.) Chaix, Consolida regalis Gray, and Lithospermum arvense L.), in terms of establishment success, seed production, and crop yield losses.A field experiment with partial additive design was performed in an organically managed winter rye stand with study species added in ten sowing rates of 5-10,000 seeds m(-2). They were sown as a single species or as a three-species mixture (pure vs. mixed sowing) and with vs. without removal of spontaneous weeds. Winter rye was sown at a fixed rate of 350 grains m(-2). Performance of the study species was assessed as plant establishment and seed production. Crop response was determined as grain yield.Plant numbers and seed production were significantly affected by the sowing rate, but not by sowing type (pure vs. mixed sowing of the three study species), and weed removal. All rare arable plant species established and reproduced at sowing rates >25 seeds m(-2), with best performance of L. speculum-veneris. Negative density effects occurred to some extent for plant establishment and more markedly for seed production.The impact of the three study species on crop yield followed sigmoidal functions. Depending on the species, a yield loss of 10% occurred at >100 seeds m(-2). Synthesis and applications: The study shows that reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer is a suitable method to establish them on extensively managed fields, for example, in organic farms with low nutrient level and without mechanical weed control. Sowing rates of 100 seeds m(-2) for C. regalis and L. arvense, and 50 seeds m(-2) for L. speculum-veneris are recommended, to achieve successful establishment

  4. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  5. Effect of Planting Methods and Seeding Rates on Yield of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. CV. Hamedani in Bajgah, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yazdani

    2015-06-01

    ha-1, respectively. Seeding rates also had a significant effect on number of weeds so that maximum and minimum weed numbers were obtained in 20 kg and 5 kg seed ha-1. Our results showed that 20 kg seed ha-1 and furrow planting method was the best treatment to gain maximum forage yield and minimum weed's detrimental impact.

  6. Hydroquinone; A novel bioactive compound from plant-derived smoke can cue seed germination of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus, Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from Ginkgo biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  7. Hydroquinone; A Novel Bioactive Compound from Plant-Derived Smoke Can Cue Seed Germination of Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus,Aloe vera,Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from G. biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control. PMID:28553632

  8. Seed plant features, distribution patterns, diversity hotspots, and conservation gaps in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The flora in Xinjiang is unique. Decisions about biodiversity conservation and management based on seed plant diversity hotspots and conservation gaps in Xinjiang are essential to maintain this unique flora. Based on a species distribution dataset of seed plants, we measured seed plant diversity using species richness and phylogenetic diversity indices. Five percent of Xinjiang’s total land area with the highest biodiversity was used to identify hotspots for each index. In total, eight hotspots were identified. Most hotspots were located in mountainous areas, mainly in the Tianshan Mountains and Altai Mountains. Furthermore, we detected conservation gaps for Xinjiang’s seed flora hotspots by overlaying nature reserve maps on to maps of identified hotspots and we designated priority conservation gaps for hotspots by overlaying global biodiversity hotspot maps on to hotspot conservation gaps maps. Most of Xinjiang’s seed plant hotspots are poorly protected; only 10.45% of these hotspots were covered by nature reserves. We suggest that it is essential to promote network function of nature reserves within these hotspots in Xinjiang to conserve this unique flora.

  9. Direct chloroplast sequencing: comparison of sequencing platforms and analysis tools for whole chloroplast barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brozynska

    Full Text Available Direct sequencing of total plant DNA using next generation sequencing technologies generates a whole chloroplast genome sequence that has the potential to provide a barcode for use in plant and food identification. Advances in DNA sequencing platforms may make this an attractive approach for routine plant identification. The HiSeq (Illumina and Ion Torrent (Life Technology sequencing platforms were used to sequence total DNA from rice to identify polymorphisms in the whole chloroplast genome sequence of a wild rice plant relative to cultivated rice (cv. Nipponbare. Consensus chloroplast sequences were produced by mapping sequence reads to the reference rice chloroplast genome or by de novo assembly and mapping of the resulting contigs to the reference sequence. A total of 122 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels between the wild and cultivated rice chloroplasts were predicted by these different sequencing and analysis methods. Of these, a total of 102 polymorphisms including 90 SNPs were predicted by both platforms. Indels were more variable with different sequencing methods, with almost all discrepancies found in homopolymers. The Ion Torrent platform gave no apparent false SNP but was less reliable for indels. The methods should be suitable for routine barcoding using appropriate combinations of sequencing platform and data analysis.

  10. GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD EL FATTAH, A.I.; KAMEL, H.A.; EL-NAGDI, W.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89

  11. In vivo monitoring of seeds and plant-tissue water absorption using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Veronika V.; Kutis, Irina S.; Kutis, Sergey D.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.

    2004-07-01

    First experimental results on OCT imaging of internal structure of plant tissues and in situ OCT monitoring of plant tissue regeneration at different water supply are reported. Experiments for evaluating OCT capabilities were performed on Tradescantia. The investigation of seeds swelling was performed on wheat seeds (Triticum L.), barley seeds (Hordeum L.), long-fibred flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L.). These OCT images correlate with standard microscopy data from the same tissue regions. Seeds were exposed to a low-intensity physical factor-the pulsed gradient magnetic field (GMF) with pulse duration 0.1 s and maximum amplitude 5 mT (4 successive pulses during 0.4 s). OCT and OCM enable effective monitoring of fast reactions in plants and seeds at different water supply.

  12. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  13. Nitrogen control of chloroplast development: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A manifestation of nitrogen deficiency in vascular plants and algae is chlorosis, indicating that chloroplast biogenesis can be strongly restricted by direct or indirect effects of nitrogen assimilation products. To define the molecular basis of nitrogen responses we are using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Depending on the levels of ammonium, steady-state deficiency conditions are established such that the cellular levels of chlorophylls and xanthophylls are depressed. Chloroplasts in nitrogen-deficient cells contain appreciable levels of carbon assimilation enzyme and thylakoids with high electron transport activities. However, the light harvesting complexes are nearly absent and Photosystem I exhibits unusual characteristics. Studies of rates of protein synthesis by in vivo pulse-chase labeling and levels of RNAs encoded by the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been initiated: the accumulation of transcripts for the nuclear light-harvesting apoproteins is dramatically altered qualitatively and quantitatively; there is no major effect on chloroplast RNAs but, in general, these are inefficiently utilized for protein synthesis until nitrogen is provided to the cultures. Supplying nitrogen results in an almost immediate release of chloroplast mRNAs from a translational arrest but the stimulation of the accumulation of nuclear transcripts for light-harvesting apoproteins does not occur until after a 1-2 hour lag

  14. Nitrogen control of chloroplast development: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A manifestation of nitrogen deficiency in vascular plants and algae is chlorosis, indicating that chloroplast biogenesis can be strongly restricted by direct or indirect effects of nitrogen assimilation products. To define the molecular basis of nitrogen responses we are using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Depending on the levels of ammonium, steady-state deficiency conditions are established such that the cellular levels of chlorophylls and xanthophylls are depressed. Chloroplasts in nitrogen-deficient cells contain appreciable levels of carbon assimilation enzyme and thylakoids with high electron transport activities. However, the light harvesting complexes are nearly absent and Photosystem I exhibits unusual characteristics. Studies of rates of protein synthesis by in vivo pulse-chase labeling and levels of RNAs encoded by the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been initiated: the accumulation of transcripts for the nuclear light-harvesting apoproteins is dramatically altered qualitatively and quantitatively; there is no major effect on chloroplast RNAs but, in general, these are inefficiently utilized for protein synthesis until nitrogen is provided to the cultures. Supplying nitrogen results in an almost immediate release of chloroplast mRNAs from a translational arrest but the stimulation of the accumulation of nuclear transcripts for light-harvesting apoproteins does not occur until after a 1-2 hour lag.

  15. Evolution of plant cell wall: Arabinogalactan-proteins from three moss genera show structural differences compared to seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Desirée; Baumann, Alexander; Maeder, Malte; Geske, Thomas; Heise, Esther Marie; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Classen, Birgit

    2017-05-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are important proteoglycans of plant cell walls. They seem to be present in most, if not all seed plants, but their occurrence and structure in bryophytes is widely unknown and actually the focus of AGP research. With regard to evolution of plant cell wall, we isolated AGPs from the three mosses Sphagnum sp., Physcomitrella patens and Polytrichastrum formosum. The moss AGPs show structural characteristics common for AGPs of seed plants, but also unique features, especially 3-O-methyl-rhamnose (trivial name acofriose) as terminal monosaccharide not found in arabinogalactan-proteins of angiosperms and 1,2,3-linked galactose as branching point never found in arabinogalactan-proteins before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  17. Gamma radiation sensitivity in tomato tree and response of plants proceeding from salinity irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, Waldeciro; Bidjeke, Raoul; Fleming, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary experiments were conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of tomato {Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars IPA-6, IPA-8, and Lycopersicum hirsutum glabratum - } to gamma rays from a 60 Co source, considering future induced mutation studies aiming at the improvement of plant salinity tolerance. Sets of dry seeds were exposed to gamma radiation doses (300 - 600 Gy and 100-400 Gy) and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy) under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was initially evaluated through germination of irradiated dry seeds determined at 13 and 30 days after irradiation and also through seedling survival. Seed germination was delayed by gamma irradiation and especially reduced at higher doses (300- 600 Gy). Survival of tomato plants was decreased with increased dose of radiation and was reduced by < 16% at the 300-600 Gy doses. Growth of plants was enhanced at low doses of gamma rays; higher doses reduced plant size. Gamma irradiation had significant effects on tomato plants generated from dry seed and submitted to different levels of salinity. It is recommended a dose range of 100-200 Gy for mutation breeding purpose using the varieties tested. (author)

  18. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eOsuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones.

  19. Electron transfer and photophosphorylation in mitochondria of buckwheat after irradiation of seeds with. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, V A; Kurganova, L N; Gorlanova, T M [Gor' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1974-11-01

    Pre-sowing irradiation of seeds at 500 R activates the transfer of electrons by photosynthetic electron transfer path of isolated buchwheat chloroplasts in the ontogenesis and stimulates the conjugated photosynthetic phosphorilation. An increased content of NADPxH/sub 2/ is observed along with an elevated level of ATP production. Intensification of oxidative phosphorilation and growth of the P/O ratio of mitochondria has been shown in the ''irradiated'' plants, together with a concomitant increase of ATPhase activity in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  20. Soil seed banks in plant invasions: promoting species invasiveness and long-term impakt on plant community dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Moravcová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2012), s. 327-350 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : soil seed bank * plant invasions * species invasive ness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  1. New insights into the metabolism of aspartate-family amino acids in plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Guoping; Galili, Gad

    2018-02-05

    Aspartate-family amino acids. Aspartate (Asp)-family pathway, via several metabolic branches, leads to four key essential amino acids: Lys, Met, Thr, and Ile. Among these, Lys and Met have received the most attention, as they are the most limiting amino acid in cereals and legumes crops, respectively. The metabolic pathways of these four essential amino acids and their interactions with regulatory networks have been well characterized. Using this knowledge, extensive efforts have been devoted to augmenting the levels of these amino acids in various plant organs, especially seeds, which serve as the main source of human food and livestock feed. Seeds store a number of storage proteins, which are utilized as nutrient and energy resources. Storage proteins are composed of amino acids, to guarantee the continuation of plant progeny. Thus, understanding the seed metabolism, especially with respect to the accumulation of aspartate-derived amino acids Lys and Met, is a crucial factor for sustainable agriculture. In this review, we summarized the Asp-family pathway, with some new examples of accumulated Asp-family amino acids, particularly Lys and Met, in plant seeds. We also discuss the recent advances in understanding the roles of Asp-family amino acids during seed development.

  2. Disentangling the role of seed bank and dispersal in plant metapopulation dynamics using patch occupancy surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, F; Pradel, R; Choquet, R; Fréville, H; Cheptou, P-O

    2017-10-01

    In plants, the presence of a seed bank challenges the application of classical metapopulation models to aboveground presence surveys; ignoring seed bank leads to overestimated extinction and colonization rates. In this article, we explore the possibility to detect seed bank using hidden Markov models in the analysis of aboveground patch occupancy surveys of an annual plant with limited dispersal. Patch occupancy data were generated by simulation under two metapopulation sizes (N = 200 and N = 1,000 patches) and different metapopulation scenarios, each scenario being a combination of the presence/absence of a 1-yr seed bank and the presence/absence of limited dispersal in a circular 1-dimension configuration of patches. In addition, because local conditions often vary among patches in natural metapopulations, we simulated patch occupancy data with heterogeneous germination rate and patch disturbance. Seed bank is not observable from aboveground patch occupancy surveys, hence hidden Markov models were designed to account for uncertainty in patch occupancy. We explored their ability to retrieve the correct scenario. For 10 yr surveys and metapopulation sizes of N = 200 or 1,000 patches, the correct metapopulation scenario was detected at a rate close to 100%, whatever the underlying scenario considered. For smaller, more realistic, survey duration, the length for a reliable detection of the correct scenario depends on the metapopulation size: 3 yr for N = 1,000 and 6 yr for N = 200 are enough. Our method remained powerful to disentangle seed bank from dispersal in the presence of patch heterogeneity affecting either seed germination or patch extinction. Our work shows that seed bank and limited dispersal generate different signatures on aboveground patch occupancy surveys. Therefore, our method provides a powerful tool to infer metapopulation dynamics in a wide range of species with an undetectable life form. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Effects of planting times and plant densities of top-shoot cuttings on multiplication of breeder seed potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-shoot cuttings were planted with the whole tuber (as a control at different dates using three spacings at the Horticultural Research Farm of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University to evaluate the performance of top-shoots as planting material and to determine the optimum time of planting and the optimum spacing for top-shoot cuttings as planting material for breeder seed production. The survival of top shoot cuttings was more than 97.8% irrespective of the planting time and plant spacing. Significant variations were found among the treatment combinations for plant height at 45 and 60 days after planting (DAP, foliage coverage at 45 and 60 DAP, number of branches per plant, number of tubers per plant, individual tuber weight, tuber yields per plant and per hectare yield. The highest mean yield (46.57 t/ha was produced by whole tubers planted on 10 November with 50 × 10 cm spacing which was similar to whole tubers planted on 1 November with 50 × 10 cm spacing. On the other hand, plants from top-shoot cuttings yielded 34.82 t/ha in T3S2 followed by T1S1 (33.34 t/ha, T3S3 (30.70 t/ha. The total yield of potato increased 122.8% from a single, early crop due to taking two repeated cuttings compared with 89.6% from a single late crop. Early planting of top-shoot cuttings with closer spacing (50 × 10 cm and 50 × 15 cm is recommended for the multiplication of breeder seed potato.

  4. Effects of chronic exposure of seeds and seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis Thaliana by low doses of γ-radiation on plant growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the results of research on the effect of chronic γ-irradiation in small doses on A. Thaliana seedlings and seeds growth and development. Exposure rate for the seeds was 0,45 mGy/h (total absorbed dose 30 cSv) and 0,18 mGy/h for seedlings (total absorbed dose 3 cSv). Statistically significant differences in the germination capacity, in the time of primary leaf rosette formation, in the hypocotyl length were revealed between irradiated and control seedlings. Plants from irradiated seeds differed by the higher growth rate of stem, they flowered and fruited earlier, but they also characterized on average shorter vegetative cycle in comparison with control plants. In our experiments it is shown significant impact of chronic low doses of γ-irradiation of seeds and seedlings on the ontogeny in A. Thaliana and on the parameters that reflect the growth and development of the irradiated plants

  5. Influences of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Nanobubbles on Seed Germination and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Shi, Xiaonan; Hua, Likun; Manzueta, Leidy; Qing, Weihua; Marhaba, Taha; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-23

    Nanobubbles (NBs) hold promise in green and sustainable engineering applications in diverse fields (e.g., water/wastewater treatment, food processing, medical applications, and agriculture). This study investigated the effects of four types of NBs on seed germination and plant growth. Air, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide NBs were generated and dispersed in tap water. Different plants, including lettuce, carrot, fava bean, and tomato, were used in germination and growth tests. The seeds in water-containing NBs exhibited 6-25% higher germination rates. Especially, nitrogen NBs exhibited considerable effects in the seed germination, whereas air and carbon dioxide NBs did not significantly promote germination. The growth of stem length and diameter, leave number, and leave width were promoted by NBs (except air). Furthermore, the promotion effect was primarily ascribed to the generation of exogenous reactive oxygen species by NBs and higher efficiency of nutrient fixation or utilization.

  6. Developmental peculiarities and seed-borne endophytes in quinoa: Omnipresent, robust bacilli contribute to plant fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactive oxygen species, and diverse tests with seed(ling material to assess microbial occurrence, release and proliferation. Quinoa´s microbial partners were biochemically, microscopically and taxonomically characterized.Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are mobile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their strong catalase activity and high superoxide contents they can modify host redox properties. One outcome is cell expansion, enabling quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment.Quinoa´s immediate confrontation with foreign ROS and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase and cosmetics (catalase industry. An exciting question arising from this work is: Can quinoa´s microbiome be transferred to improve stress resistance in other plant species?

  7. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  8. Response of S.C.704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the best planting pattern for producing the S.C.704 hybrid seed of maize, a field experiment was conducted in 2007 at Safiabad Dezful Research Center via a complete block design with four treatments and replicates each. The treatments were: D1 (one row each of paternal and maternal lines), D2 (two ...

  9. Ice Damage in a Georgia Planting of Loblolly Pine from Different Seed Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle P. Jones; Osborn O. Wells

    1969-01-01

    After a severe ice storm in south-central Georgia, the degree of ice damage in a provenance test planting of 11-year-old loblolly pines varied considerably among the nine widely seperated seed sources represented. Damage was less among tress from the colder, more inland locations than among tress from coastal areas where the climate is more moderate. In terms of...

  10. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  11. Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on final germination percentage and germination rate of four desert plants recorded as weeds in the United Arab Emirates farms ...

  12. Impact of invasions by alien plants on soil seed bank communities: emerging patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, Margherita; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 132-142 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * soil seed bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014

  13. The influence of seed treatment with gamma radiation on plant yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølle, K.G.

    1965-01-01

    The effect of seed irradiation with γ-rays on the yield of plants has been examined for the following species: Spring barley, spring and winter wheat, winter rye, maize, fodder pea, white mustard, fodder beet, and radish. Cobalt-60 was used as the source of radiation, with doses varying from 10...

  14. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  15. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host’s redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa’s immediate confrontation with “foreign” reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa’s microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  16. Influence of plant spacing on seed and ware tuber production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest number of seed-sized tubers (40-75 g) was obtained at high planting density, i.e. 50 cm x 25 cm and 60 cm x 25 cm. Since spacing 50 cm x 25 cm requires more planting material and also makes inter-cultivation practices more difficult, the spacing of 60 cm x 25 cm was recommended for maximizing production ...

  17. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant portion derived...

  18. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant...

  19. Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Tarboush, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation (1.0-10 kGy) on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and alpha-amylase inhibitors of soybean and Moringa peregrina seeds on tannin of sorghum, gossypol of cottonseed, and in vitro digestibility of soybean were investigated. A dose of 10.0 kGy caused decreases in trypsin (by 34.9%) and chymotrypsin (by 71.4%) inhibitor activities in soybean defatted flour, whereas its in vitro digestibility increased from 79.8 to 84.2%. The alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of Al-Yassar (M. peregrina) was decreased by 43.6 and 47.8% upon treatment of 7.0 and 10.0 kGy, respectively. Doses of 10.0 and 7.0 kGy significantly reduced the tannin content in Shahlla sorghum but not in Hemaira sorghum. Total and free gossypol contents were slightly reduced by irradiation

  20. Wheat chloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter confers heat and abiotic stress inducible expression in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Khurana

    Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.

  1. Sowing the Seeds for Strong Relations: Seeds and Plants as Diplomatic Gifts for the Russian Empress Maria Fedorovna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Heath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of botany in diplomatic relationships between Britain and Russia around the turn of the nineteenth century by looking at three gifts of exotic seeds and plants sent by different British diplomats and officials to the Russian Empress Maria Fedorovna, wife of Tsar Paul I. Gifts of live plants were a new category of diplomatic presents fuelled by the rapidly growing popularity of botany across Europe. These gifts represented British imperial ambitions and desire to build a self-sufficient economy. They also indicated an element of Britain’s anxiety about its navy’s dependence on Russian natural resources and later on about Russia’s successes in the exploration of the Antarctic regions. Empress Maria Fedorovna displayed these plants in a prominent part of her garden at Pavlovsk, next to the plants from North America that she had procured independently. This was a deliberate strategy that worked to boost her prestige at court by showcasing her international relationships.

  2. Maternal tissue is involved in stimulant reception by seeds of the parasitic plant Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Tadmor, Yaakov; Ziadne, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental element in the evolution of obligate root-parasitic angiosperms is their ability to germinate only in response to chemical stimulation by roots, to ensure contact with a nearby nourishing host. The aim of this study was to explore inheritance of the unique germination control in this group of plants. Analysis was made of the segregation of spontaneous (non-induced) germination that appeared in hybrid progenies derived from crosses between Orobanche cernua and O. cumana, which, like all other Orobanche species, are totally dependent on chemical stimulation for the onset of germination, and show negligible spontaneous germination in their natural seed populations. F(1) and F(2) seeds did not germinate in the absence of chemical stimulation, but significant spontaneous germination was found in some F(3) seed families. This indicates that the prevention of non-induced germination in Orobanche seeds, i.e. dependence on an external chemical stimulation for seed germination, is genetically controlled, that this genetic control is expressed in a seed tissue with maternal origin (presumably the perisperm that originates from the nucellus) and that genetic variation for this trait exists in Orobanche species. Similar segregation results were obtained in reciprocal crosses, suggesting that stimulated germination is controlled by nuclear genes.

  3. Effects of seed cryopreservation, stratification and scarification on germination for five rare species of pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sruti; Jenkins, Heather; Bucalo, Kylie; Determann, Ron O; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Pullman, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and over collection have caused North American pitcher plants to become rare, including U.S. federally endangered Sarracenia alabamensis and S. oreophila, and S. leucophylla, S. psittacina and S. purpurea spp. venosa, endangered in several states. To develop reliable seed cryopreservation protocols for endangered Sarracenia species enabling similar germination percentages before and after storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) either in vivo or using in vitro tools. Seed germination pre- and post-cryopreservation were compared following seed drying with germination in soil, aseptic environment with wet filter paper or enriched medium, and using scarification or stratification for dormancy removal. After cryostorage, germination in vitro (1/6- or 1/3-strength MS medium) increased compared to germination on peat moss. Germination pre- and post-cryopreservation was similar for S. alabamensis and S. oreophila when seeds were stratified and grown in vitro. S. leucophylla and S. psittacina also showed high germination after cryopreservation when germinated on medium following stratification. Rapid liquid nitrogen exposure and rewarming induced seed coat cracking that damaged seeds, likely allowing internal damage during acid scarification and microbial entry during germination in non-sterile environments.

  4. Environmental effects of nanosilver: impact on castor seed germination, seedling growth, and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasur, Jyothsna; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2013-12-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in daily products is of great concern today, especially when their positive and negative impact on environment is not known. Hence, in current research, we have studied the impact of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) application on seed germination, root, and shoot length of castor bean, Ricinus communis L. plant. Silver nanoparticles had no significant effects on seedling growth even at higher concentration of 4,000 mg L(-1), while the silver in bulk form as AgNO3 applied on the castor bean seeds inhibited the seed germination. Silver uptake in seedlings of the castor seeds on treatment with both the forms of silver was confirmed through atomic absorption spectroscopy studies. The silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate application to castor seeds also caused an enhanced enzymatic activity of ROS enzymes and phenolic content in castor seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of individual phenols indicated enhanced content of parahydroxy benzoic acid. These kinds of studies are of great interest in order to unveil the movement and accumulation of nanoparticles in plant tissues for assessing future applications in the field or laboratory.

  5. Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Mark; Gallagher, Tommy; Vintro, Luis Leon; Osborne, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    Most research on the genetics of invasive plant species has focused on analyzing spatial differences among existing populations. Using a long-established Gunnera tinctoria population from Ireland, we evaluated the potential of using plants derived from seeds associated with different soil layers to track genetic variation through time. This species and site were chosen because (1) G. tinctoria produces a large and persistent seed bank; (2) it has been present in this locality, Sraheens, for ∼90 years; (3) the soil is largely undisturbed; and (4) the soil's age can be reliably determined radiometrically at different depths. Amplified fragment length polymorphic markers (AFLPs) were used to assess differences in the genetic structure of 75 individuals sampled from both the standing population and from four soil layers, which spanned 18 cm (estimated at ∼90 years based on (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating). While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of lower total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed in deeper soils. The greatest percentage increase in the measured genetic variables occurred prior to the shift from the lag to the exponential range expansion phases and may be of adaptive significance. These findings highlight that seed banks in areas with long-established invasive populations can contain valuable genetic information relating to invasion processes and as such, should not be overlooked.

  6. Determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in seeds of coastal halophytic Sueada aegyptica plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Assadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suaeda aegyptica (S. aegyptica species belong to the Chenepodiaceae family, the second largest family in the world of plants kingdom. It is indigenous to arid and semi-arid regions of the world and salty coastal zones Persian Gulf of Iran. It is an annual succulent halophyte plant which is characterized by producing oily seeds, high growth rate and large number of biomass. The aim of this study was analysis and determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in the S. aegyptica seed. Material and Methods: The seeds of S. aegyptica were collected form coastal zones of Persian Gulf in Bushehr province, washed and dried. The fatty acids content of the dried seeds were extracted in n-hexane solvent by soxhellet apparatus. The residue of n-hexane in oily phase was evaporated by rotary evaporator and remaining oil was collected for fatty acids analysis. In the presence of potassium hydroxide and BF3 by refluxing for 30 minutes, the methyl ester derivative of fatty acids were produced. Then the resulted derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID. Results: The seeds of S. aegyptica contains eight fatty acids as: Pelargonic (C9, Capric (C10, Undecylic (C11, Tridecylic (C13, Myristic (C14, Palmitic (C16, Stearic (C18, Linoleic (18:2 and Linolenic (18:3. Average oil content in seeds 014/0 ± 87 / percent. Conclusion: The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids was higher than the saturated ones. Linoleic and Palmitic acids are major unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of S. aegyptica seed respectively.

  7. De Novo Assembly of Complete Chloroplast Genomes from Non-model Species Based on a K-mer Frequency-Based Selection of Chloroplast Reads from total DNA Sequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izan, Shairul; Esselink, G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Borm, T.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) sequences of plant species often contain an abundance of reads that are derived from the chloroplast genome. Up to now these reads have generally been identified and assembled into chloroplast genomes based on homology to chloroplasts from related species. This

  8. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  9. Monte carlo simulation of penetration range distribution of ion beam with low energy implanted in plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xuchu; Hou Juan; Liu Xiaoyong

    2009-01-01

    The depth and density distribution of V + ion beam implanted into peanut seed is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The action of ions implanted in plant seeds is studied by the classical collision theory of two objects, the electronic energy loss is calculated by Lindhard-Scharff formulation. The result indicates that the depth of 200keV V + implanted into peanut seed is 5.57μm, which agrees with experimental results, and the model is appropriate to describe this interaction. This paper provides a computational method for the depth and density distribution of ions with low energy implanted in plant seeds. (authors)

  10. Study on proteins of bean plants originating from gamma-treated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonev, D.; Chalykova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Dry seeds of bean variety Stella were radiated with gamma rays using 60 C as a source of radiation. The dose applied was 30 kR at an intensity 9.6 R/s. Irradiation caused disturbances at synthesis and properties of proteins of bean plants originating from gamma treated seeds. Some protein components showed changes in relative content and electrophoretic mobility. New more mobile protein components appeared. Protein complex of overground parts were more radioresistant than protein complex of the roots. (M.Ts.)

  11. Rare vascular plant species at risk : recovery by seeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pegtel, Dick M.

    . Rare vascular plant species are endangered worldwide. Population losses are most commonly caused by human-related factors. Conservation management seeks to halt this adverse trend and if possible, to enhance long-lasting self-sustainable populations. In general, rare species are poorly recruited

  12. High frequency plant regeneration from mature seed- derived callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Ki-Won Lee, Gi Jun Choi, Ki-Yong Kim, Hee Chung Ji, Hyung Soo Park, Sei Hyung Yoon and ... Gramineae family plants (Ha et al., 2001; Dong and Qu, ..... Lee SH, Ahsan N, Lee KW, Kim DH, Lee DG, Kwak SS, Kwon SY, ...

  13. Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, David A; Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moe, Annika M; Geber, Monica A; Goodwillie, Carol; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Eckert, Christopher G; Elle, Elizabeth; Johnston, Mark O; Kalisz, Susan; Ree, Richard H; Sargent, Risa D; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Winn, Alice A

    2017-03-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant-pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We found a weak decline in outcrossing rate towards higher latitudes and among some biomes, but no biogeographic patterns in the frequency of self-incompatibility. Incorporating life history and growth form into biogeographic analyses reduced or eliminated the importance of latitude and biome in predicting outcrossing or self-incompatibility. Our results suggest that biogeographic patterns in mating system are more likely a reflection of the frequency of life forms across latitudes rather than the strength of plant-pollinator interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Gelatin Seed Treatment as a Biostimulant of Cucumber Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of gelatin capsule seed treatment on enhanced plant growth and tolerance to abiotic stress have been reported in a number of crops, but the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are poorly understood. Using mRNA sequencing based approach, transcriptomes of one- and two-week-old cucumber plants from gelatin capsule treated and nontreated seeds were characterized. The gelatin treated plants had greater total leaf area, fresh weight, frozen weight, and nitrogen content. Pairwise comparisons of the RNA-seq data identified 620 differentially expressed genes between treated and control two-week-old plants, consistent with the timing when the growth related measurements also showed the largest differences. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, significant coexpression gene network module of 208 of the 620 differentially expressed genes was identified, which included 16 hub genes in the blue module, a NAC transcription factor, a MYB transcription factor, an amino acid transporter, an ammonium transporter, a xenobiotic detoxifier-glutathione S-transferase, and others. Based on the putative functions of these genes, the identification of the significant WGCNA module and the hub genes provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms of gelatin seed treatment as a biostimulant to enhance plant growth.

  16. Sustained expression of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (UL55) in the seeds of homozygous rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackaberry, Eilleen S; Prior, Fiona A; Rowlandson, Karen; Tocchi, Monika; Mehic, Jelica; Porter, Suzanne; Walsh, Mike; Schleiss, Mark R; Ganz, Peter R; Sardana, Ravinder K; Altosaar, Illimar; Dudani, Anil K

    2008-09-01

    Production of recombinant subunit vaccines in transgenic plants may be a means of reducing vaccine costs while increasing availability and safety. A plant-derived product found safe and effective for oral administration would provide additional advantages when used as a vaccine. Outstanding issues with the technology include transgene stability through successive generations and consistent bioproduction. We previously reported expression of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus in seeds of transgenic tobacco. Here the goal was to determine if gB could be similarly expressed in rice, and if so, to examine expression over several plant generations. Results show that immunoreactive gB was successfully expressed in transgenic rice seeds, with sustained expression over three generations. The gB contained several neutralizing epitopes and was stable over 27 months.

  17. Honeycomb Actuators Inspired by the Unfolding of Ice Plant Seed Capsules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Guiducci

    Full Text Available Plant hydro-actuated systems provide a rich source of inspiration for designing autonomously morphing devices. One such example, the pentagonal ice plant seed capsule, achieves complex mechanical actuation which is critically dependent on its hierarchical organization. The functional core of this actuation system involves the controlled expansion of a highly swellable cellulosic layer, which is surrounded by a non-swellable honeycomb framework. In this work, we extract the design principles behind the unfolding of the ice plant seed capsules, and use two different approaches to develop autonomously deforming honeycomb devices as a proof of concept. By combining swelling experiments with analytical and finite element modelling, we elucidate the role of each design parameter on the actuation of the prototypes. Through these approaches, we demonstrate potential pathways to design/develop/construct autonomously morphing systems by tailoring and amplifying the initial material's response to external stimuli through simple geometric design of the system at two different length scales.

  18. Assessing the Effect of Planting Date on Safflower Cultivars Growth and Seed Yield in Rafsanjan Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khatib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate cultivar and planting date is the most important principles of agronomy; therefore, the aim of the present study was to consider the growth indices of different safflower cultivars and their relationships with seed yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized block design with four replicates included three planting dates (4 April, 25 April and 16 May and four safflower cultivars (411, Sina, Local Esfahan and Sofeh. The maximum leaf area index (2.33 obtained in the first planting date that it was not significantly different with the second planting date but it decreased up to 70% in the third planting date. In the first planting date, the maximum LAI obtained for Local Esfahan and 411 cultivars. Maximum total dry matter was 124.2 g m-2 for the first planting date that it decreased up to 31 and 78% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date Sina and Local Esfahan cultivars had the higher dry matter. Maximum crop growth rate for the first planting date was 38.84 g m-2d-1 that it decreased up to 41 and 66% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date, the highest total dry matter obtained for the Local Esfahan cultivar. The results showed that the maximum value of seed yield dedicated to 411 and Local Esfahan cultivars that it had the high correlation with maximum total dry matter. In respect to the present study, it is suggested to use 411 or Local Esfahan cultivars in the first planting date.

  19. Evaluating the interacting influences of pollination, seed predation, invasive species and isolation on reproductive success in a threatened alpine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in rare plants may be influenced and limited by a complex combination of factors. External threats such as invasive species and landscape characteristics such as isolation may impinge on both pollination and seed predation dynamics, which in turn can strongly affect reproduction. I assessed how patterns in floral visitation, seed predation, invasive ant presence, and plant isolation influenced one another and ultimately affected viable seed production in Haleakalā silverswords (Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum) of Hawai'i. Floral visitation was dominated by endemic Hylaeus bees, and patterns of visitation were influenced by floral display size and number of plants clustered together, but not by floral herbivory or nearest flowering neighbor distance. There was also some indication that Argentine ant presence impacted floral visitation, but contradictory evidence and limitations of the study design make this result uncertain. Degree of seed predation was associated only with plant isolation, with the two main herbivores partitioning resources such that one preferentially attacked isolated plants while the other attacked clumped plants; total seed predation was greater in more isolated plants. Net viable seed production was highly variable among individuals (0-55% seed set), and was affected mainly by nearest neighbor distance, apparently owing to low cross-pollination among plants separated by even short distances (>10-20 m). This isolation effect dominated net seed set, with no apparent influence from floral visitation rates, percent seed predation, or invasive ant presence. The measured steep decline in seed set with isolation distance may not be typical of the entire silversword range, and may indicate that pollinators in addition to Hylaeus bees could be important for greater gene flow. Management aimed at maintaining or maximizing silversword reproduction should focus on the spatial context of field populations and outplanting

  20. Dichroism in spinach chloroplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Lierop, J.H. van; Ham, M. ten

    1967-01-01

    In spinach chloroplasts oriented at steel-water interfaces parallel to the light beam a distinct dichroism is measured at about 680 nm. This dichroism is minimal upon addition of sucrose up to a final concentration of 0.18 M to the medium, the dichroic ratio amounting to 1.02. It is concluded that

  1. Plant growth regulators and ascorbic acid effects on physiological quality of wheat seedlings obtained from deteriorated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moori, S.; Eisv, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the effect of seed priming using plant growth regulators and vitamin C on the physiological traits of non-aged and aged seeds of wheat and their obtained seedlings. Accelerated aging (AA) method (40 degree C, RH=100% for 72h) was used for aging seeds. The seeds were pre-treated by gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), brassinosteroid (BR), and ascorbic acid (AS). Some seed traits such as germination and electric conductivity (EC) and seedling traits such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein content (SP), soluble sugar (SS), and proline were measured seven days after germination. The results showed that accelerated aging of seeds reduces the germination percentage and speed, increases soluble sugar, and reduces soluble protein, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedling. Pre-treatment of the aged seed by GA had the maximum positive impact on seed germination and seedling growth. Priming improved germination indices, quality of seedling, and seedling resistance against the oxidative stress caused by AA. It also improved cell membrane integrity and thus reduced seeds’ EC. Priming increased the activity of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes in both aged and non-aged seeds. When the deteriorated seeds were primed, proline and SS contents of the seedling increased significantly, but SP and MDA decreased. In general, pre-treatment of the non-aged and aged seeds by gibberellin improved the physiological quality of the seed and seedling. (author)

  2. Predicted global warming scenarios impact on the mother plant to alter seed dormancy and germination behaviour in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Footitt, S; Tang, A; Finch-Savage, W E

    2018-01-01

    Seed characteristics are key components of plant fitness that are influenced by temperature in their maternal environment, and temperature will change with global warming. To study the effect of such temperature changes, Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown to produce seeds along a uniquely designed polyethylene tunnel having a thermal gradient reflecting local global warming predictions. Plants therefore experienced the same variations in temperature and light conditions but different mean temperatures. A range of seed-related plant fitness estimates were measured. There were dramatic non-linear temperature effects on the germination behaviour in two contrasting ecotypes. Maternal temperatures lower than 15-16 °C resulted in significantly greater primary dormancy. In addition, the impact of nitrate in the growing media on dormancy was shown only by seeds produced below 15-16 °C. However, there were no consistent effects on seed yield, number, or size. Effects on germination behaviour were shown to be a species characteristic responding to temperature and not time of year. Elevating temperature above this critical value during seed development has the potential to dramatically alter the timing of subsequent seed germination and the proportion entering the soil seed bank. This has potential consequences for the whole plant life cycle and species fitness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant–plant mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output. PMID:24807259

  4. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-22

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output.

  5. The technology of storage of a geno-fund of seeds of plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombayev, A.M.; Tokhanov, M.T.; Burtebayeva, D.T.; Burtebayev, N.

    2002-01-01

    Because of an absent of special storages a geno-fund of plants seeds are stored mainly in usual unpractical laboratory conditions (in paper packs, in fabric bags, in metal boxes and so on). And during the first year of the storage the many Kinds of seeds begin to reduce a capacity of an inter-growth, and after several years they became to be useless to a sowing. As result, plant - breeders are forced to carry out frequent transplanting of collection samples, but it is connected with both significant material expenditures and a possible loss of a valuable geno-fund of seeds. But, from other hand, it is well known, that for a creation of only one new breed of animals it is necessary to carry out some experiments of during with from 15 to 30 years. With some economical reforms in Kazakhstan high - productive breeds of animals are on the brink of a disappearance. In connection with this the problem of the creation of the storage for the geno-fund of the seeds of the plants and of high - productive breeds of animals in Kazakhstan begins being an actual one. National storages, created in USA, Japan, Italy, Turkey, countries of SIS, correspond to definite standards, where there are maintained strict parameters for the storage active ventilation, storage in cooling state, a storage without of an access for air, a freezing in liquid nitrogen and in other coolants). Our investigations has established, that the storage of seeds of plants in gaseous medium with below-average content of oxygen increases a germinating power of seed. F.e. seeds of arid food plant of 'izen, Kochia prostrata', by natural way, keep the germinating power of seed, during about (6-8) months, and in gaseous medium its germinating power of seed reaches up to 5.5 years. Besides, at maturity of micro -organisms, there ore exterminated insects- pests and rodents. In order to improve mobility and a frost resistance of sperms of high productive stud-rams we had investigated the influence of electromagnetic

  6. A METHOD OF RAPID CULTIVATION OF RADISH SEED PLANTS IN PLASTIC POTS OF SMALL-VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and rapid breeding methods to breed  the lines used for  hybrid  F1  production  is a very actual task. The study was carried out with a use of radish varieties originated at VNIISSOK and breeding lines obtained by crossing components of different origin with male  sterility  in  winter  glass  greenhouse.  The  mother plants were grown  on the trays Plantec 64, while seedplants were grown in plastic pots of 1 liter capacity. The some morphobiological features such as the small habitus of see-plant; smaller number of secondary branching and absence of following branches; and consequently, the low yield of seeds were revealed in seed-plants of radish being grown in plastic pots. The period of ontogenesis in radish at first winter-spring rotation with this cultivation approach was reduced to 92 days. At the second summer-autumn rotation with additional lighting the duration of period of ontogenesis was essentially shorter than in the first rotation.  The utilization of  small-volume capacities in winter glass greenhouse to grow the radish seed-plants has permitted to produce two generations a year.

  7. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  8. Evolution of 'smoke' induced seed germination in pyroendemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. E.; Pausas, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Pyroendemics are plants in which seedling germination and successful seedling recruitment are restricted to immediate postfire environments. In many fire-prone ecosystems species cue their germination to immediate postfire conditions. Here we address how species have evolved one very specific mechanism, which is using the signal of combustion products from biomass. This is often termed ‘smoke’ stimulated germination although it was first discovered in studies of charred wood effects on germination of species strictly tied to postfire conditions (pyroendemics). Smoke stimulated germination has been reported from a huge diversity of plant species. The fact that the organic compound karrikin (a product of the degradation of cellulose) is a powerful germination cue in many species has led to the assumption that this compound is the only chemical responsible for smoke-stimulated germination. Here we show that smoke-stimulated germination is a complex trait with different compounds involved. We propose that convergent evolution is a more parsimonious model for smoke stimulated germination, suggesting that this trait evolved multiple times in response to a variety of organic and inorganic chemical triggers in smoke. The convergent model is congruent with the evolution of many other fire-related traits.

  9. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Graziele Silva; Zurlo, Luana Fonseca; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Alves, Guilherme Pereira; Carvalho, Mariana Comanucci Silva; Souza, Brígida

    2017-01-01

    Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management. PMID:28141849

  10. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Oliveira Canedo-Júnior

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management.

  11. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  12. Linking plant specialization to dependence in interactions for seed set in pollination networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Cristina; Castro-Urgal, Rocío; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pollination networks have provided valuable information on the number, frequency, distribution and identity of interactions between plants and pollinators. However, little is still known on the functional effect of these interactions on plant reproductive success. Information on the extent to which plants depend on such interactions will help to make more realistic predictions of the potential impacts of disturbances on plant-pollinator networks. Plant functional dependence on pollinators (all interactions pooled) can be estimated by comparing seed set with and without pollinators (i.e. bagging flowers to exclude them). Our main goal in this study was thus to determine whether plant dependence on current insect interactions is related to plant specialization in a pollination network. We studied two networks from different communities, one in a coastal dune and one in a mountain. For ca. 30% of plant species in each community, we obtained the following specialization measures: (i) linkage level (number of interactions), (ii) diversity of interactions, and (iii) closeness centrality (a measure of how much a species is connected to other plants via shared pollinators). Phylogenetically controlled regression analyses revealed that, for the largest and most diverse coastal community, plants highly dependent on pollinators were the most generalists showing the highest number and diversity of interactions as well as occupying central positions in the network. The mountain community, by contrast, did not show such functional relationship, what might be attributable to their lower flower-resource heterogeneity and diversity of interactions. We conclude that plants with a wide array of pollinator interactions tend to be those that are more strongly dependent upon them for seed production and thus might be those more functionally vulnerable to the loss of network interaction, although these outcomes might be context-dependent.

  13. Linking plant specialization to dependence in interactions for seed set in pollination networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tur

    Full Text Available Studies on pollination networks have provided valuable information on the number, frequency, distribution and identity of interactions between plants and pollinators. However, little is still known on the functional effect of these interactions on plant reproductive success. Information on the extent to which plants depend on such interactions will help to make more realistic predictions of the potential impacts of disturbances on plant-pollinator networks. Plant functional dependence on pollinators (all interactions pooled can be estimated by comparing seed set with and without pollinators (i.e. bagging flowers to exclude them. Our main goal in this study was thus to determine whether plant dependence on current insect interactions is related to plant specialization in a pollination network. We studied two networks from different communities, one in a coastal dune and one in a mountain. For ca. 30% of plant species in each community, we obtained the following specialization measures: (i linkage level (number of interactions, (ii diversity of interactions, and (iii closeness centrality (a measure of how much a species is connected to other plants via shared pollinators. Phylogenetically controlled regression analyses revealed that, for the largest and most diverse coastal community, plants highly dependent on pollinators were the most generalists showing the highest number and diversity of interactions as well as occupying central positions in the network. The mountain community, by contrast, did not show such functional relationship, what might be attributable to their lower flower-resource heterogeneity and diversity of interactions. We conclude that plants with a wide array of pollinator interactions tend to be those that are more strongly dependent upon them for seed production and thus might be those more functionally vulnerable to the loss of network interaction, although these outcomes might be context-dependent.

  14. Genetic analysis of a Microseris douglasii (Asteraceae) population polymorphic for an alien chloroplast type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Dick; Bachmann, Konrad

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests chloroplast introgression from Microseris bigelovii into M. douglasii. We have examined 23 plants from a population of M. douglasii polymorphic for M. douglasii and M. bigelovii chloroplast types. All 23 plants were completely homozygous for morphological and RAPD markers,

  15. Pb-induced avoidance-like chloroplast movements in fronds of Lemna trisulca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Samardakiewicz

    Full Text Available Lead ions are particularly dangerous to the photosynthetic apparatus, but little is known about the effects of trace metals, including Pb, on regulation of chloroplast redistribution. In this study a new effect of lead on chloroplast distribution patterns and movements was demonstrated in mesophyll cells of a small-sized aquatic angiosperm Lemna trisulca L. (star duckweed. An analysis of confocal microscopy images of L. trisulca fronds treated with lead (15 μM Pb2+, 24 h in darkness or in weak white light revealed an enhanced accumulation of chloroplasts in the profile position along the anticlinal cell walls, in comparison to untreated plants. The rearrangement of chloroplasts in their response to lead ions in darkness was similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts in plants treated with strong white light. Transmission electron microscopy X-ray microanalysis showed that intracellular chloroplast arrangement was independent of the location of Pb deposits, suggesting that lead causes redistribution of chloroplasts, which looks like a light-induced avoidance response, but is not a real avoidance response to the metal. Furthermore, a similar redistribution of chloroplasts in L. trisulca cells in darkness was observed also under the influence of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. In addition, we detected an enhanced accumulation of endogenous H2O2 after treatment of plants with lead. Interestingly, H2O2-specific scavenger catalase partly abolished the Pb-induced chloroplast response. These results suggest that H2O2 can be involved in the avoidance-like movement of chloroplasts induced by lead. Analysis of photometric measurements revealed also strong inhibition (but not complete of blue-light-induced chloroplast movements by lead. This inhibition may result from disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, as we observed fragmentation and disappearance of actin filaments around chloroplasts. Results of this study show that the

  16. Can biochar be used as a seed coating to improve native plant germination and growth in arid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary I. Williams; R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2016-01-01

    Direct seeding is a common large-scale restoration practice for revegetating arid and semi-arid lands, but success can be limited by moisture and temperature. Seed coating technologies that use biochar may have the potential to overcome moisture and temperature limitations on native plant germination and growth. Biochar is a popular agronomic tool for improving soil...

  17. Pollination and seed dispersal of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg (Thymelaeaceae: An economic plant species with extremely small populations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination and seed dispersal in angiosperms have long been investigated in order to understand the coevolution of plants and animals. However, the signals from flowers and/or seeds to attract pollinators and/or seed dispersers have received comparatively little attention. In this study, the pollination biology and seed dispersal of the vulnerable agarwood plant Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg, a traditional medicinal plant in China, was studied in its natural distribution range. The reproductive tactics of A. sinensis were studied in detail by employing various tests dealing with fruit set and also seed dispersal. Dynamic headspace extraction followed by GC-MS analysis was also performed in order to reveal the composition of floral scent. The results showed that noctuids and pyralids are the most effective pollinators of pollinator-dependent A. sinensis. The main compounds of the floral scent were (E, E-α-Farnesene (61.9 ± 3.2%, trans-Ocimene (16.6 ± 1.2%, and Benzyl salicylate (4.6 ± 1.1%. The results obtained from seed dispersal experiments indicate that hornets are effective seed dispersers and they may play an important role in long-distance seed dispersal of A. sinensis. Based on our findings, we recommend several protection methods for this threatened agarwood plant in China.

  18. Relative attractiveness of seeds of myrmecochorous Australian and South African plants to ants, and the chemical basis of this attraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of an indigenous acid an exotic (South American) ant was compared to seeds from exotic (Australian) and indigenous Caps myrmecochorous plants. Non-South African ants were more attracted to seeds of myrmecochorous species, than to non...

  19. Yield and financial performance estimates of four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the Western Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley

    2015-01-01

    Eastern seed sources of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) have been planted in the Western Gulf region for nearly three decades because they often have higher growth rates than local seed sources. However, productivity gains for eastern families are sometimes offset by poorer survival rates relative to local families.

  20. Behavior of pea saber plants (Canavalia ensiformis (L) DC)) ontenus from seeds exposed to increasing doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalonji, M.A.; Mudibu wa Kabangu, J.; Tshilenge-Djim, P.; Tshivuila, T.D.; Gaza, O.C.

    2003-01-01

    The present trial has carried out in order to determine the optimal value of usable treatment for seeds exposed to the gamma radiances. Seeds of Canavalia ensiformis presenting a rate of humidity of 15% have been submitted to the increasing doses of irradiation (source Cesium 137) of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Krads. After germination, plants generated from these seeds have been observed in a completely randomized blocks experimental design, including six treatments and three repetitions. Observations concerned the vegetative parameters (germination percent, height, diameter to the collar, number of ramification, surface of leaves), the generative parameters (number of pod by plant, length and width of pods, number of seeds by pod, weights of 100 seeds) and the morphological changes on distortions of plants during their vegetative development. Results permitted to determine that the optimal value of treatment is located to 10 Krads. This dose induced a high rate of seed germination, vigorous plants with a high number of ramifications. The yield parameters obtained with 10 and 20 Krads, excepted the weight of 100 seeds, have been lower than to those obtained with the control. This is the consequence of the increase of the pod dimension and the size of seeds. All treatments superior to 30 Krads have been lethal. Materials treated to 10 and 20 Krads are under observation for the second generation.

  1. Chloroplast Signaling Gates Thermotolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Dickinson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a key environmental variable influencing plant growth and survival. Protection against high temperature stress in eukaryotes is coordinated by heat shock factors (HSFs, transcription factors that activate the expression of protective chaperones such as HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 (HSP70; however, the pathway by which temperature is sensed and integrated with other environmental signals into adaptive responses is not well understood. Plants are exposed to considerable diurnal variation in temperature, and we have found that there is diurnal variation in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, with maximal thermotolerance coinciding with higher HSP70 expression during the day. In a forward genetic screen, we identified a key role for the chloroplast in controlling this response, suggesting that light-induced chloroplast signaling plays a key role. Consistent with this, we are able to globally activate binding of HSFA1a to its targets by altering redox status in planta independently of a heat shock.

  2. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  3. Greenhouse (III): Gas-Exchange and Seed-to-Seed Experiments on the Russian Space Station MIR and Earth-grown, Ethylene-Treated Wheat Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William F.; Bingham, Gail; Carman, John; Bubenheim, David; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor B.; Chernova, Lola; Nefodova, Yelena

    2001-01-01

    The Mir Space Station provided an outstanding opportunity to study long-term plant responses when exposed to a microgravity environment. Furthermore, if plants can be grown to maturity in a microgravity environment, they might be used in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). The primary objective of the Greenhouse experiment onboard Mir was to grow Super Dwarf and Apogee wheat through complete life cycles in microgravity; i.e., from seed-to-seed-to-seed. Additional objectives were to study chemical, biochemical, and structural changes in plant tissues as well as photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration (evaporation of water from plants). Another major objective was to evaluate the suitability clothe facilities on Mir for advanced research with plants. The Greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Russian/Bulgarian plant growth chamber, the Svet, to which the United States added instrumentation systems to monitor changes in CO2 and water vapor caused by the plants (with four infrared gas analyzers monitoring air entering and leaving two small plastic chambers). In addition, the US instrumentation also monitored O2; air, leaf (IR), cabin pressure; photon flux; and substrate temperature and substrate moisture (16 probes in the root module). Facility modifications were first performed during the summer of 1995 during Mir 19, which began after STS-72 left Mir. Plant development was monitored by daily observations and some photographs.

  4. Using hyperspectral imaging to determine germination of native Australian plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Zhao, Genpin; Dakin, Nicole; Zhao, Chunhui; Turner, Shane R

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the ability to accurately and non-destructively determine the germination of three native Australian tree species, Acacia cowleana Tate (Fabaceae), Banksia prionotes L.F. (Proteaceae), and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (Myrtaceae) based on hyperspectral imaging data. While similar studies have been conducted on agricultural and horticultural seeds, we are unaware of any published studies involving reflectance-based assessments of the germination of tree seeds. Hyperspectral imaging data (110 narrow spectral bands from 423.6nm to 878.9nm) were acquired of individual seeds after 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50days of standardized rapid ageing. At each time point, seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging to obtain reflectance profiles from individual seeds. A standard germination test was performed, and we predicted that loss of germination was associated with a significant change in seed coat reflectance profiles. Forward linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to select the 10 spectral bands with the highest contribution to classifications of the three species. In all species, germination decreased from over 90% to below 20% in about 10-30days of experimental ageing. P50 values (equal to 50% germination) for each species were 19.3 (A. cowleana), 7.0 (B. prionotes) and 22.9 (C. calophylla) days. Based on independent validation of classifications of hyperspectral imaging data, we found that germination of Acacia and Corymbia seeds could be classified with over 85% accuracy, while it was about 80% for Banksia seeds. The selected spectral bands in each LDA-based classification were located near known pigment peaks involved in photosynthesis and/or near spectral bands used in published indices to predict chlorophyll or nitrogen content in leaves. The results suggested that seed germination may be successfully classified (predicted) based on reflectance in narrow spectral bands associated with the primary metabolism

  5. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  6. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Pharbitin, Isolated from the Seeds of Pharbitis nil, against Various Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Yu, Nan Hee; Park, Ae Ran; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-10-28

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize antibacterial metabolites from Pharbitis nil seeds and investigate their antibacterial activity against various plant pathogenic bacteria. The methanol extract of P. nil seeds showed the strongest activity against Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 250 μg/ml. Among the three solvent layers obtained from the methanol extract of P. nil seeds, only the butanol layer displayed the activity with an MIC value of 125 μg/ml against Xap. An antibacterial fraction was obtained from P. nil seeds by repeated column chromatography and identified as pharbitin, a crude resin glycoside, by instrumental analysis. The antibacterial activity of pharbitin was tested in vitro against 14 phytopathogenic bacteria, and it was found to inhibit Ralstonia solanacearum and four Xanthomonas species. The minimum inhibitory concentration values against the five bacteria were 125-500 μg/ml for the n-butanol layer and 31.25-125 μg/ml for pharbitin. In a detached peach leaf assay, it effectively suppressed the development of bacterial leaf spot, with a control value of 87.5% at 500 μg/ml. In addition, pharbitin strongly reduced the development of bacterial wilt on tomato seedlings by 97.4% at 250 μg/ml, 7 days after inoculation. These findings suggest that the crude extract of P. nil seeds can be used as an alternative biopesticide for the control of plant diseases caused by R. solanacearum and Xanthomonas spp. This is the first report on the antibacterial activity of pharbitin against phytopathogenic bacteria.

  8. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  9. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, E; Schwartz, A

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  10. Effect of seed treatment using low doses of X-rays in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Fonseca, Alexander; Chavez Suarez, Licet; Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seed treatment with X-rays radiation on the growth and yield of peppers plants of the California Wonder variety was studied. The seeds were irradiated with X- rays irradiation source of low potency (11.47 Gy/min), with doses of 5, 10, 20 y 30 Gy, using untreated seeds as controls. Plant height (mm), root length (mm), stem diameter (mm), polar average diameter (mm) ecuatorial mean diameter (mm), mean fruit mass (g) and yield per plant (kg.plant''1 ) were evaluated. The results showed a significant improvement (p≤ 0.001) in the indicators of plants height (15%), root length (12%), stem diameter (7%), equatorial mean diameter (47%), mean fruit mass (16%) and yield per plant (107%), compared to control

  11. A review of methods for the production of haploids in seed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkener, L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methods which have been tried to produce haploids in seed plants. Because of their unique genetic constitution the haploids provide useful material for the study of various fundamental cytological and genetic problems. Thus the diploidization of haploids in conifers and subsequent intercrossing might allow the use of the same breeding technique as those which have been used with great success in maize breeding. Induced parthenogenesis in angiosperms has led to the formation of haploids in at least 25 genera but the number of plants obtained is generally too low for a practical utilization. The most promising method in angiosperms is in vitro cultivation of anthers which has hitherto yielded haploids in relatively large numbers in at least l5 genera but certainly can be applied with success in many more. Isolation of protoplasts or whole cells of diploid and haploid tissues and regeneration of entire plants from these protoplasts or cells have been accomplished in a few angiosperm genera. In gymnosperms all attempts to produce complete haploid plants have up to now failed. In this group there is possibly a relationship between polyembryonic seeds and the presence of small, haploid embryos. Therefore, the in vitro cultivation of small embryos of such seeds may result in the formation of independent haploid plants. In vitro cultivation of whole microsporangia or pollen has led to the production of calli in a few gymnosperm genera and in one case roots have even been induced. In some gymnosperms female gametophytes cultured on nutrient medium have yielded calli and in a few genera even root-like organs or small seedlings have arisen. (author)

  12. Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Red Onion Cultivation from True Seed Shallot (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Sudaryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion is one of the strategic horticultural commodities, considering this commodity is very high consumption as a daily spice and fluctuating price. Therefore is not surprising that these commodities are contributing to inflation. Efforts to meet increasing consumption needs, it is necessary to find the right strategy to increase domestic red onion production. One of the strategies considered to increase domestic red onion production is the use of botanical seed (TSS as a source of seed on shallot cultivation. There are 2 main weaknesses of red onion cultivation with TSS as a source of seeds. The two weaknesses are TSS low growing power, which is naturally only in the 50-60 % range and the number of tubers produced is less than 3 cloves per plant. In order to solve the problem, research has been done to know the effect of plant growth regulator on the growth and red onion production from TSS and also get the description of red onion farming from TSS and tuber as seed source. The research was conducted from June to November 2017 at BPP Pare, Kediri Regency, East Java. The results showed that the use of young coconut water on TSS obtained red onion plants are able to produce the number of tubers per plant more than 3 cloves. In detail as much as 22.22 % produces the number of tubers range 4-5 per plant; 56.56 % yields 5-6 bulb range; and as much as 22.22 % produces tubers > 6. As well, wet weight of tubers when harvested weighing more than 99 g per plant. If converted per hectare, TSS red onion plants treated with young coconut water can produce a range of 30 -35 tons of wet bulb. This production is doubled compared to the production of shallots grown from tubers. Based on the analysis of the farm, red onion from TSS treated with young coconut water gives a profit of Rp 224,860,000 per hectare with B/C ratio of 3.397. This profit is more than 1.75 times compared to the profit of red onion tuber farming which is only Rp 93.787.000, - with B

  13. Correlated seed failure as an environmental veto to synchronize reproduction of masting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Steele, Michael A; Marino, Shealyn; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2018-07-01

    Variable, synchronized seed production, called masting, is a widespread reproductive strategy in plants. Resource dynamics, pollination success, and, as described here, environmental veto are possible proximate mechanisms driving masting. We explored the environmental veto hypothesis, which assumes that reproductive synchrony is driven by external factors preventing reproduction in some years, by extending the resource budget model of masting with correlated reproductive failure. We ran this model across its parameter space to explore how key parameters interact to drive seeding dynamics. Next, we parameterized the model based on 16 yr of seed production data for populations of red (Quercus rubra) and white (Quercus alba) oaks. We used these empirical models to simulate seeding dynamics, and compared simulated time series with patterns observed in the field. Simulations showed that resource dynamics and reproduction failure can produce masting even in the absence of pollen coupling. In concordance with this, in both oaks, among-year variation in resource gain and correlated reproductive failure were necessary and sufficient to reproduce masting, whereas pollen coupling, although present, was not necessary. Reproductive failure caused by environmental veto may drive large-scale synchronization without density-dependent pollen limitation. Reproduction-inhibiting weather events are prevalent in ecosystems, making described mechanisms likely to operate in many systems. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.

  16. Genetic and Physiological Characterization of Two Clusters of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Seed Dormancy and Plant Height in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Heng; Beighley, Donn H.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-01-01

    Seed dormancy and plant height have been well-studied in plant genetics, but their relatedness and shared regulatory mechanisms in natural variants remain unclear. The introgression of chromosomal segments from weedy into cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) prompted the detection of two clusters (qSD1-2/qPH1 and qSD7-2/qPH7) of quantitative trait loci both associated with seed dormancy and plant height. Together, these two clusters accounted for >96% of the variances for plant height and ~71% of t...

  17. Physicochemical characteristics of seeds from wild and cultivated castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Mosquera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The castor (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed plant whose main features are its drought resistance, and its adaptation to eroded, polluted, and low fertility soils. Its oil has a great demand in the industrial sector and it has recently attracted considerable interest for its use in the production of biodiesel and jet fuel. In this study, morphological, physical and chemical characterizations were performed to ascertain the quality of wild (VQ-1 and under cultivation (VQ-7 oil castor seeds. The results showed that there are differences in the morphological and physicochemical characteristics regarding oil content (44,95 vs 33,84%, ash (3,20 vs 2,42%, and 100-seed-weight (45,87 vs 54,23g; similar behavior was recorded when characterizing the oil: kinematic viscosity (269,67 vs 266,44mm2 /s, density (0,9389 vs 0,9465g/cm3 , and acidity index (0,9918 vs 0,5440mg KOH/g for VQ-1 and VQ-7, respectively. Growing conditions to which castor plants were subjected may influence both the final quality of seeds and chemical properties of the oil.

  18. Effects of plant growth regulators on seed germination and callus induction of hylocereus costaricensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) belongs to the family Cactaceae and are climbing vines which have received worldwide attention in recent years. However, there are still lack of information on the protocols for the establishment of In vitro culture system. In the present study, seed germination percentage were determined by culturing seeds on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 ppm 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) together with either 0, 0.5 or 0.8 ppm of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Germination percentage was the highest by using plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 1 ppm BAP and 0 ppm IBA (93.33%). Subsequently, the cotyledons from seedlings of the germinated seeds were used for subsequent callus induction. Small pieces of cotyledons were excised and cultured on MS medium fortified with 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.5 ppm of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) together with either 0, 0.9 or 1.8 ppm of BAP. Callus induction percentage was highest using the plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 3.6 ppm 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP (75%). Hence, 3.6 ppm of 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP was the best combination for callus induction of Hylocereus costaricensis. (author)

  19. Seed germination in parasitic plants: what insights can we expect from strigolactone research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume; Braem, Lukas; Thoiron, Séverine; Gevaert, Kris; Goormachtig, Sofie; Delavault, Philippe

    2018-04-23

    Obligate root-parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanchaceae family are deadly pests for major crops all over the world. Because these heterotrophic plants severely damage their hosts even before emerging from the soil, there is an unequivocal need to design early and efficient methods for their control. The germination process of these species has probably undergone numerous selective pressure events in the course of evolution, in that the perception of host-derived molecules is a necessary condition for seeds to germinate. Although most of these molecules belong to the strigolactones, structurally different molecules have been identified. Since strigolactones are also classified as novel plant hormones that regulate several physiological processes other than germination, the use of autotrophic model plant species has allowed the identification of many actors involved in the strigolactone biosynthesis, perception, and signal transduction pathways. Nevertheless, many questions remain to be answered regarding the germination process of parasitic plants. For instance, how did parasitic plants evolve to germinate in response to a wide variety of molecules, while autotrophic plants do not? What particular features are associated with their lack of spontaneous germination? In this review, we attempt to illustrate to what extent conclusions from research into strigolactones could be applied to better understand the biology of parasitic plants.

  20. Chloroplast mutations induced by 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride are independent of the plastome mutator in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuhaMajumdar, M; Baldwin, S; Sears, B B

    2004-02-01

    Oenothera plants homozygous for the recessive plastome mutator allele ( pm) show chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) mutation frequencies that are about 1,000-fold higher than spontaneous levels. The pm-encoded gene product has been hypothesized to have a function in cpDNA replication, repair and/or mutation avoidance. Previous chemical mutagenesis experiments with the alkylating agent nitroso-methyl urea (NMU) showed a synergistic effect of NMU on the induction of mutations in the pm line, suggesting an interaction between the pm-encoded gene product and one of the repair systems that corrects alkylation damage. The goal of the experiments described here was to examine whether the pm activity extends to the repair of damage caused by non-alkylating mutagens. To this end, the intercalating mutagen, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride (9AA) was tested for synergism with the plastome mutator. A statistical analysis of the data reported here indicates that the pm-encoded gene product is not involved in the repair of the 9AA-induced mutations. However, the recovery of chlorotic sectors in plants derived from the mutagenized seeds shows that 9AA can act as a mutagen of the chloroplast genome.

  1. Exploring photosynthesis evolution by comparative analysis of metabolic networks between chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jing

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts descended from cyanobacteria and have a drastically reduced genome following an endosymbiotic event. Many genes of the ancestral cyanobacterial genome have been transferred to the plant nuclear genome by horizontal gene transfer. However, a selective set of metabolism pathways is maintained in chloroplasts using both chloroplast genome encoded and nuclear genome encoded enzymes. As an organelle specialized for carrying out photosynthesis, does the chloroplast metabolic network have properties adapted for higher efficiency of photosynthesis? We compared metabolic network properties of chloroplasts and prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, mostly cyanobacteria, based on metabolic maps derived from genome data to identify features of chloroplast network properties that are different from cyanobacteria and to analyze possible functional significance of those features. Results The properties of the entire metabolic network and the sub-network that consists of reactions directly connected to the Calvin Cycle have been analyzed using hypergraph representation. Results showed that the whole metabolic networks in chloroplast and cyanobacteria both possess small-world network properties. Although the number of compounds and reactions in chloroplasts is less than that in cyanobacteria, the chloroplast's metabolic network has longer average path length, a larger diameter, and is Calvin Cycle -centered, indicating an overall less-dense network structure with specific and local high density areas in chloroplasts. Moreover, chloroplast metabolic network exhibits a better modular organization than cyanobacterial ones. Enzymes involved in the same metabolic processes tend to cluster into the same module in chloroplasts. Conclusion In summary, the differences in metabolic network properties may reflect the evolutionary changes during endosymbiosis that led to the improvement of the photosynthesis efficiency in higher plants. Our

  2. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence reveals stage specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells during Arabidopsis embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO I TEJOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic body plan of a plant is established early in embryogenesis when cells differentiate, giving rise to the apical and basal regions of the embryo. Using chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for chloroplasts, we have detected specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells at specific stages of embryogenesis. Non-randomly distributed chloroplast-containing cells are seen as early as the globular stage of embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. In the heart stage of embryogenesis, chloroplast containing cells are detected in epidermal cells as well as a central region of the heart stage embryo, forming a triangular septum of chloroplast-containing cells that divides the embryo into three equal sectors. Torpedo stage embryos have chloroplast-containing epidermal cells and a central band of chloroplast-containing cells in the cortex layer, just below the shoot apical meristem. In the walking-stick stage of embryogenesis, chloroplasts are present in the epidermal, cortex and endodermal cells. The chloroplasts appear reduced or absent from the provascular and columella cells of walking-stick stage embryos. These results suggest that there is a tight regulation of plastid differentiation during embryogenesis that generates specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells in specific cell layers at specific stages of embryogenesis.

  3. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds' aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  4. Chloroplasts activity and PAP-signaling regulate programmed cell death in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Mazubert, Christelle; Prunier, Florence; Lugan, Raphael; Chan, Kai Xun; Phua, Su Yin; Pogson, Barry J.; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Delarue, Marianne; Benhamed, Moussa; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process both for plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. There is accumulating evidence that chloroplasts may play a central role during plant PCD as for mitochondria in animal cells

  5. [Viability of 7 kinds of medicinal plant seeds stored in medium-term gene bank of the National Medicinal Plant Gene Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Yang, Cheng-Min; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate seed viability of Platycodon grandiflorum, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Andrographis paniculat, Codonopsis pilosula, Scutellaria baicalensis, Leonurus japonicus, Rabdosia rubescens, stored in the medium-term gene bank of the National Medicinal Plant Gene Bank for 4 years, we tested seed germination rate of 7 species of medicinal plant and analyzed the change of significance of levels of the germination rate in pre and post store. Seed germination rates of 7 species of medicinal plants were all decreased after 4 years, and the decrease of S. tenuifolia and S. baicalensis germination rates were much smaller than other species. The higher initial germination rate of P. grandiflorum, C. pilosula, R. rubescens seed has the smaller decline of germination rate, but the data of A. paniculata showed the opposite trend. The rate decline of the germination of S. tenuifolia and S. baicalensis was roughly the same in different germination rate interval. The results showed that low temperature storage could effectively prolong the seed longevity, and maintain the seed vigor. Moreover, it is necessary to study on the storage characteristics of the main medicinal plant seeds, and establish the monitoring plan and regeneration standard. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ф. Рибак

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  7. Pre-sowing laser light effect on some biochemical and physiological processes in seeds and plants of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podleśny, J.; Stochmal, A.

    2005-01-01

    The work is a contribution towards to widen the knowledge concerning the influence of laser irradiation on maize seeds and plants. The treating of seeds by laser light increased the activity of amylolytic enzymes in studied seeds. The largest differentiation of amylolytic activity for irridiated vs. non irridiated seeds was found after 96 hours from sowing. The dynamics of activity of these enzymes was similar in the seeds of both maize hybrids. Pre-sowing laser stimulation of seeds also positively influenced the growth and development of seedlings grew from the seeds

  8. Inhibition of chloroplast protein synthesis following light chilling of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.; Ort, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study we looked at the effects of a high light chill on the pulsed incorporation of 35 S methionine into total, stromal, and thylakoid proteins of lightly abraded leaflets of 18-21 day old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ca. Floramerica) seedlings. Based on gel fluorographic patterns of marker proteins that are indicative of the net rates of chloroplast and cytoplasmic protein synthesis, there appears to be a nearly complete cessation of chloroplastic protein synthesis. No labeling is observed for either the stromal large subunit of Rubisco or the thylakoid-bound alpha and beta subunits of the coupling factor. One notable exception, however, appears to be the 32 kd, D1 protein. Its net synthetic rate remains high despite the inhibition of other chloroplastically synthesized proteins. The small subunit of Rubicso, LHCP-II, as well as several other proteins of known cytoplasmic origin, were still synthesized, albeit, at lower than control rates. Light chilling of chill-insensitive spinach produced a similar, but less dramatic differential behavior between chloroplastic and cytoplasmic protein synthesis. It appears, in chilling-sensitive plants, that chloroplast protein synthesis exhibits a greater sensitivity to low temperature inhibition than does cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that recovery of chloroplast protein synthesis may play an important role in recovery of photosynthetic activity following chilling

  9. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makambila, C.

    1997-01-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab

  10. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makambila, C [Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Sciences, Univ. of Brazzaville, Brazzaville (Congo)

    1997-12-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab.

  11. THE SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF PLANTS IN CENOPOPULATION TULIPA BIFLORA UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF The Republic of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sergeevna Ochirova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viable seeds in the composition of populations are considered as an indicator of the life strategy of species. Hence, seed productivity can be considered as an important indicator of species adaptation to habitat conditions. The replaceable productivity of bulbous ephemeroids growing in arid conditions has not been studied sufficiently. In connection with the foregoing, our goal was to identify the seed productivity of plants in the tulip cenopopulations of the two-flowered tulip – Tulipa biflora Pall. (Liliaceae, which is recommended for protection in the conditions of Kalmykia. Materials and metods: Three cenopopulations of Tulipa biflora were studied in different plant communities on brown light loamy solonetzic soils. The sample size was no less than 30 plants of Tulipa biflora, their mature fruits were considered in the aspects of the measured features, their potential and actual seed production, as well as the percentage of seminification. The density of generative plants was taken into account at 10 sites of 0.5 square meters, located along the transect. Resalts: Biometric signs of the fetus in plants in Tulipa biflora populations were positively correlated with air temperature during the active vegetation period of the species. The potential and actual seed productivity of plants in the Tulipa biflora cenpopulations in 2017 is more than in 2016, however, the percentage of seminification marked the reverse results: in 2017 it was 4.7–10.4% lower. In this case, the plants of one of the Tulipa biflora cenopopulations, showed the greatest percentage of seminification in both studies: in 2016 – 77.5, in 2017 – 67.1 pieces of seeds per plant. The mature seed bank which is formed during the growing season in the cenopopulations of Tulipa biflora during the years under the study amounted to 782.8–1338.4 seeds per 1.0 sq.m. Conclusion: The idea of a bank of mature seeds was got – 782.8–1338.4 seeds per 1.0 m2, which is

  12. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  13. Effect of aluminum treatment on proteomes of radicles of seeds derived from Al-treated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive A1 3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 uM AlK(SO4)2. Seeds harv...

  14. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  15. PDV2 has a dosage effect on chloroplast division in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ning; Sun, Qingqing; Li, Yiqiong; Mu, Yajuan; Hu, Jinglei; Feng, Yue; Liu, Xiaomin; Gao, Hongbo

    2017-03-01

    PDV2 has a dosage effect on chloroplast division in Arabidopsis thaliana , but this effect may vary in different plants. Chloroplasts have to be divided as plants grow to maintain an optimized number in the cell. Chloroplasts are divided by protein complexes across the double membranes from the stroma side to the cytosolic side. PDV2 is a chloroplast division protein on the chloroplast outer membrane. It recruits the dynamin-related GTPase ARC5 to the division site. The C-terminus of PDV2 and the C-terminus of ARC6 interact in the intermembrane space, which is important for the localization of PDV2. Previously, it was shown that overexpression of PDV2 can increase the division of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis and moss, so the authors concluded that PDV2 determines the rate of chloroplast division in land plants. PDV2 was also shown to inhibit the GTPase activity of ARC5 by in vitro experiment. These results look to be contradictory. Here, we identified a null allele of PDV2 in Arabidopsis and studied plants with different levels of PDV2. Our results suggested that the chloroplast division phenotype in Arabidopsis is sensitive to the level of PDV2, while this is not the case for ARC6. The level of PDV2 protein is reduced sharply in fast-growing leaves, while the level of ARC6 is not. The levels of PDV2 and ARC6 in several other plant species at different developmental stages were also investigated. The results indicated that their expression pattern varies in different species. Thus, PDV2 is an important positive factor of chloroplast division with an apparent dosage effect in Arabidopsis, but this effect for different chloroplast division proteins in different plants may vary.

  16. Bird attributes, plant characteristics, and seed dispersal of Pera glabrata (Schott, 1858), (Euphorbiaceae) in a disturbed cerrado area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, M R; Lunardi, V O; Galetti, M

    2007-11-01

    Several plant characteristics, such as fruit production, nutrient reward, secondary compounds, and fruit color display, affect fruit choice by birds. On the other hand, several bird attributes affect their efficiency as dispersers. Here we investigate the ornithochoric seed dispersal of Pera glabrata Schott (Euphorbiaceae) in a cerrado fragment in southeastern Brazil. A set of bird attributes, such as frequency of visits, number of diaspores eaten, time spent foraging, methods of taking and handling the diaspores and agonistic interactions were analyzed in order to infer about the potential of each species to act as a seed disperser. Birds were the unique seed dispersers of these oil-rich diaspores. We observed 414 bird visits during 60 hours of focal observations in five trees from December 1999 to January 2000. Twenty bird species from seven families ate the diaspores of P. glabrata, but only 14 species were considered potential seed dispersers because they swallowed the diaspores, increasing the probabilities for the seeds to be defecated and/or regurgitated away from the parent trees. The main potential seed dispersers were: Turdus leucomelas (Muscicapidae), Dacnis cayana (Emberizidae), Colaptes melanochloros (Picidae) and Elaenia spp. (Tyrannidae). We did not find any significant seasonal change in the number of visits on the fruiting trees throughout the day. We also did not find any relation between the number of visits per tree and fruit production. The most effective seed dispersers of P. glabrata were generalist birds, which have a high visiting rate, high fruit consumption rate, and spend short periods on the plants. The large number of species recorded as potential seed dispersers of P. glabrata, being most of them very abundant even in Brazilian disturbed areas, may guarantee seed dispersal of this plant in small fragments and regenerating areas.

  17. The Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1. The measured traits were root, shoot and seedling length, dry and fresh weight of seedling, germination rate and percent, seed vigor index, seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio. Salinity stress reduced significantly shoot, root and seedling length of the species. Increasing of salinity stress declined dry and fresh weight of Trigonella foenum and Nigella sativa L. and dry weight of Cannabis sativa L.. Seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio of Nigella sativa L. increased in salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity stress declined germination rate and percent in Nigella sativa L., but in other species (Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus only germination rate decreased. Trigonella foenum graecum germinated completely (%100 in all salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity until 16 dS m-1 reduced seed germination of Nigella sativa. Seed germination of Nigella sativa did not occurred in the highest salinity stress (20 dS m-1. Totally the results showed that in the germination stage, Trigonella foenum graecum and Cannabis sativa were relatively tolerate to salinity stress but Nigella sativa L. was the most sensitive one

  18. Seed dormancy and germination of the medicinal holoparasitic plant Cistanche deserticola from the cold desert of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Liu, Guofang; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2017-06-01

    Cistanche deserticola is a holoparasitic plant with high medicinal value that reproduces only by seeds. However, the requirements for seed dormancy break and germination of this species remain unclear. The freshly matured dust-like seeds consist of a water-permeable seed coat and an undifferentiated oval-shaped embryo embedded in endosperm. No fresh seeds germinated in water or a 10 -5  M fluridone solution at any incubation temperature within 60 days. Length of embryos in seeds incubated in warm- and cold-started stratification sequences had increased 10.4 and 11.7% after 50 and 40 weeks, respectively. After 6 months, length of embryos in seeds stratified at 5 °C had increased by 12%. Germination of fresh seeds and of seeds stratified at 5 °C for 6 months and then incubated in mixed fluridone/gibberellic acid 3 (GA 3 ) solutions at 30/20 °C germinated to only 2.6 and 11.7%, respectively. Embryos of fresh seeds and of cold-stratified seeds had increased 29.4 and 15.8% in length, respectively, at the time of germination, but they never differentiated into organs. The highest germination (54.4%) was for seeds incubated in a 10 -5  M solution of fluridone in darkness in spring that had overwinter on the soil surface in the natural habitat. Our study indicates that breaking of physiological dormancy (PD) occurs first and then the embryo grows to a critical length (0.44 mm) without differentiation into organs prior to seed germination. Seeds for which PD had been broken were induced to germinate by fluridone and GA 3 at high temperature. Taken together, these results suggest that C. deserticola seeds have a specialized kind of morphophysiological dormancy. This study reveals possible ways to release seed dormancy that will be useful in propagating this medicinal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. High-throughput phytochemical characterization of non-cannabinoid compounds of cannabis plant and seed, from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Abbasi, T.; Farman, K.; Akrem, A.; Asif, M.; Mahmood, S.; Iqbal, M.U.

    2018-01-01

    The herbs are the natural resources for the infinite phenolic compounds that are used in pharmaceutical industry. These herbs are of significant importance due to their beneficial usage for the human health. Here, we studied a common herbs Cannabis sativa, an important member of the family Cannabaceae for phytochemical characterization. The methanol extract of whole Cannabis plant and seed was analyzed for the identification of non-cannabinoid compounds through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique, because the non-cannabinoid compounds have not been much studied in C. sativa. These compounds are very useful in different diseases, used in cosmetics and as antioxidant agent. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of a variety of non-cannabinoid compounds including Quercetin, Gallic acid, p-Coumaric acid, m-Coumaric acid, Caffeic acid, Cinnamic acid, Ferulic acid, Benzoic acid and Kampferol. Furthermore, Quercetin was observed with high concentration in whole plant sample, whereas high Gallic acid and absence of m-coumaric acid was noted in the Cannabis seed. It was also observed that plant samples were with higher concentration of cinnamic acid as compared to seed. The Caffeic acid, Benzoic acid and Ferulic acid were in low concentration in both Cannabis plant and seed samples. Kampferol is another important non-cannabinoid compound that was also quantified in both samples. This research will be providing a foundation for further molecular characterization of Cannabis plant and seed for their beneficial usage. (author)

  20. Comparison of Stevia plants grown from seeds, cuttings and stem-tip cultures for growth and sweet diterpene glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y; Nakamura, S; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1984-10-01

    The growth and sweet diterpene glucosides of Stevia plants propagated by stem-tip cultures were compared with those of the control plants propagated by seeds. There was no significant difference between the two groups both in growth and in chemical composition. As for the contents of sweet diterpene glucosides, however, the clonal plants showed significantly smaller variations than the sexually propagated plants; they were almost as homogeneous as the plants propagated by cuttings. These results suggest that the clonal propagation by stem-tip culture is an effective method of obtaining a population of uniform plants for the production of sweet diterpene glucosides.

  1. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as N. virescens 80.38 N. lugens 67.17 S. incertulas 66.5 and L. oratorius 93.46 when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos.

  2. The Antioxidant and Antihaemolytic Activities and the Polyphenolic Contents of Some Plants Seeds Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrooz, O.; Harb, M.; Al-Qato, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the this study which were carried out on yhe ethanol and acetone extracts of Prunus armeniaca, Cerasus vulgare, Nespole, Opuntia ficus-indica, Cucumis melo, and Vitis vinifera proved that theses extracts contain bioctive substances such as polyohenols and flavonids. The UV-VIS spectropgotometric assays showed that the extracted materials posses strong band in the range between 250-300 nm which confirm the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. The concentration of these materials were different depending on the type pf plant seeds and the solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant and antihaemolytic activities of the extracts were determined by 1, 1-dipheny1-2picry1-hydeazy1 (DPPH) method, and red blood cells (RBCs) haemolysis test. Results of these extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities depending on the origin of plant extracts. (Author's) 23 refs., 4 Tabs., 1fig

  3. 134Cs in heather seed plants grown with and without mycorrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, M.; Johansson, M.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine differences between mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized seed plants of heather, Calluna vulgaris(L)Hull, as regards the uptake of 134 Cs. In most treatments heather with mycorrhiza had a significantly higher transfer of 134 Cs to the shoots than heather without mycorrhiza. As an average the concentration of 134 Cs was 18% higher in the mycorrhized plants than in the non-mycorrhized. Application of 10 kg K/ha reduced the concentration of 134 Cs in shoots of heather by 49% as an average. Because of improved growth in the potassium fertilized pots the reduction viewed on the basis of the area was only 33%. Nitrogen application does not significantly influence the concentration of 134 Cs in shoots of heather regardless of mycorrhizal status. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  5. {sup 134}Cs in heather seed plants grown with and without mycorrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, M. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Johansson, M. [Department of Mycology, Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oester Farimagsgade 2D, DK-1353 Copenhagen K. (Denmark)

    1988-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine differences between mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized seed plants of heather, Calluna vulgaris(L)Hull, as regards the uptake of {sup 134}Cs. In most treatments heather with mycorrhiza had a significantly higher transfer of {sup 134}Cs to the shoots than heather without mycorrhiza. As an average the concentration of {sup 134}Cs was 18% higher in the mycorrhized plants than in the non-mycorrhized. Application of 10 kg K/ha reduced the concentration of {sup 134}Cs in shoots of heather by 49% as an average. Because of improved growth in the potassium fertilized pots the reduction viewed on the basis of the area was only 33%. Nitrogen application does not significantly influence the concentration of {sup 134}Cs in shoots of heather regardless of mycorrhizal status. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars.

  7. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  8. Gene Duplication Leads to Altered Membrane Topology of a Cytochrome P450 Enzyme in Seed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Hugues; De Marothy, Minttu; Jonasson, Gabriella; Lara, Patricia; Nelson, David R; Nilsson, IngMarie; André, François; von Heijne, Gunnar; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2017-08-01

    Evolution of the phenolic metabolism was critical for the transition of plants from water to land. A cytochrome P450, CYP73, with cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activity, catalyzes the first plant-specific and rate-limiting step in this pathway. The CYP73 gene is absent from green algae, and first detected in bryophytes. A CYP73 duplication occurred in the ancestor of seed plants and was retained in Taxaceae and most angiosperms. In spite of a clear divergence in primary sequence, both paralogs can fulfill comparable cinnamate hydroxylase roles both in vitro and in vivo. One of them seems dedicated to the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. Its N-terminus forms a single membrane spanning helix and its properties and length are highly constrained. The second is characterized by an elongated and variable N-terminus, reminiscent of ancestral CYP73s. Using as proxies the Brachypodium distachyon proteins, we show that the elongation of the N-terminus does not result in an altered subcellular localization, but in a distinct membrane topology. Insertion in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum via a double-spanning open hairpin structure allows reorientation to the lumen of the catalytic domain of the protein. In agreement with participation to a different functional unit and supramolecular organization, the protein displays modified heme proximal surface. These data suggest the evolution of divergent C4H enzymes feeding different branches of the phenolic network in seed plants. It shows that specialization required for retention of gene duplicates may result from altered protein topology rather than change in enzyme activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  10. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study

  11. Protein import into chloroplasts requires a chloroplast ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, D.; Blobel, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have transcribed mRNA from a cDNA clone coding for pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, translated the mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system, and studied the energy requirement for posttranslational import of the [ 35 S]methionine-labeled protein into the stroma of pea chloroplasts. They found that import depends on ATP hydrolysis within the stroma. Import is not inhibited when H + , K + , Na + , or divalent cation gradients across the chloroplast membranes are dissipated by ionophores, as long as exogenously added ATP is also present during the import reaction. The data suggest that protein import into the chloroplast stroma requires a chloroplast ATPase that does not function to generate a membrane potential for driving the import reaction but that exerts its effect in another, yet-to-be-determined, mode. They have carried out a preliminary characterization of this ATPase regarding its nucleotide specificity and the effects of various ATPase inhibitors

  12. Action of illuminating gas on plants. I. Action of the gas on the germination of spores and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiimer, C

    1917-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of coal gas on plants. Results indicate that anaerobic fungi can grow even in undiluted gas and cress seeds (Lepidium sativum) remain alive for weeks in undiluted gas, but the seeds can germinate normally if the gas is diluted 5 times its volume of air. However, if the gas is passed through the soil in which the seeds have been placed, they will not germinate. If water is added to the soil, germination can proceed normally. The chemicals of coal gas which affects plants include sulfur compounds, benzene and ethylene. Carbon monoxide is also a prime constituent of coal gas, but it has no affect on plants.

  13. Studies on cannabis. III. Young plants from the seed irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays for inhibiting their development after seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, H; Kuriyama, E; Tomizawa, A [Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan)

    1976-01-01

    The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of ..gamma..-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of ..gamma..-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of ..gamma..-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component.

  14. Impacts of high ATP supply from chloroplasts and mitochondria on the leaf metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the major ATP producing organelles in plant leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2 is a phosphatase dually targeted to the outer membranes of both organelles and it plays a role in the import of selected nuclear-encoded proteins into these two organelles. Overexpression (OE of AtPAP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana accelerates plant growth and promotes flowering, seed yield and biomass at maturity. Measurement of ADP/ATP/NADP+/NADPH contents in the leaves of 20-day-old OE and wild-type lines at the end of night and at 1 and 8 h following illumination in a 16/8 h photoperiod revealed that the ATP levels and ATP/NADPH ratios were significantly increased in the OE line at all three time points. The AtPAP2 OE line is therefore a good model to investigate the impact of high energy on the global molecular status of Arabidopsis. In this study, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the high ATP transgenic line were examined and compared with those of wild-type plants. A comparison of OE and WT at the end of the night provide valuable information on the impact of higher ATP output from mitochondria on plant physiology, as mitochondrial respiration is the major source of ATP in the dark in leaves. Similarly, comparison of OE and WT following illumination will provide information on the impact of higher energy output from chloroplasts on plant physiology. Overexpression of AtPAP2 was found to significantly affect the transcript and protein abundances of genes encoded by the two organellar genomes. For example, the protein abundances of many ribosomal proteins encoded by the chloroplast genome were higher in the AtPAP2 OE line under both light and dark conditions, while the protein abundances of multiple components of the photosynthetic complexes were lower. RNA-seq data also showed that the transcription of the mitochondrial genome is greatly affected by the availability of energy. These data

  15. Planting nonlocal seed sources of loblolly pine - managing benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem Lambeth; Steve Mckeand; Randy Rousseau; Ron Schmidtling

    2005-01-01

    Seed source testing of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which began in the 1920s, has allowed large realized genetic gains from using nonlocal seed sources in operational plantations. Seed source testing continues, and deployment guidlines are being refined. some general effects of seed source movement can be described, but there are still gaps in (1)...

  16. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  17. Regulation of Chloroplastic Carbonic Anhydrase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael A.; Grodzinski, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    It was previously reported that magnesium ion inhibited carbonic anhydrase (Bamberger and Avron 1975 Plant Physiol 56: 481-485). Studies with partially purified carbonic anhydrase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts show that the effect was the result of the chloride counterion and not the magnesium ion. Enzyme activity was reduced 50% upon addition of 3 to 10 millimolar MgCl2 or KCl while all additions of MgSO4 between 0.3 and 10 millimolar were mildly stimulatory. PMID:16663052

  18. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemanzyk, Thomas; Anding, Katharina; Linss, Gerhard; Hernández, Jorge Rodriguez; Theska, René

    2015-01-01

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values

  19. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, Elisabeth Pawindé; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95...... of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85......Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi...

  20. Nucleic acids in mummified plant seeds: screening of twelve specimens by gel-electrophoresis, molecular hybridization and DNA cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, F; La Marca, A; Amici, A

    1987-02-01

    Twelve seed specimens of varying ages and from different archaeological sites were analyzed for the presence of polymerized DNA and RNA. Amongst the samples tested, one of Vitis vinifera from an archaeological site in Iran (2,000-3,000 B.C.) was found to be completely devoid of nucleic acids. Zea mais seeds of Precolumbial age from Peru (about 800 A.D.) contained depolymerized DNA and RNA. Samples of Vitis vinifera and Rubus sp. from a Lombard archaeological site (800 A.D.) as well as radiocarbon dated seeds from the site of the "Spring Sanctuary" near Metaponto (I-IV century B.C.) were found to contain polymerized DNA and rRNA bands. However the electrophoretic properties of the rRNAs in one case and hybridization experiments performed with cloned seed DNA in the other, clearly demonstrated that the polymerized nucleic acids were not of plant origin.

  1. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  2. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  3. Influence of orimulsion ashes on germinating power of seeds of cultured plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankevicius, K.; Juskenas, R.; Klimantaviciute, M. G.; Salkauskas, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation on dissolution of orimulsion ashes, which contain MgSO 4 6H 2 0, and Ca 0.17 V 2 O 5 as well as nickel and iron, in water and acidic and basic water solution was fulfilled. Exothermic solubility in water reaches 18 % and such a saturated green or yellow solution (pH - 2,7) contains 0,3 mol/l of vanadium and 0,1 mol/l nickel. 4 % sodium hydroxide solution convert orimulsion ashes to gel, but 20 % sulfuric acid dissolve up to - 20 (a brown solution). Small quantities of water convert orimulsion ashes to a solid substance. The non-soluble part of orimulsion ashes consists of Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 2 O 3 which can be used as cheep pigments for paints. The bio testing method was used to estimate the toxic effects of orimulsion ashes from Elektrenai Electric Power Plant in Lithuania. It was established that 0,005% aqueous solution of orimulsion ashes stimulates the sprouting of wheat, rye and vetch seeds. Therefore, it is supposed that orimulsion ashes may be used as additives to fertilizers containing microelements. It was found that 0,5 % aqueous solution of orimulsion ashes inhibits the sprouting of wheat, rye and vetch seeds. (author)

  4. Influence of planting date on seed protein oil sugars minerals and nitrogen metabolism in soybean under irrigated and non-irrigated enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, o...

  5. Recurring off-types in lettuce: Their significance in plant breeding and seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxon Smith, J W

    1977-03-01

    The lettuce cv. Valentine regularly produces non-heading off-type plants at the relatively high frequency of 4 × 10(-3). They result from mutation to the dominant condition. A similar propensity has been reported twice before in lettuce; it is highly heritable.The propensity to produce off-types was not present in the parents of Valentine so it must have arisen during the pedigree breeding programme. Closely related cultivars do not carry the character but it was subsequently transmitted to Dandie a new cultivar of which Valentine was one of the parents. Allelism tests to relate Valentine off-types to those in crisphead cultivars were not successful.The elimination of off-types in breeding programmes is discussed. Contrary to the findings in day-neutral crisphead cultivars, mutant phenotypes in long-day butterhead cultivars have no selective advantage for seed production. Consequently, strict roguing ensures adequate varietal stability.

  6. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  7. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Gamma irradiation on canola seeds affects herbivore-plant and host-parasitoid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akandeh, M.; Kocheili, F.; Rasekh, A.; Soufbaf, M.

    2017-01-01

    As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P. xylostella were examined for the potential indirect effects of canola seed irradiation on the experimental insects' performance when acting on the respective mutant lines. This study showed that physical mutation did not affect plant nitrogen and herbivore-damaged total phenolics; however, phenolic compounds showed greater concentration in damaged leaves than undamaged leaves of both mutant and control plants. The relative growth rate and pupal weight of P. xylostella reared on RGS 8-1 were significantly higher than those reared on the control RGS. There was no significant difference by performance parameters of the parasitoid, C. vestalis, including total pre-oviposition period, adult longevity, adult fresh body weight of males and females, pupal weight, forewing area, and total longevity of both sexes on tested canola cultivars in comparison with their mutant lines. Life table parameters of C. vestalis on mutant lines of both cultivars, RGS and Talaye, were not significantly different from their control treatments. Comprehensive studies should be conducted to find out the mechanisms under which gamma rays affect plant-insect interactions. (author)

  9. Gamma irradiation on canola seeds affects herbivore-plant and host-parasitoid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akandeh, M.; Kocheili, F.; Rasekh, A. [Dept. of Entomology, Shahid Chamran Univ of Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufbaf, M., E-mail: msoufbaf@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P. xylostella were examined for the potential indirect effects of canola seed irradiation on the experimental insects' performance when acting on the respective mutant lines. This study showed that physical mutation did not affect plant nitrogen and herbivore-damaged total phenolics; however, phenolic compounds showed greater concentration in damaged leaves than undamaged leaves of both mutant and control plants. The relative growth rate and pupal weight of P. xylostella reared on RGS 8-1 were significantly higher than those reared on the control RGS. There was no significant difference by performance parameters of the parasitoid, C. vestalis, including total pre-oviposition period, adult longevity, adult fresh body weight of males and females, pupal weight, forewing area, and total longevity of both sexes on tested canola cultivars in comparison with their mutant lines. Life table parameters of C. vestalis on mutant lines of both cultivars, RGS and Talaye, were not significantly different from their control treatments. Comprehensive studies should be conducted to find out the mechanisms under which gamma rays affect plant-insect interactions. (author)

  10. Extending the biosynthetic repertoires of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo; Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplasts found in plants and algae, and photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, are emerging hosts for sustainable production of valuable biochemicals, using only inorganic nutrients, water, CO2 and light as inputs. In the past decade, many bioengineering efforts have focused...... on metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in the chloroplast or in cyanobacteria for the production of fuels, chemicals, as well as complex, high-value bioactive molecules. Biosynthesis of all these compounds can be performed in photosynthetic organelles/organisms by heterologous expression...... of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria as biosynthetic compartments and hosts, and we estimate the production levels to be expected from photosynthetic hosts in light of the fraction of electrons and carbon that can potentially be diverted from photosynthesis. The supply of reducing power, in the form of electrons...

  11. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  12. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  13. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-11-01

    MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11-14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14-16 Type II MADS-box genes. The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS-box genes for the development of gymnosperms. This study is

  14. Study on the effect of x-ray irradiation of seed on zinc uptake in maize (Zea Mays L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gargi; Singh, K.P.; Joshi, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiations by X-rays at the two dose levels (1.1 KR and 2.2 KR) of seeds on uptake of zinc ion in maize (Zea Mays L.) plants were studied. The uptake and internal distribution of zinc ion in the maize plants was carried out by incorporating radioactive zinc as zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) in the nutrient solution to the plants. The localization and translocation of radioactive zinc was studied employing phosphor imaging systems (FX). The radioactivity measurement has been carried out using solid scintillation counter. It was observed that zinc ions uptake was higher in plants out of 2.2 KR X-rays irradiated seeds. (author)

  15. Optimization of mutant recovery from plants obtained from gamma-radiated seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klu, J. Y. P.; Harten, A. M. van

    2000-01-01

    Dry seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC) cvs UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were treated with acute radiation doses of 150 Gy and 250 Gy at a dose rate of 737.32 Gy/hr from a Cobalt-60 gamma source for studies in optimisation of mutant selection in M 2 and M 3 populations. Mature dry pods were harvested at four different locations on each M 1 plant viz. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 metres from the ground. M 2 seedlings were screened for different groups of chlorophyll deficiencies and their frequencies. Reduction in chlorophyll mutation frequency from the first formed seeds to the latest ones within the M 1 pods has been observed for both cultivars studied. The high degree of chimerism recorded in the M 2 seedlings present in the first-formed seeds in the M 1 pods provides a clear indication that these seeds constitute a zone from which seeds for the M 2 generation have to be harvested in order to give the highest probability for obtaining different types of mutants. On the other hand, significant differences in mutation frequency were not obtained in M 2 seedlings from pods harvested at the various positions on the M 1 plants. M 1 pods can be harvested at any height on the M 1 plants but is preferable to use the earliest mature ones to save time and labour. The zones identified on M 1 plants in this investigation coupled with the use of the 'spare' or 'remnant' seed selection method, should provide an improved method for mutation breeding in a viny legume like the winged bean. (au)

  16. Comparison of cotton square and boll damage and resulting lint and seed loss caused by verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retention of bolls and squares (referred to as fruit retention), boll damage, and resulting cotton lint and seed weight loss were assessed when two (2010) and three (2011) age classes of sympodial fruiting branches with different ages of squares and bolls where exposed to verde plant bug, Creontiade...

  17. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  18. Applying the seedling-emergence method under waterlogged conditions to detect the seed bank of aquatic plants in submerged sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedeltje, G; ter Heerdt, GNJ; Bakker, JP

    Seed bank studies focused on submerged aquatic plants are generally performed under submerged conditions, using the seedling-emergence method. However, if a study targets at both submerged species and helophytes, submerged conditions are generally not suitable. We tested the emergence of seedlings

  19. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  20. Environmental filtering drives the shape and breadth of the seed germination niche in coastal plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo; Pérez-Arcoiza, Adrián; Prieto, José Alberto; Díaz, Tomás E

    2017-05-01

    A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the seed germination niche was conducted in coastal plant communities of western Europe. Two hypotheses were tested, that (1) the germination niche shape (i.e. the preference for a set of germination cues as opposed to another) would differ between beaches and cliffs to prevent seedling emergence in the less favourable season (winter and summer, respectively); and (2) the germination niche breadth (i.e. the amplitude of germination cues) would be narrower in the seawards communities, where environmental filtering is stronger. Seeds of 30 specialist species of coastal plant communities were collected in natural populations of northern Spain. Their germination was measured in six laboratory treatments based on field temperatures. Germination niche shape was estimated as the best germination temperature. Germination niche breadth was calculated using Pielou's evenness index. Differences between plant communities in their germination niche shape and breadth were tested using phylogenetic generalized least squares regression (PGLS). Germination niche shape differed between communities, being warm-cued in beaches (best germination temperature = 20 °C) and cold-cued in cliffs (14 °C). Germination niche was narrowest in seawards beaches (Pielou's index = 0·89) and broadest in landwards beaches (0·99). Cliffs had an intermediate germination niche breadth (0·95). The relationship between niche and plant community had a positive phylogenetic signal for shape (Pagel's λ = 0·64) and a negative one for breadth (Pagel's λ = -1·71). Environmental filters shape the germination niche to prevent emergence in the season of highest threat for seedling establishment. The germination niche breadth is narrower in the communities with stronger environmental filters, but only in beaches. This study provides empirical support to a community-level generalization of the hypotheses about the environmental drivers of the germination

  1. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  2. The evolution of blue-greens and the origins of chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. M.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1981-01-01

    All of the available molecular data support the theory that the chloroplasts of eukaryote cells were originally free-living blue-greens. Of great interest is what the relationships are between contemporary types of blue-greens and eukaryote chloroplasts and whether the chloroplasts of the various eukaryotes are the result of one or more than one symbiosis. By combining information from phylogenetic trees based on cytochrome c6 and 2Fe-2S ferredoxin sequences, it is shown that the chloroplasts of a number of eukaryote algae as well as the protist Euglena are polyphyletic; the chloroplasts of green algae and the higher plants may be the result of a single symbiosis.

  3. Oryza sativa Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle 43 (OscpSRP43 Is Required for Chloroplast Development and Photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-guang Lv

    Full Text Available A rice chlorophyll-deficient mutant w67 was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS-induced IR64 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica mutant bank. The mutant exhibited a distinct yellow-green leaf phenotype in the whole plant growth duration with significantly reduced levels of chlorophyll and carotenoid, impaired chloroplast development and lowered capacity of photosynthesis compared with the wild-type IR64. Expression of a number of genes associated with chlorophyll metabolism, chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis was significantly altered in the mutant. Genetic analysis indicated that the yellow-green phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene located on the short arm of chromosome 3. Using map-based strategy, the mutation was isolated and predicted to encode a chloroplast signal recognition particle 43 KD protein (cpSRP43 with 388 amino acid residuals. A single base substitution from A to T at position 160 resulted in a premature stop codon. OscpSRP43 was constitutively expressed in various organs with the highest level in the leaf. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype and subcellular localization showed that the cpSRP43:GFP fusion protein was targeted to the chloroplast. The data suggested that Oryza sativa cpSRP43 (OscpSRP43 was required for the normal development of chloroplasts and photosynthesis in rice.

  4. Seed dispersal as an ecosystem service: frugivore loss leads to decline of a socially valued plant, Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Monika H; Fricke, Evan C; Rogers, Haldre S

    2018-04-01

    Species interactions, both mutualistic and antagonistic, are widely recognized as providing important ecosystem services. Fruit-eating animals influence plant recruitment by increasing germination during gut passage and moving seeds away from conspecifics. However, relative to studies focused on the importance of frugivores for plant population maintenance, few studies target frugivores as ecosystem service providers, and frugivores are underappreciated as ecosystem service providers relative to other mutualists such as pollinators. Here, we use an accidental experiment to elucidate the role of seed dispersal by frugivores for maintaining a culturally and economically important plant, the donne' sali chili (Capsicum frutescens) in the Mariana Islands. One of the islands (Guam) has lost nearly all of its native forest birds due to an invasive snake (Boiga irregularis), whereas nearby islands have relatively intact bird populations. We hypothesized that frugivore loss would influence chili recruitment and abundance, which could have economic and cultural impacts. By using video cameras, we confirmed that birds were the primary seed dispersers. We used captive bird feeding trials to obtain gut-passed seeds to use in a seedling emergence experiment. The experiment showed that gut-passed seeds emerged sooner and at a higher proportion than seeds from whole fruits. Consistent with our findings that birds benefit chilies, we observed lower chili abundance on Guam than on islands with birds. In a survey questionnaire of island residents, the majority of residents reported an association between the wild chili and local cultural values and traditions. In addition, we identified a thriving market for chili products, suggesting benefits of wild chilies to people in the Marianas both as consumers and producers. Our study therefore documents seed dispersal as both a cultural and a supporting ecosystem service. We provide a comprehensive case study on how seed-dispersed plants

  5. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  6. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  7. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  8. Expression of the Native Cholera Toxin B Subunit Gene and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Transgenic Tobacco Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Lee, Seung-Bum; Panchal, Tanvi; Wiebe, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    The B subunits of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LTB) and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae (CTB) are candidate vaccine antigens. Integration of an unmodified CTB-coding sequence into chloroplast genomes (up to 10,000 copies per cell), resulted in the accumulation of up to 4.1% of total soluble tobacco leaf protein as functional oligomers (410-fold higher expression levels than that of the unmodified LTB gene expressed via the nuclear genome). However, expresssion levels reported are an underestimation of actual accumulation of CTB in transgenic chloroplasts, due to aggregation of the oligomeric forms in unboiled samples similar to the aggregation observed for purified bacterial antigen. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of the CTB gene into the chloroplast genome. Western blot analysis showed that the chloroplast-synthesized CTB assembled into oligomers and were antigenically identical with purified native CTB. Also, binding assays confirmed that chloroplast- synthesized CTB binds to the intestinal membrane GM1-ganglioside receptor, indicating correct folding and disulfide bond formation of CTB pentamers within transgenic chloroplasts. In contrast to stunted nuclear transgenic plants, chloroplast transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from untransformed plants, when CTB was constitutively expressed in chloroplasts. Introduced genes were inherited stably in subsequent generations, as confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Increased production of an efficient transmucosal carrier molecule and delivery system, like CTB, in transgenic chloroplasts makes plant-based oral vaccines and fusion proteins with CTB needing oral administration commercially feasible. Successful expression of foreign genes in transgenic chromoplasts and availability of marker-free chloroplast transformation techniques augurs well for development of vaccines in edible parts of transgenic plants. Furthermore, since the quaternary structure of

  9. Storage on maternal plants affects light and temperature on requirements during germination in two small seeded halophytes in the arabian deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Gairola, S.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds are either stored in a soil seed bank or retained on maternal plants until they are released (aerial seed bank). Though there are extensive studies on the germination requirements of seeds in soil banks of saline habitats, studies conducted for halophytes with aerial seed banks are rare. We assessed the impact of aerial and room-temperature storages on the light and temperature requirements during germination in two small-seeded halophytes: Halocnmum strobilaceum having a short-term aerial seed bank (less than one year) and Halopeplis perfoliata having a longer term aerial seed bank (up to two years). Seed storage in the aerial bank reduced the germination in H. strobilaceum, but either increased it (5-months storage) or had no effect (17-months storage) in H. perfoliata. Seeds of both species that were stored in aerial bank germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, indicating that considerable portions of the seed populations are light sensitive. Seeds of H. perfoliata attained less than 5.0 percentage germination in darkness at higher temperatures, compared to more than 90.0 percentage in light. The results support the hypothesis that the aerial seed bank is an adaptive strategy for survival in the saline habitats of the two species. (author)

  10. Stability of the stimulatory effect of preirradiation of agricultural plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seregina, M.T.; Orlov, V.V.; Batygin, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Three interrelated and interdependent factors are responsible for stability of the results obtained with preirradiation of seeds, they are: quality of seeds to be sowed, irradiation schedule and postirradiation conditions. Should these factors be taken into account one can obtain a stable stimulatory effect. The harvest increments make 10-30% after preirradiation of air-dry seeds

  11. Seed-bank structure and plant-recruitment conditions regulate the dynamics of a grassland-shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-de Las Heras, Mariano; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-09-01

    Large areas of desert grasslands in the southwestern United States have shifted to sparse shrublands dominated by drought-tolerant woody species over the last 150 yr, accompanied by accelerated soil erosion. An important step toward the understanding of patterns in species dominance and vegetation change at desert grassland-shrubland transitions is the study of environmental limitations imposed by the shrub-encroachment phenomenon on plant establishment. Here, we analyze the structure of soil seed banks, environmental limitations for seed germination (i.e., soil-water availability and temperature), and simulated seedling emergence and early establishment of dominant species (black grama, Bouteloua eriopoda, and creosotebush, Larrea tridentata) across a Chihuahuan grassland-shrubland ecotone (Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA). Average viable seed density in soils across the ecotone is generally low (200-400 seeds/m 2 ), although is largely concentrated in densely vegetated areas (with peaks up to 800-1,200 seeds/m 2 in vegetated patches). Species composition in the seed bank is strongly affected by shrub encroachment, with seed densities of grass species sharply decreasing in shrub-dominated sites. Environmental conditions for seed germination and seedling emergence are synchronized with the summer monsoon. Soil-moisture conditions for seedling establishment of B. eriopoda take place with a recurrence interval ranging between 5 and 8 yr for grassland and shrubland sites, respectively, and are favored by strong monsoonal precipitation. Limited L. tridentata seed dispersal and a narrow range of rainfall conditions for early seedling establishment (50-100 mm for five to six consecutive weeks) constrain shrub-recruitment pulses to localized and episodic decadal events (9-25 yr recurrence intervals) generally associated with late-summer rainfall. Re-establishment of B. eriopoda in areas now dominated by L. tridentata is strongly limited by the

  12. A Conserved Cytochrome P450 Evolved in Seed Plants Regulates Flower Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Boachon, Benoît; Lugan, Raphaël; Tavares, Raquel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Demais, Valérie; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Brunaud, Véronique; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Pencik, Ales; Achard, Patrick; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2015-12-07

    Global inspection of plant genomes identifies genes maintained in low copies across taxa and under strong purifying selection, which are likely to have essential functions. Based on this rationale, we investigated the function of the low-duplicated CYP715 cytochrome P450 gene family that appeared early in seed plants and evolved under strong negative selection. Arabidopsis CYP715A1 showed a restricted tissue-specific expression in the tapetum of flower buds and in the anther filaments upon anthesis. cyp715a1 insertion lines showed a strong defect in petal development, and transient alteration of pollen intine deposition. Comparative expression analysis revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in pollen development, cell wall biogenesis, hormone homeostasis, and floral sesquiterpene biosynthesis, especially TPS21 and several key genes regulating floral development such as MYB21, MYB24, and MYC2. Accordingly, floral sesquiterpene emission was suppressed in the cyp715a1 mutants. Flower hormone profiling, in addition, indicated a modification of gibberellin homeostasis and a strong disturbance of the turnover of jasmonic acid derivatives. Petal growth was partially restored by the active gibberellin GA3 or the functional analog of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, coronatine. CYP715 appears to function as a key regulator of flower maturation, synchronizing petal expansion and volatile emission. It is thus expected to be an important determinant of flower-insect interaction. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Neurological syndromes linked with the intake of plants and fungi containing a toxic component (I). Neurotoxic syndromes caused by the ingestion of plants, seeds and fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    A wide range of plants, seeds and fruits used for nutritional and medicinal purposes can give rise to neurotoxic symptoms. We review the neurological pathology associated with the acute or chronic consumption of plants, seeds and fruits in human beings and in animals. Of the plants that can trigger acute neurotoxic syndromes in humans, some of the most notable include Mandragora officinalis, Datura stramonium, Conium maculatum (hemlock), Coriaria myrtifolia (redoul), Ricinus communis, Gloriosa superba, Catharanthus roseus, Karwinskia humboldtiana and Podophyllum pelatum. We also survey different neurological syndromes linked with the ingestion of vegetable foodstuffs that are rich in cyanogenic glycosides, Jamaican vomiting sickness caused by Blighia sapida, Parkinson dementia ALS of Guam island and exposition to Cycas circinalis, Guadeloupean parkinsonism and exposition to Annonaceae, konzo caused by ingestion of wild manioc and neurolathyrism from ingestion of Lathyrus sativus, the last two being models of motor neurone disease. Locoism is a chronic disease that develops in livestock feeding on plants belonging to Astragalus and Oxytropis sp., Sida carpinifolia and Ipomea carnea, which are rich in swainsonine, a toxin that inhibits the enzyme alpha mannosidase and induces a cerebellar syndrome. The ingestion of neurotoxic seeds, fruits and plants included in the diet and acute poisoning by certain plants can give rise to different neurological syndromes, some of which are irreversible.

  14. Contribution to the study of the effect of a low dose of gamma irradiation on seeds and tubers before planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvy, A.

    1968-01-01

    From 1962 to 1965, 25 tests have been made with carrots (1 variety), radish (3 varieties), spinach (2 var.), tomatoes (2 var.), potatoes (2 var.), barley (2 var.), rice (3 var.) and corn (1 var.), with the object of studying the interest for agriculture of seed and tuber gamma irradiation at low dose before planting. These tests were made in the laboratory, in greenhouses and in the open field, all necessary care being taken for a valuable statistical analysis of- the results. Special attention was paid to the homogeneity of plant material by controlling more particularly moisture content of seeds and the storage conditions of tubers. The observations concerned germination, growth at early stages, development phases and yield of leaves, roots and fruit. Some stimulation cases are observed. For tomatoes, it is found that stimulation cases occur at extreme moisture content and not in the range of mean moisture content which corresponds to maximum radioresistance. The demonstration of these effects is related to varieties, complementary treatments, conditions of cultivation and observation criteria. In most cases, they are short-lived and suitable modifications of seed conditioning produce, upon controls, an effect equivalent to that of irradiation. In conclusion, it seems very unlikely - considering our cultivation methods - that seed and tuber irradiation before planting could be of interest for agriculture. (authors) [fr

  15. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  16. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  17. Extending the biosynthetic repertoires of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Perestrello Ramos H de Jesus, Maria; King, Brian Christopher; Bakowski, Kamil; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-07-01

    Chloroplasts in plants and algae and photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria are emerging hosts for sustainable production of valuable biochemicals, using only inorganic nutrients, water, CO2 and light as inputs. In the past decade, many bioengineering efforts have focused on metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in the chloroplast or in cyanobacteria for the production of fuels, chemicals and complex, high-value bioactive molecules. Biosynthesis of all these compounds can be performed in photosynthetic organelles/organisms by heterologous expression of the appropriate pathways, but this requires optimization of carbon flux and reducing power, and a thorough understanding of regulatory pathways. Secretion or storage of the compounds produced can be exploited for the isolation or confinement of the desired compounds. In this review, we explore the use of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria as biosynthetic compartments and hosts, and we estimate the levels of production to be expected from photosynthetic hosts in light of the fraction of electrons and carbon that can potentially be diverted from photosynthesis. The supply of reducing power, in the form of electrons derived from the photosynthetic light reactions, appears to be non-limiting, but redirection of the fixed carbon via precursor molecules presents a challenge. We also discuss the available synthetic biology tools and the need to expand the molecular toolbox to facilitate cellular reprogramming for increased production yields in both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  19. Protein import into chloroplasts requires a chloroplast ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, D.; Blobel, G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have transcribed mRNA from a cDNA clone coding for pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, translated the mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system, and studied the energy requirement for posttranslational import of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled protein into the stroma of pea chloroplasts. They found that import depends on ATP hydrolysis within the stroma. Import is not inhibited when H/sup +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, or divalent cation gradients across the chloroplast membranes are dissipated by ionophores, as long as exogenously added ATP is also present during the import reaction. The data suggest that protein import into the chloroplast stroma requires a chloroplast ATPase that does not function to generate a membrane potential for driving the import reaction but that exerts its effect in another, yet-to-be-determined, mode. They have carried out a preliminary characterization of this ATPase regarding its nucleotide specificity and the effects of various ATPase inhibitors.

  20. First-year plant density of seeded vegetation on amended lead-zinc chat tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norland, M.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Mining of lead and zinc sulfides began in the Kansas portion of the Tri-State Mining District in 1976 and continued until the 1950s when a decrease in the demand for lead and zinc forced operations to shut down. As a result of this shallow underground mining, chat tailing and other mine wastes were deposited on the soil surface or as mine waste piles. In 1983, the U.S. EPA added 285 km of Cherokee County, Kansas, to the National Priorities List due to the risks to human health and the environment by heavy metal contamination. In 1985, the EPA declared the Cherokee County portion of the Tri-State District to be a Superfund Site and began remedial action investigations at the Galena, Kansas subsite. The Bureau of Mines is evaluating site stabilization techniques in Galena, to minimize wind and water erosion, infiltration and percolation through the mine wastes. Vegetation and the use of locally available organic wastes are being tested as site stabilization techniques. A 4x3x3 factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block was initiated in 1990. Four organic waste materials (composted yard waste, composted cattle manure, spent mushroom compost and turkey litter) were applied with inorganic fertilizer. Control plots were included in the design. A total of 39 combinations were assigned to 2.5 by 4 m test plots at random and each combination was replicated three times. All experimental plots were seeded with a mix of introduced or native and cool or warm season grasses and leguminous forbs. First-year results of this long-term study suggest that the type of organic waste material used as a soil amendment has a significant effect on first-year plant density. Applications of composted cattle manure, composted yard waste and spent mushroom compost resulted in mean plant densities of 90, 83 and 76 plants M-2 which are significantly higher than the mean plant density of control plots and plots amended with turkey litter, 37 and 21 plants M-2

  1. Three cycles of water deficit from seed to young plants of Moringa oleifera woody species improves stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mauro G

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess whether recurring water stress occurring from seed germination to young plants of Moringa oleifera Lam. are able to mitigate the drought stress effects. Germination, gas exchange and biochemical parameters were analysed after three cycles of water deficit. Young plants were used 50 days after germination under three osmotic potentials (0.0, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa). For each germination treatment, control (irrigated) and stressed (10% of water control) plants were compared for a total of six treatments. There were two cycles of drought interspersed with 10 days of rehydration. The young plants of M. oleifera showed increased tolerance to repeated cycles of drought, maintaining high relative water content (RWC), high water use efficiency (WUE), increased photosynthetic pigments and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. There was rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate during the rehydration period. The stressed plants from the -0.3 and -0.4 MPa treatments showed higher tolerance compared to the control plants. The results suggest that seeds of M. oleifera subjected to mild water deficit have had increased the ability for drought tolerance when young plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal dynamics of the plant community and soil seed bank along a successional gradient in a subalpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge about how change the importance of soil seed bank and relationship between seed mass and abundance during vegetation succession is crucial for understanding vegetation dynamics. Many studies have been conducted, but their ecological mechanisms of community assembly are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We examined the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation and soil seed bank as well as seed size distribution along a successional gradient. We also explored the potential role of the soil seed bank in plant community regeneration, the relationship between seed mass and species abundance, and the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes along a successional gradient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness of seed bank increased (shallow layer and the total and seed density decreased (each layer and the total significantly with succession. Species richness and seed density differed significantly between different seasons and among soil depths. Seed mass showed a significant negative relationship with relative abundance in the earliest successional stage, but the relationships were not significant in later stages. Seed mass showed no relationship with relative abundance in the whole successional series in seed bank. Results were similar for both July 2005 and April 2006. CONCLUSIONS: The seed mass and abundance relationship was determined by a complex interaction between small and larger seeded species and environmental factors. Both stochastic processes and deterministic processes were important determinants of the structure of the earliest stage. The importance of seed bank decreased with succession. The restoration of abandoned farmed and grazed meadows to the species-rich subalpine meadow in Tibetan Plateau can be successfully achieved from the soil seed bank. However, at least 20 years are required to fully restore an abandoned agricultural meadow to a natural mature subalpine meadow.

  3. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  4. Directed seed dispersal of Piper by Carollia perspicillata and its effect on understory plant diversity and folivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Kelm, Detlev H; Salazar, Diego

    2013-11-01

    Directed dispersal occurs when seeds are differentially deposited to sites where offspring survivorship is higher than at randomly chosen sites. Traditionally, characteristics of the dispersal target sites that could increase survivorship of the dispersed plants are thought to be intrinsic to the sites. If directed dispersal is constant over extended periods of time, however, it is likely that nonrandom patterns of dispersal could modify the ecological characteristics of the target site in ways that could increase survivorship and fitness of the dispersed plants. Here we report patterns of Piper diversity (richness, equitability, and similarity) and Piper folivory within plots near natural or artificial roosts of Carollia perspicillata vs. similar plots without bat roosts. Plots with bat roosts, both natural and artificial, had significantly higher Piper species diversity. Additionally, we found that plots with a higher Piper species diversity showed less specialist folivory, higher generalist folivory, and lower total herbivore leaf damage than plots with low Piper diversity. Finally, plots with bat roosts also showed less specialist folivory, lower generalist folivory, and lower total folivory when compared to plots without roosts. We propose that long-lasting nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal can change the local ecological characteristics of target sites via changes in plant diversity, and that these changes are likely to reduce the local rates of folivory and, therefore, increase seed and adult plant survivorship.

  5. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  6. Symbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium: fungal and bacterial partners and their influence on plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Zeng, Songjun; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V

    2015-07-01

    The genus Dendrobium is one of the largest genera of the Orchidaceae Juss. family, although some of its members are the most threatened today. The reason why many species face a vulnerable or endangered status is primarily because of anthropogenic interference in natural habitats and commercial overexploitation. The development and application of modern techniques and strategies directed towards in vitro propagation of orchids not only increases their number but also provides a viable means to conserve plants in an artificial environment, both in vitro and ex vitro, thus providing material for reintroduction. Dendrobium seed germination and propagation are challenging processes in vivo and in vitro, especially when the extreme specialization of these plants is considered: (1) their biotic relationships with pollinators and mycorrhizae; (2) adaptation to epiphytic or lithophytic life-styles; (3) fine-scale requirements for an optimal combination of nutrients, light, temperature, and pH. This review also aims to summarize the available data on symbiotic in vitro Dendrobium seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors as well as composition and amounts of different exogenous nutrient substances is examined. With a view to better understanding how to optimize and control in vitro symbiotic associations, a part of the review describes the strong biotic relations of Dendrobium with different associative microorganisms that form microbial communities with adult plants, and also influence symbiotic seed germination. The beneficial role of plant growth-promoting bacteria is also discussed.

  7. Studies on uptake and translocation of sulphur in oil seed rape plant using 35S tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Wang Xiaochang

    1995-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to investigate the uptake and translocation of 35 S in oil seed rape at different stages. The results showed that uptake of sulphur from soil by rape plant were 23.59%, 31.65% and 49.13% of sulphur applied at transplanting, bolting and flowering stage, respectively. About 40% of 35 S taken from soil was located in seeds for transplanting and flowering stage applying. About 20% of sulphur applied on top four leaves at various stages of growth was remained in labelled leaves and 21%∼23% was transported to pods with majority in branch pods. 40%∼60% of sulphur which was applied on surface of pods at lower stem at different time after flowering was remained in shell of labelled pods and 13%∼16.8% of that was transferred into seeds of labelled pods. Recoveries of labelled sulphur applied on pods from seeds of pods at branches were less than 10%. The transportation of 35 S from labelled sites to seeds of labelled pods and unlabelled pods was declined sharply as labelling was carried out at 6 weeks after flowering

  8. THE EFFECTS OF SEED SOAKING WITH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEEDLING VIGOR OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Irfan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed soaking with plant growth regulators (IAA, GA3, kinetin or prostart on wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Auqab-2000 emergence and seedling growth under normal (4 dS/cm and saline (15 dS/cm conditions were studied to determine their usefulness in increasing relative salt-tolerance. During emergence test, emergence percentage and mean emergence time (MET were significantly affected by most of priming treatments, however, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly increased by 25 ppm kinetin followed by 1% prostart for 2 h treatments under both normal and saline conditions. All pre-sowing seed treatments decreased the electrolyte leakage of steep water as compared to that of non-primed seeds even after 12 h of soaking. Seed soaking with 25 ppm kinetin induced maximum decrease in electrolyte leakage while an increase in electrolyte leakage was observed by 25, 50 or 100 ppm IAA treatments. It is concluded that priming has reduced the severity of the effect of salinity but the amelioration was better due to 25 ppm kinetin and 1% prostart (2 h treatments as these showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry weights under non-saline and saline conditions whereas seed soaking with IAA and GA3 were not effective in inducing salt tolerance under present experimental material and conditions.

  9. Nectar robbing, forager efficiency and seed set: Bumblebees foraging on the self incompatible plant Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane C.; Allen, John A.; Goulson, Dave

    2000-07-01

    In southern England, Linaria vulgaris (common yellow toadflax) suffers from high rates of nectar robbery by bumblebees. In a wild population of L. vulgaris we found that 96 % of open flowers were robbed. Five species of bumblebee were observed foraging on these flowers, although short-tongued species ( Bombus lapidarius, B. lucorum and B. terrestris) robbed nectar whilst longer-tongued ones behaved as legitimate pollinators ( B. hortorum and B. pascuorum). Nectar rewards were highly variable; on average there was less nectar in robbed than in unrobbed flowers, but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of flowers containing no nectar was significantly higher for robbed flowers compared with unrobbed flowers. Secondary robbers and legitimate pollinators had similar handling times on flowers and, assuming they select flowers at random to forage on, received approximately the same nectar profit per minute, largely because most flowers had been robbed. There was no significant difference in the number of seeds in pods of robbed flowers and in pods of flowers that were artificially protected against robbing. However, more of the robbed flowers set at least some seed than the unrobbed flowers, possibly as a consequence of the experimental manipulation. We suggest that nectar robbing has little effect on plant fecundity because legitimate foragers are present in the population, and that seed predation and seed abortion after fertilization may be more important factors in limiting seed production in this species.

  10. Growth and development of sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum L. Pers. plants at different terms of sowing and seeding depth in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. А. Герасименко

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article features the results of research on phenological observations, biometric parameters of growth and development of the plants of sugar sorghum Silosnoe 42 variety during the vegetation at different terms of sowing and seeding depth in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. In particular, we show data on ground germination capacity of the seeds, the duration of the interphase periods, tillering, plant height and the diameter of the stem. It was established that the planting of sugar sorghum in mid-May (the third sowing date to the seeding depth of 4...6 cm enabled better plant development, as well as in these conditions the maximum values of plant growth and development were registered compared to the other test editions. Therefore, were would suggest the third term of sowing and seed depth 4...6 cm for growing the crop in this area.

  11. Effect of two plant growth regulators and illumination conditions in the germination of conserved seeds of Clitoria ternatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Quintana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds viability lost in the seed legume bank of Research Institute of Pastures and Forages (IIPF led to the aim of the work it was to determine the effect of two plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid; GA3 and naphthalene acetic acid; ANA and illumination conditions on the germination of Clitoria ternatea SC-136 conserved seeds. One experiment was performed with two-factor completely randomized design with four replications Five different levels of growth regulators (factor A and two illumination conditions (factor B were evaluated. The variables measured were: total germination percentage (PTG and angular transformation, days to 50% PTG (G50 and the days between 10 and 90% PTG (G10-90. In addition, morphological variables were evaluated. It was found that the addition of plant growth regulators (GA3 and NAA was effective in increasing germination of Clitoria ternatea SC-136 conserved seeds, but not the illumination conditions tested. Combination GA3 (1 mg l-1 and NAA (0.1 mg l-1 to stimulate germination was recommended. Key words: GA3, germplasm, legume, NAA, photoperiod.

  12. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  13. Chloroplast genome evolution in early diverged leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. cinnamomea. In addition, putative RNA editing sites in the cp genome were rare in O. cinnamomea, even though the sites were frequently predicted to be present in leptosporangiate ferns. The complete cp genome sequence of Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniales) was 151,007 bp and has a 9.7 kb inversion between the trnL-CAA and trnVGCA genes when compared to O. cinnamomea. Several repeated sequences were detected around the inversion break points. The complete cp genome sequence of Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales) was 157,142 bp and a deletion of the rpoC1 intron was detected. This intron loss was shared by all of the studied species of the genus Lygodium. The GC contents and the effective numbers of codons (ENCs) in ferns varied significantly when compared to seed plants. The ENC values of the early diverged leptosporangiate ferns showed intermediate levels between eusporangiate and core leptosporangiate ferns. However, our phylogenetic tree based on all of the cp gene sequences clearly indicated that the cp genome similarity between O. cinnamomea (Osmundales) and eusporangiate ferns are symplesiomorphies, rather than synapomorphies. Therefore, our data is in agreement with the view that Osmundales is a distinct early diverged lineage in the leptosporangiate ferns.

  14. Development of seed separation techniques in magneto hydro dynamic power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagalakshmi, R; Balasubramanian, V [Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Tiruchirapalli (India); Pandey, S K [Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirapalli (India)

    1994-06-01

    Approximately 90% of potassium is recovered in the various magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) downstream components as spent-seed. In this work, countercurrent extraction process to recover water-soluble potassium from spent-seed is developed. Synthetic spent-seed solids were prepared at simulated MHD conditions. Different dissolution experiments at various process conditions to recover water-soluble/insoluble potassium from spent-seed are reported in this paper. Lime digestion and acid digestion options are suggested to recover water-insoluble potassium from spent-seed. 90% of potassium interacted with water-insoluble portion of the spent-seed. It was observed that 80% water-insoluble potassium could be recovered from acid leaching. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Chloroplasts activity and PAP-signaling regulate programmed cell death in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2016-01-09

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process both for plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. There is accumulating evidence that chloroplasts may play a central role during plant PCD as for mitochondria in animal cells, but it is still unclear whether they participate in PCD onset, execution, or both. To tackle this question, we have analyzed the contribution of chloroplast function to the cell death phenotype of the myoinositol phosphate synthase1 (mips1) mutant that forms spontaneous lesions in a light-dependent manner. We show that photosynthetically active chloroplasts are required for PCD to occur in mips1, but this process is independent of the redox state of the chloroplast. Systematic genetic analyses with retrograde signaling mutants reveal that 3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphate, a chloroplast retrograde signal that modulates nuclear gene expression in response to stress, can inhibit cell death and compromises plant innate immunity via inhibition of the RNA-processing 5’-3’ exoribonucleases. Our results provide evidence for the role of chloroplast-derived signal and RNA metabolism in the control of cell death and biotic stress response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Intermountain West Military Training Lands Planting Guide: Selecting Seed Mixtures for Actively Used Military Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the following rating system: 1 = Poor – difficult 2 = Fair 3 = Medium 4= Good 5 = Excellent – easy A = Annual – reproduction from seed S... Reproduction from seed V = Reproduction vegetative (rhizomes or stolons) and from seed The table uses the following abbreviations for vegetative...types to which the species is adapted: a. A = Aspen- conifer ; b. AW = Annual weed; c. BB = Blackbrush; d. BG = Black greasewood; e. BS

  17. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Felipe Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (− organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+ organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida. For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL. Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  18. Methodology for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growth and plant productivity stimulation, thought seeds irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro; Gonzalez Nunnez, Luis Manuel; Camejo Serrano, Yanelis; Licea Castro, Luis; Garcia Rodriguez, Blanca; Porras Leon, Elia; Perez Espinosa, Anabel

    2001-01-01

    Based in the obtained results by several authors and the experience accumulated by the group of Nuclear Techniques of the Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov about the irradiation techniques; the methodology for tomato growth and productivity stimulation through the seeds irradiation was established. This methodology includes the preparation, irradiation and material selection to irradiate; as well as the sows of the material under field conditions. With her application the seedlings of good quality is guaranteed, what facilitates its transplant from the nursery to field conditions with 7 days in advance comparing to the control treatment, that contributes to the saving of material and human resources. Their fundamental contribution is given in the increment of the agricultural yield that reaches maximum values about 30% for some of the applied treatments. It is also recommended, the application of response- surface analysis among the plant yield (dependent variable) and the irradiation doses (independent variable) for determine the better stimulation doses in each one of the four varieties, as well as the time repeatability parameter of the growth and productivity were calculated, that which endorses the practical application of the proposed methodology

  19. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  20. Germination and biochemical changes in ‘Formosa’ papaya seeds treated with plant hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of growth regulators on germination rates and biochemical compound concentrations in Carica papaya L. seeds (‘Formosa’ group. The seeds were harvested from fruits at maturation stages 3 and 5 (50 and 75% yellow fruit skin, respectively. The effects of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA, KNO3 and gibberellic acid (GA3on seed germination, germination index speed, soluble sugars, starch, lipids, soluble proteins and total proteins of the papaya seeds were evaluated. The seeds from stage 5 showed a higher rate of germination 30 days after sowing than did the seeds from stage 3. Treatment with CEPA decreased seed germination, apparently due to decreased starch mobilization; the opposite response was observed following KNO3 treatment. GA3, alone or in combination with KNO3, stimulated an increase in lipid mobilization. In general, with the exception of CEPA, all growth regulators tested were effective in overcoming seed dormancy, and KNO3 was the most effective. The seeds from stage 3 fruits treated with KNO3 or KNO3 + GA3 had higher rates of germination at 14 days.

  1. Influence of laser radiation on the growth and development of seeds of agricultural plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Polyakov, Vadim; Kascheev, Sergey; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The experimental results presented in this study focused on the study of biological processes caused by exposure to the coating layers of the laser green light seed (λ = 532 nm) range for the larch, violet (λ = 405 nm) and red (λ = 640 nm) for spruce. Spend a series of experiments to study the dependence of crop seed quality (spruce and larch from the pine family) from exposure to laser radiation under different conditions. In all the analyzed groups studied seed germination and growth of seedlings exposed to laser exposure, compared with the control group. The results showed that the higher percentage of germination than seeds of the control group.

  2. An Arabidopsis chloroplast-targeted Hsp101 homologue, APG6, has an essential role in chloroplast development as well as heat-stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Motohashi, Reiko; Kuromori, Takashi; Nagata, Noriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    Analysis of albino or pale-green (apg) mutants is important for identifying nuclear genes responsible for chloroplast development and pigment synthesis. We have identified 38 apg mutants by screening 11 000 Arabidopsis Ds-tagged lines. One mutant, apg6, contains a Ds insertion in a gene encoding APG6 (ClpB3), a homologue of the heat-shock protein Hsp101 (ClpB1). We isolated somatic revertants and identified two Ds-tagged and one T-DNA-tagged mutant alleles of apg6. All three alleles gave the same pale-green phenotype. These results suggest that APG6 is important for chloroplast development. The APG6 protein contains a transit peptide and is localized in chloroplasts. The plastids of apg6 pale-green cells were smaller than those of the wild type, and contained undeveloped thylakoid membranes. APG6 mRNA accumulated in response to heat shock in various organs, but not in response to other abiotic stresses. Under normal conditions, APG6 is constitutively expressed in the root tips, the organ boundary region, the reproductive tissues of mature plants where plastids exist as proplastids, and slightly in the stems and leaves. In addition, constitutive overexpression of APG6 in transgenic plants inhibited chloroplast development and resulted in a mild pale-green phenotype. The amounts of chloroplast proteins related to photosynthesis were markedly decreased in apg6 mutants. These results suggest that APG6 functions as a molecular chaperone involved in plastid differentiation mediating internal thylakoid membrane formation and conferring thermotolerance to chloroplasts during heat stress. The APG6 protein is not only involved in heat-stress response in chloroplasts, but is also essential for chloroplast development.

  3. Complete sequencing of five araliaceae chloroplast genomes and the phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ginseng family (Araliaceae includes a number of economically important plant species. Previously phylogenetic studies circumscribed three major clades within the core ginseng plant family, yet the internal relationships of each major group have been poorly resolved perhaps due to rapid radiation of these lineages. Recent studies have shown that phyogenomics based on chloroplast genomes provides a viable way to resolve complex relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the complete nucleotide sequences of five Araliaceae chloroplast genomes using next-generation sequencing technology. The five chloroplast genomes are 156,333-156,459 bp in length including a pair of inverted repeats (25,551-26,108 bp separated by the large single-copy (86,028-86,566 bp and small single-copy (18,021-19,117 bp regions. Each chloroplast genome contains the same 114 unique genes consisting of 30 transfer RNA genes, four ribosomal RNA genes, and 80 protein coding genes. Gene size, content, and order, AT content, and IR/SC boundary structure are similar among all Araliaceae chloroplast genomes. A total of 140 repeats were identified in the five chloroplast genomes with palindromic repeat as the most common type. Phylogenomic analyses using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on the complete chloroplast genomes strongly supported the monophyly of the Asian Palmate group and the Aralia-Panax group. Furthermore, the relationships among the sampled taxa within the Asian Palmate group were well resolved. Twenty-six DNA markers with the percentage of variable sites higher than 5% were identified, which may be useful for phylogenetic studies of Araliaceae. CONCLUSION: The chloroplast genomes of Araliaceae are highly conserved in all aspects of genome features. The large-scale phylogenomic data based on the complete chloroplast DNA sequences is shown to be effective for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Araliaceae.

  4. Leaf Senescence, Root Morphology, and Seed Yield of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at Varying Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11 and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12 at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD population than did the low plant density (LPD population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI, pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume. These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  5. The choice of process parameters to obtain a stable dispersion system of plant-based bioactivated dicotyledonous seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Samofalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dealswith the search for the unification of technological approaches to increase the efficiency of separation of the protein complex and stability of the plant foundations from seed dicotyledonous economically important crops of soybean, hemp, buckwheat. Uneven localization of nitrogenous substances in the seed largely determines the accessibility of protein complexes for extraction. Natural fermentation of spare proteins in cellular structures when the germination process starts leads to the accumulation of soluble nitrogen, and the change in the salt composition of protoplasm facilitates the transition in the solution of insoluble complexes in the form of colloids. It is shown that fine grinding of dry seeds increases the efficiency of extraction by 1.3–1.6 times, while rough grinding increases bioactivity by 1.6–1.8 times. The dispersion containing 8.1±0.7% of dry matter at buckwheat bases and 9.5±1,3% at hemp and soy bases with the water ratio 1:4 to 1:7 satisfy the requirements of taste sensations and fullness of the chemical composition. Based on the results of the extraction of protein of buckwheat seeds the conclusion has been drawn that there is a need for a differentiated approach to selecting conditions for the creation of food framework. Taking into consideration the fact that the amount of calcium in buckwheat seeds is17–25 times smaller than in oil seeds and the quantity of phosphorus is 1.6–2 times smaller, the contribution of electrostatic forces in the protein solubility is small and the additional actions to activate the protein complex are required. To predict the properties of vegetable bases of bioactivated soybean seeds and hemp, the central composite uniform-rotatable planning was applied and the full factorial experiment with factorial scheme 3×3×3 (33 was selected. The preferred combination of values of the input parameters X1, X2, X3 was discovered. They provide for the maximum of Y

  6. Laser-optical methods for earlier diagnostics of plant and seed diseases in various habitant media taking into consideration anthropogenic and biological pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisker, Joseph S.; Dmitriev, Andrey P.

    1999-12-01

    By the method of the computer laser-optical photometry the investigation of the cereal stability for the various diseases taken into consideration the stability of tomato seeds to their interaction with the phytopathogenes and the phytotoxicity of microscopic fungi on the wheat seedlings was carried out. Original result for the investigation of optical-physiological characteristics of plants and seeds are shown.

  7. Using Publicly Available Data to Quantify Plant-Pollinator Interactions and Evaluate Conservation Seeding Mixes in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C R V; O'Dell, S; Bryant, R B; Euliss, N H; Bush, R M; Smart, M D

    2017-06-01

    Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant-pollinator interaction data collected from 2012-2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant-pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera-Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. The effects of total mass of seed on distribution of lead in different tissues of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Experimentally treated by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish distribution of lead in different tissues of bean seed (seed coat, endo­sperm, embryo depending on seed mass, treated samples (seed by different concentration of Pb-acetate: 1O-5 M, 10-3M i 2x 10-2M. Depending on seed weight the samples derived in three groups: large (715g, middle (465g and small (280g. Each sample contained the same number of seeds. Concentration was determined by atomic absorber (Unicam 929. At highest Pb-acetate concentration (2x10-2M in seed with small total mass content of Pb was 1139μg/g, white in seed of 1052μg/g; in endosperm 580,6μg/g, middle 290,2μg/g and in second group 79,4μg/g. Similar pattern shows embryo but at die lower level of accumulation. On die basis of above presented results it could be concluded that concentration of Pb-acetate solution. Largest mass seed accumulate respectively less content of Pb in endosperm and embryo. Seed coat accumulated significant die larger amount of land probably embryo, in that way protects embryo. Therefore, larger bean seed are more convenient for planting in cases of potentially contamination by 1, but probably by other metals. .

  9. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eHua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  10. Effect of fungal and plant metabolites on broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which cause heavy yield losses on important crops. The development of herbicides based on natural metabolites from microbial and plant origin, targeting early stages on parasitic plant development, might contribute to the reduction of broomrape seed bank in agricultural soils. Therefore, the effect of metabolites belonging to different classes of natural compounds on broomrape seed germination and radicle development was assayed in vitro. Among the metabolites tested, epi-sphaeropsidone, cyclopaldic acid, and those belonging to the sesquiterpene class induced broomrape germination in a species-specific manner. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidin A, and cytochalasans inhibited germination of GR24-treated broomrape seeds. The growth of broomrape radicle was strongly inhibited by sphaeropsidin A and compounds belonging to cyclohexene epoxide and cytochalasan classes. Broomrape radicles treated with epi-sphaeropsidone developed a layer of papillae while radicles treated with cytochalasans or with sphaeropsidin A turned necrotic. These findings allow new lead natural herbicides for the management of parasitic weeds to be identified.

  11. Dissecting the chloroplast proteome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) provides new insights into classical and non-classical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Nilesh Vikram; Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Gayen, Dipak; Keshava Prasad, T S; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-08-08

    Chloroplast, the energy organelle unique to plant cells, is a dynamic entity which integrates an array of metabolic pathways and serves as first level for energy conversion for the entire ecological hierarchy. Increasing amount of sequence data and evolution of mass spectrometric approaches has opened up new avenues for opportune exploration of the global proteome of this organelle. In our study, we aimed at generation of a comprehensive catalogue of chloroplast proteins in a grain legume, chickpea and provided a reference proteome map. To accurately assign the identified proteins, purity of chloroplast-enriched fraction was stringently monitored by multiple chemical and immunological indexes, besides pigment and enzyme analyses. The proteome analysis led to the identification of 2451 proteins, including 27 isoforms, which include predicted and novel chloroplast constituents. The identified proteins were validated through their sequence analysis. Extensive sequence based localization prediction revealed more than 50% proteins to be chloroplast resident by at least two different algorithms. Chromosomal distribution of identified proteins across nuclear and chloroplast genome unveiled the presence of 55 chloroplast encoded gene. In depth comparison of our dataset with the non-redundant set of chloroplast proteins identified so far across other species revealed novel as well as overlapping candidates. Pulses add large amount of nitrogen to the soil and has very low water footprint and therefore, contributes to fortification of sustainable agriculture. Chickpea is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and serves as an energy and protein source for humans and animals. Chloroplasts are the unique organelles which conduct photosynthesis. Investigation on chloroplast proteome is of particular significance, especially to plant biologists, as it would allow a better understanding of chloroplast function in plants. Generation of a saturated proteome map would not only

  12. effects of serial planting of seed yam tubers on virus incidence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    FCT) were used in the study. Harvested seed yams were tested for Yam mosaic virus (YMV), Yam mild mottle .... free yam leaves were used for the negative control, while extracts from ..... Development of farmer based seed systems for healthy ...

  13. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.; Souza Vidigal, De D.; Snoek, L.B.; Schnabel, S.K.; Nijveen, H.; Hilhorst, H.; Bentsink, L.

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We

  14. Analysis of plant soil seed banks and seed dispersal vectors: Its potential and limits for forensic investigations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumberová, Kateřina; Ducháček, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 270, Jan 2017 (2017), s. 121-128 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14045; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : forensic marker * vehicle * ecological species group (eco-group) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016

  15. Chloroplast Translation: Structural and Functional Organization, Operational Control, and Regulation[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Chloroplast translation is essential for cellular viability and plant development. Its positioning at the intersection of organellar RNA and protein metabolism makes it a unique point for the regulation of gene expression in response to internal and external cues. Recently obtained high-resolution structures of plastid ribosomes, the development of approaches allowing genome-wide analyses of chloroplast translation (i.e., ribosome profiling), and the discovery of RNA binding proteins involved in the control of translational activity have greatly increased our understanding of the chloroplast translation process and its regulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the chloroplast translation machinery, its structure, organization, and function. In addition, we summarize the techniques that are currently available to study chloroplast translation and describe how translational activity is controlled and which cis-elements and trans-factors are involved. Finally, we discuss how translational control contributes to the regulation of chloroplast gene expression in response to developmental, environmental, and physiological cues. We also illustrate the commonalities and the differences between the chloroplast and bacterial translation machineries and the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in these two prokaryotic systems. PMID:29610211

  16. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as \\'minicircles\\'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any \\'empty\\' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  17. Structure-Function Analysis of Chloroplast Proteins via Random Mutagenesis Using Error-Prone PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Louis; Zito, Francesca; Auroy, Pascaline; Johnson, Xenie; Peltier, Gilles; Alric, Jean

    2018-06-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of chloroplast genes was developed three decades ago and has greatly advanced the field of photosynthesis research. Here, we describe a new approach for generating random chloroplast gene mutants that combines error-prone polymerase chain reaction of a gene of interest with chloroplast complementation of the knockout Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant. As a proof of concept, we targeted a 300-bp sequence of the petD gene that encodes subunit IV of the thylakoid membrane-bound cytochrome b 6 f complex. By sequencing chloroplast transformants, we revealed 149 mutations in the 300-bp target petD sequence that resulted in 92 amino acid substitutions in the 100-residue target subunit IV sequence. Our results show that this method is suited to the study of highly hydrophobic, multisubunit, and chloroplast-encoded proteins containing cofactors such as hemes, iron-sulfur clusters, and chlorophyll pigments. Moreover, we show that mutant screening and sequencing can be used to study photosynthetic mechanisms or to probe the mutational robustness of chloroplast-encoded proteins, and we propose that this method is a valuable tool for the directed evolution of enzymes in the chloroplast. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as 'minicircles'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any 'empty' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  19. Lipid peroxidation and seed emergency in progenies of the yellow passion fruit plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Bestete de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the percentage of emergency plantlets and lipid peroxidation in seeds of 29 half-sib progenies of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. after 24 months under storage. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications of 50 seeds each, from which the treatments were the progenies (1-29. The evaluation of the percent plantlet emergency was accomplished at 14 and 28 days after sowing. The lipid peroxidation of the seeds was expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA content that was determined by the TBARS method. Approximately 21% of those half-sib progenies maintained the viability of their seeds for twenty-four months under storage. The results point out a remarkable genetic variability for vigor and emergency of the yellow passion fruit plantlets, with occurrence of individuals with high and other ones with low capacity to maintaining the physiologic quality of their seeds after storage.

  20. Water status and gas exchange of umbu plants (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.) propagated by seeds and stem cuttings.

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA FILHO, J. M. P.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE, Brazil, in order to study the physiological responses of umbu plants propagated by seeds and by stem cuttings under water stress conditions, based on leaf water potential and gas exchange measurements. Data were collected in one-year plants established in pots containing 30 kg of a sandy soil and submitted to twenty-day progressive soil water deficit. The evaluations were based on leaf water potential and gas exchange dat...

  1. Chloroplast behaviour and interactions with other organelles in Arabidopsis thaliana pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kiah A; Wozny, Michael R; Mathur, Neeta; Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Mathur, Jaideep

    2018-01-29

    Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that, with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis thaliana have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here, using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules, we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCCs) and their subcellular environment. Observations on the PCCs suggest a source-sink relationship between the epidermal and the mesophyll layers, and experiments with the Arabidopsis mutants glabra2 ( gl2 ) and immutans ( im ), which show altered epidermal plastid development, underscored their developmental plasticity. Our findings lay down the foundation for further investigations aimed at understanding the precise role and contributions of PCCs in plant interactions with the environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in predominantly selfing plants with limited seed dispersal: A rule or exception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow at a fine scale is still poorly understood despite its recognized importance for plant population demographic and genetic processes. We tested the hypothesis that intensity of gene flow will be lower and strength of spatial genetic structure (SGS will be higher in more peripheral populations because of lower population density. The study was performed on the predominantly selfing Avena sterilis and included: (1 direct measurement of dispersal in a controlled environment; and (2 analyses of SGS in three natural populations, sampled in linear transects at fixed increasing inter-plant distances. We found that in A. sterilis major seed dispersal is by gravity in close (less than 2 m vicinity of the mother plant, with a minor additional effect of wind. Analysis of SGS with six nuclear SSRs revealed a significant autocorrelation for the distance class of 1 m only in the most peripheral desert population, while in the two core populations with Mediterranean conditions, no genetic structure was found. Our results support the hypothesis that intensity of SGS increases from the species core to periphery as a result of decreased within-population gene flow related to low plant density. Our findings also show that predominant self-pollination and highly localized seed dispersal lead to SGS at a very fine scale, but only if plant density is not too high.

  3. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  4. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  5. Chloroplast Dynamics and Photosynthetic Efficiency: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Maureen [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-11-03

    This project investigated the mechanism by which chloroplasts position themselves to maximize solar energy utilization, to enhance gas exchange, to minimize environmental stress, and to promote efficient exchange of metabolites with other compartments within the plant cell. Chloroplasts move within leaf cells to optimize light levels, moving toward levels of light useful for photosynthesis while moving away from excess light. Plastids sometimes extend their reach by sending out projections (stromules) that can connect anchor chloroplasts in position within the cell or provide close contacts with plasma membrane, mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the nucleus. The intracellular location of chloroplasts in relation to other organelles with which they share biosynthetic pathways, such as peroxisomes and mitochondria in photorespiration, affects metabolite flow. This work contributed to the knowledge of the mechanisms of organelle movement and anchoring in specific locations in plant cells and how proteins traffic within the cell. We identified two domains on 12 of the 13 Arabidopsis myosins that were similar to the vacuole-binding (V) domain characterized in yeast and to the DIL domain characterized in yeast and mouse as required for secretory vesicle or melanosome movement, respectively. Because all of the Arabidopsis regions with homology to the V domain contain the amino acid sequence PAL, we refer to this region as the Arabidopsis PAL domain. We have used the yeast Myo2p tail structural information to model the 12 myosin XI tail domains containing the homologous PAL and DIL domains. Eight YFP::DIL domain fusions labeled peroxisomes; none labeled mitochondria or chloroplasts. Six myosin XI Vacuole domains labeled mitochondria and seven labeled Golgi bodies. The Arabidopsis myosin XI-F PAL domain and the homologous myosin XI-F PAL domain from N. benthamiana labels chloroplasts and stromules in N. benthamiana leaves. Using an Arabidopsis line

  6. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid [ 14 C]-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H 2 O 2 stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed

  7. Interactions of seedborne bacterial pathogens with host and non-host plants in relation to seed infestation and seedling transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Smith, Samuel; Langston, David

    2014-01-01

    The ability of seed-borne bacterial pathogens (Acidovorax citrulli, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea) to infest seeds of host and non-host plants (watermelon, tomato, pepper, and soybean) and subsequent pathogen transmission to seedlings was investigated. A non-pathogenic, pigmented strain of Serratia marcescens was also included to assess a null-interacting situation with the same plant species. Flowers of host and non-host plants were inoculated with 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs)/flower for each bacterial species and allowed to develop into fruits or umbels (in case of onion). Seeds harvested from each host/non-host bacterial species combination were assayed for respective bacteria by plating on semi-selective media. Additionally, seedlots for each host/non-host bacterial species combination were also assayed for pathogen transmission by seedling grow-out (SGO) assays under greenhouse conditions. The mean percentage of seedlots infested with compatible and incompatible pathogens was 31.7 and 30.9% (by plating), respectively and they were not significantly different (P = 0.67). The percentage of seedlots infested with null-interacting bacterial species was 16.8% (by plating) and it was significantly lower than the infested lots generated with compatible and incompatible bacterial pathogens (P = 0.03). None of the seedlots with incompatible/null-interacting bacteria developed symptoms on seedlings; however, when seedlings were assayed for epiphytic bacterial presence, 19.5 and 9.4% of the lots were positive, respectively. These results indicate that the seeds of non-host plants can become infested with incompatible and null-interacting bacterial species through flower colonization and they can be transmitted via epiphytic colonization of seedlings. In addition, it was also observed that flowers and seeds of non-host plants can be colonized by

  8. Interactions of seedborne bacterial pathogens with host and non-host plants in relation to seed infestation and seedling transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabesh Dutta

    Full Text Available The ability of seed-borne bacterial pathogens (Acidovorax citrulli, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea to infest seeds of host and non-host plants (watermelon, tomato, pepper, and soybean and subsequent pathogen transmission to seedlings was investigated. A non-pathogenic, pigmented strain of Serratia marcescens was also included to assess a null-interacting situation with the same plant species. Flowers of host and non-host plants were inoculated with 1 × 10(6 colony forming units (CFUs/flower for each bacterial species and allowed to develop into fruits or umbels (in case of onion. Seeds harvested from each host/non-host bacterial species combination were assayed for respective bacteria by plating on semi-selective media. Additionally, seedlots for each host/non-host bacterial species combination were also assayed for pathogen transmission by seedling grow-out (SGO assays under greenhouse conditions. The mean percentage of seedlots infested with compatible and incompatible pathogens was 31.7 and 30.9% (by plating, respectively and they were not significantly different (P = 0.67. The percentage of seedlots infested with null-interacting bacterial species was 16.8% (by plating and it was significantly lower than the infested lots generated with compatible and incompatible bacterial pathogens (P = 0.03. None of the seedlots with incompatible/null-interacting bacteria developed symptoms on seedlings; however, when seedlings were assayed for epiphytic bacterial presence, 19.5 and 9.4% of the lots were positive, respectively. These results indicate that the seeds of non-host plants can become infested with incompatible and null-interacting bacterial species through flower colonization and they can be transmitted via epiphytic colonization of seedlings. In addition, it was also observed that flowers and seeds of non-host plants can be

  9. Suppressing Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Alters Chloroplast Development and Triggers Sterol-Dependent Induction of Jasmonate- and Fe-Related Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, David; Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Altabella, Teresa; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes (FPS1 and FPS2) encoding FPS. Single fps1 and fps2 knockout mutants are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, while fps1/fps2 double mutants are embryo lethal. To assess the effect of FPS down-regulation at postembryonic developmental stages, we generated Arabidopsis conditional knockdown mutants expressing artificial microRNAs devised to simultaneously silence both FPS genes. Induction of silencing from germination rapidly caused chlorosis and a strong developmental phenotype that led to seedling lethality. However, silencing of FPS after seed germination resulted in a slight developmental delay only, although leaves and cotyledons continued to show chlorosis and altered chloroplasts. Metabolomic analyses also revealed drastic changes in the profile of sterols, ubiquinones, and plastidial isoprenoids. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcriptomic analysis showed that a reduction in FPS activity levels triggers the misregulation of genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses, the most prominent one being the rapid induction of a set of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway. Down-regulation of FPS also triggered an iron-deficiency transcriptional response that is consistent with the iron-deficient phenotype observed in FPS-silenced plants. The specific inhibition of the sterol biosynthesis pathway by chemical and genetic blockage mimicked these transcriptional responses, indicating that sterol depletion is the primary cause of the observed alterations. Our results highlight the importance of sterol homeostasis for normal chloroplast development and function and reveal important clues about how isoprenoid and sterol metabolism is integrated within plant physiology and development. © 2016

  10. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  11. Overcoming seed dormancy using gibberellic acid and the performance of young Syagrus coronata plants under severe drought stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria J; Oliveira, Marciel T; Willadino, Lilia; Santos, Mauro G

    2015-12-01

    Syagrus coronata, a native palm tree of the Brazilian semi-arid region, exhibits low germinability due to seed dormancy. This study aimed to increase the germinability, analyze the morphology of seedlings and evaluate the performance of young plants under a water deficit. We used immersion in water and gibberellic acid (GA3) as pyrene (seed with endocarp) pre-germination treatments, and we analyzed the water relations, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and carbon balance components of young plants under drought and rehydration conditions. The immersion of pyrenes in 0.3 mM GA3 solution for 24 h enhanced the emergence and survival of plants and the emergence rate index. The germination of S. coronata is of the remote tubular type, and seedling growth originates with the protrusion of the cotyledon petiole, followed by the subsequent emergence of the root, leaf sheaths and eophyll. The plants exhibited high tolerance to no irrigation for 37 days, which was attributed to strong stomatal control, a higher proportion of energy dissipation and a higher content of photoprotective pigments. Despite the reduced stomatal conductance (regardless of soil water availability), the photosynthetic rate remained high throughout the day, which indicated a low correlation between these two parameters. After rehydration, we observed that both the leaf water content and photosynthesis recovered, which showed an absence of irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. The use of 0.3 mM GA3 is recommended as a treatment for overcoming seed dormancy in this species. Young S. coronata plants showed high tolerance during drought and resilience after rehydration by adjusting their leaf metabolism, which could explain the endemism of this species in semi-arid regions and its ability to remain evergreen throughout the year. Furthermore, with high photosynthetic rate in the most favorable time of day, even under drought stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  12. Estimation of cancerolytic properties of thionine from plants seeds by inclusion of C14-thymidine in tumoral cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnov, E.A.; Sultanova, E.M.; Kuznetsova, N.N.; Khashimova, Z.S.; Veshkurova, O.N.; Sadikov, A.A.; Salikhov, Sh.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It has been earlier shown that cysteine rich peptides - thionine from seeds of various plants possess expressed fungitoxic activity. It is connected to influence of thionine on cellular membranes of fungi. It was possible to assume that the substances showing cytotoxic activity will be active in relation to tumoral cells. We isolated peptide fractions from seeds bamia (Hibiscus esculentus), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), abutilon (Abutilon theophrasti), euphorbia (Euphorbia virgata), palma Christi (Ricinus communis) and horse sorrel (Rumex confertus) and studied their antineoplastic and fungitoxic activity. Antiproliferative action of peptides to melanoma cells of mice was estimated in cytotoxic test by inclusion of C 14 -thymidine to DNA. This researches have shown that peptides from seeds of horse sorrel and palma Christi did not change a level of synthesis of DNA while peptides from euphorbia and bamia considerably reduced inclusion of labeled nucleotide to DNA and suppressed growth of tumoral cells on 14 and 39 % accordingly. Parallel tests of these peptides on fungitoxic activity in relation to virulent strains of Verticillium dahliae have shown suppression of conidial growth on 17 and 26 % accordingly. Thus, peptides from seeds of bamia and euphorbia possess the expressed property to suppress growth of tumoral cells and can be used at creation a new cancerolytic preparations for treatment of human cancer. Work is executed under the financial support of fundamental grants F - 4.19 and F-4.1.44

  13. Degradation of seed mucilage by soil microflora promotes early seedling growth of a desert sand dune plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Zhang, Wenhao; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the extensive understanding of seed mucilage biosynthesis, much less is known about how mucilage is biodegraded and what role it plays in the soil where seeds germinate. We studied seed mucilage biodegradation by a natural microbial community. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) was used to determine monosaccharide composition in achene mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Mucilage degradation by the soil microbial community from natural habitats was examined by monosaccharide utilization tests using Biolog plates, chemical assays and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Glucose (29.4%), mannose (20.3%) and arabinose (19.5%) were found to be the main components of achene mucilage. The mucilage was biodegraded to CO(2) and soluble sugars, and an increase in soil microbial biomass was observed during biodegradation. Fluorescence microscopy showed the presence of mucilage (or its derivatives) in seedling tissues after growth with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled mucilage. The biodegradation also promoted early seedling growth in barren sand dunes, which was associated with a large soil microbial community that supplies substances promoting seedling establishment. We conclude that biodegradation of seed mucilage can play an ecologically important role in the life cycles of plants especially in harsh desert environments to which A. sphaerocephala is well-adapted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  15. Two bee-pollinated plant species show higher seed production when grown in gardens compared to arable farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cussans

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinator abundance, in particular that of bees, has been shown to be high where there is a super-abundance of floral resources; for example in association with mass-flowering crops and also in gardens where flowering plants are often densely planted. Since land management affects pollinator numbers, it is also likely to affect the resultant pollination of plants growing in these habitats. We hypothesised that the seed or fruit set of two plant species, typically pollinated by bumblebees and/or honeybees might respond in one of two ways: 1 pollination success could be reduced when growing in a floriferous environment, via competition for pollinators, or 2 pollination success could be enhanced because of increased pollinator abundance in the vicinity.We compared the pollination success of experimental plants of Glechoma hederacea L. and Lotus corniculatus L. growing in gardens and arable farmland. On the farms, the plants were placed either next to a mass-flowering crop (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. or field beans, Vicia faba L. or next to a cereal crop (wheat, Triticum spp.. Seed set of G. hederacea and fruit set of L. corniculatus were significantly higher in gardens compared to arable farmland. There was no significant difference in pollination success of G. hederacea when grown next to different crops, but for L. corniculatus, fruit set was higher in the plants growing next to oilseed rape when the crop was in flower.The results show that pollination services can limit fruit set of wild plants in arable farmland, but there is some evidence that the presence of a flowering crop can facilitate their pollination (depending on species and season. We have also demonstrated that gardens are not only beneficial to pollinators, but also to the process of pollination.

  16. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liao

    Full Text Available Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant

  17. Physiological characteristics of cucumber seed production plants by presowing laser and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholakov, D.; Petkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    Seeds from G-3 maternal line of hybrid cucumber cultivar Pobeda F 1 were treated with helium-neon 632.8 nm laser-exit power 20 mW and gamma-rays ( 60 Co) in a field experiment under conditions suitable for hybrid seed production. The irradiation was carried out a week before sowing and the following variants were investigated: 1. sevenfold laser irradiation; 2. 10 Gy gamma irradiation; 3. combined laser + gamma rays irradiation. Seeds from the parent line were not irradiated. A positive effect of irradiation on the photosynthetic intensity, content of plastid pigments in leaves and activity of catalase and peroxidase has been observed. (author)

  18. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Fei, Zhangjun; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2011-11-23

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5) was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  20. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  1. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and cover crops on seed germination and early establishment of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarić-Krsmanović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial cultures: Bacillus licheniformis (MO1, B. pumilus (MO2, and B. amyloliquefaciens (MO3, isolated from manure; B. megatherium ZP6 (MO4 isolated from maize rhizosphere; Azotobacter chroococcum Ps1 (MO5 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MO6, were used to test the influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination and germination rate of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk.. Also, to examine the effect of host seeds on germination and initial growth of seedlings of field dodder plants in the dark and under white light, the seeds of four host plants were used (watermelon, red clover, alfalfa and sugar beet. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a ten-day period and the length of seedlings was measured on the final day. The results show that treatments MO3, MO4 and MO6 had inhibitory effects (15%, 65% and 52%, respectively, while treatments MO1, MO2 and MO5 had stimulating effects (3%, 3% and 19%, respectively on seed germination of field dodder. The data for host seeds show that light was a significant initial factor (83-95%, control 95% for stimulating seed germination of field dodder plants, apart from host presence (73-79%, control 80%.

  2. Genetic variation and control of chloroplast pigment concentrations in Picea rubens, Picea mariana and their hybrids. I. Ambient and elevated [CO2] environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, J.E.; Barsi, D.C.; Mosseler, A.; Campbell, M.

    2007-01-01

    A significant decline has been noted in the red spruce component of the Acadian forest region in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States as a result of excessive harvesting, acid rain, and global warming. Two experiments were performed to acquire benchmark adaptive traits for information from a red spruce (RS) (Picea rubens Sargand) and black spruce (BS) (P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) genetic complex grown in ambient carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]). The first experiment involved RS-BS seed sources from across the RS geographical range, while the second experiment involved an intra- and interspecific controlled-cross experiment to determine if RS and BS have unique chloroplast pigment concentrations and traits that reflect adaptations to different ecological niches. The objective was to determine species origin and hybrid variations in chloroplast pigment concentrations; examine the effect of elevated [CO 2 ] on chloroplast pigments; determine the inheritance of chloroplast pigments and examine the relationship of chloroplast pigment concentrations of trees grown at ambient [CO 2 ] with productivity traits and nitrogen concentrations. The traits related to light-energy processing have pronounced ecological implications for plant health. Results from the species origin experiment showed that total chlorophyll concentration was about 15 per cent higher in ambient [CO 2 ] than in elevated [CO 2 ]. In ambient [CO 2 ], BS populations had 11 per cent higher total chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations than RS populations. Results from the controlled-cross experiment showed that families with a hybrid index of 25 per cent RS had the highest total chlorophyll concentrations, and families with hybrid indices of 75 and 100 had the lowest amounts. A predominant male effect for chlorophyll concentration was noted. In ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] environments, crosses with BS males had 10.6 and 17.6 per cent higher total chlorophyll concentrations than crosses

  3. Stilbenes from Deguelia rufescens var. urucu (Ducke) A. M. G. Azevedo leaves: effects on seed germination and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Freitas, Manolo C.C. de; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Mara S.P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro S. [Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal da Amazonia Oriental (CPATU), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Amazon biodiversity may provide plants whose chemical substances are capable of controlling weeds. In this study we report the isolation and identification of five stilbenes from the leaves of 'timbo vermelho' (Deguelia rufescens var. urucu): 4-methoxylonchocarpene (1); 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-3'-prenyl-trans-stilbene (2), lonchocarpene (3), 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-Oprenyl- trans-stilbene (4) and pterostilbene (5). Compounds 2 and 4 are new natural products although 2 has been previously cited as synthesis product. Potential allelopathic activity for 1, 2 and 4 was evaluated over seed germination and plant growth of Mimosa pudica weed. The observed effects on seed germination did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) when the analysis of phytotoxicity was performed with the substances alone, the maximum inhibition did not exceed 20%. The most intense inhibitions on radicle and hypocotyl development were found for compound 4 (p < 0.05). When tested in pairs, showed antagonism for seed germination and synergism for radicle and hypocotyl development. (author)

  4. Seed vigor and germination of facheiro plants (Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & Rowley Subsp. Salvadorensis (Werderm. Zappi (Cactaceae at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several species of endemic Cactaceae are found in northeastern Brazil, which are important plants to the local fauna and flora; nevertheless, there are only a few studies assessing the germination of this plant genus. Understanding the germination of species native to the Caatinga is essential to subsidize conservation actions for such ecosystem. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of three localities and different temperatures on the vigor and germination of facheiro seeds. The experiment was conducted by evaluating seed vigor and germination in three distinct areas (Arara, Bananeiras, and Boa Vista at different temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 20-30 ºC. Quantitative data were submitted to polynomial regression analysis at 5% significance with four replicates of 50 seeds. In Arara, germination rates at 20 and 25 ºC reached 96% and, at 30 ºC, 86%. The temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC presented the best germination speed index. For the three studied areas, the highest germination rates were recorded at a constant temperature of 25 ºC and at the alternating temperature (20-30 ºC. Yet the highest germination speed was reached at 30 ºC. Based on its sexual propagation, the taxon in question is able to survive in environments with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 ºC, as seen in the studied habitats.

  5. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  6. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  7. Genetic and physiological characterization of two clusters of quantitative trait Loci associated with seed dormancy and plant height in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Heng; Beighley, Donn H; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-02-01

    Seed dormancy and plant height have been well-studied in plant genetics, but their relatedness and shared regulatory mechanisms in natural variants remain unclear. The introgression of chromosomal segments from weedy into cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) prompted the detection of two clusters (qSD1-2/qPH1 and qSD7-2/qPH7) of quantitative trait loci both associated with seed dormancy and plant height. Together, these two clusters accounted for >96% of the variances for plant height and ~71% of the variances for germination rate in an isogenic background across two environments. On the initial introgression segments, qSD1-2/qPH1 was dissected genetically from OsVp1 for vivipary and qSD7-2/qPH7 separated from Sdr4 for seed dormancy. The narrowed qSD1-2/qPH1 region encompasses the semidwarf1 (sd1) locus for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The qSD1-2/qPH1 allele from the cultivar reduced germination and stem elongation and the mutant effects were recovered by exogenous GA, suggesting that sd1 is a candidate gene of the cluster. In contrast, the effect-reducing allele at qSD7-2/qPH7 was derived from the weedy line; this allele was GA-insensitive and blocked GA responses of qSD1-2/qPH1, including the transcription of a GA-inducible α-amylase gene in imbibed endosperm, suggesting that qSD7-2/qPH7 may work downstream from qSD1-2/qPH1 in GA signaling. Thus, this research established the seed dormancy-plant height association that is likely mediated by GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways in natural populations. The detected association contributed to weed mimicry for the plant stature in the agro-ecosystem dominated by semidwarf cultivars and revealed the potential benefit of semidwarf genes in resistance to preharvest sprouting.

  8. Restoring Eelgrass (Zostera marina) from Seed: A Comparison of Planting Methods for Large-Scale Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orth, Robert; Marion, Scott; Granger, Steven; Traber, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) seeds are being used in a variety of both small- and large-scale restoration activities and have been successfully used to initiate recovery of eelgrass in the Virginia seaside coastal lagoons...

  9. Effects of the moisture of gamma irradiated tomato-seeds on the plant growth sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumala Dewi.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of 2 Krad gamma irradiated dry seeds fruit and tomato seedlings has been carried out. The effect was observed on the time of flowering and fruit bearing, fruits number, fruits weight and time of harvesting. (author)

  10. Distribution and utilization of nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules by plants during seeds developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Severino Matias de

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out, using radioisotopes, for evaluation of the leaf, schuck and seeds areas and, examination of the pattern which is used by the nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules

  11. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical analyses of leaves and seed storage of abutilon pakistanicum jafri and ali an endemic plant of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, H.; Munir, U.

    2014-01-01

    There are vast varieties of medicinal plant in the world having therapeutical importance. With increasing popularity of herbal medicine as a curative measure, the need for correct identification and standardization of the plant is also increased. Present work was performed to study the pharmacognostic and phytochemical characters of leaves and exsitu seed conservation by seed storage of Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali. It is an endemic plant, found in the sub tropical regions of Pakistan and is used in traditional medicine for treating rheumatism. The leaves of Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri andAli were investigated for pharmacognostic parameters. Phytochemical screening, macroscopic characters, physiochemical attributes and fluorescence analysis. The results revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, terpinoids, saponins and phenolic compounds, leaf constant values and the extractive values obtained were found close to the values reported for other Abutilon species, while high ash value indicated presence of impurities in the crude drug. The investigation provides information for correct identification and authentication of plant species for further studies and medicinal evaluation of the species. (author)

  12. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)