WorldWideScience

Sample records for seed isoflavone content

  1. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  2. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  3. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  4. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br, e-mail: mrramos@ipen.br; Mandarino, Jose M.G. [EMBRAPA Soybean, Londrina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jmarcos@cnpso.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a {sup 60}Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  5. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Mandarino, Jose M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a 60 Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  6. Bacterial bioeffectors modify bioactive profile and increase isoflavone content in soybean sprouts (Glycine max var Osumi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, Elena; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; García-Villaraco, Ana; Sierra, M Dolores Saco; Gómez, M Soledad Martín; Gutiérrez-Mañero, F Javier

    2013-09-01

    The effect of two bacterial strains to enhance bioactive contents (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and isoflavones) and antioxidant activity on 3-day-old soybean sprouts were investigated. To identify bacterial determinants responsible for these effects, viable and UV-treated strains were delivered to wounded seeds at different concentration. Multivariate analysis performed with all the evaluated parameters indicated the different effectiveness of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N5.18 and Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4 based on different structural and metabolic determinants for each. N21.4 increased total phenolics and isoflavones from the genistein family, while N5.18 triggered biosynthesis of daidzein and genistein families coupled to a decrease in total phenolics, suggesting different molecular targets in the phenilpropanoid pathway. Only extracts from N5.18 treated seeds showed an improved antioxidant activity according to the β-carotene bleaching prevention method. In summary, bioeffectors from both bacterial strains are effective tools to improve soybean sprouts quality; structural elicitors from N5.18 also enhanced antioxidant activity, being the best alternative for further development of a biotechnological procedure.

  7. Detection of Isoflavones Content in Soybean Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kezhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of many important biological activities, Soybean isoflavones which has great potential for exploitation is significant to practical applications. Due to the conventional methods for determination of soybean isoflavones having long detection period, used too many reagents, couldn’t be detected on-line, and other issues, we propose hyperspectral imaging technology to detect the contents of soybean isoflavones. Based on the 40 varieties of soybeans produced in Heilongjiang province, we get the spectral reflection datum of soybean samples varied from the soybean’s hyperspectral images which are collected by the hyperspectral imaging system, and apply high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method to determine the true value of the selected samples of isoflavones. The feature wavelengths for isoflavones content prediction (1516, 1572, 1691, 1716 and 1760 nm were selected based on correlation analysis. The prediction model was established by using the method of BP neural network in order to realize the prediction of soybean isoflavones content analysis. The experimental results show that, the ANN model could predict isoflavones content of soybean samples with of 0.9679, the average relative error is 0.8032 %, and the mean square error (MSE is 0.110328, which indicates the effectiveness of the proposed method and provides a theoretical basis for the applications of hyerspectral imaging in non-destructive detection for interior quality of soybean.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Embryo, Cytoplasm and Maternal Effects and Their Environment Interactions for Isoflavone Content in Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soybean seed products contain isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. These effects are species, dose and age dependent. Therefore, the content and quality of isoflavones in soybeans is a key factor to the biological effect. Our objective was to identify the genetic effects that underlie the isoflavone content in soybean seeds. A genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants was applied to estimate the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects for the isoflavone content (IC) of soybean seeds by using two years experimental data with an incomplete diallel mating design of six parents. Results showed that the IC of soybean seeds was simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects of maternal,embryo, and cytoplasm, of which maternal genetic effects were most important, followed by embryo and cytoplasmic genetic effects. The main effects of different genetic systems on IC trait were more important than environment interaction effects. The strong dominance effects on isoflavone from residual was made easily by environment conditions. Therefore,the improvement of the IC of soybean seeds would be more efficient when selection is based on maternal plants than that on the single seed. Maternal heritability (65.73%) was most important for IC, followed by embryo heritability (25.87%) and cytoplasmic heritability (8.39%). Based on predicated genetic effects, Yudou 29 and Zheng 90007 were better than other parents for increasing IC in the progeny and improving the quality of soybean. The significant effects of maternal and embryo dominance effects in variance show that the embryo heterosis and maternal heterosis are existent and uninfluenced by environment interaction effects.

  9. Weeding volatiles reduce leaf and seed damage to field-grown soybeans and increase seed isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; Matsui, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Tokumaru, Susumu; Takabayashi, Junji

    2017-01-30

    Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2-3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant-plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary.

  10. Radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal and soybean isoflavones content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mandarino, José M.G.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2012-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a well-known spectroscopic technique that detects paramagnetic centers and can detect free radicals with high sensitivity. In food, free radicals can be generated by several commonly used industrial processes, such as radiosterilization or heat treatment. EPR spectroscopy is used to detect radioinduced free radicals in food. In this work the relation between EPR signal induced by gamma irradiation treatment and soybean isoflavones content was investigated. Present results did not show correlation between total isoflavones content and the EPR signal. Nevertheless, some isoflavone contents had a negative correlation with the radiation-induced EPR signal. - Highlights: ► Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) detects free radicals. ► Ionizing radiation as free radicals inducer. ► Total soybean isoflvones do not correlate with radiation-induced EPR intensity but a soybean glucosyl glucoside isoflavone does.

  11. Effects of genetics and environment on isoflavone content of soybean from different regions of Brazil Efeitos da genética e do ambiente nos teores de isoflavonóides em soja de diferentes regiões do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genetics and environmental factors on isoflavone content of soybean (Glycine max L. cultivars grown in different locations in Brazil in 1993/94 were evaluated. Seeds of different cultivars were analised by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Paraná (PR, and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS States, a significant difference in the isoflavone total content average of the cultivars IAS 5 and FT-Abyara (163.9, 116.4 and 79.5 mg/100 g, respectively was observed. In general, IAS 5 contained higher isoflavone than FT-Abyara. Cultivars IAS 5 and FT-Abyara grown at Vacaria, RS (28°30' S latitude with temperature average of 19°C, had the highest isoflavone concentrations (218.7 and 163.8 mg/100 g, respectively. In Palotina, PR (24°27' S latitude, where temperature average was 24°C, the isoflavone concentrations were 105.9 and 86.8 mg/100 g, respectively. The lowest isoflavone contents were observed for FT-Estrela and FT-Cristalina, (27.6 and 46.5 mg/100 g, repectively at Rondonópolis, MT (16°20' S latitude, where the temperature was 27°C.Analisaram-se os efeitos da genética e de fatores ambientais nos teores de isoflavonóides em cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. provenientes de diferentes locais do Brasil, na safra 1993/94. Sementes de diferentes cultivares foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC. Nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Paraná (PR e Mato Grosso do Sul (MS observou-se diferença significativa entre as médias do conteúdo total de isoflavonóides das cultivares IAS 5 e FT-Abyara (163,9, 116,4 e 79,5 mg/100 g, respectivamente. Em geral, IAS 5 apresentou teores mais altos de isoflavonóides que FT-Abyara. As cultivares IAS 5 e FT-Abyara provenientes de Vacaria, RS (28°30' latitude S, com temperatura média de 19°C, apresentaram concentrações mais altas de isoflavonóides (218,7 e 163,8 mg/100 g, respectivamente. Em Palotina, PR (24°27' latitude S onde a

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... 2Seed Management Station of Jilin Province, Changchun 130062, Jilin, ... daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in ..... ing and height) and quality (oil and protein content) traits.

  13. The isoflavone content of two new alfalfa-derived products for instant beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, M Guadalupe; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa B; Bah, M M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    The frequent use of plant-based products to promote health leads to the search for scientific information related to efficacy and safety of those products for human consumption. Two alfalfa-derived products (ADP), freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and dehydrated powder (DP), from alfalfa harvested in Mexico, are being developed as new possible nutraceuticals. To the best of our knowledge, any study reports the real composition of such products used to prepare instant beverages in what concerns isoflavone contents. Seven isoflavones (glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin) were assessed by HPLC-DAD analysis as well as its variation in five different batches of these products. Different solvents were tested in order to choose the best one to extract isoflavones. The results showed the presence of daidzein, genistein, genistin and daidzin in most samples while glycitein, formononetin and biochanin A were not detected. Significant differences between isoflavone contents were found with different solvent systems. Water was the best option to extract daidzein (0.40-1.08 mg per unit and 1.30-4.90 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively) whereas the water-methanol-formic acid mixture was efficient to extract genistein (0.19-0.43 mg per unit and 0.15-0.72 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively). In all cases, the total isoflavone content was higher in freeze-dried juices than in dehydrated powders. Genistein and daidzein were the more abundant isoflavones quantified. Further physiological and nutritional studies are needed to complete the validation of effectiveness and safety of these products.

  14. Teores de isoflavonas e capacidade antioxidante da soja e produtos derivados Isoflavone content and profile and antioxidant activity of soy and soy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lopes Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade antioxidante, o teor e as formas de isoflavonas presentes nos produtos derivados de soja e compará-los à soja em grão. A capacidade antioxidante foi mensurada por meio do método de cooxidação do beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e pelo seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH•. Os resultados mostraram que o conteúdo de isoflavonas nos produtos variou de 95 a 711 mg/100 g (b.s. e o teor de fenólicos totais de 101 a 413 mg equivalentes de catequina/100 g (b.s., sendo que o grão de soja apresentou um conteúdo de 110 e 200 mg/100 g (b.s., respectivamente, para isoflavonas e fenólicos totais. Em relação às formas de isoflavonas a farinha integral e sua respectiva farinha desengordurada e a farinha desengordurada de soja comercial apresentaram predominância de conjugados malonilglicosídeos ebeta-glicosídeos, similar aos grãos de soja. O suplemento à base de gérmen de soja e a farinha desengordurada de soja apresentaram a maior capacidade antioxidante por ambos os métodos (5 µmoles equivalentes de trolox/g e ~ 0,8 µmoles equivalentes de BHT/ g amostra b.s.. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo total e tipo de isoflavonas e o teor de fenólicos dos produtos de soja dependem do processamento e que a capacidade antioxidante desses produtos varia significativamente.The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity and isoflavone content and type of soy seeds and soy products. The antioxidant activity was measured using beta-carotene bleaching and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH• free radical methods. The total isoflavone content of soy products varied from 95 to 711 mg/100 g DW (expressed as aglycones and total phenolics content from 101 to 413 mg equivalents of catechin/100 g DW. Soybeans presented 110 and 200 mg/100 g DW of isoflavones and total phenolics, respectively. The beta-glycosides and malonylglycosides were the main forms of the isoflavones

  15. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  16. Evaluation of the isoflavone and total phenolic contents of kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Sanches Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Daniele; Handa, Cintia; Guelfi, Marcela; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the isoflavone and total phenolic contents in kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation (DSS). Soymilk was fermented with kefir culture (0.02UC/L) at 25°C for 15h and stored at 4°C for 4days. After the fermentation and storage, the isoflavone and total phenolic contents were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. The cell viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeast was evaluated. Fermentation promoted an increase of approximately 3log CFU/g cycles of the microorganisms and the storage process did not alter the aglycone isoflavones and total phenolic contents. The content of aglycone isoflavones increased 2-fold, and the total phenolic content increased 9-fold. Therefore, kefir-fermented soymilk is a good source of aglycone isoflavones and phenolics, since the content of these substances was increased significantly after the in vitro digestive system simulation of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  18. 黑龙江省栽培大豆品种(系)异黄酮含量测定与主要性状相关性分析及灰色关联度分析%Analysis of Correlation and Grey Relation between Isoflavone Content and Soybean Quality from Soybean Cultivars in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军; 李琳; 苏连泰; 翟莹; 李景文; 张鑫生; 王英; 王庆钰

    2011-01-01

    The correlation and grey relation analysis was used to analyze the relationship of the soybean isoflavone with main traits of 54 soybean in Heilongjiang province. The accuracy and reliability of the high performance liquid chromatography for determination of soybean isoflavone was valid for the method. The average content of total soybean oflavone was 2. 895 (xg/mg. The average content of Daidzin was 1. 231 fig/mg. The average content of Glycitin was 0. 268 u,g/mg. The average content of Genistin was 1. 397 jtg/mg. Five soybean varieties, in which isoflavone content exceeded 4.000 (ig/mg, were screened out. This paper provides basis for seed selection, breeding and evaluation isoflavones content in soybean.%应用相关性和灰色关联度方法分析了黑龙江省54份栽培大豆品种的异黄酮含量与主要性状的关系.经方法学验证建立的大豆异黄酮高效液相色谱法准确、可靠;初步明确了黑龙江省栽培大豆品种异黄酮及其主要成分含量的特点,大豆苷、黄豆黄苷、染料木苷及总异黄酮含量的平均值分别为:1.231,0.268,1.397,2.895 μg/mg;筛选得到异黄酮总量超过4.000 μg/mg的大豆品种5份.本研究可为大豆的选育种及异黄酮含量的评价提供依据.

  19. Soybean seed viability and changes of fatty acids content as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of soybean seed chemical composition are related to specific processes occurring in seed during storage. These changes lead to seed aging during storage and affect seed vigour and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigour tests were applied: Standard ...

  20. Effect on isoflavone of soybean seedlings by 532nm laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Jin, L. H.; Li, J. M.; Shen, B. J.; Wang, C. Y.; Lu, X.; Zhao, X. L.

    2010-02-01

    We took soybeans as experimental substance to study how the 532nm laser with different power density and irradiation time affected the pullulation ratio of the soybeans, average height of seedlings and the isoflavone content of seedlings' cotyledon and laminae. The mechanism that laser pretreatment of soybean seeds could increase the isoflavone content of the seedlings was discussed in such both aspects as the efficiency of the photosynthesis and the activity of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as an initial enzyme for synthesizing the isoflavone. The results showed that after the soybean seeds were pretreated by laser, the activity of the PAL and the resultants of the photosynthesis such as the sugar of dissolubility, the sucrose, and the amylum all increased with the soybean seeds irradiated by laser in which the effect on the soybean seeds pretreated by 15mW/mm2 laser for 5 min was the most obvious. As a result, the photosynthesis efficiency of the soybean seedlings increased after being pretreated by laser, which might offer the foundation for accumulating a large amount of isoflavone.

  1. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  2. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  3. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suaeda acuminata produces two morphologically distinct types of seeds on the same plant. This study was conducted to compare oil content and fatty acid composition of the two seed morphs. Though oil characteristics between dimorphic seeds showed statistically significant difference, these differences were relatively ...

  4. An improved method for basic hydrolysis of isoflavone malonylglucosides and quality evaluation of Chinese soy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Pan, Yingni; Chen, Yan; Uno, Toshio; Zhang, Shaohui; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Basic hydrolysis procedure is often included in the sample preparation in order to quantify malonylglucosides or acetylglucosides of soy materials. However, it is preferable not to use NaOH as a hydrolytic reagent considering the effect of its alkalinity on the successive injection to HPLC and low acidity of soy isoflavones. This paper presents an improved method for basic hydrolysis using ammonia as a hydrolytic reagent without the additional neutralization step. Moreover, by means of HPLC and LC-MS methods, a systematic quality evaluation of natural soy materials from Chinese markets were established and discussed, inclusive of soybeans, black soybeans, defatted soy flours, as well as the distribution of isoflavones in the seed coat, hypocotyl and cotyledon. The results indicate that HPLC profiling patterns of originating various isoflavone constituents of Chinese soybeans was similar to those of Japanese ones, and those of Chinese black soybeans was similar to those of American ones. The average content level of total soy isoflavones of Chinese soybeans and black soybeans were a little lower than that of American and Japanese ones. Additionally, the thorough analysis for Semen Sojae Praeparatum, a Chinese herbal medicine made from fermented black soybeans or soybeans was done for the first time and the characteristic of its HPLC profiling patterns shows the higher content of isoflavone glucosides and aglycones than those of natural soy materials.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-13

    and My Abdelmajid Kassem. Effect of Two Row Spaces on Several Agronomic Traits in Soy - bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], Atlas Journal of Plant Biology... SoyS - NP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip Genotyping Array , Journal of Plant Genome Sciences (09 2013) Masum Akond1, Shiming Liu2, Melanie Boney1

  6. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Miura; Chitose Sugiyama; Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Kayoko Simoi; Toshinao Goda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The estimated intake of soy isoflavones from a meal has been based on the content in a food, but the health effects of soy isoflavones are possibly affected by their bioavailability. In this study we have evaluated the isoflavone bioavailability after the intake of three kinds of soy foods and a commercial soy isoflavone supplement, and examined whether the isoflavone bioavailability is different between equol producers and non-producers. Methods: Healthy female subjects (n = 2...

  7. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  8. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  9. Nutrient content of seeds of some wild plants | Nkafamiya | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saponification values were in the range 122 ± 0.14 to 201 ± 0.05 mg KOH. Proximate values of the protein, oil and carbohydrate content of the seeds suggest that they may be adequate for the formulation of animal feeds. The mineral elements present also suggest that the seeds could contribute partially to the overall daily ...

  10. Soy and legume seeds as sources of isoflavones: selected individual determinants of their consumption in a group of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze selected individual determinants of consumption of soy products and legumes by menopausal women. The analyzed individual characteristics included the level of general self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life. The study, using a questionnaire for the assessment of food product consumption frequency, and psychological tests (GSES, LOT-R, SWLS, was conducted in a group of 320 women aged between 45 and 55 years. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Material and methods: The analyzed 45-55-year-old women consumed legume seeds several times a month on average, while the frequency of soy/soy product consumption was lower than once a month. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of soy product consumption increased with the level of self-efficacy, optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01. Also the increased frequency of legume seed consumption was associated with higher level of optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01. Results: Intergroup comparisons of the average consumption frequency of these products confirmed that legume seeds were significantly more frequently chosen by women characterized by high rather than low levels of optimism (3.36 vs. 2.62, p < 0.001 and satisfaction with life (3.36 vs. 2.65, p < 0.01. Also soy products were preferred significantly more often by women with higher levels of optimism (2.00 vs. 1.38, p < 0.05 and satisfaction with life (2.02 vs. 1.39, p < 0.05. Conclusions : The consumption of legume seeds, and especially soy products, was revealed to be very low among perimenopausal women, and varied depending on the analyzed individual traits, with a tendency to more frequent ingestion by individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life.

  11. Seed-specific overexpression of AtFAX1 increases seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yinshuai; Lv, Xueyan; Xie, Guilan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-02

    Biosynthesis of plant seed oil is accomplished through the coordinate action of multiple enzymes in multiple subcellular compartments. Fatty acid (FA) has to be transported from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for TAG synthesis. However, the role of plastid FA transportation during seed oil accumulation has not been evaluated. AtFAX1 (Arabidopsis fatty acid export1) mediated the FA export from plastid. In this study, we overexpressed AtFAX1 under the control of a seed specific promoter in Arabidopsis. The resultant overexpression lines (OEs) produced seeds which contained 21-33% more oil and 24-30% more protein per seed than those of the wild type (WT). The increased oil content was probably because of the enhanced FA and TAG synthetic activity. The seed size and weight were both increased accordingly. In addition, the seed number per silique and silique number per plant had no changes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated that seed specific overexpression of AtFAX1 could promote oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds and manipulating FA transportation is a feasible strategy for increasing the seed oil content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided

  13. Determination of 15 isoflavone isomers in soy foods and supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Kaoru; Takebayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2012-04-25

    Soy isoflavone is the generic name for the isoflavones found in soy. We determined the concentrations of 15 soy isoflavone species, including 3 succinyl glucosides, in 22 soy foods and isoflavone supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total isoflavone contents in 14 soy foods and 8 supplements ranged from 45 to 735 μg/g and from 1,304 to 90,224 μg/g, respectively. Higher amounts of succinyl glucosides were detected in natto, a typical fermented soy product in Japan; these ranged from 30 to 80 μg/g and comprised 4.1-10.9% of the total isoflavone content. In soy powder, 59 μg/g of succinyl glucosides were detected, equivalent to 4.6% of the total isoflavone content. These data suggest that the total isoflavone contents may be underestimated in the previous studies that have not included succinyl glucosides, especially for Bacillus subtilis -fermented soy food products.

  14. A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Young; Park, Hyang Mi; Hwang, Tae Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Seuk Ki; Seo, Min Jung; Kim, Kee Jong; Kwon, Young-Up; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yul Ho

    2015-03-15

    Tocopherols are crucial lipid-soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivars with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding. Tocopherol contents of seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated for health-promoting activities. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 to 503.1 µg g⁻¹ in seeds and from 20.1 to 230.1 µg g⁻¹ in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g⁻¹), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g⁻¹), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g⁻¹) and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g⁻¹) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with lipid peroxidation. The γ- and δ-tocopherol contents in seeds were related to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (0.434; P tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross-breeding. These results suggest that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Baptista Gordin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Niger is an oleaginous species whose cultivation has been spreading, but there is not much information on the adverse conditions during its seedling establishment. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination. Seeds were moistened using the humid atmosphere method for 0; 24; 48; and 72 hours, obtaining the water contents of 7.0 %, 12.8 %, 16.8 % and 32.2 %. Then, they were sown in substrate moistened with PEG 6000 solutions with different osmotic potentials: 0.0 MPa (control, -0.1 MPa, -0.2 MPa, -0.3 MPa and -0.4 MPa. A completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (water content x osmotic potential, with four replications of 50 seeds, was used. First count and germination percentage, germination speed index and mean time, shoot and root length and seedlings dry weight were evaluated. The reduction in the substrate osmotic potential decreases the niger seed germination and seedling growth, regardless of water content, but with a higher evidence in seed water contents below 32.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively.

  16. Fatty acid, tocopherol and squalene contents of Rosaceae seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-12-01

    The aim of current study is to establish the composition of these seeds belong to Rosaceae family with respect to fatty acid, tocopherol and squalene content. The oil contents of seeds varied between 3.49 (Cotoneaster bullatus) to 46.15 g/100 g (Prunus tenella). The main fatty acids of seed oils were oleic (6.50 - 67.11 %), linoleic (22.08 - 68.62 %) and 20:1n-7 (0.10 - 61.59 %). As observed, the oils of seed were rich in linoleic and oleic acids. Total tocopherol contents ranged between 7.06 mg/100 g (Prunus tenella) to 165.74 mg/100 g (Potentilla glandulosa ssp. pseudorupestris). The major tocopherols were γ-tocopherol, ranging from 2.08 mg/100 g to 106.01 mg/100 g; α-tocopherol ranging from 2.86 mg100 g to 74.26 mg/100 g and δ-tocopherol ranging used in this experiment were found between 0.02 mg/100 g (Alchemilla caucasica) to o.29 mg/100 g (Cotoneaster simonsii). These results show that Rosaceae seed oils can be a potential saurce of valuable oil which might be useful for the evaluation of dietary information in important food crops and other industrial applications.

  17. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genetic analysis of seed proteins contents in cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to select cowpea genotypes with high food value, 10 varieties were genetically screened in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) for seed crude protein and its soluble fractions contents. Five divergent lines were studied through a 5 x 5 half diallel cross mating. The genotypes presented a significant genetic variability for these ...

  19. Seed oil content and selected qualitative parameters of oils from grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Mašán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (Oleum vitis viniferae represents promising plant oil, which is used mainly in gastronomy and for pharmaceutical purposes as well as for various technical applications. In this paper, there were examined oil contents and oil quality properties of seeds taken from 8 grape cultivars. Oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 11.5% (Dornfelder to 17.5% (Riesling. The results showed a dependence between the length of the growing season for individual varie-ties and the total content of oil in seeds. Fatty acid concentrations in the evaluated oil samples were in various ranges, while the highest values were determined in linoleic acid 70.10 to 71.55%, oleic acid 15.61 to 17.14%, palmitic acid 6.87 to 8.18% and stearic acid 3.16 to 3.90%. Saturated fatty acid values were lower than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all oil samples. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil ranged between 88.6 - 89.21%. Thanks to its content, grape seed oil can be considered as a food supplement improving the nutri-tional value of the human diet.

  20. Variability in seed traits, oil content and genetic diversity in local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in seed traits, oil content and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. according to rainfall gradient in Senegal are hereby reported and discussed. Seed oil variability ranged from 58.61% in Sudanian zone to 46.94% in Sahelian zone. Seed oil content and seed thickness were correlated to rainfall with a correlation ...

  1. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  2. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  3. The effects of soy isoflavones on obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits...... associated with soy consumption have been linked to the content of isoflavones, the main class of the phytoestrogens. As a result of their structural similarities to endogenous estrogens, isoflavones elicit weak estrogenic effects by competing with 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the intranuclear...

  4. Rapid evaluation of seed vigor by the absolute content of protein in seed within the same crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Daxing; Hou, Hongcun; Meng, Aiju; Meng, Jie; Xie, Liuyong; Zhang, Chunqing

    2018-04-03

    Seed vigor, an important index of seed quality, determines the potential for rapid and uniform emergence of plants. The objective of this study was to explore a rapid method for evaluating seed vigor. To analyze the correlation of seed traits and seedling traits related to seed vigor, we designed five experiments including nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation and seed sorting treatments in wheat. The results showed that only the absolute content of protein (ACP) in wheat seed was significantly correlated with plant dry weight in five experiments. Subsequently, another experiment including 30 wheat seed lots was used to validate the above results. Although 100-grain weight was also correlated with plant dry weight (R = 0.799, p vigor and could potentially be used for processing and screening high vigor seeds.

  5. Isoflavone profile in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Isoflavones impart health benefits and their overall content and profile in foods are greatly influenced at each step during processing. In this study, 2 soybean varieties (Prosoy and black soybean) were processed with 3 different grinding (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) and heating methods (traditional stove cooking, 1-phase UHT, and 2-phase UHT) for soymilk making. The results showed after cold, ambient, and hot grinding, the total isoflavones were 3917, 5013, and 5949 nmol/g for Prosoy; the total isoflavones were 4073, 3966, and 4284 nmol/g for black soybean. Grinding could significantly increase isoflavone extraction. The grinding process had a destructive effect on isoflavones and this effect varied with grinding temperature. Different heating methods had different effects on different isoflavone forms. Two soybean varieties showed distinct patterns with respect to the change of isoflavone profile during processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Partial improvements in the flavor quality of soybean seeds using intercropping systems with appropriate shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Yang, Cai-qiong; Zhang, Qing; Lou, Ying; Wu, Hai-jun; Deng, Jun-cai; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-09-15

    The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deglycosylation of isoflavones in isoflavone-rich soy germ flour by Aspergillus oryzae KACC 40247.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Seo, Min-Ho; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-12-11

    Aspergillus oryzae KACC 40247 was selected as an efficient daidzein-producing fungus from strains of the genus Aspergillus by using 5% (w/v) soy germ flour (SGF) as an isoflavone-glycoside-rich medium. The culture conditions, including SGF concentration, agitation speed, initial pH, temperature, and time, were optimized as follows: 7% (w/v) SGF, initial pH 6.0, 33 °C, 300 rpm, and 24 h in a 100 mL baffled flask. The determined amount of isoflavone aglycons in SGF using 50% ethyl acetate was the highest among the solvent systems tested and it was 3.7-fold higher than that using 70% methanol. Under the optimized conditions, the content and concentration of daidzein were 134 mg/g of SGF and 9.4 g/L, respectively, with a productivity of 391 ± 2.8 mg/L/h, and those of isoflavone aglycons were 165 mg/g of SGF and 11.5 g/L, respectively, with a productivity of 479 mg/L/h. Optimization of culture conditions increased the content, concentration, and productivity of isoflavone aglycons by 3.1-, 3.0-, and 3.7-fold, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the highest production of isoflavone aglycons reported to date.

  8. Engineering properties of sunflower seed: Effect of dehulling and moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study diagnosed engineering properties on varying moisture content of sunflower seed and kernel from 7.6 to 25% (wet basis. On increasing moisture, dimensional values increased for both seed and kernel. Bulk density, true density and porosity were found higher for kernel as compared to seed at each moisture content. On increasing the moisture content from 7.6 to 25%, true density, porosity and thousand kernel weight increased. Coefficient of static friction on plywood was found maximum for kernel at 25% moisture content, while it was minimum for seed on glass at 7.6% moisture content. The angle of repose was maximum for kernel as compared to seed. Initial cracking force, average rupture force and average rupture energy for seed and kernel decreased with an increase in the moisture content. The kernel was found to be more resistant to initial cracking than seed.

  9. Changes of fatty acids content and vigor of sunflower seed during natural aging

    OpenAIRE

    Balešević-Tubić S.; Tatić M.; Miladinović J.; Pucarević M.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower seed aging during storage affects seed vigor and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigor tests were applied: standard laboratory germination test, cold test and Hiltner test. Five sunflower lines submitted to natural aging process for six and 12 months were tested under conventional storage and controlled conditions. The obtained results revealed that seed aging damaged the seed, which adversely affected seed vigor; most reliable r...

  10. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  12. Relationship between seed moisture content and acquisition of impermeability in Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh K. Jaganathan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds of Nelumbo nucifera do not imbibe water, and thus have physical dormancy (PY. However, a proportion of seeds are permeable to water, and so we hypothesized that variation in moisture content is a reason for the development of both permeable and impermeable seeds. The permeable proportion of seeds present in a lot collected from Suzhou, China, was separated using an imbibition test. The permeable proportion had an average moisture content of 15.6 %, compared with 8.5 % for impermeable seeds. Drying permeable seeds above silica gel to 10 % and 8 % f. wb., resulted in 77 and 100 % impermeable seeds, respectively, compared with no impermeable seeds at 15 % moisture content. Dried to 10 % moisture content, and incubated above water in an airtight container, 46 % of the seeds reverse impermeability. Permeable seeds with 15 % moisture content maintained above LiCl2 (RH=70 % did not develop impermeability after three months of storage. The seeds dried to 6 % moisture content and stored above water in an airtight container showed no increase in moisture. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a strong relationship between moisture content and the onset of impermeability in this species.

  13. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  14. The Effects of Physical Primings of Seeds on Agronomical Characteristics and Alkaloid Content of Datura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baser kouchebagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of physical seed primings on yield and alkaloid content of datura an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 10 different treatments was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Aazd University, Tabriz branch, Iran, during growing season of 2013. Treatments of moist seeds were: ultrasonic treatment of seeds with a maximum of 3 watts, gamma and beta irradiations of seeds at 2 microcurie (µc for 10 minutes, laser irradiation at 6328 angstrom (A° and magnetic field of seeds with 40 microtesla (mt each for 5, 10, 15 minutes respectively and control. Results indicated that seeds treated with gamma irradiation increased plant height over the control by 45%. Highest (206 g.m-2 and lowest (108.3 g.m-2 biological yields were produced when seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes and laser for 5 minutes respectively. Similarly, highest (27.27 g.m-2 and lowest (14.96 g.m-2 seed yields were obtained by treating seeds with magnetic field for 15 minutes and ultrasonic respectively. Alkaloid content in the above ground plant parts was highest when seeds treated with gamma irradiation and lowest with the magnetic field irradiation for 5 minutes. It may be concluded that physical primings of seeds with magnetic field, gamma and laser irradiations would result in higher seed yields.

  15. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 1State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of. Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China. 2Graduate University of ... of S. acuminata: brown with soft coarse seed coat and black with rigid smooth seed coat (Ding et al., 2010). Brown and black ...

  16. Seed anatomy, moisture content and scarification influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low and erratic germination in wild banana seed is caused by dormancy due to physical, anatomical or physiological reasons. Imbibition activates germination process and the rate of water uptake during imbibition is influenced by seed molecular composition and internal and external morphological structures. The present ...

  17. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio; Soave, Daise

    1998-01-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  18. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  19. Activity of water content and storage temperature on the seed-borne mycoflora of lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, S.; Dawar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4 degree C and room temperature (25-30 degree C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20 days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi. (author)

  20. PENGARUH PENGOLAHAN KEDELAI MENJADI TEMPE DAN PEMASAKAN TEMPE TERHADAP KADAR ISOFLAVON (EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN PROCESSING BECOMING TEMPEH AND THE COOKING OF TEMPEH ON ISOFLAVONES LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah M Utari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Research over the past two decades has provided significant clinical trial and epidemiological evidence for health benefits of the consumption of soybean-based foods. A health claim indicating that high soybean consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Compositions of nutrient and non-nutrient in soybean have been examination and give the contribution on lower risk of CHD especially on improve of lipid profile. Isoflavones is a non-nutrient that abundant in soybean. Tempeh is fermented soybean that popular as Indonesian traditional food and content of isoflavones is greater than soybean. Objective: to study effect of soybean processing becoming tempeh and the cooking of tempeh on isoflavones level. Methods: The samples of this study is raw tempeh and steamed tempeh. The analysis of isoflavones has used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: During soybean processing becoming tempeh, twice boiling of soybean produce result isoflavones 47.4 percent greater than once boiling. Steaming tempeh result minimized isoflavones reduction (13.3%. Although there is no dietary recommendation for individual isoflavones, may be great benefit in increased consumption of tempeh. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2: 148-153]   Keywords: tempeh, processing, isoflavones

  1. Relationships among oil content, protein content and seed size in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marega Filho

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During 1995/96 and 1996/97, experiments were carried out at Londrina State University, aiming at quantifying the oil and protein contents in two groups of soybean genotypes; estimating the phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations existent among oil, protein content and seed size, and identifying genotypes for direct human consumption with high protein content. The evaluated characters were Weight of a Hundred Seeds (WHS, expressed in grams/100 seeds, Oil Content (OC and Protein Content (PC, expressed in %. In the experiment carried out in the field, OC ranged from 12 to 20.37 % and PC from 35.66 to 41.75% while in the experiment carried out in the greenhouse OC ranged from 12.26 to 21.79 % and PC from 32.95 to 41.56 % . The correlations between oil and protein were negative and significant. The relationship among WHS with OC and PC was low and higly affected by the time effect. Due to their high protein content and stability to oil and protein contents, there were distinction among the treatments carried out in the field (GA23 and GA20, and those carried out in the greenhouse (PI408251, Waseda, B6F4 (L-3 less, PI423909 and Tambagura.Durante 1995/96 e 1996/97, foram conduzidos experimentos na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, visando: quantificar os teores de óleo e proteína em dois grupos de genótipos de soja tipo alimento; estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas existentes entre os teores de óleo, proteína e tamanho das sementes; e, identificar genótipos para consumo humano de forma direta, com elevado teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os caracteres Peso de Cem Sementes (PCS, expresso em gramas / 100 sementes, Teor de Óleo (TO, e Teor de Proteína (TP, expressos em %. Na população conduzida a campo, a característica TO variou de 12 a 20,4 %, e TP de 35,7 a 41,8 %. A população conduzida em casa de vegetação apresentou uma variação de 12,3 a 21,8 % para TO, e de 33 a 41,6 % para TP. As correla

  2. CHANGES IN NUTRIENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL CONTENTS OF SESAME SEEDS DURING FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderonke I. Olagunju

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sesame seeds were fermented using the traditional method for four days and samples taken for analysis each day till the last day of fermentation to monitor the compositional changes in the seeds as fermentation progressed. The viable count obtained ranged from 8.0×103 after 24 h to 2.93×106 cfu/g on the 4th day. The crude protein and fat content increased as fermentation progressed reaching 27.84% and 51.58% respectively. Fermentation yielded positive effect on the phytic acid, phytin phosphorus and oxalate content of the flour samples when compared with the control. Phytic acid content ranged from 31.59 mg/g for raw seed to 18.13 mg/g for fermented seed flour. Sesame seed are high in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and slight increases in values were obtained at the end of processing. Sesame seeds are rich in both essential and non-essential amino acids with leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine values higher than the recommended daily allowance. Processing significantly increased the amino acid values. Sesame flour demonstrated ability to scavenge free radicals. Fermentation of sesame seeds resulted in reduction in the antinutrients in the seed and the seed can serve as soup condiment and seasoning with improved nutritional composition with respect to protein and amino acid.

  3. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  4. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  5. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  6. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  7. Determination of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peel, seed and juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tadi Beni

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The results of study indicated that pomegranate juice showed the lowest antioxidant activity and phenolic content in comparison to peel and seed. High antioxidant activity of pomegranate can introduce them as natural food preservatives.

  8. Natural variation and QTL analysis for cationic mineral content in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Koornneef, M.; Nelissen, H.J.M.; Ernst, W.H.O.

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring genetic variation for contents of cationic minerals in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied by screening a series of accessions (ecotypes) for Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn, and for total contents of P. Variation was observed for all minerals and correlations between contents of

  9. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII, and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP. The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars.

  10. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongling; Yu, Weiwu; Hänninen, Heikki; Song, Lili; Du, Xuhua; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jiasheng

    2018-01-01

    Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP). The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b)) and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars. PMID:29375592

  11. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  12. Chemical content of the seeds and physico-chemical characteristic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccinia grandis) to 1.5 (Citrullus colochinths). The ideal oleo-proteaginious seeds would be the one containing as much oils as protein, which would correspond to ratio R1 = 1. This ideal value of. R1 was found in Cucumis metilerus (R1 = 1).

  13. The influence of bovine milk high or low in isoflavones on hepatic gene expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanild, Mette Tingleff; Nielsen, Tina Skau

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phytoestrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phytoestrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes...... in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17β-estradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array q......PCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17β-estradiol upregulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones...

  14. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  15. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shikui; Hou, Wensheng; Godo, Itamar; Wu, Cunxiang; Yu, Yang; Matityahu, Ifat; Hacham, Yael; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins.

  16. No Evidence for Differential Biomass and Mineral Content in Adult Plants Grown from Dimorphic Suaeda Aralocaspica Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, C. Y.; Huang, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The production of two or more seed types by a single plant is known as seed heteromorphism. There have been many comparisons of seed traits or growth between plants grown from heteromorphic seeds. However, information is scarce regarding the mineral contents of adult plants from heteromorphic seeds. We herein present biomass and mineral profiles of adult plants grown from dimorphic seeds (non-dormant brown seeds and black seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy) of the annual desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica at different nutrient and salinity levels. Although nutrient and salinity treatments affected dry weight and mineral content, there were no significant differences among S. aralocaspica seed-dimorphic plants under the same experimental conditions. This study is one of the few to compare the physiological responses between seed-heteromorphic plants, and reveals that mineral status corresponds with growth performance in these plants. (author)

  17. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  18. Increasing Provasculature Complexity in the Arabidopsis Embryo May Increase Total Iron Content in Seeds: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannetz Roschzttardtz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to iron deficiency is a worldwide issue, affecting mainly children and women. Seed iron is a major source of this micronutrient for feeding, however, in most crops these levels are too low to meet daily needs. Thus, increasing iron allocation and its storage in seeds can represent an important step to enhance iron provision for humans and animals. Our knowledge on seed iron homeostasis is mainly based on studies performed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where iron accumulates in endodermis cells surrounding the embryo provasculature. It has been reported that cotyledon provasculature pattern complexity can be modified, thus we hypothesize that changes in the complexity of embryo vein patterns may affect total iron content in Arabidopsis seeds. This approach could be used as basis to develop strategies aimed to biofortify seeds.

  19. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  1. Gene divergence of homeologous regions associated with a major seed protein content QTL in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji eLestari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding several modes of duplication contributing on the present genome structure is getting an attention because it could be related to numerous agronomically important traits. Since soybean serves as a rich protein source for animal feeds and human consumption, breeding efforts in soybean have been directed toward enhancing seed protein content. The publicly available soybean sequences and its genomically featured elements facilitate comprehending of quantitative trait loci (QTL for seed protein content in concordance with homeologous regions in soybean genome. Although parts of chromosome (Chr 20 and Chr 10 showed synteny, QTLs for seed protein content present only on Chr 20. Using comparative analysis of gene contents in recently duplicated genomic regions harboring QTL for protein/oil content on Chrs 20 and 10, a total of 27 genes are present in duplicated regions of both chromosomes. Notably, 4 tandem duplicates of the putative homeobox protein 22 (HB22 are present only on Chr 20 and this Medicago truncatula homolog expressed in endosperm at seed filling stage. These tandem duplicates could contribute on the protein/oil QTL of Chr 20. Our study suggests that non-shared gene contents within the duplicated genomic regions might lead to absence/presence of QTL related to protein/oil content.

  2. Cyclic ADP-ribose and IP3 mediate abscisic acid-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the roles of ABA-cADPR-Ca 2+ and ABA-IP3-Ca 2+ signaling pathways in UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts were investigated. Results showed that abscisic acid (ABA) up regulated cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. Furthermore, cADPR and IP3, as second messengers of UV-B-triggered ABA, induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating proteins and genes expression and activity of isoflavone biosynthetic-enzymes (chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS). After Ca 2+ was chelated by EGTA, isoflavone content decreased. Overall, ABA-induced cADPR and IP3 up regulated isoflavone accumulation which was mediated by Ca 2+ signaling via enhancing the expression of proteins and genes participating in isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. - Highlights: • UV-B-induced cADPR and IP3 synthesis was mediated by ABA. • cADPR and IP3 were involved in UV-B-ABA-induced isoflavone accumulation. • cADPR and IP3-induced isoflavone accumulation may be mediated by Ca 2+ . • ABA, cADPR, IP3 and Ca 2+ could activate proteins expression of CHS and IFS.

  3. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of some Fruit Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of secondary plant metabolite with an antioxidant character are present in the vegetal extracts, such as: tocopherols, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc. These compounds intervene in the cellular defense mechanisms against the free radicals and oxidative stress, as they possess anticancer and anti mutation effect. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of methanolic extracts obtained from seeds of fruits: Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Citrullus lanatus. Grape seeds have a high content of antioxidants and polyphenols compounds, due to this, it is recommended their used in obtaining functional food with benefit on the human body.

  4. Corn seed response to gamma radiation as a function of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Saraiva, Luiz Sergio; Cruz, Cosme Damiao

    1997-01-01

    The study of the factors that affect the radiation efficiency is important, because it makes easier to get mutants that may be used as source of variability on improvement programs or as structural chromosomic aberrations for cytogenetics studies. The main of this research was to investigate the influence of corn seed water content on gamma radiation response. As a rule, the damage caused by irradiation was more evident on seeds with higher water content. Also, increased damages were observed with higher radiation doses. (author)

  5. An R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, regulates isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones comprise a group of secondary metabolites produced almost exclusively by plants in the legume family, including soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. They play vital roles in plant defense and have many beneficial effects on human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Via a genome-wide association study (GWAS, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are significantly associated with isoflavone concentrations in soybean. One of these 28 SNPs was located in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, and this gene was thus selected as a candidate gene for further analyses. A subcellular localization study confirmed that GmMYB29 was located in the nucleus. Transient reporter gene assays demonstrated that GmMYB29 activated the IFS2 (isoflavone synthase 2 and CHS8 (chalcone synthase 8 gene promoters. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing of GmMYB29 in soybean hairy roots resulted in increased and decreased isoflavone content, respectively. Moreover, a candidate-gene association analysis revealed that 11 natural GmMYB29 polymorphisms were significantly associated with isoflavone contents, and regulation of GmMYB29 expression could partially contribute to the observed phenotypic variation. Taken together, these results provide important genetic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

  6. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-02-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  7. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  8. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  9. Relationship between color (instrumental and visual) and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnecker, Patrícia; Gomes, M Salete O; Arêas, José A G; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M

    2002-07-03

    The correlation between chlorophyll content and quantitative color parameters was investigated in order to find an indirect method for predicting green pigment in ripening soybean seeds. Five Brazilian soybean varieties harvested at different maturity stages (R(6) to R(8) according to the scale of Fehr & Caviness) and dried under two conditions (in oven at 40 degrees C with circulating air and at ambient temperature around 25 degrees C) were analyzed in two consecutive years. The slow-dried seeds at 25 degrees C lost chlorophyll faster, whereas drying at 40 degrees C did not result in yellowing of seeds. High and significant linear correlations between a value and total chlorophyll were obtained over the whole maturation period and on both conditions of drying. From an industrial point of view it appears that a value, obtained by the CIE-L*a*b* method, seems to be a good tool to be applied for quality control and classifying soybean seeds for different purposes.

  10. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  11. Teores de isoflavonas em grãos inteiros e nos componentes dos grãos de diferentes cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill Isoflavone contents of whole soybeans and their components, obtained from different cultivars (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à maior concentração de isoflavonas nos hipocótilos dos grãos de soja, a indústria de alimentos tem utilizado esse componente do grão como matéria-prima. No presente trabalho, foram quantificados os teores de isoflavonas nas estruturas formadoras do grão de soja (hipocótilo, cotilédones e casca, analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram avaliadas quatro cultivares de sojas especiais: BRS 184, BRS 216, BRS 257 e BRS 267, desenvolvidas pela Embrapa Soja. Todas as cultivares apresentaram maior teor de isoflavonas totais no hipocótilo (média de 2029,32 mg.100 g-1. No grão inteiro (267,16 mg.100 g-1 e nos cotilédones (209,16 mg.100 g-1, os teores de isoflavonas foram cerca de dez vezes menores do que nos hipocótilos. A cultivar BRS 216 apresentou o teor maior de isoflavonas totais no hipocótilo (2583,20 mg.100 g-1. Embora a casca da soja não apresente isoflavonas, observou-se que esses compostos estavam presentes nessa parte do grão numa quantidade média de 105,58 mg.100 g-1, devido à presença de resíduos do hipocótilo e dos cotilédones provenientes do processo de descasque. Essa composição residual da casca favorece sua utilização como matéria-prima fonte de fibras, porque também fornece isoflavonas e outros compostos da soja.Due to the higher concentration of isoflavones in the soybean hypocotyls, the food industry has used this component of the bean as a raw material. This paper reports the isoflavone contents found in the different parts of the bean (hypocotyl, cotyledon and hull as analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Four special soybean cultivars, BRS 184, BRS 216, BRS 257 and BRS 267, developed by Embrapa Soybean, were evaluated. All the cultivars presented higher contents of total isoflavones in the hypocotyls (average of 2029.32 mg.100 g-1. The isoflavone contents of the whole beans (267.16 mg.100 g-1 and the cotyledons (209.16 mg.100 g-1 were about 10

  12. Seed yield and protein content in sunflower depending on stand density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of stand density on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. The field experiment was carried out at Rimski Šančevi location. Six NS sunflower hybrids were examined. Five hybrids are confectionery (NS Goliat, NS Slatki, NS Gricko, Vranac and Cepko, and one is used for bird food (NS-H-6485. The trial was arranged as randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Sowing was done with six different densities (from 20,000 to 70,000 plants per hectare, with an increment of 10,000 plants per hectare. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the effect of hybrid, stand density and hybrid × stand density interation were highly significant for seed yield and protein content. The highest seed yield, on the basis of average for all densities, was found in NS-H-6485 (4.77 t ha-1 and in NS Gricko (4.43 t ha-1. Average seed yield of hybrids significantly increased up to 50,000 plants per ha-1, when it reached the value of 4.50 t ha-1, and then decreased. Significantly higher protein content, taking into account all stand densities, showed hybrid Cepko (16.94%. Protein content, above the overall average value, was achieved in hybrid Vranac (16.11%. The high­est protein content in the average for all six hybrids was at the lowest stand density (20,000 plants per ha-1, and then decreased up to higher densities. The results showed that stand density had significant effect on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025: The development of new cultivars and improving the technology of producing oil plant species for different purposes

  13. Increased insulin sensitivity and changes in the expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes and beta cell transcription factors in diabetic KKAy-mice after feeding with a soy bean protein rich diet high in isoflavone content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, I; Jeppesen, P B; Hong, J; Abudula, R; Hermansen, K

    2008-06-25

    High content isoflavone soy protein (SBP) (Abalon) has been found in animal studies to possess beneficial effects on a number of the characteristic features of the insulin resistance syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SBP exerts beneficial effects on metabolism in the diabetic KKAy-mouse. Furthermore, we investigated the long-term in vivo effect of SBP on the expression profile in islets of key insulin regulatory genes. Twenty KKAy-mice, aged 5 weeks, were divided into 2 groups and treated for 9 weeks with either (A) standard chow diet (control) or (B) chow + 50% SBP. Twenty normal C57BL-mice fed with standard chow diet served as nondiabetic controls (C). Blood samples were collected and analyzed before and after intervention. Gene expression was determined in islets by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Affymetrix microarray. It was demonstrated that long-term treatment with SBP improves glucose homeostasis, increases insulin sensitivity, and lowers plasma triglycerides in diabetic KKAy-mice. SBP reduces fasting plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, SBP markedly changes the gene expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes GLUT2, GLUT3, Ins1, Ins2, IGF1, Beta2/Neurod1, cholecystokinin, and LDLr, and proliferative genes in islets isolated from KKAy-mice. After 9 weeks of treatment with SBP, plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis was normalized compared to start levels. The results indicate that SBP improves glucose and insulin sensitivity and up-regulates the expression of key insulin regulatory genes.

  14. Changes in the contents of nitrogen fractions with loosing vital capacity of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Prokushkin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Siberian fir seeds often lose their germinating capacity during storage. This results from, among other factors, changing contents of nitrogen compounds in the seeds, especially those of protein fractions. This paper focuses on analyzing changes of these compounds in nonviable seeds of the species depending on ecological and conditions and stand location, as well as on tree growth class (Kraft growth classes I and IV. The contents of the total and protein nitrogen in the nonviable seeds of the trees of growth classes I and IV appeared to vary widely and to depend on stand location and seed location in the tree crown. The maximum contents were in the seeds located in the upper part of the crown. The seeds from the middle and lower crown parts contained much less total and protein nitrogen. The hard-to-solve protein fraction dominated over other protein fraction in the seeds from the upper part of the crowns of the trees of growth classes I and IV. However, this fraction, like prolamines, changed uniformly throughout the crowns, whereas seed glutelin content varied insignificantly among the crown parts. Albumins and globulins showed a uniform crown top-to-bottom decrease. A comparison of viable seed with unviable seeds for contents of the nitrogen forms revealed a marked decrease in the total and protein nitrogen in the latter, especially for the trees of growth class IV. The seeds that lost their germinating capacity exhibited increasingly hard-to-solve protein fraction and drastically decreasing albumins and globulins wherever the seeds were in the crown. Their glutelin and prolamine contents changed inconsiderably.The changes of the quantitative ratio between the protein fractions found by the study cause, along with other physiological and biochemical factors, the loss of viability of Siberian fir seeds during storage.

  15. Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity in seed oil content and fatty acid composition in six wild species of genus Sesamum viz., Sesamum mulayanum, Sesamum capense, Sesamum laciniatum, Sesamum latifolium, Sesamum occidentale and Sesamum schinzianum were studied and compared with the cultivated species Sesamum indicum or ...

  16. Correlation of protein content to flatulent galactooligosaccharides and exogenous amino acids in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the possible correlations among constituents of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds, the contents of protein, exogenous amino acids and flatulent galactooligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose were analyzed in 16 Polish bean cultivars for dry seeds. A negative correlation coefficient (r =-0.9490 was found between protein and methionine contents. High positive correlations among exogenous amino acids, such as lysine and isoleucine, valine and isoleucine, lysine and tyrosine, were observed indicating a chance of selecting far more than one at a time. The small-seeded bean cultivars contained higher contents of protein and galactooligosaccharides than the large-seeded ones.

  17. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  18. Isoflavone and protein content in soybeans grains submitted to flooding at different stages of development Teor de isoflavonas e proteínas nos grãos de soja submetida ao alagamento em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress imposed on plants by soil flooding constitutes a major barrier to growth and productivity. The identification of soybean varieties that produce higher levels of isoflavones, is necessary as soybeans have been used as human food to reduce risks of chronic diseases. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective of quantifying proteins and isoflavones in soybean cultivars subjected to flooding at various stages of development. The cultivars 'BRS267', 'BRS257' and 'BRS213' were subjected to 15 days of flooding, starting at the stages V6 and V8 and 11 days under stress starting at the stage R4. The proteins in the grain were extracted and quantified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Isoflavones were extracted, separated and quantified on HPLC. The electrophoretic analysis of the three cultivars under study revealed the same pattern of banding relative to the total protein regardless of the treatment. However, it was noted that flooding led to an increase in the total contents of isoflavones in the BRS 267 plants flooded in stage R4, remaining constant in other cultivars.O estresse imposto às plantas pelo alagamento do solo constitui uma barreira para o crescimento e produtividade destas. A identificação de cultivares de soja que possam produzir maior teor de isoflavonas torna-se necessária à medida que a soja vem sendo utilizada na alimentação humana e para redução dos riscos de doenças crônicas. Dessa forma, o presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de quantificar isoflavonas e proteínas em cultivares de soja submetidas ao alagamento em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. As cultivares 'BRS 267', 'BRS 257' e 'BRS 213' foram submetidas a 15 dias de alagamento, nos estádios V6 e V8 e 11 dias sob estresse, no estádio R4. As proteínas no grão foram extraídas e quantificadas e analisadas as eletroforeses em SDS-PAGE. Os isoflavonóides foram extraídos, separados e quantificados por HPLC. A análise por

  19. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  20. Determination of isoflavones in soy and selected foods containing soy by extraction, saponification, and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, S P; Allred, M C; MacDonald, J L; Ballam, J M

    2001-01-01

    Isoflavones are biologically active compounds occurring naturally in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels found in soybeans. Twelve laboratories participated in a collaborative study to determine the aglycon isoflavone content of 8 test samples of soy and foods containing soy. The analytical method for the determination of isoflavones incorporates a mild saponification step that reduces the number of analytes measured and permits quantitation versus commercially available, stable reference standards. Test samples were extracted at 65 degrees C with methanol-water (80 + 20), saponified with dilute sodium hydroxide solution, and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection at 260 nm. Isoflavone results were reported as microg/aglycon/g or microg aglycon equivalents/g. The 8 test samples included 2 blind duplicates and 4 single test samples with total isoflavone concentrations ranging from approximately 50 to 3000 microg/g. Test samples of soy ingredients and products made with soy were distributed to collaborators with appropriate reference standards. Collaborators were asked to analyze test samples in duplicate on 2 separate days. The data were analyzed for individual isoflavone components, subtotals of daidzin-daidzein, glycitin-glycitein, and genistin-genistein, and total isoflavones. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repeatability was 1.8-7.1%, and the RSD for reproducibility was 3.2-16.1% for total isoflavone values of 47-3099 microg/g.

  1. The use of HPLC identification and quantification of isoflavones content in samples obtained in pharmacies = O uso do HPLC na identificação e quantificação dos teores de isoflavonas em amostras obtidas de farmácias de manipulação = O uso do HPLC na identificação e quantificação dos teores de isoflavonas em amostras obtidas de farmácias de manipulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mantovani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a great interest in the research and the production of functional foods, such as isoflavones. Which present proven action on the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Considering the importance of soybeansupplements standardization, this study aimed identifying and quantifying the isoflavones in products sold at different pharmacies. Isoflavones samples were acquired in six different pharmacies specialized in the production of phytotherapic medications. The isoflavones were extracted, quantified and identified in HPLC. None of the samples, from different pharmacies, presented the isoflavones content presented on the label, i.e., 20 mg. In relation to the isoflavones profile, the highest levels found were of daidzein, with up to 66.8 } 0.09 ƒÊg, being the lowest levels the ones of genistein. It is necessary, therefore, the adoption of methods for thestandardization and characterization of the raw materials used by different pharmacies. It would assure the isoflavones content, once they are essential for the effects prescribed by the professionals in the medical area.O uso do HPLC na identificacao e quantificacao dos teores de isoflavonas em amostras obtidas de farmacias de manipulacao. Atualmente ha um grande interesse na pesquisa e producao de alimentos funcionais, como as isoflavonas, que apresentam comprovada acao na prevencao de males, como o cancer e as doencas cardiovasculares. Considerando a importancia da padronizacao dos suplementos de soja,o objetivo do presente estudo foi de identificar e quantificar as isoflavonas em produtos comercializados em diferentes farmacias de manipulacao. Amostras de isoflavonas foram adquiridas em seis diferentes farmacias especializadas em manipulacao de fitoterapicos. As isoflavonas foram extraidas, identificadas e quantificadas em CLAE. Nenhuma das amostras, das diferentes farmacias de manipulacao, apresentou os teores de isoflavonas indicado no

  2. Proteomic analysis of oil bodies in mature Jatropha curcas seeds with different lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Shihua

    2015-01-15

    To reveal the difference among three mature Jatropha curcas seeds (JcVH, variant with high lipid content; JcW, wild type and JcVL, variant with low lipid content) with different lipid content, comparative proteomics was employed to profile the changes of oil body (OB) associated protein species by using gels-based proteomic technique. Eighty-three protein species were successfully identified through LTQ-ES-MS/MS from mature JcW seeds purified OBs. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of J. curcas OB associated protein species revealed they had essential interactions with other organelles and demonstrated that oleosin and caleosin were the most abundant OB structural protein species. Twenty-eight OB associated protein species showed significant difference among JcVH, JcW and JcVL according to statistical analysis. Complementary transient expression analysis revealed that calcium ion binding protein (CalBP) and glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP) were well targeted in OBs apart from the oleosins. This study demonstrated that ratio of lipid content to caleosins abundance was involved in the regulation of OB size, and the mutant induced by ethylmethylsulfone treatment might be related to the caleosin like protein species. These findings are important for biotechnological improvement with the aim to alter the lipid content in J. curcas seeds. The economic value of Jatropha curcas largely depends on the lipid content in seeds which are mainly stored in the special organelle called oil bodies (OBs). In consideration of the biological importance and applications of J. curcas OB in seeds, it is necessary to further explore the components and functions of J. curcas OBs. Although a previous study concerning the J. curcas OB proteome revealed oleosins were the major OB protein component and additional protein species were similar to those in other oil seed plants, these identified OB associated protein species were corresponding to the protein bands instead of protein

  3. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Lingjuan; Fritsche, Steffi; Endrigkeit, Jessica; Zhang, Wenying; Long, Yan; Jung, Christian; Meng, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38) is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH) population, its reconstructed F(2) (RC-F(2)) population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel). Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2) populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used for marker-assisted selection of oilseed rape lines with superior tocopherol

  4. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  5. Experimental determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from jatropha seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Omede, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal neutron technique was used for the determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from Jatropha seeds. The experimental arrangement consists of a source holder, Am-Be neutron source embedded in paraffin wax and 3 He detector was used to measure reflection coefficient as a function of hydrogen content of various hydrocarbon materials used as calibration standards. The hydrogen content which is an important property of fuel oils was determined for jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel using their measured values of neutron reflection coefficients and calibration data. The result obtained showed that the hydrogen content of Jatropha oil exceeds that of the synthetic diesel, thus indicating its suitability as a fuel oil for powering diesel engines. The results obtained also indicated that hydrogen content of jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture increases as the volumetric concentration of jatropha oil in the mixture increases, indicating that jatropha oil can serve as a suitable additive to synthetic diesel oil.

  6. Seed Protein Content and Consistency of Tofu Prepared with Different Magnesium Chloride Concentrations in Six Japanese Soybean Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Kyoko; Ono, Tomotada; Kitamura, Keisuke; Hajika, Makita; Takahashi, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the protein content of soybean seeds and the consistency of tofu was examined for six Japanese soybean varieties, Enrei, Fukuyutaka, Sachiyutaka, Ayakogane, Hatayutaka and Tachinagaha. The seed protein content was estimated by determining the nitrogen content using the Dumas method. Tofu was prepared from a raw homogenate of water-soaked soybeans by heating and by the addition of MgCl_2 as a coagulant. The tofu consistency was evaluated by measuring the breaking stres...

  7. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  9. Development of transgenic Brassica juncea lines for reduced seed sinapine content by perturbing phenylpropanoid pathway genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kajla

    Full Text Available Sinapine is a major anti-nutritive compound that accumulates in the seeds of Brassica species. When ingested, sinapine imparts gritty flavuor in meat and milk of animals and fishy odor to eggs of brown egg layers, thereby compromising the potential use of the valuable protein rich seed meal. Sinapine content in Brassica juncea germplasm ranges from 6.7 to 15.1 mg/g of dry seed weight (DSW which is significantly higher than the prescribed permissible level of 3.0 mg/g of DSW. Due to limited natural genetic variability, conventional plant breeding approach for reducing the sinapine content has largely been unsuccessful. Hence, transgenic approach for gene silencing was adopted by targeting two genes-SGT and SCT, encoding enzymes UDP- glucose: sinapate glucosyltransferase and sinapoylglucose: choline sinapoyltransferase, respectively, involved in the final two steps of sinapine biosynthetic pathway. These two genes were isolated from B. juncea and eight silencing constructs were developed using three different RNA silencing approaches viz. antisense RNA, RNAi and artificial microRNA. Transgenics in B. juncea were developed following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. From a total of 1232 independent T0 transgenic events obtained using eight silencing constructs, 25 homozygous lines showing single gene inheritance were identified in the T2 generation. Reduction of seed sinapine content in these lines ranged from 15.8% to 67.2%; the line with maximum reduction had sinapine content of 3.79 mg/g of DSW. The study also revealed that RNAi method was more efficient than the other two methods used in this study.

  10. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during gamma irradiation of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Namiki, M.; Kawakishi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerated aging effects, induced by y irradiation, were investigated on the fatty acid composition of lipids and on the content of endogenous antioxidants of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds with and without intact hull. While the linoleic acid content of the phospholipids decreased gradually with the increase in irradiation doses, there was a corresponding increase in the linoleic acid content of the free fatty acids. Such changes were drastic, especially in the case of Japonica rice seeds irradiated without intact hull. However, the neutral lipids were found to be resistant to γ irradiation. The α-tocopherol content was found to decrease (markedly) in rice seeds irradiated with or without hull, especially in the Japonica rice seeds. At a dose of 15 kGy only traces of a-tocopherol could be detected in Japonica and Indica rice seeds irradiated with and without intact hull. Oryzanol, a relatively weaker anti-oxidant, was found to be more resistant to oxidative damage than a-tocopherol. At 15 kGy, the oryzanol content ranged from 59 μg to 170 μg/g lipid in rice seeds irradiated with intact hull, while the corresponding value for rice seeds irradiated without hull was 52 μg to 153 μg/g lipid. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system offered better protection in overcoming oxidative stress in Indica rice hull than in Japonica rice hull

  11. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  12. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds.

  13. Determination of protein content in seeds by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The protein level in seeds can be directly calculated through the determination of the nitrogen content in grains. The authors show here that the radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma-rays technique can be used to determine the nitrogen content in grains without chemical destruction, with good precision and relative rapidity, by detecting the prompt gamma rays emitted by the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction product. The samples were irradiated in the tangential tube of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in Sao Paulo, and a pair spectrometer was used for the detection of the prompt gamma-rays. The nitrogen content was determined in several samples of soybean, common bean, peas and rice and the results compared with typical nitrogen content values for each grain. 33 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  14. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  15. GABA content and Antioxidant activity of Thai waxy corn seeds germinated by hypoxia method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisamai Polthum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germinated seeds have a greater amount of the naturally-occurring -aminobutyric acid (GABA which has many health benefits. Further, colored seeds have higher antioxidant activity. Thai waxy corn is widely consumed after cooking, due to its palatable glutinous texture. However, it is not commonly germinated before use. In this study, two varieties of Thai waxy corn, KKU-KND (purple seed and KKU-SLE (white seed, were germinated and converted to corn flour with the aim of investigating the effect of germination on GABA content and antioxidant activity. Further, the microstructure of starch granules was also examined. KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were grown and harvested in 2012. The seeds were soaked in distilled water for 6 hrs to attain a moisture content of 31-32%wb and then germinated by employing two methods, i in an open plastic box, and ii in a closed plastic box with a headspace of 3 cm for devoid oxygen (hypoxia method; the germination period varied between 12-48 hrs at 35±2°C in both cases. The germinated samples were then dried at 50°C to a moisture content of 10±2%wb. The results showed that non-germinated KKU-KND and KKU-SLE contained 2.68±0.77 and 1.58±0.05 mgGABA/ 100gdb, respectively, whereas the samples germinated by the hypoxia method contained significantly higher GABA which increased with germination time (p<0.05. The highest GABA contents found in KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were 37.20±3.27 and 54.47±2.08 mg/100gdb, respectively after 48 hrs of germination under the hypoxia method. In addition, the germinated KKU-KND gave ABTS and DPPH values of 388.32±0.53 and 140.29±0.57 mgTrolox/100gdb, whereas the germinated KKU-SLE gave ABTS and DPPH values of 183.69±1.75 and 38.43±1.64 mgTrolox/100gdb, respectively. The pictures of starch granules obtained by means of SEM displayed differences in the shape and size of the non-germinated and germinated granules in both verities. In conclusion, the hypoxia method is able to induce higher GABA

  16. Effect of moisture content and temperature on thermal behaviour of sesame seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hassan Miraei ASHTIANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of two varieties (white and brown of sesame seeds were evaluated as a function of moisture content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 25-70˚C and the moisture content range of 3.86-19.83% (dry basis for white and 3.07-18.99% (dry basis for brown varieties. The specific heat of white and brown sesame seeds ranged 1062-3058 and 906-2958 J/(kg·˚C, respectively. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values also increased with increasing either moisture content or temperature. Thermal diffusivity varied between 4.66×10-8 and 8.59×10-8 m2/s for white and 4.36×10-8-8.08×10-8 m2/s for brown varieties. Thermal conductivity ranged 0.031-0.149 and 0.023-0.135 W/(m·˚C for white and brown varieties, respectively. Results showed that the moisture content and temperature had significant effects (p≤0.01 on the studied properties.

  17. Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) accessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, N.; Kumar, Krishan; Kumar, Sushil [CCS HAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal (Rewari) (India); Kaushik, Nutan; Roy, S. [The Energy Resource Institute, New Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Variability in seed traits and oil content of 24 accessions of Jatropha curcas collected from different agroclimatic zones of Haryana state, India were assessed. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in seed size, 100-seed weight and oil content between accessions. Maximum seed weight was recorded in seeds collected from IC-520602 and the least weight was recorded in IC-520587. Oil variability ranged from 28.00% in IC-520589 to 38.80% in IC-520601. In general phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability and genetic gain were recorded for oil content (99.00% and 18.90%) and seed weight (96.00% and 18.00%), respectively, indicating the additive gene action. Seed weight had positive correlation with seed length, breadth, thickness and oil content. On the basis of non-hierarchical Euclidian cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained with highest number of accession falling under cluster III. Maximum and minimum intra cluster distance was observed for cluster VI (2.499) and for cluster III (2.252), respectively. Whereas maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and IV (5.129) and minimum between cluster III and II (2.472). Among the six clusters formed cluster IV showed maximum cluster value for seed size whereas, cluster VI showed maximum value for oil content and seed weight. Thus on the basis of present finding it is suggested that the crossing between accessions of cluster IV and VI will result in wide spectrum of variability in subsequent generations. (author)

  18. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  19. The Effect of Accelerated Aging on Germination Characteristics, Seed Reserve Utilization and Malondialdehyde Content of Two Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Goodarzian Ghahfarokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study experiment was conducted to evaluated the effect of accelerated aging on germination characteristics, seed reserve utilization and malondialdehyde of two wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted in factorial with a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Results of variance analysis showed that, seed aging had significant effects on germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, mean time to germination, malondialdehyde content, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and electrical conductivity. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and the minimum mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content were attained from Verinak cultivar under control conditions (0 day aging. Results indicates that germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight, and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve decreased significantly as seed aging progressed. But, mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content increased significantly as seed aging progressed. Also, the decrease in seed reserve mobilization rate was the cause of decreased other traits.

  20. A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Song, Qijian; Jia, Gaofeng; Specht, James E; Hyten, David L; Costa, Jose; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-01-02

    Association analysis is an alternative to conventional family-based methods to detect the location of gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provides relatively high resolution in terms of defining the genome position of a gene or QTL. Seed protein and oil concentration are quantitative traits which are determined by the interaction among many genes with small to moderate genetic effects and their interaction with the environment. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed protein and oil concentration in 298 soybean germplasm accessions exhibiting a wide range of seed protein and oil content. A total of 55,159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using various methods including Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate assays and 31,954 markers with minor allele frequency >0.10 were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. In euchromatic regions, the mean LD (r2) rapidly declined to 0.2 within 360 Kbp, whereas the mean LD declined to 0.2 at 9,600 Kbp in heterochromatic regions. The GWAS results identified 40 SNPs in 17 different genomic regions significantly associated with seed protein. Of these, the five SNPs with the highest associations and seven adjacent SNPs were located in the 27.6-30.0 Mbp region of Gm20. A major seed protein QTL has been previously mapped to the same location and potential candidate genes have recently been identified in this region. The GWAS results also detected 25 SNPs in 13 different genomic regions associated with seed oil. Of these markers, seven SNPs had a significant association with both protein and oil. This research indicated that GWAS not only identified most of the previously reported QTL controlling seed protein and oil, but also resulted in narrower genomic regions than the regions reported as containing these QTL. The narrower GWAS-defined genome regions will allow more precise

  1. Relationship of low phytate trait with seed germination and carbohydrates content in soybean mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the low phytate mutation with seed germination and carbohydrate content homozygous F 5 lines with/without lpa gene derived from mutant and different wild type parents were analyzed. The results showed that LPA (low phytic acid)/HPA (high phytic acid) lines developed in autumn had higher seed germination rate than that developed in spring. LPA lines had lower seed germination rate than HPA lines when they all developed in spring. However, in all crosses LPA lines with higher seed germination rate than mutant parent Gm-lpa-TW-1 was observed. No significant difference was detected between LPA and HPA lines when they developed in autumn. Homozygous LPA lines derived from vegetable soybean had lower seed germination than those from non-vegetable varieties. There was no significant difference in total carbohydrate content between LPA and HPA homozygous lines, but the sugar content of LPA homozygous lines was significant higher than HPA lines. On the contrary, oligosaccharides content with LPA lines were significant lower than those with HPA homozygous lines in all planting environment. It is concluded that seeds field germination rate were affected by low phytate mutation gene and planting environment, and lower seed germination rate phenotype of LPA lines could be improved by genetic method. Mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 of LPA phenotype was genetic linkage with high sugar and low oligosaccharides phenotype, so it should be benefit to breed new soybean varieties with better quality. (authors)

  2. Effects of Presowing Pulsed Electromagnetic Treatment of Tomato Seed on Growth, Yield, and Lycopene Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia Efthimiadou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnetic field as a presowing treatment has been adopted by researchers as a new environmental friendly technique. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of magnetic field exposure on tomato seeds covering a range of parameters such as transplanting percentage, plant height, shoot diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh weight, dry weight, number of flowers, yield, and lycopene content. Pulsed electromagnetic field was used for 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes as a presowing treatment of tomato seeds in a field experiment for two years. Papimi device (amplitude on the order of 12.5 mT has been used. The use of pulsed electromagnetic field as a presowing treatment was found to enhance plant growth in tomato plants at certain duration of exposure. Magnetic field treatments and especially the exposure of 10 and 15 minutes gave the best results in all measurements, except plant height and lycopene content. Yield per plant was higher in magnetic field treatments, compared to control. MF-15 treatment yield was 80.93% higher than control treatment. Lycopene content was higher in magnetic field treatments, although values showed no statistically significant differences.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Felipe A.; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A.; Herrera, G.; Vasco-Leal, José F.; Mosquera-Artamonov, José D.; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  4. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Nogala-Kałucka, Małgorzata; Szala, Laurencja; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%). The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114) was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg) than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg). The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ) and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH). Significantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p phytosterol content were not noted. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may be good parents for further breeding programs focused on increasing the amount and improving the quality of oilseed rapeseed oil. However, further studies will also be made to determine the influence of the

  5. Reduced abscisic acid content is responsible for enhanced sucrose accumulation by potassium nutrition in vegetable soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bingjie; Liu, Changkai; Tian, Bowen; Zhang, Qiuying; Liu, Xiaobing; Herbert, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seedling + 1% K 2 SO 4 foliar application at flowering (K2). Contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds were determined from 4 to 8 weeks after flowering. K fertilization increased the contents of IAA, GA, ZR, soluble sugar, sucrose and fresh pod yield, but reduced ABA content consistently. When the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose reached the highest level at 7 weeks after flowering for the 2 cultivars, the contents of IAA、GA、ZR all reached the lowest level in general. The content of ABA in seed was negatively correlated with the sucrose content (P abscisic acid content plays a critical role in enhancing sucrose content, which might be a partial mechanism involved in K nutrition to improve the quality of vegetable soybean.

  6. Changes in the isoflavone profile and in the chemical composition of tempeh during processing and refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pires Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze changes in the isoflavone profile, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at different processing stages and after refrigeration of tempeh. For tempeh production, clean soybean grains from cultivars BR 36 (low isoflavone content and IAS 5 (high were dehulled, and the separated cotyledons were hydrated and then cooked in boiling water for 30 min. Spores of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus were inoculated in the cooked and cooled cotyledons, and incubated at 32ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours in perforated polypropylene bags, for fermentation. The resulting tempeh was stored at 4ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours. After 24-hour fermentation, isoflavone glucosides were 50% reduced, and the aglycone forms in the tempeh from both cultivars was increased. The malonyl forms reduced 83% after cooking. Less than 24 hours of refrigeration did not affect the isoflavone profile of tempeh from either cultivar, which is a good indicator of its quality. The tempeh maintains the high and low isoflavone content of the cultivars, which indicates that cultivar differences in this trait should be considered when processing tempeh.

  7. Evaluation of seed yield and oil contents in four materials of Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza T. Guido Armando

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Four castor materials were evaluated in 2009 in the middle region of Valle del Sinu, Colombia. The variables were phonological development, plant height, seed production and oil yield, in order to determine the best material for commercial purposes. All materials reported high yields of oil seeds and highlighting the commercial genotype Nordestina BRS149, 2.2 t ha-1 seed and 47% oil content. Planting distances were 1.5 x 1.5 m and 2.0 x 2.0 m, with densities of 6,666 and 3,906 plants ha-1, respectively. The plant height, seed productivity and oil yield showed significant differences for the interaction density × material; while comparing each material density, seed production only showed differences. These variables were significantly different between population densities, which shows that the higher the plant height, lower productivity. The planting distance of 2.0 x 2.0 m, provides higher productivity per plant values but seed oil yields were not different between densities. The oil quality parameters were assessed using free fatty acid value

  8. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  9. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  10. Genome-wide scans for delineation of candidate genes regulating seed-protein content in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Deo eUpadhyaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of potential genes/alleles governing complex seed-protein content (SPC trait is essential in marker-assisted breeding for quality trait improvement of chickpea. Henceforth, the present study utilized an integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy encompassing trait association analysis, selective genotyping in traditional bi-parental mapping population and differential expression profiling for the first-time to understand the complex genetic architecture of quantitative SPC trait in chickpea. For GWAS (genome-wide association study, high-throughput genotyping information of 16376 genome-based SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism discovered from a structured population of 336 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions [with 150-200 kb LD (linkage disequilibrium decay] was utilized. This led to identification of seven most effective genomic loci (genes associated [10 to 20% with 41% combined PVE (phenotypic variation explained] with SPC trait in chickpea. Regardless of the diverse desi and kabuli genetic backgrounds, a comparable level of association potential of the identified seven genomic loci with SPC trait was observed. Five SPC-associated genes were validated successfully in parental accessions and homozygous individuals of an intra-specific desi RIL (recombinant inbred line mapping population (ICC 12299 x ICC 4958 by selective genotyping. The seed-specific expression, including differential up-regulation (> 4-fold of six SPC-associated genes particularly in accessions, parents and homozygous individuals of the aforementioned mapping population with high level of contrasting seed-protein content (21-22% was evident. Collectively, the integrated genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in six potential candidate genes regulating SPC trait in chickpea. Of these, a non-synonymous SNP allele-carrying zinc finger transcription factor gene exhibiting strong association with SPC trait

  11. Proximate composition, mineral content and functional properties of Tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus seed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorfarahzilah, M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarap seed (Artocarpus odoratissimus is one of the popular snacks among Borneo Island people especially in Sabah, Malaysia. Their flesh and seed are such a potential food source but they are not fully exploited. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine its nutritional composition, mineral content and functional properties of Tarap seed flour (TSF. The proximate analysis (protein, carbohydrate, fat, crude fiber, ash, moisture, minerals content and functional properties (powder particle size, bulk density, oil and water absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, foaming ability, least gelling concentration, swelling ability and pasting properties were determined. The proximate analysis results obtained showed that TSF had 49.65% carbohydrate, 15.60% crude fat, 12.3% crude fibers, 8.8% crude protein, 1.17 % ash and 12.5% moisture. Most abundant mineral found in Tarap flour was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, and natrium. The results showed that TSF has an average particle size of 166.02μm with low bulk density (0.57g/cm3 as compared to wheat flour. Water and oil absorption capacities of TSF were 2.61 and 1.69g/g, respectively, while the efficiency of emulsification was 14.8%. Least gelation concentration was found to be 12% while foaming ability was 7%. Swelling ability results showed a steady increment from 60°C to 70°C but sharp increased observed from 70°C to 80°C. From the results presented, it can be concluded that TSF has a great potential for use in the formulation of composite flours to be used as ingredients in the food industry.

  12. Genome-wide association mapping for seed protein and oil contents using a large panel of soybean accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin; Xie, Futi

    2018-01-08

    Soybean is globally cultivated primarily for its protein and oil. The protein and oil contents of the seeds are quantitatively inherited traits determined by the interaction of numerous genes. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular foundation of soybean protein and oil content for the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of high quality traits, a population of 185 soybean germplasms was evaluated to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the seed protein and oil contents. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, a total of 12,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 were detected across the 20 chromosomes (Chr), with a marker density of 78.7 kbp. A total of 31 SNPs located on 12 of the 20 soybean chromosomes were correlated with seed protein and oil content. Of the 31 SNPs that were associated with the two target traits, 31 beneficial alleles were identified. Two SNP markers, namely rs15774585 and rs15783346 on Chr 07, were determined to be related to seed oil content both in 2015 and 2016. Three SNP markers, rs53140888 on Chr 01, rs19485676 on Chr 13, and rs24787338 on Chr 20 were correlated with seed protein content both in 2015 and 2016. These beneficial alleles may potentially contribute towards the MAS of favorable soybean protein and oil characteristics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. PMID:22253990

  14. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  15. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  16. Effect of soaking in water and rumen digeta solutions on metabolizable energy content and chemical composition of barley seeds for use in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabee, S N; Sadeghi, G H; Tabeidian, S A

    2007-03-15

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking in water and different rumen digesta solutions on nutritional value of dry barley seeds. Treatments were included distilled water as control and rumen digesta that diluted with distilled water to obtain 20, 40 and 60% digesta solutions. Solutions have added to 10 kg of barley seed samples to achieve final 30% moisture content. After 21 days the chemical composition and energy content of barley seed were determined. Gross energy of barley seeds did not affected by different experimental treatments. Use of 20% rumen digesta solution resulted to a significant (pcontent of barley seeds. Barley seed that treated with 40% of rumen digesta solution had highest TME and TMEn content and its different from seeds that treated with 60 and 100% rumen digesta solutions was significant (prumen digesta solutions increased crud protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash content of barley seeds numerically.

  17. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kökten, Kağan; Koçak, Alpaslan; Bağci, Eyüp; Akçura, Mevlüt; Çelik, Sait

    2010-01-01

    The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae) were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stear...

  18. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  19. Regulation of Picea abies seed dormancy by red and far-red light at various moisture contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, K.; Chantal, M. de [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1998-04-01

    The effects of red (R), far-red (FR) and R+FR light on Norway spruce seed dormancy were studied at five different moisture contents (MC) between 5 and 20%. The degree of dormancy was studied by germinating seeds over a wide range of temperatures in the dark. The non-irradiated control seeds were shallowly dormant, only a proportion of them germinated and within a limited temperature range. Red light progressively stimulated germination between 5 and 17% MC, but this effect was reversed if a FR treatment followed, although all germination could not be inhibited by one FR pulse. Far-red light had a slightly stimulating effect at 19% MC. To generate seeds able to germinate over a wide range of temperatures in darkness, an artificial light pretreatment should be given to seeds at MC above 17% in order to receive maximum response 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  1. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  2. Genetic variability of isoflavones in the USDA red clover core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele P. Ramos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Red clover is one of the most utilized forage in agriculture and contains many of the isoflavones known for their human health benefits. The objectives of this study were: i to quantify, using HPLC analysis, isoflavones in 77 accessions from the USDA core collection and a Brazilian line; ii to verify possible relationships depending on their origin, improvement status or maturity type and; iii to verify the seasonal variation. The isoflavone mean contents were 29.27 µg g-1 of dry material for daidzein, 163.69 µg g-1 for genistein, 11353.29 µg g-1 for formononetin and 6568.8 µg g-1 for biochanin A. Clustering was mainly influenced by the total amount of isoflavones and partially due to maturity type, improvement status and geographic origin. The seasonal evaluation demonstrated an increase of concentration during winter, and decrease during spring. These results highlighted accessions that can be used to develop new varieties with low or high isoflavones concentration.

  3. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  4. Isoflavone Malonyltransferases GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 Differently Modify Isoflavone Glucosides in Soybean (Glycine max under Various Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Malonylated isoflavones are the major forms of isoflavonoids in soybean plants, the genes responsible for their biosyntheses are not well understood, nor their physiological functions. Here we report a new benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (BAHD family isoflavone glucoside malonyltransferase GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3, which is allelic to the previously characterized GmMT7 and GmIF7MaT. Biochemical studies showed that recombinant GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 enzymes used malonyl-CoA and several isoflavone 7-O-glucosides as substrates. The Km values of GmIMaT1 for glycitin, genistin, and daidzin were 13.11, 23.04, and 36.28 μM, respectively, while these of GmIMaT3 were 12.94, 26.67, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Transgenic hairy roots overexpressing both GmIMaTs had increased levels of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin, and contents of daidzin and glycitin increased only in GmIMaT1-overexpression lines. The increased daidzein and genistein contents were detected only in GmIMaT3-overexpression lines. Knockdown of GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 reduced malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin contents, and affected other isoflavonoids differently. GmIMaT1 is primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while GmIMaT3 is primarily in the cytosol. By examining their transcript changes corresponding to the altered isoflavone metabolic profiles under various environmental and hormonal stresses, we probed the possible functions of GmIMaTs. Two GmIMaTs displayed distinct tissue expression patterns and respond differently to various factors in modifying isoflavone 7-O-glucosides under various stresses.

  5. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  6. Evaluation of total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different verity lupin seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes, including lupins, beans, lentil and chickpea, are one of the most important crops in the world because of their nutritional quality. Lupin seeds have been used as human food and animal feed since ancient times. It was known that antioxidant photochemical in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Lupin grains are rich sources of complex carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods. Total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity were measured in four varieties of lupin, namely in white lupin, blue lupin, yellow lupin and Mutabilis lupin species. A majority of antioxidants naturally present in foods occur in phenolic structures and especially in flavonoid structures. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured by using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the present experiment according to the average contents of total polyphenols (TPC in dry matter of lupin seeds there was the following line: L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (696.212 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Albus (white lupin (614.13 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Luteus (yellow lupin (467.78 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Mutabilis (pearl lupin (367.36 mg GAE.100g-1. Based on the measured values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC of lupin samples can be classified as follows: L. Albus (white lupin (43.44% >L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (38.27% >L. Luteus (yellow lupin (22.29% >L. Mutabilis (Pearl lupin (20.80%. The relationship of antioxidant capacity with total polyphenolic was discussed. According to used statistical analyzes. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity was significantly positive (r = 0.88. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition

  7. Bioconversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, mineral bioavailability and vitamin B complex in fermented soymilk by probiotic bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-10-01

    To study the role of β-glucosidase producing probiotic bacteria and yeast in the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, mineral bioavailability and vitamin B complex in fermented soymilk. Five isolates of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus B4496, Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFR2028, Lactobacillus casei B1922, Lactobacillus plantarum B4495 and Lactobacillus fermentum B4655 with yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were used to ferment soymilk to obtain the bioactive isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the concentration of isoflavones. Bioactive aglycones genistein and daidzein after 24 and 48 h of fermentation ranged from 97.49 to 98.49% and 62.71 to 92.31% respectively with different combinations of LAB with yeast. Increase in bioavailability of minerals and vitamin B complex were also observed in fermented soymilk. LAB in combination with yeast S. boulardii has great potential for the enrichment of bioactive isoflavones, enhancing the viability of LAB strains, decreasing the antinutrient phytic acid and increasing the mineral bioavailability in soymilk fermentation. Fermentation of soymilk with probiotic organisms improves the bioavailability of isoflavones, assists in digestion of protein, provides more soluble calcium, enhances intestinal health and supports immune system. Increased isoflavone aglycone content in fermented soymilk improves the biological functionality of soymilk. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Modulating conversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones using crude beta-glycosidase extracts from almonds and processed soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn-Jarvis, J H; Teegarden, M D; Schwartz, S J; Lee, K; Vodovotz, Y

    2017-12-15

    Food processing alters the physicochemical state of soy which can enhance chemical and enzymatic conversion of isoflavones to their aglycone forms. This study investigated the role of β-glycosidase from processed soy-ingredient mixture (SIM) or almonds, and examined the impact of isoflavone composition in mediating conversion to aglycones. β-Glycosidase activity was quantified using p-nitrophenol-β-d-glucopyranoside and SIM isoflavone extracts. Almond β-glycosidase activity was significantly (palmonds. SIM β-glycosidase activity, however, increased, with steaming by 66% (p<0.001) and with roasting by 52% (p=0.022), compared to raw SIM. After incubation with β-glycosidase, percentage of aglycone (total aglycone/total isoflavones) in SIM isoflavone extracts increased significantly in raw (35%), fermented (48%), roasted (88%) and steamed (91%) SIM, compared to their initial (∼5%) compositions. Manipulation of β-glycosidase activity and isoflavone composition can be used to modulate aglycone content in soy food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  10. The relationship of heavy metals contents in soils to their content in legume seeds used in famous traditional food in kurdistan region-iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the level of risk heavy metals contents in Cowpea seeds comparison with heavy metal content in soil was studied. For the experiment three cowpea cultivars (brown, red, white were used. Cowpeas were harvested at full ripeness in Kalak location in Erbil city. The flame AAS (AAS Varian AA Spectr. DUO 240 FS/240Z/UltrAA was used for the determination of heavy metal contents in soil and plant materials. The soil which cultivated Cowpea, characterized neutral to slit alkali, with a typical content of cations K, Mg and P. Beans and the seeds of faba bean, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, traditionly used heavy sweets such as knafa. Ful, which is fava beans cooked with chickpeas (garbanzo beans or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad after boiled. Cowpea grain legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, especially in the dietary pattern of low income groups of people in developing countries. The level risk heavy metal contents in the soil determined was only Cd content was on the level of limit value given for the soil extract by aqua regia as well as Co content was higher than the limit value given for the relationship between soil and plant. All of determined values were lower than critical value extracted by NH4NO3 only the maximal available soil content of mobile Pb forms was exceeded but cowpea accumulated seeds in amounts the risky elements contents, with the exception of Ni, did not exceed limit for the maximum levels of chosen risk elements in studied legume. The content of the metals studied with the exception of cadmium, not exceed the maximum permissible value in legumes, as defined in the Codex Alimentarius. The aim of this research, to study or determine the content of risky heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cd in the soil and their relationship in selected varieties cowpea seeds cultivar. Faba

  11. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  12. Collected literature on isoflavones and chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are organic compounds, which have been linked to the health benefits and prevention of many diseases. Common isoflavones are genistein, daidzein, and glycitein. Genistein has been researched in regard to its effect on the reduction of menopausal symptoms and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in osteopenic, post-menopausal women. Research on daidzein focuses on bone mineral density implications in post-menopausal women, therapeutic effects early in prostate cancer, and protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The most recent research on daidzein has implications for its effect on cardiovascular risk reduction. Research on glycitein focuses on it bioavailability, as well as its role in angiogenesis and invasion of malignant glioma cells. The health benefits of these specific isoflavones are instrumental in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. This review of literature focuses on the effects of genistein, daidzein, and glycitein on health outcomes, such as breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and prostate cancer.

  13. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSR. Benites

    Full Text Available AbstractThe antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2 for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents.

  14. Content of Minerals and Fatty Acids and Their Correlation with Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Leguminous Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, Eugeniusz R; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Klebaniuk, Renata; Kiczorowski, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the mineral composition and fatty acid profile in the seeds of selected Fabaceae species and cultivars and to assess their correlations with phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The Andean lupine was characterised by a particularly high level of Mg and K as well as Cu, Zn, and Fe (P < 0.05). There were various correlations (P < 0.05) between the total phenols and tannins and these elements. The highest contribution of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3) in total fatty acids was noted in the lentil (13.8 in 100 g -1 fat), common bean (11.9 in 100 g -1 fat), and pea seeds (10.4 in 100 g -1 fat) (P = 0.028). In turn, the white lupine contained the highest content of ALA-0.67 g 100 g -1 seeds; its lowest level was determined in the broad bean-0.03 g 100 g -1 seeds. The seeds exhibited a high proportion of hypocholesterolemic fatty acids (on average 86%). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl antiradical activity was positively correlated with UFA and PUFA (P < 0.05). This indicates great protective potential of legume seeds for prevention and treatment of diet-dependent diseases.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANNATTO (Bixa orellana L GENOTYPES THROUGH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITS, SEEDS PRODUCTIVITY AND BIXIN CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Mantovani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989281Bixa orellana L. (annatto is considered an important source of natural colorants for food, pharmaceutical and textile industries and Brazil is one of the largest producers and exporters of this natural dye extracted from this plant. The morphological characterization of fruits, evaluation of  seed productivity and the content of carotenoid bixin present in freshly harvested and stored seeds for periods of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days, were performed on 10 genotypes of annatto to provide subsidies for the selection of superior genotypes for these characteristics. There were variations in all evaluated characteristics between the 10 genotypes. The fruit of all genotypes are covered with bristles or hairs, have reddish, green, yellow or red color, and two basic forms, oval or lanceolate. The fruits had average lengths ranging from 3.1 to 4.8 cm, and widths between 2.4 to 3.1 cm. The average number of seeds per fruit ranged from 41.5 to 50.6. The mass of 100 seeds varied from 1.1 to 2.24 g. There was significant difference in the concentration of bixin among genotypes, being possible to identify genotypes with high levels of bixin carotenoid (5.05%, superior to those already reported by other studies. The content of bixin decreased with the increase in the period of storage of seeds.

  16. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  18. Determination of the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of seeds from three commercial varieties of culinary dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Mistrello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Date seeds are a major waste product of the date industry that could offer potentially valuable material for the production of useful food ingredients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seeds of three date varieties of the UK market (Deglet Nour, Khouat Allig, and Zahidi for their proximate composition, total phenolic (TPC, total flavonoid (TFC contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC with a view to their eventual industrial application. Carbohydrates were present in the highest concentrations varying between 74.13 and 76.54 g 100 g-1 of date seed powder (DSP on dry weight (DW basis, followed in descending order by fats (7.64-8.84 g 100 g-1 and proteins (4.35-5.51 g 100 g-1. Potassium was found in high amounts with values ranging between 280.55 and 293.13 mg 100 g-1. The majority of the total phenolic content (2058-2984 mg GAE 100 g-1 was assumed to be composed of flavonoids (1271-1932 mg CAE 100 g-1. These families of dietary phenolics may be the major ones responsible for the high antioxidant capacity reported in date seeds, which varied from 12540 and 27699 µmol TE 100 g-1. These results suggest that date seeds can be considered a potential raw material for natural, active ingredients for food applications as well as an unexplored source of novel nutraceuticals and dietary supplements.

  19. Effects of two low phytic acid mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Dan-Hua; Deng, Bo; Fu, Xu-Jun; Dong, De-Kun; Zhu, Shen-Long; Li, Bai-Quan; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2009-05-13

    Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.

  20. Improvement of protein and amino acid contents in seeds of food legumes. A case study in Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes are considered as the major source of dietary proteins among the plant species. Protein and amino acid contents were evaluated in a wide sample of both wild and cultivated genotypes of Phaseolus species, with a view to investigate possibilities of genetic improvement in seed nutritional quality. Results indicate a variation in relation with taxa, biological status within species (such as in P. lunatus, ecological conditions, seed parts (testa, cotyledons and embryonic axis, and major protein groups. However, the sulphur containing amino acids remain a limiting factor, which could be better overcome by mixing food legumes with other plant species such as cereals.

  1. Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seed Tempeh From Soybean and Pumpkin Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pujilestari, Shanti; Sandrasari, Diny A; Marida, Rimmaria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of the combination of soybean and pumpkin seeds on the chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed tempeh. The pumpkin seed tempeh samples were analyzed for its water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and crude fiber. Meanwhile, support data were isoflavone and zinc. Sensory hedonic was conducted by 25 untrained panelists for selecting the best formulation of soybean and pumpkin seeds in tempeh. The result shows the formulation of soybean and pumpki...

  2. Changes in Protein Content and Urease Activity Due to Soaking Treatment of gamma irradiated Soybean Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The total protein measurement revealed that both soaking time and radiation affected protein content of soybean seeds. Amount of protein content increased gradually with time up to 6 h. The amount recorded 388, 396 and 465 mg/g.d.wt in control, 10, 25, 50 Gy, respectively. Then the amount decreased at and 24 h whereas, protein content of cotyledonary leaves (120 h) increased by 25 and 50 Gy reaching 7305 and 80.6 mg/g.d.wt as compared to 68.5 mg/g.d wt in case on control. On comparison with control samples, 10 Gy appeared to have no effect on protein content while 25 and 50 Gy increased protein in a dose dependant matter. Maximum increase in urease activity was recorded at 6 h of soaking (1110, 1162 and 1200 unit/g f.wt in control, 10, 25 and 50 Gy respectively) Moreover, the 25 and 50 Gy increased urease activity at all time intervals. After sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied, bands could be segregated into high molecular weight bands they are represented from band No 1 with 200 KDa to band No 8 with 100 kDa. On the other hand low molecular weight are presented from band No 9 with 75 kDa to band No 14 with 10 kDa. Characteristic bands No 4 and 10 were common in all samples and several other bands were characteristic to the time or gamma-radiation applied. Calculated similarity index (SI) showed similarity between control and 25 Gy treated samples (except at 6 h). In contrast, the similarity index between control and 50 Gy decreased from zero up to 6 h then increased to 1 at 120 h (the same trend was also observed between 25 and 50 Gy). From similarity index study it could be concluded that at cotyledonary stage(120 h) there were no differences between different samples, thus indicating a recovery from the effect of gamma irradiation

  3. Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Zielinski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones, one main group of phytoestrogens, have antioxidative and photoprotective effects in cellular and mouse studies. The aim of this study is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the isoflavone-mediated photoprotection with the pig skin model, a more human-resembling model. The pig skin was treated with five well-known isoflavone compounds (genistein, equol, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin) and one antioxidant combination solution of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEF) daily for 4 days. Skin was irradiated with solar-simulated UV irradiation, 1 to 5 minimal erythema dose (MED) at 1-MED intervals. Evaluation was carried out 24 h later by colorimeter-measured erythema and sunburn cell numbers. Topical application of 0.5% solutions of three individual phytoestrogens - genistein, daidzein, biochanin A - are better than similar solutions of equol or formononetin in protecting pig skin from solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV)-induced photodamage, as measured by sunburn cell formation and/or erythema. However, the protection was less than that provided by a topical combination antioxidant standard containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1%alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid. Isoflavones provide effective photoprotection and are good candidate ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) photodamage.

  4. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  5. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance, and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Clifford; Ross, Carolyn F

    2011-09-01

    Grape seed flour (GSF) from grape pomace, a waste product generated during winemaking, was explored for use in bread production due to its potential health benefits. This study evaluated the consumer acceptance and physical properties of bread, including total phenolic content (TPC), made with varying levels of GSF. Dough and breads were prepared using different levels of replacement of hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) with GSF (0 to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS) and stored for 0, 2, or 6 wk at -20 °C. Replacement of 10 g GSF/100 g HRS increased the bread TPC from 0.064 mg tannic acid/g dry weight to 4.25 mg tannic acid/g dry weight. Consumer acceptance and instrumental analyses were used to investigate changes in sensory and texture properties due to GSF replacement. Replacement above 5 g GSF/100 g HRS decreased the loaf brightness and volume, with an increase in the bread hardness and porosity. Generally, breads containing ≥ 7.5 g GSF/100 g HRS were characterized by lower consumer acceptance. A reduction in overall and bitterness acceptance was observed in bread at 10 g GSF/100 g HRS, with decreased acceptance of astringency and sweetness at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Based on these results, the replacement of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads with acceptable physical and sensory properties and high TPC activity compared to refined bread. This study shows that grape seed flour (GSF) can be used to replace hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) in bread production, with moderate impact on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Replacement of up to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS significantly decreased overall consumer acceptance of the bread, with lower consumer acceptance of sweetness and astringency at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Thus, a replacement value of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Nutritional food content of seed and effects of five different growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NABDA

    2015-01-13

    Jan 13, 2015 ... confirmed at the herbarium of the Department of Plant Science and. Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, following the procedure described by Hutchinson and Dalziel (1964). Two thousand and five seeds (Figure 1) obtained from the trees were split into two parts of 1000 seeds each. The first batch ...

  7. Phorbol esters seed content and distribution in Latin American provenances of Jatropha curcas L.: potential for biopesticide, food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, Francisco; Sosa, Italo; Chun, Roldan; Pineda, Renan

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) is believed to have originated from Mexico and Central America. So far, characterization efforts have focused on Asia, Africa and Mexico. Non-toxic, low phorbol ester (PE) varieties have been found only in Mexico. Differences in PE content in seeds and its structural components, crude oil and cake from Jatropha provenances cultivated in Central and South America were evaluated. Seeds were dehulled, and kernels were separated into tegmen, cotyledons and embryo for PE quantitation by RP-HPLC. Crude oil and cake PE content was also measured. No phenotypic departures in seed size and structure were observed among Jatropha cultivated in Central and South America compared to provenances from Mexico, Asia and Africa. Cotyledons comprised 96.2-97.5 %, tegmen 1.6-2.4 % and embryo represented 0.9-1.4 % of dehulled kernel. Total PE content of all nine provenances categorized them as toxic. Significant differences in kernel PE content were observed among provenances from Mexico, Central and South America (P 95 % of PEs concentrated in cotyledons, 0.5-3 % in the tegmen and 0.5-1 % in the embryo. Over 60 % of total PE in dehulled kernels accumulated in the crude oil, while 35-40 % remained in the cake after extraction. Low phenotypic variability in seed physical, structural traits and PE content was observed among provenances from Latin America. Very high-PE provenances with potential as biopesticide were found in Central America. No PE-free, edible Jatropha was found among provenances currently cultivated in Central America and Brazil that could be used for human consumption and feedstock. Furthermore, dehulled kernel structural parts as well as its crude oil and cake contained toxic PE levels.

  8. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  9. Proximate content and lipid profile of seeds from Rapanea melanophloeos (The Cape Beech) tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotier, N.; Chivandi, E.; Lembede, B.W.; Ibrahim, K.G.; Nyakudya, T.T.

    2017-01-01

    Rapanea melanophloeos(Cape beech)is a fruit-bearing tree indigenous to Southern Africa which produces edible fruit. Seed samples obtained from ripe fruit of the Cape beech trees had their proximate analysis and lipid profiling done. The dry matter and ash contributed 91.29 +- 0.00 %, 1.50 +- 0.01 % of the mass of the seed. Whilst the other proximate analytes namely crude fibre, crude protein and ether extract made up 5.71 +- 0.43 %, 10.50 +- 0.49 % and 4.75 +- 0.09 percentage of the mass of the seeds respectively. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil revealed Linoleic acid (50.43 +- 0.38 %) to be the most dominant. R. melanophloeos seeds are not a viable source of nutrients. (author)

  10. The effect of drying temperatures on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents in citrus seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of citrus seeds and oils were studied. Kinnow mandarin seed, dried at 60 °C, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Orlendo orange seed had the maximum total phenolic content and α-tocopherol content, with a value of 63.349 mg/100 g and 28.085 mg/g (control samples), respectively. The antioxidant activity of Orlendo orange seed (63.349%) was higher than seeds of Eureka lemon (55.819%) and Kinnow mandarin (28.015%), while the highest total phenolic content was found in seeds of Kinnow mandarin, followed by Orlendo orange and Eureka lemon (113.132). 1.2-Dihydroxybenzene (13.171), kaempferol (10.780), (+)-catechin (9.341) and isorhamnetin (7.592) in mg/100 g were the major phenolic compounds found in Kinnow mandarin. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant acid in all oils, which varied from 44.4% (dried at 80 °C) to 46.1% (dried at 70 °C), from 39.0% (dried at 60 °C) to 40.0% (dried at 70 °C). The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of citrus seeds and tocopherol content of seed oils were significantly affected by drying process and varied depending on the drying temperature.

  11. Evaluate The Fluctuation Of Phytic Acid Content In Seed From Mutant Lines By Gamma Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Lang; Pham Van Ut

    2011-01-01

    Phytic acid is a molecule composed of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (Ins P6), a major component in the source of phosphorus (P) reserves of about 50 plants - 80% of total seed phosphorus (Lott, 1984). At physiological pH in the form of phytic acid have negatively charged ions hold together the complex mineral nutrition creates indigestion. Moreover, phosphorus in the form of phytate or phytic humans and monogastric animals can not absorb, are all discharged polluted environment transitions. In rice OM819, OM4900, OM3536, D4 and D8 are irradiated with gamma rays at 5 doses: 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy to create mutant strains with low levels of phytic acid. Results in radiation levels may appear 100 Gy line grain phytic acid expression is low. At the level 200 Gy of radiation is three populations OM819, OM4900 and OM3536 with 8 lines for grain phytic acid expression is low. At 300 Gy extent, appeared seven lines with low nuclear expression of phytic acid 4 populations OM819, OM4900, OM3536 and D4. At the level 400 Gy of radiation there are 4 populations appear only 5 lines expressed low phytic acid, with 3-line expression levels 3 and 2 lines with level 4 expression. At the level of radiation 500 Gy only one line appears at level 3 of phytic acid this is OM819 populations. For genotype analysis using marker RM 261 with 66.67% of the rice low phytic acid content of the expression analysis of biochemical polymorphisms. (author)

  12. Rebalance between 7S and 11S globulins in soybean seeds of differing protein content and 11SA4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A; Yu, X; Zheng, A; James, A T

    2016-11-01

    Protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean seeds affect the quality of soy foods. In this proteomic study, the protein profile of soybean seeds with high (∼45.5%) or low (∼38.6%) protein content and with or without the glycinin (11S) subunit 11SA4 was examined. 44 unique proteins and their homologues were identified and showed that both protein content and 11SA4 influenced the abundance of a number of proteins. The absence of 11SA4 exerted a greater impact than the protein content, and led to a decreased abundance of glycinin G2/A2B1 and G5/A5A4B3 subunits, which resulted in lower total 11S with a concomitant higher total β-conglycinin (7S). Low protein content was associated with higher glycinin G3/A1aB1b and lower glycinin G4/A5A4B3. Using the proteomic approach, it was demonstrated that 11SA4 deficiency induced compensatory accumulation of 7S globulins and led to a similar total abundance for 7S+11S irrespective of protein content or 11SA4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L. with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Marcela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd, for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82% followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%, Armanca (29.27-25.32%, Silvana (28.89-25.04% and Denise (26.96-25.30%. Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed, Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed, K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed, Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1 and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1. For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1, Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1 and K (232–257 mg.kg-1. Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1 and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1 remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1. The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1, Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1 and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1 are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  14. Production of beta-glucosidase and hydrolysis of isoflavone phytoestrogens by Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus casei in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, O N; Shah, N P

    2008-01-01

    The study determined beta-glucosidase activity of commercial probiotic organisms for hydrolysis of isoflavone to aglycones in fermenting soymilk. Soymilk made with soy protein isolate (SPI) was fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10, Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI B94, and Lactobacillus casei LAFTI L26 at 37 degrees C for 48 h and the fermented soymilk was stored for 28 d at 4 degrees C. beta-Glucosidase activity of organisms was determined using rho-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate and the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones by these organisms was carried out. The highest level of growth occurred at 12 h for L. casei L26, 24 h for B. lactis B94, and 36 h for L. acidophilus L10 during fermentation in soymilk. Survival after storage at 4 degrees C for 28 d was 20%, 15%, and 11% greater (P < 0.05) than initial cell counts, respectively. All the bacteria produced beta-glucosidase, which hydrolyzed isoflavone beta-glycosides to isoflavone aglycones. The decrease in the concentration of beta-glycosides and the increase in the concentration of aglycones were significant (P < 0.05) in the fermented soymilk. Increased isoflavone aglycone content in fermented soymilk is likely to improve the biological functionality of soymilk.

  15. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  16. Immediate analysis of the oil content of seeds by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, K Z; Costa, V E.U.; Seidl, P R; Campos, M P.A.; Colnago, L A [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Quimica

    1981-11-01

    The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CMR) spectra of a series of Brazilian oilseeds was registered. The main constituents of the oils are identified and signals for each carbon atom are assigned. Chemical shifts are estimated for the free fatty acids and compared to those observed from the seeds, with good results. Besides being non-destructive, the RMC method proves to be fast and is useful in the determination of the principal components of the oil fraction of different types of seeds.

  17. Analysis of seed phorbol-ester and curcin content together with genetic diversity in multiple provenances of Jatropha curcas L. from Madagascar and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; King, Andrew J; Khan, M Awais; Cuevas, Jesús A; Ramiaramanana, Danièle; Graham, Ian A

    2011-10-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has been promoted as an oilseed crop for use to meet the increased world demand for vegetable oil production, and in particular, as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Seed meal is a protein-rich by-product of vegetable oil extraction, which can either be used as an organic fertilizer, or converted to animal feed. However, conversion of J. curcas seed meal into animal feed is complicated by the presence of toxins, though plants producing "edible" or "non-toxic" seeds occur in Mexico. Toxins present in the seeds of J. curcas include phorbol esters and a type-I ribosome inactivating protein (curcin). Although the edible seeds of J. curcas are known to lack phorbol esters, the curcin content of these seeds has not previously been studied. We analyzed the phorbol ester and curcin content of J. curcas seeds obtained from Mexico and Madagascar, and conclude that while phorbol esters are lacking in edible seeds, both types contain curcin. We also analyzed spatial distribution of these toxins in seeds. Phorbol-esters were most concentrated in the tegmen. Curcin was found in both the endosperm and tegmen. We conclude that seed toxicity in J. curcas is likely to be due to a monogenic trait, which may be under maternal control. We also conducted AFLP analysis and conclude that genetic diversity is very limited in the Madagascan collection compared to the Mexican collection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Agroclimatic Factors on the Formation of Oil Content In Flax Seeds in the North of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordeyeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the promising oil crops in the north of Kazakhstan. Over the last 10 years, the total area under this crop in the region has increased fourteen-fold, since flax is a very plastic crop for steppe and dry steppe conditions, and oil seeds are in high demand in the world market. Flaxseed oil, due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, occupies one of the first positions among other edible vegetable oils. Depending on environmental conditions, the oil content of the crop may vary from 36.4% to 52.0%, while, as noted by many researchers, the change in oil content depends on genotypic characteristics. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the influence of the genotype and climatic conditions of cultivation on fat biosynthesis in flax seeds in the context of the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan on dark chestnut soils of the Akmola region. Field experiments were conducted in 2015-2017 with the study of nine oil flaxseed cultivars (of mid-season varieties sown on May 20 at the seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha based on the traditional technology of cultivation recommended for the region. Climatic parameters were taken into account according to the meteorological service data. Fat content was determined by the extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus in accordance with GOST (All-Union State Standard 10857-64, and moisture content was determined by the thermogravimetric method according to the National Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2.195-2010, for recalculation of oil content for absolutely dry matter. It was found that the formation of oil depends on climatic parameters and on the sum of active temperatures during the ripening period, in particular. The evaluation of plasticity and stability of the cultivars (genotypes showed that VNIIMK 620, Lirina, Karabalyksky 7 can be considered highly valuable cultivars and Severny, Biryuza, Kazar, Ilyich – valuable cultivars in terms of oil content

  19. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Overexpression of MYB115, AAD2, or AAD3 in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds yields contrasting omega-7 contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Barthole, Guillaume; Lepiniec, Loïc

    2018-01-01

    Omega-7 monoenoic fatty acids (ω-7 FAs) are increasingly exploited both for their positive effects on health and for their industrial potential. Some plant species produce fruits or seeds with high amounts of ω-7 FAs. However, the low yields and poor agronomic properties of these plants preclude their commercial use. As an alternative, the metabolic engineering of oilseed crops for sustainable ω-7 FA production has been proposed. Two palmitoyl-ACP desaturases (PADs) catalyzing ω-7 FA biosynthesis were recently identified and characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, together with MYB115 and MYB118, two transcription factors that positively control the expression of the corresponding PAD genes. In the present research, we examine the biotechnological potential of these new actors of ω-7 metabolism for the metabolic engineering of plant-based production of ω-7 FAs. We placed the PAD and MYB115 coding sequences under the control of a promoter strongly induced in seeds and evaluated these different constructs in A. thaliana. Seeds were obtained that exhibit ω-7 FA contents ranging from 10 to >50% of the total FAs, and these major compositional changes have no detrimental effect on seed germination. PMID:29381741

  1. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  2. Genetic variation of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene contributes to elevated α-tocopherol content in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, Maria S; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sato, Masako; Abe, Jun; Kitamura, Keisuke

    2011-11-07

    Improvement of α-tocopherol content is an important breeding aim to increase the nutritional value of crops. Several efforts have been conducted to improve the α-tocopherol content in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] through transgenic technology by overexpressing genes related to α-tocopherol biosynthesis or through changes to crop management practices. Varieties with high α-tocopherol content have been identified in soybean germplasms. The heritability of this trait has been characterized in a cross between high α-tocopherol variety Keszthelyi Aproszemu Sarga (KAS) and low α-tocopherol variety Ichihime. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the high α-tocopherol content trait of KAS was elucidated. Through QTL analysis and fine mapping in populations from a cross between KAS and a Japanese variety Ichihime, we identified γ-TMT3, which encodes γ-tocopherol methyltransferase, as a candidate gene responsible for high α-tocopherol concentration in KAS. Several nucleotide polymorphisms including two nonsynonymous mutations were found in the coding region of γ-TMT3 between Ichihime and KAS, but none of which was responsible for the difference in α-tocopherol concentration. Therefore, we focused on transcriptional regulation of γ-TMT3 in developing seeds and leaves. An F5 line that was heterozygous for the region containing γ-TMT3 was self-pollinated. From among the progeny, plants that were homozygous at the γ-TMT3 locus were chosen for further evaluation. The expression level of γ-TMT3 was higher both in developing seeds and leaves of plants homozygous for the γ-TMT3 allele from KAS. The higher expression level was closely correlated with high α-tocopherol content in developing seeds. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring GUS gene under the control of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS or Ichihime. The GUS activity assay showed that the activity of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS was higher than that of Ichihime. The genetic variation in γ-TMT3

  3. Genetic variation of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene contributes to elevated α-tocopherol content in soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Jun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of α-tocopherol content is an important breeding aim to increase the nutritional value of crops. Several efforts have been conducted to improve the α-tocopherol content in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] through transgenic technology by overexpressing genes related to α-tocopherol biosynthesis or through changes to crop management practices. Varieties with high α-tocopherol content have been identified in soybean germplasms. The heritability of this trait has been characterized in a cross between high α-tocopherol variety Keszthelyi Aproszemu Sarga (KAS and low α-tocopherol variety Ichihime. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the high α-tocopherol content trait of KAS was elucidated. Results Through QTL analysis and fine mapping in populations from a cross between KAS and a Japanese variety Ichihime, we identified γ-TMT3, which encodes γ-tocopherol methyltransferase, as a candidate gene responsible for high α-tocopherol concentration in KAS. Several nucleotide polymorphisms including two nonsynonymous mutations were found in the coding region of γ-TMT3 between Ichihime and KAS, but none of which was responsible for the difference in α-tocopherol concentration. Therefore, we focused on transcriptional regulation of γ-TMT3 in developing seeds and leaves. An F5 line that was heterozygous for the region containing γ-TMT3 was self-pollinated. From among the progeny, plants that were homozygous at the γ-TMT3 locus were chosen for further evaluation. The expression level of γ-TMT3 was higher both in developing seeds and leaves of plants homozygous for the γ-TMT3 allele from KAS. The higher expression level was closely correlated with high α-tocopherol content in developing seeds. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring GUS gene under the control of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS or Ichihime. The GUS activity assay showed that the activity of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS was higher than that of

  4. Apple pomace improves gut health in Fisher rats independent of seed content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N.; Markowski, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects...... to the fibre and other fruit constituents present in the pomace. Presence of apple seeds seems to impart no toxicity even at 6.5% pomace in the feed and seeds also had no influence on the biological effect of the pomace. In the future, apple pomace could potentially be used as a bioactive and possibly health...

  5. Variation in the fatty-acid content in seeds of various black, red, and white currant varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavikin, Katarina P; Ðorđević, Boban S; Ristić, Mihailo S; Krivokuća-Ðokić, Dragana; Pljevljakušić, Dejan S; Vulić, Todor

    2013-01-01

    Currant seeds, a by-product of juice production, are recognized as a valuable source of oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. We have evaluated 28 currant varieties for their oil content and fatty-acid composition. The oil content in the seeds ranged from 18.2-27.7%, and no statistical difference between varieties of different fruit color were recorded. Furthermore, the estimated oil yields in the field production ranged from 26.4-212.4 kg/ha. The GC and GC/MS chemical profiles of the seed oils extracted from all examined varieties were common for currants. Linoleic acid (LA) was the major component, with contents ranging from 32.7-46.9% of total fatty acids, followed by α-linolenic acid (ALA; 2.9-32.0 %), oleic acid (OA; 9.8-19.9%), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 3.3-18.5%), palmitic acid (PA; 4.4-8.1%), stearidonic acid (SDA; 2.2-4.7%), and stearic acid (SA; 1.2-2.4%). Quantitative differences in the fatty-acid profiles between varieties of different fruit color were observed. Blackcurrant varieties showed significantly higher contents of LA, GLA, and PA than red and white currant varieties, whereas significantly higher amounts of ALA and OL were detected in the red and white varieties. Cluster analysis based on the chemical oil profiles joined the blackcurrants in one group, while most of the red and white cultivars joined in a second group at the same linkage distance. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desoki, S.A.; Abdallah, A.A.G.; Awad, S.M.; Aboel-Kheir, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P 2 O 5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P 25 /fed

  7. Immediate analysis of the oil content of seeds by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, K.Z.; Costa, V.E.U.; Seidl, P.R.; Campos, M.P.A.; Colnago, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CMR) spectra of a series of Brazilian oilseeds was registered. The main constituents of the oils are identified and signals for each carbon atom are assigned. Chemical shifts are estimated for the free fatty acids and compared to those observed from the seeds, with good results. Besides being non-destructive, the RMC method proves to be fast and is useful in the determination of the principal components of the oil fraction of different types of seeds. (Author) [pt

  8. Quantification of total tannin, flavonoid contents and pharmacognostic study of the seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasmia Rahman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To justify the folkloric use of Swietenia mahagoni (S. mahagoni seeds, 90% ethanolic extract and their aqueous and organic partitioning substances were evaluated for their possible antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial potentials in vivo. Methods: Crude ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni seeds were subjected and partitioned into fractions using solvents at different polarity. Antimicrobial and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated and subsequently outcomes were corresponded with the conventional standard drugs. Results: The antidiarrheal activity was assessed using mouse model, where unfractionated ethanolic extract significantly reduced, the number, onset, rate and weight of diarrheal episodes. This fraction showed the limited number of defecation episodes of 27.0% and 40.9% at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively and reference drug, loperamide, showed 53% at a dose of 50 mg/kg. All extract fractions exhibited the significant potential to kill or subside the growth of known Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract and their aqueous and organic fractious revealed the seeds of S. mahagoni (Linn. have the potential to be used as a remedy for diarrhea and known pathogenic microbes which ensured the folkloric use of the seeds of S. mahagoni.

  9. Microbial correlates of Fusarium biomass and deoxynivalenol content in individual wheat seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipulating the microbiome of wheat seeds and heads may contribute to control of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation in grain, which creates a food safety hazard. With the aim of identifying novel management targets, we looked for correlations between Fusarium biomass or deoxynivalenol ...

  10. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  11. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  12. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Bouea Macrophylla Griff Seed Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Rosniza Razali

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla Griff or locally known as kundang is one of the common fruit plant available in Malaysia. This plant from Anacardiaceae family is native to Southeast Asia particularly in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Medicinal values of this plant is not yet been explored. The present study was done to evaluate phytochemicals constituents in B. macrophylla seed extract qualitatively and quantitatively. Biological evaluations focusing on antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition were also performed. Qualitative phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugar, steroids, triterpenes, phenolic, coumarine and proteins in B. macrophylla seed extract. Quantitative determination showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains high amount of phenolic compounds (689.17±37.50 mg GAE/ g extract), but low amount of flavonoids (2.78±0.01 mg QE/ g extract), suggesting that most of the phenolics in B. macrophylla seed extract were non-flavonoids. Antioxidant assays showed that the extract possesses strong reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC_5_0: 4.73±0.51 μg/ ml). These activities were almost comparable to that of vitamin C. α-Glucosidase inhibition study showed that the extract inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity potently with the IC_5_0 value of 0.55±0.04 mg/ ml, suggesting the ability of the plant to delay glucose absorption in small intestine, hence reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic condition. Potent antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extract might be attributed to the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds. In conclusion, this study showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains various phytochemicals, possess strong antioxidant property and showed promising antidiabetic activity. These results indicate that B. macrophylla might have the potential to be developed as new pharmacological agent targeting on oxidative stress

  13. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  14. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phyto sterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enric, H.; Tekin, A.; Musa Ozcan, M.

    2009-07-01

    The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg{sup -}1), oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg{sup -}1) and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg{sup -}1). The oils contained an appreciable amount of {gamma}-tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and {alpha}-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg{sup -}1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg{sup -}1 (K.pembe) to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sinif beyaz), with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg{sup -}1. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg{sup -}1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg{sup -}1; and {delta}{sup 5}-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg{sup -}1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  16. Variations in seed protein content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Annamalai; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the influence of gamma irradiation (GR), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA) treatment on yield and protein content of selected mutant lines of cotton. Seeds of MCU 5 and MCU 11 were exposed to gamma rays (GR), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Lower dose of gamma irradiation (100-500 Gy), 10-50 mM EMS and SA at lower concentration effectively influences in improving the yield and protein content. Significant increase in yield (258.9 g plant(-1)) and protein content (18.63 mg g(-1) d. wt.) as compared to parental lines was noted in M2 generations. During the subsequent field trials, number of mutant lines varied morphologically in terms of yield as well as biochemical characters such as protein. The selected mutant lines were bred true to their characters in M3 and M4 generations. The significant increase in protein content and profiles of the mutant lines with range of 10.21-18.63 mg g(-1). The SDS-PAGE analysis of mutant lines revealed 9 distinct bands of different intensities with range of 26-81 kDa. The difference in intensity of bands was more (41, 50 and 58 kDa) in the mutant lines obtained from in vitro mutation than in vivo mutation. Significance of such stimulation in protein content correlated with yielding ability of the mutant lines of cotton in terms of seed weight per plant. The results confirm that in cotton it is possible to enhance the both yield and biochemical characters by in vivo and in vitro mutagenic treatments.

  17. Comparison of Cuminaldehyde Contents from Cell Suspension Cultures and Seeds of [Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KHOSRAVINIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell suspension culture and seed samples of Bunium persicum were extracted by supercritical fluid, hydrodistillation and solvent methods and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In this study to compare the different methods of extractions, cuminaldehyde was targeted as one of the Black zira essential oil constitute. For callus induction the germinated seeds were cultured as explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l kinetin (treatment A as well as 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine (treatment B and followed by cells suspension cultures establishment for the first time. The results of cell culture showed that cells from treatment B have a growth rate higher than A. All extracts were dissolved in 1 ml hexane and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. According to the Gas Chromatography analysis, cuminaldehyde was not detected in the supercritical fluid samples, while it was present in hydrodistillation and solvent extract. Cuminaldehyde percentage in cell and seed solvent extracts was 4.65% and 18.61% respectively. Gas Chromatography results also showed that no cuminaldehyde is present in media extracts, means no cuminaldehyde has been secreted into the medium.

  18. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  19. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  20. Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-11-15

    Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  2. Assesment of spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, L.) mutant lines for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Kassem, M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the new spineless mutants that previously induced through gamma radiation and hybridization techniques in the advanced generation for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles The obtained results cleared that oil percentages of all seven safflower mutants were increased than local variety Giza (1) and the new mutant hybrid 2 line (white petals) had the highest increase value of oil percentage (10%) but the mutant line M14 (dark red petals) had the lowest increase value of oil percentage (3.1 %) The mutant line M7 (yellow petals) had the highest value of total saturated fatty acid (40.38%), because it had the highest value of palmitic fatty acid (25.16%), comparing to 10.01% value for local variety Giza (1), followed by mutant line hybrid 2 (white petals) which had (39.88%) because it had the highest value of caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic and stearic fatty acids. All safflower mutant lines had higher value of oleic fatty acid than that of the local variety Giza (1) the two new safflower mutant lines M7 (yellow petals) and hybrid 2 (white petal) had the highest value of oleic fatty acid 41.22% and 39.88% respectively in comparison with 13.5% for local variety Giza (1), the obtained results are indicating to seed oil content negative correlation between oleic and linoleic acids

  3. Pod Mildew on Soybeans Can Mitigate the Damage to the Seed Arising from Field Mold at Harvest Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Deng, Juncai; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Haijun; Yang, Caiqiong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Du, Junbo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-12-07

    Seedpods are the outermost barrier of legume plants encountered by pests and pathogens, but research on this tissue, especially regarding their chemical constituents, is limited. In the present study, a mildew-index-model-based cluster analysis was used to evaluate and identify groups of soybean genotypes with different organ-specific resistance against field mold. The constituents of soybean pods, including proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and isoflavones, were analyzed. Linear regression and correlation analyses were also conducted between these main pod constituents and the organ-specific mildew indexes of seed (MIS) and pod (MIP). With increases in the contents of infection constituents, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids, the MIP increased and the MIS decreased. The MIS decreased with increases in the contents of glycitein (GLE)-type isoflavonoids, which act as antibiotic constituents. Although the infection constituents in the soybean pods caused pod mildew, they also helped mitigate the corresponding seed mildew to a certain extent.

  4. Laboratory microwave measurement of the moisture content in seed cotton and ginned cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages...

  5. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desoki, S A [Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Moshtohor, Zagazig University (Egypt); Abdallah, A A.G.; Awad, S M; Aboel-Kheir, O H [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P{sub 2}O{sub 5} /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P{sub 25}/fed.

  7. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Isoflavones from Calpurnia Aurea subsp. Aurea and their anticancer activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Korir, E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available the renal, melanoma and breast cancer cell lines tested against, with the isoflavones 2 and 5 showing the best activity of the compounds tested. These isoflavones may have a synergistic effect with other anticancer drugs. ... activity against breast (MCF7), renal (TK10) and melanoma (UACC62) human cell lines using an in house method developed at the CSIR, South Africa. Results: The isoflavones, 4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone (1), 7,3′- dihydroxy-5′-methoxyisoflavone (2), 7...

  9. Macronutrients leaf contents of corn in intercropping with forages of genus Panicum and Urochloa in simultaneous seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tsuzukibashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The planting of crops in degraded pasture areas is a formula used for decades by farmers to recover the productive capacity of pastures and soils. The integrated crop-livestock (ICL consists of different production systems of grains, fibers, wood, meat, milk and agro-deployed in the same area, in intercrop, rotation or succession. Typically this integration mainly involves the planting of grain and pasture in the recovery or deployment. This work aimed to evaluate the macronutrients leaf contents of irrigated corn intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa simultaneously to sown corn. The experiment was conducted at the Farm for Teaching, Research and Extension, Faculty of Engineering - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in Savannah conditions, in experimental area that had a history of no-tillage to 8 years (previous crop corn. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown simultaneously (CTS corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown simultaneously (CMS to corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraes sown simultaneously (CBS corn; Urochloa ruziziensis sown simultaneously (CRS to corn, and corn without intercropping (CWI. The seeds of grasses were sown in spacing of 0.34 m, being sown with a seed drill with disc coulters mounted mechanism for no-tillage system at a depth of 0.03 m. There was no significant difference between the single corn tillage and intercropping with different modalities of forage genus Panicum and Urochloa to the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, demonstrating the non-compete forages with corn in a intercrop on the absorption of these nutrients. In respect to S, CTS presented higher content of S foliar when compared to CWI (Table 1. The absorption of nutrients by corn are not affect by the intercrop with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa, in simultaneously sown.

  10. The Antioxidant and Antihaemolytic Activities and the Polyphenolic Contents of Some Plants Seeds Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrooz, O.; Harb, M.; Al-Qato, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the this study which were carried out on yhe ethanol and acetone extracts of Prunus armeniaca, Cerasus vulgare, Nespole, Opuntia ficus-indica, Cucumis melo, and Vitis vinifera proved that theses extracts contain bioctive substances such as polyohenols and flavonids. The UV-VIS spectropgotometric assays showed that the extracted materials posses strong band in the range between 250-300 nm which confirm the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. The concentration of these materials were different depending on the type pf plant seeds and the solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant and antihaemolytic activities of the extracts were determined by 1, 1-dipheny1-2picry1-hydeazy1 (DPPH) method, and red blood cells (RBCs) haemolysis test. Results of these extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities depending on the origin of plant extracts. (Author's) 23 refs., 4 Tabs., 1fig

  11. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dajian; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shuai; Sun, Lianjun; Wang, Weidong; Cai, Chunmei; Dierking, Emily C; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy. The function of GmABI3b in modulating seed oil biosynthesis was fulfilled by direct binding to a RY (CATGCA) cis-regulatory element in the GmWRI1a promoter, which was absent in the GmWRI1b promoter, resulting in reduction of the GmWRI1b expression. Nevertheless, the three regulators each exhibited similar intensities of purifying selection to their respective duplicates since these pairs were formed by a WGD event that is proposed to have occurred approximately 13 million years ago (mya), suggesting that the differentiation in spatiotemporal expression between the duplicated genes is more likely to be the outcome of neutral variation in regulatory sequences. This study thus exemplifies the plasticity, dynamics, and novelty of regulatory networks mediated by WGD. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparative studies on the carbohydrate, protein and acid phosphatase contents in seeds of some rye (Secale cereale varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of sugars. proteins and acid phosphatase extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.1, from some rye varieties were determined. The total sugar level amounted to 3.25-9.70 g per 100 g of seeds; the estimates for pentoses were 1.7-2.9 g and those for proteins 0.91-1.60 g per 100 g of seeds. Acid phosphatase showed and activity level between 0.18 and 1.26 units/mg protein. After disc electrophoresis proteins were separated into 10 to 11 bands: at pH 9.4 or into 4-7 bands at pH 3.8. Essential variety differences were expressed in protein patterns after electrophoresis at pH 3.8. Acid phosphatase was separated into 5 and 4 activity bands at pH 9.4 and 3.3,. respectively. No variations in zymogram patterns were observed in respect to variety differences or cultivation in various climate and soil conditions.

  13. Changes of seed weight, fatty acid composition, oil and protein contents from different peanut FAD2 genotypes at different seed developmental and maturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The level of oleic acid in peanut seed is one of the most important factors in determining seed quality and is controlled by two pairs of homeologous genes Fatty Acid Desaturase 2A and 2B (FAD2A and FAD2B). The genotypes of eight F8 breeding lines were determined as AABB, aaBB, AAbb, and aabb by rea...

  14. Determination of the phenolic content, profile, and antioxidant activity of seeds from nine tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) species native to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Shi, Qian-Qian; Ji, Duo; Niu, Li-Xin; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2017-07-01

    As an important resource of functional food, the seeds of tree peony are rich in phenolic compounds, which are associated with antioxidant activity. However, so far there has not been systematic study on phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of the seeds from wild tree peony species. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic content, antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of seeds from nine tree peony species native to China. Among the seed samples, Paeonia rockii had the highest total flavonoid content, strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and strongest cupric reducing capacity; P. decomposita subsp. rotundiloba had the highest total phenolic and flavanol contents, as well as the strongest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Sixteen individual phenolic compounds were quantitatively measured, with (+)-catechin being the most abundant component. The content of the phenolic compounds luteolin, paeonol, and the total flavonoid content were significantly correlated with four antioxidant activities. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that P. rockii and P. decomposita subsp. rotundiloba could be clustered in a group having a high phenolic content and strong antioxidant activity. These results suggest P. rockii and P. decomposita subsp. rotundiloba are the most promising candidates as useful sources of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. New iodine derivatives of flavonol and isoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the flavonol 3,7,3', 4'-tetra-O-methylquercetin (1 and of the isoflavone 7,4'-di-O-methylgenistein (2 with alkaline iodine in methanol afforded four new iodine derivatives: 8-iodo-5-hydroxy-3,7,3', 4'-tetramethoxy- flavone (1a and 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-3,7,3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1b from 1; 2 afforded a mixture of two compounds, identified as a racemic mixture of (±-trans-5-hydroxy-2,3,7,4'-tetramethoxy-8-iodo-isoflavanone (2a and (±-trans-5-hydroxy-2,3,7,4'-tetramethoxy-6,8-diiodo-isoflavanone (2b. The formation of these different products reveals a significant difference involving the chemical interaction between the reactive site of α, β-unsaturated ketones of flavonol and isoflavone under the tested reaction conditions (using I2/KOH/MeOH. Furthermore, the trans stereo selectivity is noteworthy in the nucleophylic addition of methanol at the isoflavone α, β-unsaturated system. The structures were identified on the basis of spectral data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra.A reação do flavonol 3,7,3',4'-tetra-O-metilquercetina (1 e da isoflavona 7,4'-di-O-metilgenisteina (2 com iodo/KOH em metanol forneceu como produto quatro derivados iodados: 8-iodo-5-hidroxi-3,7,3',4'-tetrametoxiflavona (1a e 6-iodo-5-hidroxi-3,7,3',4'-tetrametoxiflavona (1b a partir da iodação de 1; a partir de 2 foi obtida uma mistura racêmica composta de (±-trans-5-hidroxi-2,3,7,4'-tetrametoxi-8-iodo-isoflavanona (2a e (±-trans-5-hidroxi-2,3,7,4'-tetrametoxi-6,8-diiodo-isoflavanona (2b. A formação destes diferentes produtos revela a significante diferença envolvendo a interação química entre o sitio reativo de cetonas α, β-insaturadas de flavonol e de isoflavonas nas condições experimentais testadas (usando I2/KOH/MeOH. Além disso, ressalta-se a estereosseletividade trans na adição de metanol ao sistema α, β-insaturado da isoflavona. As estruturas foram identificadas com análise nos dados espectrométricos de RMN 1D e 2D e

  16. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  17. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  18. Corn seed response to gamma radiation as a function of water content; Resposta de sementes de milho a radiacao gama em funcao do teor de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viccini, Lyderson Facio [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Saraiva, Luiz Sergio; Cruz, Cosme Damiao [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    1997-07-01

    The study of the factors that affect the radiation efficiency is important, because it makes easier to get mutants that may be used as source of variability on improvement programs or as structural chromosomic aberrations for cytogenetics studies. The main of this research was to investigate the influence of corn seed water content on gamma radiation response. As a rule, the damage caused by irradiation was more evident on seeds with higher water content. Also, increased damages were observed with higher radiation doses. (author)

  19. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  20. Technical note: Equilibrium moisture content of kabuli chickpea, black sesame, and white sesame seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame and chickpeas are important crops for Ethiopia as both are major exports providing small farmers and the country much revenue. There is a lack of information on fundamental equilibrium moisture content (EMC) relationships for these products which would help facilitate better monitoring and st...

  1. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  4. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Conservação de sementes de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh seed storability as affected by temperature and seed moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Myrciaria dubia apresentam baixa longevidade e demandam a ampliação do conhecimento sobre fatores interferentes na sua conservação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura do ambiente na manutenção da qualidade dessas sementes. Para tanto, sementes com 48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% e 14% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno, foram armazenadas sob temperaturas controladas de 10 ºC, 20 ºC e 30 ºC, durante 280 dias, e submetidas, periodicamente, à avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Constatou-se que as sementes têm a conservação favorecida pela associação do grau de umidade de 43% com a temperatura de armazenamento de 10 °C.Myrciaria dubia seeds have a short life span and few informations are available about the factors that determine their storability. The main aim of this research work was to check the effects of three temperatures (10 ºC, 20 ºC and 30 ºC and eight seed moisture contents (48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% and 14% on seed storability, during a time period of 280 days. Periodic evaluations of seed moisture content, germination, vigor and healthness were carried out throughout the experimental time. The best seed storability conditions were observed at 10 °C and 43% of seed moisture content.

  7. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  8. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  9. Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in 'Coreano' garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Zavala-Gutiérrez, Karla G; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2013-11-06

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.

  10. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  11. Analytical and compositional aspects of isoflavones in food and their biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Kulling, Sabine E.; Schwartz, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    , age, gender, background diet, food matrix, and the chemical nature of the IFs on the metabolism of IFs are described. Potential mechanisms by which IFs may exert their actions are reviewed, and genetic polymorphism as determinants of biological response to soy IFs is discussed. The effects of IFs......This paper provides an overview of analytical techniques used to determine isoflavones (IFs) in foods and biological fluids with main emphasis on sample preparation methods. Factors influencing the content of IFs in food including processing and natural variability are summarized and an insight...

  12. Gas exchange, dry weights, and chlorophyll contents of Populus tremuloides seedlings grown from gamma-irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonson, B.J.; Zavitkovski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration rates of Populus tremuloides seedlings grown from seeds acutely irradiated with gamma rays (at levels of 0, 0.47, 0.94, 1.8, 3.7, 7.5, and 15 kr) were measured using a closed system and infrared (IR) gas analyzer. Dry weights of seedling roots and shoots and chlorophyll contents were also determined. In general, gamma irradiation of seed had little effect on subsequent gas-exchange processes in the plant. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates of the seedling at any radiation level were not significantly different from those of the control group. Pooled net photosynthesis of all irradiated seedlings was nonsignificantly lower than that of the control seedlings. The data suggested a slight stimulation in dry-matter production of shoots by low levels of gamma radiation. At the highest levels of radiation, shoot dry weight was significantly reduced. Root production displayed a pattern similar to that of shoots. No trends different from controls were evident in the shoot/root ratios. Total chlorophyll concentrations of the seedling increased over the controls by radiation treatment. Age and radiation effects were evident in the chlorophyll a/b ratios. The chlorophyll a/b ratios decreased with age in both the control and treatment groups. Although in seedlings 39 through 46 days old chlorophyll a/b ratios were higher in the control, chlorophyll a/b ratios were significantly higher in the treatment seedlings at 68 days. Changes in chlorophyll a were primarily responsible for this change

  13. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inter and intra row spring effects on growth, seeds yield and oil contents of white mustard (snapis alba L.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Mushtaq, S.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm/sup -1/ spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  15. Inter and intra row spacing effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard (sinapis alba l.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha/sup -1/) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  16. Isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of Thai fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... cleaned and soaked in water overnight, then autoclaved at 121°C for 15 min. Sterilized ... rate of 1 ml/min and detection by UV absorbance at 262 nm. The ... color, capsule shape, capsule breakage, capsule leakage and odor.

  17. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Bon Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM. A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW of 552.2 kg were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB, flax seed (FS, or Sunflower seed (SS groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05. Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm was greater (p0.05 scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and α-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  19. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. IV - Café Influence of moisture content on the viability of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de café, recém-colhidas e imediatamente sêcas à sombra e ao sol, foram conservadas com diferentes teores de umidade em dois tipos de recipientes, abertos e hermèticamente fechados, à temperatura não controlada do laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos através de determinações periódicas das porcentagens de germinação e umidade das sementes armazenadas nessas condições, foram tiradas as seguintes conclusões: a a vitalidade das sementes foi inteiramente independente do processo de seca; b a longevidade das sementes conservadas em recipientes hermèticamente fechados foi inversamente proporcional ao seu teor de umidade; sementes com aproximadamente 20%, 13% e 10% de umidade premaneceram viáveis durante 4, 8 e 21 meses, respectivamente. c o teor inicial de umidade não teve qualquer influência sôbre a longevidade das sementes armazenadas em recipientes abertos; isto se verificou, provavelmente, em virtude da quantidade relativamente pequena de sementes, o que permitiu uma rápida desidratação daquelas que se encontravam com teores elevados de umidade; a vitalidade das sementes colocadas nestes recipientes permaneceu inalterada por oito a dez meses. Estas conclusões estão inteiramente em desacôrdo com as de vários autores, segundo as quais a semente de café perde rapidamente sua vitalidade pela simples desidratação ao ar.Freshly harvested seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer were air dried and sun-dried at different levels of moisture content and stored in open and sealed containers at room temperature. Moisture determination and germination tests were made on the "fresh" seeds and at different intervals during the storage period. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn: 1 The process of drying did not interfere with the seed viability. 2 The longevity of the seeds kept in sealed containers was inversely proportional to the seed moisture content. Seeds containing about

  20. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  1. [Soy isoflavones and human health: breast cancer and puberty timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Luis; Garrido, Argelia; Sierralta, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Accumulated exposure to high levels of estrogen is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer. Thus, factors such as early puberty, late menopause and hormone replacement therapy are considered to be risk factors, whereas early childbirth, breastfeeding and puberty at a later age are known to consistently decrease the lifetime breast cancer risk. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones correlates with a lower incidence of breast cancer. Data from human intervention studies show that the effects of isoflavones on early breast cancer markers differ between pre- and post-menopausal women. The reports from experimental animals (rats and mice) on mammary tumors are variable. These results taken together with heterogeneous outcomes of human interventions, have led to a controversy surrounding the intake of isoflavones to reduce breast cancer risk. This review summarizes recent studies and analyzes factors that could explain the variability of results. In mammary tissue, from the cellular endocrine viewpoint, we analyze the effect of isoflavones on the estrogen receptor and their capacity to act as agonists or antagonists. On the issue of puberty timing, we analyze the mechanisms by which girls, but not boys, with higher prepuberal isoflavone intakes appear to enter puberty at a later age.

  2. Biochemical effects of heat shock and caffeine on post-irradiation oxic and anoxic damage in barley seeds of low and high water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Wet heat shock (60 o C, 90s) and caffeine (3.8 x 10 -4 M) afford significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O 2 -dependent damage which develops in seeds of ∼ 3.5% moisture content. The damage was assessed in terms of seedling injury on the eighth day of growth. An increase in seedling injury is clearly seen, associated with a parallel increase in the peroxidase activity. There is a concomitant decrease in the content of total peroxides. Both these post-irradiation treatments potentiate the O 2 -independent component of seedling injury, irrespective of the seed moisture content. Analysis of the peroxidase activity in the seedlings using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that two additional bands appear with the post-irradiation oxic damage. Radioprotection against this damage by caffeine, heat shock and O 2 -free post-irradiation hydration is accompanied by the disappearance of these two additional bands. (author)

  3. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A maize gene encoding an NADPH binding enzyme highly homologous to isoflavone reductases is activated in response to sulfur starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, S; Bolchi, A; Foroni, C; Percudani, R; Rossi, G L; Ottonello, S

    1996-01-01

    we isolated a novel gene that is selectively induced both in roots and shoots in response to sulfur starvation. This gene encodes a cytosolic, monomeric protein of 33 kD that selectively binds NADPH. The predicted polypeptide is highly homologous ( > 70%) to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but the maize protein (IRL for isoflavone reductase-like) belongs to a novel family of proteins present in a variety of plants. Anti-IRL antibodies specifically recognize IFR polypeptides, yet the maize protein is unable to use various isoflavonoids as substrates. IRL expression is correlated closely to glutathione availability: it is persistently induced in seedlings whose glutathione content is about fourfold lower than controls, and it is down-regulated rapidly when control levels of glutathione are restored. This glutathione-dependent regulation indicates that maize IRL may play a crucial role in the establishment of a thiol-independent response to oxidative stress under glutathione shortage conditions.

  5. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  6. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and bioavailability of isoflavones in pigs fed soy bean based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gerda; Hennig, U; Kalbe, Claudia; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Ren, M Q; Moors, S; Degen, Gisela H

    2004-08-01

    A growth trial with 38 weaners (castrated male pigs) was designed to compare the growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets containing either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate in a pair-feeding design. Soy bean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) differed in isoflavone (daidzein plus genistein) content (782 microg/g in SBM and 125 microg/g in SPC, respectively). During the experiment, all pigs were fed four-phases-diets characterized by decreasing protein concentrations with increasing age (weaner I, weaner II, grower, finisher diets). Rations of control and experimental groups were isoenergetic, isonitrogenous, and isoaminogen. The weanling pigs with an initial live weight of 8.4 +/- 1.1 kg were allotted to flat deck boxes. During the growing/finishing period (days 70-170 of age), the pigs were housed in single boxes. Both, the weaning and the grower/finishing performances (daily body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio) were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the groups in carcass composition (percentages of cuts, tissues, and protein/fat), and meat quality of pigs. Moreover, the IGF-1R mRNA expression in longissimus muscle was not influenced by the kind of soy product. However, circulating levels of isoflavones were clearly different between pigs fed SBM (genistein 239 +/- 44; daidzein 162 +/- 42; equol 12 +/- 4 ng/ml plasma) and animals fed SPC (genistein 22 +/- 9 and daidzein 8 +/- 3, and equol 10 +/- 3 ng/ml plasma). The results confirm the expected differences in the bioavailability of soy isoflavones, yet, there were no significant differences in performance of pigs fed either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate.

  7. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  8. Comparison of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones for the effect of pollination intensity on fruit set and seed content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falque, M.; Lesdalons, C.; Eskes, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the influence of pollination intensity (PI) on fruit set and seed number per pod in two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones, IFC5 (Forastero Lower-Amazon Amelonado), which is self-compatible and known to produce a high number of seeds per pod under open pollination, and SCA6 (Forastero

  9. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis is Mitigated by Soy Isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Fountain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy present with acute esophagitis and chronic fibrosis, as a result of radiation injury to esophageal tissues. We have shown that soy isoflavones alleviate pneumonitis and fibrosis caused by radiation toxicity to normal lung. The effect of soy isoflavones on esophagitis histopathological changes induced by radiation was investigated. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 Gy or 25 Gy single thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones for up to 16 weeks. Damage to esophageal tissues was assessed by H&E, Masson’s Trichrome and Ki-67 staining at 1, 4, 10, 16 weeks after radiation. The effects on smooth muscle cells and leukocyte infiltration were determined by immunohistochemistry using anti-αSMA and anti-CD45 respectively. Results: Radiation caused thickening of esophageal tissue layers that was significantly reduced by soy isoflavones. Major radiation alterations included hypertrophy of basal cells in mucosal epithelium and damage to smooth muscle cells in muscularis mucosae as well as disruption of collagen fibers in lamina propria connective tissue with leukocyte infiltration. These effects were observed as early as one week after radiation and were more pronounced with a higher dose of 25 Gy. Soy isoflavones limited the extent of tissue damage induced by radiation both at 10 and 25 Gy.Conclusions: Soy isoflavones have a radioprotective effect on the esophagus, mitigating the early and late effects of radiation injury in several esophagus tissue layers. Soy could be administered with radiotherapy to decrease the incidence and severity of esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy.

  10. Studies on convective drying of `Ameclyae' Opuntia ficus-indica seeds and its effect on the quality of extracted oil based on its α-tocopherol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Lamine; Bettaieb, Emna; Motri, Samia; Desmorieux, Hélène

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to model the thin layer convective drying kinetics of `Ameclyae' prickly pear seed variety and to evaluate the effects of drying conditions on the quality of extracted seed oil, specifically α-tocopherol content. Drying experiments were carried on following a full 23 factorial design using a vertical drying tunnel. The study is restricted to a particular particle size and a particular seed bed of height 0.5 cm, of effective porosity around 0.4 and of initial moisture content on dry basis equal to 1.2 (± 0.01) kg/kg. The temperature range was 45 to 70 °C, relative humidity range was 15-30% and air velocity was 1 and 2 m/s. The experimental drying curves were fitted to different semi-theoretical drying models proposed in the literature. The Midilli-Kucuk model was found with satisfaction describing the seed air drying curves with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a standard error of 0.01. For each drying condition, the extraction of fixed oil seeds was performed at cold using liquid/solid separation method. The oil quality was evaluated on the basis of the α-tocopherol content. The α-tocopherol was identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). According to the experimental results, it was found that drying air velocity is the most important factor influencing the concentration of α-tocopherol, whereas the effects of temperature and relative humidity were lower. The increase of the velocity from 1 m/s to 2 m/s reduced the α-tocopherol concentration by about 25%. The convective drying of thin layer of seeds at soft air conditions, drying temperature of 45 °C, relative humidity of 15% and air velocity of 1 m/s give the optimal quality of extracted oil in terms of α-tocopherol content. Characterization of the morphologic structure of seeds was also performed by SEM.

  11. Grau de umidade e temperatura na conservação de sementes de café Moisture content and temperature on the preservation of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL FELIPE DE OLIVEIRA GENTIL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de sementes de Coffea arabica L. Sementes com 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% e 10% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno e mantidas sob temperaturas de 30 °C, 20 °C e 10 °C, durante 48 semanas de armazenamento, foram submetidas a avaliações periódicas do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Foi constatado que as reduções do grau de umidade até 10% e da temperatura até 10 °C são favoráveis à manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e que umidade próxima a 23% favorece o estabelecimento de Penicillium sp. e de Aspergillus sp. nas sementes.The aim of this work was to verify the influences of the moisture content and storage temperature in the preservation of Coffea arabica L. seeds. Seeds with 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% and 10% moisture content were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C and 10 °C for forty-eight weeks, and submitted to periodic evaluations of moisture content, germination, vigour and sanity. Decreases in moisture content until 10% and temperature until 10 °C were favorable to the maintenance of seed physiological quality. Seed moisture content around 23% favor the establishment of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp.

  12. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg-1. The oils contained an appreciable amount of -tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and α-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg-1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg-1. The major sterols were -sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg-1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg-1; and Δ5-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg-1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil.El contenido en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y esteroles de aceites de varias semillas de adormidera fueron investigadas. Los principales ácidos grasos en el aceite de semilla de adormidera fueron el ácido linoleico (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, ácido oleico (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 y ácidos palmítico (76.8- 92.8 g kg-1. Los aceites contienen una cantidad apreciable de -tocoferol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 261.31 mg kg-1 y α-tocoferol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 33.03 mg kg-1. La concentración total de esteroles varió desde 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe a 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, con un valor medio de 2916.20 mg kg-1. El principal esterol fue el -sitosterol, que varió desde 663.91 a 3244.39 mg kg-1; el campesterol, que varió desde 228.59 a 736.50 mg kg-1; y el Δ5-avenasterol, que varió desde 103.90 a 425.02 mg kg-1. Las semillas estudiadas de las diferentes variedades de adormidera de Turquía pueden ser una fuente potencial de aceites con valor añadido.

  13. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties; Preparo de sementes para determinacao do teor de oleo pelo metodo de RMN em seis variedades de algodoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Algodao e Fibrosas Diversas]. E-mail: gondim@cec.iac.br; Soave, Daise [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Genetica, Biologia Molecular e Fitoquimica

    1998-07-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  14. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  15. Study of the effects of Cobalt 60 gamma radiations on the seeds of two textile hibiscus species. Influence of seed water content on their radiosensitivity. Mutagenic effects on two plantlet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahama, Adamou.

    1980-10-01

    This work on textile hibiscus was undertaken for two reasons: to contribute by physical mutagenesis methods to the genetic improvement of these species and especially to obtain the genetic diversity which is seriously lacking in the species sabdariffa var. altissima; to add to research on the effects of mutagenic seed treatments and thus to help towards a better definition of optimum seed irradiation conditions. These two purposes have been fulfilled. The main results may be summed up as follows. - Concerning the improvement of textile hibiscus. Many strains with various new features were selected at the second generation and may lead either to new varieties or at least to interesting precursors for selection programmes. In the second generation derived from Hibiscus saddariffa var. THS 22 some plants were observed with one or more of the following characteristics specific to the edible form: ramified bearing - fleshy calix - smooth leaf. - Concerning the study of mutagenic seed treatment effects. Our experiments showed up the importance of the seed water content and its effect on the response of first-generation plantlets to cobalt 60 γ-ray treatments [fr

  16. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol.

  17. Identification of Major Quantitative Trait Loci for Seed Oil Content in Soybeans by Combining Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongce; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Zili; Chang, Fangguo; Kong, Jiejie; Gai, Junyi; Zhao, Tuanjie

    2017-01-01

    Soybean oil is the most widely produced vegetable oil in the world and its content in soybean seed is an important quality trait in breeding programs. More than 100 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for soybean oil content have been identified. However, most of them are genotype specific and/or environment sensitive. Here, we used both a linkage and association mapping methodology to dissect the genetic basis of seed oil content of Chinese soybean cultivars in various environments in the Jiang-Huai River Valley. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (NJMN-RIL), with 104 lines developed from a cross between M8108 and NN1138-2 , was planted in five environments to investigate phenotypic data, and a new genetic map with 2,062 specific-locus amplified fragment markers was constructed to map oil content QTLs. A derived F 2 population between MN-5 (a line of NJMN-RIL) and NN1138-2 was also developed to confirm one major QTL. A soybean breeding germplasm population (279 lines) was established to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 59,845 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. In the NJMN-RIL population, 8 QTLs were found that explained a range of phenotypic variance from 6.3 to 26.3% in certain planting environments. Among them, qOil-5-1, qOil-10-1 , and qOil-14-1 were detected in different environments, and qOil-5-1 was further confirmed using the secondary F 2 population. Three loci located on chromosomes 5 and 20 were detected in a 2-year long GWAS, and one locus that overlapped with qOil-5-1 was found repeatedly and treated as the same locus. qOil-5-1 was further localized to a linkage disequilibrium block region of approximately 440 kb. These results will not only increase our understanding of the genetic control of seed oil content in soybean, but will also be helpful in marker-assisted selection for breeding high seed oil content soybean and gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of seed oil content.

  18. THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF SOYBEANS [(GLYCINE MAX (L. MERR.] SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Macak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carry out at experimental farm Oponice West Slovakia, 48 28 N, 18 9E in 2004 2007. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization treatments on yield and yield component and selected quality parameters proteins, oil, fibre, isoflavones of soybeen seeds variety Korada, in agri environmental condition of western part of Slovakia. The fertilization treatments were as follows I unfertilized treatment; II application of nitrogen fertilizers LAV 27 ammonium nitrate with lime 40 kg ha 1 nitrogen in the vegetative stage V2; III Humix complet in split application of total dose 4 +4 L ha 1 applied in growth stage of V2 and in reproductive growth stage of R1 beginning bloom. Humix complet contain bioactive ingredient and nutrients for plant nutrition with 2.5 of humic acids, 4.0 total N, 0.5 P2O5, 3 K2O, and micronutrients. Result showed the highest variation of pods per plant in dependence of year condition range 17.8-24.7. No significant differences between numbers of seeds were noted 2.13-2.29. The split application of Humic complet significantly influence the higher number of pods per plant 24.8 while keeping the number of seeds per pod 2.13. The yield of seeds was significantly influenced by weather conditions 2.84 t ha 1 4.68 t ha 1 and by fertilization treatments. Supplemental ammonium nitrate with lime treatments II in the vegetative stage of V2 or Humix complet treatment III applied in V2 and R1 stages significantly increased yield of soybean seeds up to 3.91 t ha 1 and 4.27 t ha 1 with comparison to control treatment 3.49 t ha 1. Content of protein, oil and fibre was not significantly differing between fertilization treatments. In spite of significantly higher soybean yield in Humic complet treatment, content of protein 37.67, oil 15.83 and fibre 9.47 was at the same level as lower yielded treatments. Soybean seeds from higher yielded fertilization treatments have significantly less content of

  19. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  20. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  1. Effect of osmotic stress and post-stress recovery on the content of phenolics and properties of antioxidants in germinating seeds of grapevine Vitis californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tested material consisted of grapevine Vitis californica stratified seeds germinated under optimum conditions (+25°C in water, under osmotic stress (-0.2 MPa in PEG solution and submitted to recovery after stress (+25°C in water. The germinating seeds were determined to contain tannins, catechins and the following phenolic acids: gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic. The acids occurred in free, ester- and glycoside-bound forms. The dominant form of phenolic acids was the ester-bound fraction. Gallic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in germinating seeds, while ferulic acid appeared in the smallest amounts. Our analysis of tannins demonstrated that osmotic stress depressed their concentration. Presence of catechin group compounds such as catechin and epicatechin was also determined. In each sample epicatechin was dominant. The total concentration of catechin increased under stress conditions and declined during post-stress recovery. Catechins are a constituent of tannins and their increase under osmotic stress is most probably caused by the breakdown of some tannins in seeds germinating under stress conditions. Samples submitted to osmotic stress were also found to contain less of total phenolic compounds, whereas in samples which underwent post-stress recovery the total level of phenolic compounds increased. Compared to extracts from seeds germinating under optimum conditions, osmotic stress depressed the capacity of extract to scavenge DPPH● (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS●+ – 2,2-Azino-bis (3-etylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals, but the antioxidant activity rose in seeds submitted to recovery after stress. Positive correlation was therefore demonstrated between the total content of phenolic acids in germinating grapevine seeds and the reducing power of extracts obtained from these seeds and their free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that osmotic stress inhibits the activity of

  2. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  3. Performance of starter in yogurt supplemented with soy protein isolate and biotransformation of isoflavones during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T Thuy; Shah, Nagendra P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, soy protein isolate (SPI) (4%, v/w) was supplemented to the yogurt mix to increase the amount of biologically active isoflavone in yogurt (SY). The control yogurt was without any SPI supplementation (USY). The supplementation significantly (P yogurt starter including Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (Lb 11842) and Streptococcus thermophilus ST 1342 (ST 1342) during the fermentation process by 4.7%. The starter produced more acetic acid and less lactic acid in SY than that in USY and altered the ratio of lactic and acetic acid during the entire storage period. The viability of both Lb 11842 and ST 1342 in SY was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in USY from 14 d of the storage period, however, their concentration still remained high (8.11 to 8.84 log CFU/g). The starter transformed 72.8% of total inactive isoflavone glycosides (IG) to active isoflavone aglycones (IA), increasing the IA content from 1.35 to 15.01 mg/100 g sample. During the storage period, IA concentration slowly rose from 15.02 to 15.51 mg/100 g sample.

  4. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  5. Determination of amino acid contents of manketti seeds (Schinziophyton rautanenii) by pre-column derivatisation with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate and RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwatidzo, Luke; Botha, Ben M; McCrindle, Rob I

    2013-12-01

    Defatted kernel flour from manketti seed kernels (Schinziophyton rautanenii) is an underutilised natural product. The plant grows in the wild, on sandy soils little used for agriculture in Southern Africa. The kernels are rich in protein and have a great potential for improving nutrition. The protein content and amino acid profile of manketti seed kernel were studied, using a new analytical method, in order to evaluate the nutritional value. The crude protein content of the press cake and defatted kernel flour was 29.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Leucine and arginine were found to be the most abundant essential and non-essential amino acids, respectively. The seed kernel contained 4.77 g leucine and 12.34 g arginine/100 g of defatted seed kernel flour. Methionine and proline were the least abundant essential and non-essential amino acids to with 0.23 g methionine and 0.36 g proline/100 g of defatted seed kernel flour, respectively. Validation of the pre-column derivatisation procedure with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) for the determination of amino acids was carried out. The analytical parameters were determined: linearity (0.0025-0.20 mM), accuracy of the derivatisation procedure: 86.7-109.8%, precision (method: 0.72-5.04%, instrumental: 0.14-1.88% and derivatisation: 0.15-2.94% and 0.41-4.32% for intraday and interday, respectively). Limits of detection and quantification were 6.80-157 mg/100 g and 22.7-523 mg/100 g kernel flour, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and `SOXHLET` methods; Determinacao do teor de oleo em sementes de girassol pelos metodos de ressonancia magnetica nuclear e soxhlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Oleaginosas; Toledo, Nilva Maria Prestes de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao Tecnica Experimental e Calculo; Teixeira, Joao Paulo Feijao [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fitoquimica; Suassuna Filho, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept.de Fisica

    1993-12-31

    Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR). Correlation analysis with the extractive method (Soxhlet) was performed. The results showed that: the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0,93) between NMR and Soxhlet; there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND BIOSOLIDS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN WHITE MUSTARD SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2017-06-01

    The statistical analysis indicated that the concentrations of Cd in mustard seed was significantly correlated with the concentrations of Ni and Zn (respectively, r=-0.89 and r=-0.54. There were significant positive correlations between soil pH and metal concentrations in the seeds of mustard. The pH was significantly correlated with Ni (r = 0.60 and Zn (r = 0.55 at a p≤ 0.05.

  8. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  9. New isoflavones from the leaves of Vatairea guianensis Auble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ronilson Freitas de; Marinho, Victor H. S.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Mara Silvia P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Costa-Junior, Livio M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Chapadinha, MA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais; Silva, Joyce Kelly R. da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia; Bastos, Gilmara N.T. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Pos-Graduacao em Neurociencias e Biologia Celular

    2013-11-15

    Four isoflavones were isolated from Vatairea guianensis Auble leaves and identified as 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylpyrano-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}8,7)-isoflavone (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'- methylenedioxy-8-prenyl-isoflavone (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-7-O-{beta}-glucopyranoside-8- prenyl-isoflavone (3) and derrone (4) together with five triterpenes identified in mixture, lupeol, a-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, germanicol and betulinic acid. Substances 1-3 are novel natural products, although 1 and 2 have been cited as synthetic products. However, all these compounds are first reported from this species. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on their 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and high resolution mass spectrometry. The ethanol extract from the leaves and 1-3 were evaluated for their potential in scavenging DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazylradical) and the results showed that the extract presented high activity (IC{sub 50} = 6.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1}), while the isolated compounds showed low antioxidant power (IC{sub 50} {>=} 29.5 {+-} 2.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) when compared to Trolox (IC{sub 50} = 4.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1}). (author)

  10. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent clinical trials have found an increased risk of health problems in women using menopausal hormone therapy. As a result, women are in search of alternative strategies to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on quali...

  11. Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from Trifolium pratense L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.; de Boer, V.; Verkleij, J.A.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  12. Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from Tritolium pratense L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.; De Boer, V.; Verkleij, J.A.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  13. The potential of crude okara for isoflavone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.; Trifunovic, O.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction of isoflavones from crude okara, a by-product from soymilk production, using industrially relevant conditions. Ethanol and water were chosen as environmentally friendly and non-toxic solvents. A wide range of ethanol concentrations was tested (0–90% ethanol) for

  14. Preliminary study on antioxidant properties, phenolic contents, and effects of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut seed shell extract on in vitro cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Makino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human skin exposure to solar UV radiation induces cells to produce reactive oxygen species that directly cause DNA damage via the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, which are the primary UVB-induced DNA lesions. CPDs are responsible for cell death, mutation, and neoplastic transformation. Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut seed extract has traditionally been used for venotonic treatments and also as a raw material for cosmetics. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant properties of the phenolic contents of extracts from A. hippocastanum seed shell and endosperm and to investigate their effects on CPD repair in UVB-exposed human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Crude 60% aqueous ethanol extracts (v/v were prepared, and their total polyphenol contents, antioxidant activities, and ORAC values were measured by Folin–Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and ORAC assays, respectively. The levels of CPDs induced by UVB irradiation were measured by cell-based immunoassays after 6-h treatment with the extract of A. hippocastanum seed shell at a concentration of 100-μg/ml and 9-h treatment with it at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200- μg/ml. Result: A. hippocastanum seed shell extract had 602 ± 1.6-mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and exhibited 4990 ± 70.9 and 7140 ± 835 μmol Trolox equivalents per gram of extract as DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ORAC value, respectively; these values were comparable to those of extracts from green tea and Mallotus japonicus leaves. However, these values of the seed endosperm extract were relatively low. A 9-h treatment of cells with seed shell extracts at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200-μg/ml after UVB exposure significantly reduced CPD levels compared with those in UVB-exposed cells without treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated that A. hippocastanum seed shell extract possesses a potential to

  15. Genotypic variability in faba bean (vicia faba L.) for seed yield and protein content under drought stress during vegetative and Reproductive Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmula, A. A.; Gasim, S. M.; Link, W.; Mohamed, A. A.; Khalifa, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Faba bean (viciafaba L.) is subjected to drought stress during different growth stages. In this study, variability in seed yield and protein content was investigated when drought occurred during the vegetative and reproductive stages. Twenty two genotypes of faba bean were field evaluated under three levels of drought stress at two locations in the Sudan. The three levels of drought were normal watering (non-stress), drought during the vegetative stage and drought during the reproductive stage. Data were collected on yield and vegetative traits and protein content. The results showed that yield, as well as other traits, were reduced by drought. The genotypes exhibited significant differences for 100 seed weight, plant height and protein content. The interaction between the genotypes and drought was significant for yield/plant. Some genotypes were more sensitive when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, some when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, and others were more stable under the three levels of drought. yield/plant showed significant covariance with pods/plant and plant height. The association between different characters varied according to trait and the time of drought incidence. The correlation of yield/plant with protein content was negative under all drought levels, and the average correlation coefficient was 0.32. It could be concluded that the specific adaptation and the wide adaptation have great implication for improving faba bean under drought. To select for high seed yield under drought, secondary characters, such as pods/plant and plant height could be of great importance. Drought could reduce protein content and affect its association with yield/plant.(Author)

  16. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  17. The influence of Se content of the seed and the root of Areca catechu by fermenting of Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium as an antimicrobial gargle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITIN YULINERI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the using of Areca catechu seeds and roots extract contain selenium which fermented by Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium as a gargle had been conducted. The aim of the research was to know the influence of Se content of the seed and the root of Areca catechu by fermenting of Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium on the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The research consisted of four stages i.e. fermented the extract, isolated S. mutans, tested the activity of the antimicrobial and analyzed selenium concentration in the extract. The result showed that the concentration of selenium has fluctuation. The highest content of selenium of the seeds extract at 2.2 g/L concentration was 3.05 ppb on the fifteenth day while on the root extract at 8.8 g/L was 14.03 ppb on the twenty first day fermentation. Both of the extract has potential used as antiseptic gargle. The antimicrobial agents could inhibit the growth of S. mutans better than the three kinds of commercial gargles.

  18. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Arabi, M.I.; Jawhar, M.

    2000-02-01

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca ++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg ++ and K ++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na + and Cl - contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4 -- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO -- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4 -- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl - content was higher than Na + content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  19. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbaji, T; Arabi, M I; Jawhar, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Agriculture

    2000-02-01

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca{sup ++} increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg{sup ++} and K{sup ++} of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4{sup --} of unirradiated WA variety, but PO{sup --} of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4{sup --} of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl{sup -} content was higher than Na{sup +} content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  20. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  1. Genome-wide SNP identification, linkage map construction and QTL mapping for seed mineral concentrations and contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu; Coyne, Clarice J; Grusak, Michael A; Mazourek, Michael; Cheng, Peng; Main, Dorrie; McGee, Rebecca J

    2017-02-13

    Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many other crops in the availability of genomic and genetic resources. To further improve mineral nutrient levels in pea seeds requires the development of genome-wide tools. The objectives of this research were to develop these tools by: identifying genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS); constructing a high-density linkage map and comparative maps with other legumes, and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for levels of boron, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorous, sulfur, and zinc in the seed, as well as for seed weight. In this study, 1609 high quality SNPs were found to be polymorphic between 'Kiflica' and 'Aragorn', two parents of an F 6 -derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Mapping 1683 markers including 75 previously published markers and 1608 SNPs developed from the present study generated a linkage map of size 1310.1 cM. Comparative mapping with other legumes demonstrated that the highest level of synteny was observed between pea and the genome of Medicago truncatula. QTL analysis of the RIL population across two locations revealed at least one QTL for each of the mineral nutrient traits. In total, 46 seed mineral concentration QTLs, 37 seed mineral content QTLs, and 6 seed weight QTLs were discovered. The QTLs explained from 2.4% to 43.3% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide SNPs and the genetic linkage map developed in this study permitted QTL identification for pea seed mineral

  2. Effects of temperature, relative humidity and moisture content on seed longevity of shrubby Russian thistle (Salsola vermiculata L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.; Struik, P.C.; Bishaw, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Salsola vermiculata is a highly palatable shrub and widely used in rangeland rehabilitation programs, but has short seed longevity. To identify the most cost effective storage method for S. vermiculata, experiments were carried out to test the effects of fruit bracts (wings), temperature regimes,

  3. Biochemical effects of heat shock and caffeine on post-irradiation oxic and anoxic damage in barley seeds of low and high water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1991-05-01

    Wet heat shock (60{sup o}C, 90s) and caffeine (3.8 x 10{sup -4}M) afford significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage which develops in seeds of {similar to} 3.5% moisture content. The damage was assessed in terms of seedling injury on the eighth day of growth. An increase in seedling injury is clearly seen, associated with a parallel increase in the peroxidase activity. There is a concomitant decrease in the content of total peroxides. Both these post-irradiation treatments potentiate the O{sub 2}-independent component of seedling injury, irrespective of the seed moisture content. Analysis of the peroxidase activity in the seedlings using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that two additional bands appear with the post-irradiation oxic damage. Radioprotection against this damage by caffeine, heat shock and O{sub 2}-free post-irradiation hydration is accompanied by the disappearance of these two additional bands. (author).

  4. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2011-09-01

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the conversion of oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors in developing soybean seeds. Two genes encoding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were identified to be expressed specifically in seeds during embryogenesis and have been considered to hold an important role in controlling the seed oleic acid content. A total of 22 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines identified to have an elevated oleic acid content were characterized for sequence mutations in the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. PI 603452 was found to contain a deletion of a nucleotide in the second exon of FAD2-1A. These important SNPs were used in developing molecular marker genotyping assays. The assays appear to be a reliable and accurate tool to identify the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genotype of wild-type and mutant plants. PI 603452 was subsequently crossed with PI 283327, a soybean line that has a mutation in FAD2-1B. Interestingly, soybean lines carrying both homozygous insertion/deletion mutation (indel) FAD2-1A alleles and mutant FAD2-1B alleles have an average of 82-86% oleic acid content, compared to 20% in conventional soybean, and low levels of linoleic and linolenic acids. The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties.

  5. The variation of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in M4-generation seeds of an irradiated local sorghum variety originating from northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.; Buah, S.S.J.; Abdulai, M.S.; Nyamekye, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Natural genetic variability in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is very large, however, a number of attempts have been made to broaden its genetic base by induced mutations. Most authors refer to visible characters in plant and grain. Occasionally, effects on grain quality, e.g. high lysine/high protein, are reported. Sorghum in northern Ghana, commonly called 'guinea corn', is a widely cultivated cereal crop and can be found in three local races among which the caudatum race is represented by 'Naga White', an improved local variety originating from the Upper East Region of Ghana. It is characterized by short straw, earliness, good grain yield, a semi-loose head, and white grains, but with a relatively poor grain quality. The objective in several breeding programmes was the improvement of its grain quality, and an induced mutations programme was started at Nyankpala Agricultural Experiment Station (NAES) in 1988. About 10,000 seeds of Naga White were treated with 200Gy from a 60 Co gamma-rays source. The M 1 -generation was planted at NAES and multiplied up to M 4 in 1991, subject to selection for agronomic value. Protein contents (Nx5.7) varied from 9 to 10% for grains of parental genotype and from 8 to 12% in M 2 grains harvested in 1990. In 1992, the agronomically best 112 seed samples of M 4 lines were analyzed for N and P contents, 1000-grain weight (GW) and protein contents. Protein contents ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, phosphorus from 0.15 to 0.45%, and thousand grain weight varied from 11.8 to 19.0 g. The coefficient of the phenotypic correlation between N and P was + 0.337, and several lines with both high N and P contents could be identified. The coefficients of correlation between grain size and both N and P contents were slightly negative but not statistically significant. The coefficient of variation for the P content was twice as high as that for the N content. This might indicate a considerable microvariability in soil phosphorus due to

  6. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mohamed, Amal; El-Din Saad El-Beltagi, Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C1...

  7. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  8. Effects of Pig Slurry as Basal and Panicle Fertilizer on Trace Element Content and Grain Quality in Direct-Seeding Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-seeding rice has grown in popularity in recent years and is widespread in China. This study focused on the effects of pig slurry (PS on grain quality and safety in direct-seeding rice. Application of more than 210 m3·hm−2 increased rice yield and dry matter accumulation, compared with conventional chemical fertilizer treatment (CK2. At the heading and maturing stage, a high dosage of PS (T6, T8 and T9 treatments promoted uptake of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn by rice plants and grain, but retarded uptake of Cr, Co and Ni, indicating an ability to alleviate toxicity of some heavy metals. Compared with CK2, PS alleviated the transfer of Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu from straw to grain, but enhanced the transport of Zn, Fe and Mn. Although PS application slightly diminished the processing quality, including brown rice, milled rice and head milled rice, it significantly decreased the amylose content, optimized the starch profile, and improved the overall quality. The results confirmed the feasibility and safety of PS application to direct-seeding rice, and determined that PS basal and panicle fertilizer could increase yield and improve the rice quality when applied between 210 and 240 m3·hm−2.

  9. Investigation of Trace Element Content in the Seeds, Pulp, and Peel of Mashui Oranges Using Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Mei; Ma, Ande; Han, Weili

    2018-03-01

    Fresh Mashui orange samples were pretreated with microwave digestion using an HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 system. The levels of Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the seeds, pulp, and peel were then determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with collision cell technology (CCT) and kinetic energy discrimination (KED). The standard curve coefficient of determinations of the ten tested elements were between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The instrument detection limit was between 0.112 ng/L and 3.05 ng/mL. The method detection limit was between 0.0281 and 763 ng/g. The average recovery rate was between 85.0 and 117%. The current results showed that Mashui oranges are rich in three elements, namely Mg, K, and Ca. The concentrations of K and Ca were significantly higher than that of Mg in the peel. The content of K was the highest in the seeds. Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn had the second highest concentrations, and Fe was the highest in the seeds, while Cu was the lowest in the peel. As, Cd, and Pb (hazardous elements) had the lowest concentrations of all the tested elements.

  10. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  11. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  12. Determination of in vitro isoflavone degradation in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnková, Andrea; Šancová, Kateřina; Zapletalová, Martina; Kašparovská, Jitka; Dadáková, Kateřina; Křížová, Ludmila; Lochman, Jan; Hadrová, Sylvie; Ihnatová, Ivana; Kašparovský, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of dietary isoflavones in rumen fluid under 2 feeding regimens. The experiments were performed in vitro using a rumen fluid buffer system. The rumen fluid was taken from cows fed either a hay diet or a concentrate-rich diet (the diet consisted of 34.6% maize silage, 17.6% haylage, 12.8% alfalfa hay, and 35.0% supplemental mixture on a dry matter basis). As a source of isoflavones, 40% soybean extract (Biomedica, Prague, Czech Republic) at levels of 5, 25, 50, and 75 mg per 40 mL of rumen fluid was used. Samples of soybean extract were incubated in triplicate at 39°C for 0, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 24.0 h in incubation solution. The metabolism of daidzein and genistein was faster under concentrate-rich diet conditions. In general, production of equol started after 3 to 6 h of incubation and reached the highest rate after approximately 12 h of incubation regardless of the type of diet or concentration of extract. In most of the experiments, production of equol continued after 24 h of incubation. Generally, equol production was greater under the hay diet conditions. Furthermore, experiments with higher amounts of added soybean extract revealed possible inhibitory effects of high levels of isoflavones on the rumen microflora. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study on seed testing for Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en

    2008-09-01

    To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.

  14. Desempenho de sementes de soja peliculizadas em solo com diferentes teores de água Performance of film coated soybean seeds in soil with different water contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Emiliorelli Evangelista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de polímeros hidrofóbicos, tem sido recomendado para tratamento de sementes de espécies que absorvem água rapidamente, causando danos por embebição, como é o caso da soja. Quando a semeadura é realizada em solos com baixa capacidade de infiltração, pode ocorrer redução significativa do estande caso a semeadura coincida com alto índice pluviométrico. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de sementes de soja peliculizadas em solos com diferentes teores de água. As sementes foram tratadas com o fungicida Tegram (thiabendazole + thiram na dosagem de 200 mL/100 kg de sementes associadas aos polímeros. Para peliculização das sementes foram utilizados os polímeros L201 e L204, os quais foram aplicados nas dosagens de 0 mL, 200 mL e 400 mL/100 kg de sementes. Após o tratamento as sementes foram semeadas em solos com 50, 70 e 90% da capacidade de campo para avaliações nos testes de emergência em bandeja e teste de frio. Foram feitas ainda avaliações por meio do teste de germinação, submersão, emergência em canteiro. Verificou-se que a peliculização promove um aumento no índice e no percentual de emergência quando em condições ideais, independente do polímero utilizado. Em condições de estresse a peliculização reduz o vigor das sementes.The use of polymers has been recommended for the treatment of seeds of those species that absorb water quickly, causing seed damage by imbibition, such as the soybean case. When the sowing is accomplished in soils with a low drainage capacity, a significant reduction in the seedling emergence may occur if sowing coincides with the high pluviometric index. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of film coated soybean seeds in soils with different water contents. Seeds were treated with the fungicide Tegram (thiabendazole + thiram at a dosage of 200mL/100kg of seeds associated to the polymers. For the film coating of the seeds the

  15. Teor de proteína e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz Protein content and physiological quality of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pivotto Bortolotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de proteína como elemento auxiliar na determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz, além de correlacioná-la com a emergência em campo. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de arroz, sendo três lotes da cultivar IRGA 417 e três lotes da cultivar IRGA 422 CL, submetidas ao conjunto de testes, para caracterizar o potencial fisiológico dos lotes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, frio sem terra, comprimento de plântula e massa seca de plântula. Após a determinação da qualidade inicial dos lotes foi aplicado novo conjunto de testes, composto pelo teor de proteína bruta e pelas avaliações das plântulas e plantas em campo. Conclui-se que o teor de proteína bruta é capaz de identificar diferenças entre lotes de arroz, em função da qualidade das sementes, e correlacionar-se com a emergência em campo, quando ocorre em condições desfavoráveis; portanto, trata-se de uma determinação promissora para associação aos testes convencionais a fim de avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de arroz.This work aimed to evaluate the protein content as an aiding tool in the determination of the physiological quality of rice seeds, as well as to correlate the results with field emergence. Six lots of rice seeds were used, i. e., three lots were of cultivar IRGA 417 and three of IRGA 422 CL, which were submitted to a set of tests in order to measure the following physiological qualities of the lots: germination, first count germination, accelerated aging, cold test (without soil, length and dry mass of seedlings. After determining the initial quality of the lots, a new set of tests such as crude protein content and seedlings and plants evaluations in the field were carried out. It was concluded that crude protein content is capable to identify differences between rice lots with different seed quality and to correlate with field

  16. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  17. Combined effects of soy isoflavone and fish oil on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2011-07-01

    Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation of seeds on germination - growth - mineral content and yield of two barley varieties grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Ain, F.

    2003-01-01

    Seeds of two barley varieties [Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK)] were irradiated with 0 and 15 Gy doses of gamma irradiation. Then, they were sown on salty soil (16.8-18 dS/m) and irrigated with salty water (7-8 dS/m). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the % of seedling emergence of PK only. At the heading stage, gamma irradiation decreased the % of total N of PK and increased shoot dry weight, Mg++ and P content and the % of total N of AA. K+ content of PK was lower than that of AA. At harvest stage, gamma irradiation increased total and grain yields and harvest index of PK; however, straw yield and 1,000 grain weight of AA were higher than those of PK [it

  19. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Woo

    Full Text Available Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  20. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee-Jong; Qin, Yang; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Soon Ki; Cho, Yong-Gu; Shin, Kong-Sik; Lim, Myung-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  1. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  2. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ... Keywords: Mineral elements, Alkaline phosphatase, Isoflavones, Bone loss, Notch pathway. This is an Open .... incubated for 3 h in 5% non-fat-milk blocking solution at ..... protect against osteopenia in ovariectomised rats.

  3. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  4. Conversion of major soy isoflavone glucosides and aglycones in in vitro intestinal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.; Punt, A.; Spenkelink, A.; Murk, A.J.; Leeuwen, F.X.R.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    ScopeThis study compares conversion of three major soy isoflavone glucosides and their aglycones in a series of in vitro intestinal models. Methods and resultsIn an in vitro human digestion model isoflavone glucosides were not deconjugated, whereas studies in a Caco-2 transwell model confirmed that

  5. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  6. Condutividade elétrica em função do teor de água inicial de sementes de amendoim Electrical conductivity and water content in peanut seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O vigor de sementes de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. avaliado pelo teste de condutividade elétrica demonstra estreita relação com o desempenho no campo, mas alguns fatores podem afetar o resultado da condutividade elétrica, sendo um destes o teor de água inicial das sementes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor de água ou faixa de umidade da semente mais adequado para a avaliação da condutividade elétrica em sementes de amendoim. Quatro lotes de sementes da cultivar 'IAC Tatu ST' e quatro da cultivar 'IAC Runner 886' foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial fisiológico e posteriormente o teor de água foi ajustado para 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 e 15%, pelo método da atmosfera úmida. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4×6 (lotes × teores de água para as sementes de cada cultivar, em quatro repetições e os resultados para o fator teor de água foram submetidos à análise de regressão. A maior relação da condutividade elétrica com vigor das sementes ocorreu naquelas com teor de água entre 9 a 15%, de forma que sementes com 5 a 7% de umidade não devem ser submetidas ao teste de condutividade elétrica, porque os lotes expressam alto padrão de germinação e vigor. A condutividade elétrica de sementes de amendoim é influenciada pelo teor de água e a estabilização dos resultados ocorre quando elas estão com teor de água entre 10 e 14%.The vigor of peanut seeds (Arachis hypogaea L. assessed by the conductivity test shows close relationship with performance in the field, but some factors may affect the outcome of the electrical conductivity, being one of that the initial water content of seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed water content most appropriate for evaluating the seed vigor through electrical conductivity test in peanut. Four seed lots of 'IAC Tatu ST' cultivar and four 'IAC Runner 886' were initially evaluated for their physiological potential and

  7. Effects of maternal exposure to cow´s milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig; Warri, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis....... No differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than...... in controls (P = 0.03). Although the high isoflavone content seemed to prevent the effect on circulating estradiol and IGF-1 levels and advanced puberty onset seen in the LIM group, HIM increased DMBA-DNA adducts in the mammary gland and tended to increase mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast, offspring exposed...

  8. The effect of soy isoflavones on the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Kristiansen, Eva; Mortensen, Alicja

    1998-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones in soy may have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Therefore, we have investigated whether soy isoflavones will inhibit intestinal tumour development in Apc(Min) mice. The mice were fed a Western-type high...... risk diet (high fat, low fibre and calcium) containing two different isolates of soy protein as a protein source. For the control and test groups this resulted in the administration of about 16 and 475 mg of total isoflavones per kg diet, respectively. As a positive control, a third group of mice...... was administered a low isoflavone diet supplemented with 300 ppm sulindac. No significant differences in the incidence, multiplicity, size and distribution of intestinal tumours were observed between Min mice fed low and high isoflavone-containing diets. However, a clear reduction in the number of small intestinal...

  9. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  10. Effect of Pb content and solution concentration of Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3} seed layer on (100)-texture and ferroelectric/dielectric behavior of PZT (52/48) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Jian; Batra, Vaishali; Han, Hui; Kotru, Sushma, E-mail: skotru@eng.ua.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Pandey, Raghvendar K. [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of Pb content and solution concentration of lead titanate (Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) seed layer on the texture and electric properties of Pb{sub 1.1}(Zr{sub 0.52},Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated. A variety of seed layers (y Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) with varying solution concentration (y = 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and Pb content (x = 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, and 1.2) was deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using chemical-solution deposition method. PZT films were then deposited on these seed layers using the same process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the seed layers confirm change in crystal structure with variation in the solution properties. XRD studies of PZT films deposited on seed layers demonstrate that the seed layer helps in enhancing (100)-texture and suppressing (111)-texture. It was observed that PZT films prepared on seed layers with lower solution concentrations results in highly (100)-textured films, which further helps to improve the electric properties. The polarization and dielectric constant of the PZT films were seen to increase while the coercive field decreased with increase in (100)-texture. Irrespective of the seed layer solution concentration, higher Pb content in the seed layer deteriorates the PZT film properties. Ninety-five percent to ninety-six percent (100)-texture was obtained from thin PZT films deposited on seed layers of 0.02 M solution concentration with 1.05 and 1.10 Pb contents, which is higher than the values reported for thick PZT films. Optimization of both Pb content and solution concentration of the seed layer is a promising route to achieve highly (100)-textured PZT films with improved electric properties.

  11. Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J; Samei, A; Rahmani, H

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine chemical composition of raw and treated bitter vetch seed for use in poultry diets. Processing methods were: soaked in water for 12 h, then autoclaved and dried (SA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSC); coarsely ground, soaked in solution of 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 60 degrees C and dried (GAA). Raw bitter vetch seed was contained 94.52, 26.56, 0.4, 58.86, 3.38, 5.32, 12.28 and 14.20 percent DM, CP, EE, NFE, Ash, CF, ADF and NDF, respectively. Its GE, AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn values were 18.10, 13.15, 14.38, 14.10 and 14.69 MJ/kg, respectively. Results indicated that bitter vetch is a good source of Fe (340 ppm) and Cu (46.7 ppm). It s amino acid profile was suitable and methionine was the first limiting amino acid when compared with broiler and layer chicks requirements. Its canavanine and tannin content were 0.78 and 6.7 mg/kgDM, respectively. Processing methods improved CP and in some cases AMEn. All processing methods especially GSC resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in canavanine and tannin.

  12. Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiani, A.; Kusumanti, E.; Harjanti, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different protein and energy contents and supplementation ofZinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and grapes seed oil on milk production in dairy goat.Randomized block design(RBD) was used in this study. Twelve lactating Ettawah crossbreed goats divided into three groupsbased on milk production. The treatment ration were:T1 = ration containing 16% CPand 66% TDN; T2 = ration containing 14% CP and 63% TDN supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2 ppm; and T3 = T2 + 22 ml grapes seed oil/head/day. The ration wasa dry complete feed in the form of pellet. The feed ingredients used were rice bran, cassava, wheat pollard, soybean meal, coconut meal, molasses, coffee husk and corn straw.Experiment was conducted over 30 days. Results revealed that the goat fed the ration supplemented with Zn and Cr(T2) producehigher milk yield (1012.29 g/day) and better in milk fat production (Poil in the T3 (P<0.05), but no significant in milk fat production compared with T1. In conclusion,drycomplete feed containingof CP 14%, TDN 63% supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2ppm is recommended for lactating dairy goat.

  13. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin) Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pingli; Shen, Zhikang; Ming, Luchang; Li, Yibo; Dan, Wenhan; Lou, Guangming; Peng, Bo; Wu, Bian; Li, Yanhua; Zhao, Da; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Gongwei; He, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Rice seed storage protein (SSP) is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), prolamin (Pro), glutelin (Glu), and total SSP (Total). A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97) and NIL(Delong208), and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes ( PG5a , Wx , AGPS2a , RP6 , and, RM1 ). Several starch-metabolism-related genes ( AGPS2a , OsACS6 , PUL , GBSSII , and ISA2 ) were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6 , RM1 , Wx , and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would

  14. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice seed storage protein (SSP is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb, globulin (Glo, prolamin (Pro, glutelin (Glu, and total SSP (Total. A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97 and NIL(Delong208, and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes (PG5a, Wx, AGPS2a, RP6, and, RM1. Several starch-metabolism-related genes (AGPS2a, OsACS6, PUL, GBSSII, and ISA2 were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6, RM1, Wx, and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would provide

  15. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizeron Morphological Traits, Seed and Essential Oil Yield and Essential Oil Content of Ajowan (Carum copticum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ajowan (Carum copticum Benth. & Hook. is an annual herbaceous essential oil bearing plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, which grows in India, Iran, and Egypt. Ajowan seeds have essential oil as an active substance, which is used in pharmaceutical industry as a diuretic, antivomiting, analgesic, antiasthma, antispasmodic and a carminative. Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. Also, nitrogen is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis. Generally, proper agronomic management including suitable plant density has a high influence on growth and yield of medicinal plants. In this regard, Kloss et al., (2012 highlighted the need for strategies to improve crop growth, make irrigation more efficient and sustainable and conserve farmlands. In addition, yield is influenced by inter-row spacing and sowing density. Ghilavizadeh et al., (2013 have reported that application of suitable amount of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density of 25 plan/m2 increased seed yield, essential oil yield and essential oil content of ajowan. In another research, Borumand Rezazadeh et al., (2009 reported that the plant density of 50 plant/m2 have produced the highest seed yield, essential oil yield and essential oil content. Generally, with regard to importance of medicinal plants and the necessity of understanding their crop and the impact of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on the performance of these plants, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of these factors on some traits of ajowan. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on different traits of ajowan (Carum copticum L., an experiment was conducted using factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural and Natural

  16. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. II - Citros Influence of moisture content and temperature on the vitality of citrus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de limão cravo e laranja caipira, espécies essas mais comumente empregadas como porta-enxertos no Estado de São Paulo, foram conservadas em ambientes de diferentes umidades e temperaturas, a fim de se conhecer as melhores condições para o seu armazenamento. Confirmando os resultados de outros autores, êstes ensaios mostraram, com bastante evidência, a importância dos fatôres umidade e temperatura na conservação destas sementes. Parece não haver dúvidas, entretanto, que outros fatôres, não estudados, são também responsáveis pela longevidade das sementes de citros. Para ambas as espécies, os melhores resultados foram obtidos à temperatura de 2-3°C e com emprego de recipientes semi-fechados. Nestas condições, onde foi possível manter a umidade relativa bastante elevada e evitar o acúmulo de CO², as sementes de limão cravo e laranja caipira tiveram uma longevidade de 14 e 11 meses, respectivamente.Seeds of Rangpur lime and sweet orange, the two species most used as rootstocks in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were stored under different conditions in order to find out the best for the conservation of their viability. It was found that seeds of both species remained viable longest when stored at 2-3°C in closed (not sealed containers with very humid air. Under these conditions, Rangpur lime and sweet orange seeds could be kept successfully for 14 and 11 months, respectively. The importance of moisture content and temperature effects on the viability of these seeds is shown. It is likely, however, that other factors may be involved, such as growth of fungi and bacteria, rate and temperature of drying, and gaseous exchange as has been suggested by other workers.

  17. Control of Y-211 content in bulk YBCO superconductors fabricated by a buffer-aided, top seeded infiltration and growth melt process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namburi, Devendra K; Shi, Yunhua; Palmer, Kysen G; Dennis, Anthony R; Durrell, John H; Cardwell, David A

    2016-01-01

    Bulk (RE)–Ba–Cu–O ((RE)BCO, where RE stands for rare-earth), single grain superconductors can trap magnetic fields of several tesla at low temperatures and therefore can function potentially as high field magnets. Although top seeded melt growth (TSMG) is an established process for fabricating relatively high quality single grains of (RE)BCO for high field applications, this technique suffers from inherent problems such as sample shrinkage, a large intrinsic porosity and the presence of (RE) 2 BaCuO 5 (RE-211)-free regions in the single grain microstructure. Seeded infiltration and growth (SIG), therefore, has emerged as a practical alternative to TSMG that overcomes many of these problems. Until now, however, the superconducting properties of bulk materials processed by SIG have been inferior to those fabricated using the TSMG technique. In this study, we identify that the inferior properties of SIG processed bulk superconductors are related to the presence of a relatively large Y-211 content (∼41.8%) in the single grain microstructure. Controlling the RE-211 content in SIG bulk samples is particularly challenging because it is difficult to regulate the entry of the liquid phase into the solid RE-211 preform during the infiltration process. In an attempt to solve this issue, we have investigated the effect of careful control of both the infiltration temperature and the quantity of liquid phase powder present in the sample preforms prior to processing. We conclude that careful control of the infiltration temperature is the most promising of these two process variables. Using this knowledge, we have fabricated successfully a YBCO bulk single grain using the SIG process of diameter 25 mm that exhibits a trapped field of 0.69 T at 77 K, which is the largest value reported to date for a sample fabricated by the SIG technique. (paper)

  18. 菜用大豆籽粒发育过程中Vc及矿物质含量分析%Analysis on vitamin C and mineral content during seeds development process in vegetable soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华涛; 陈新; 袁星星; 顾和平; 张红梅; 崔晓艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解菜用大豆籽粒发育过程中Vc及矿物质含量的变化规律,为优质菜用大豆的选育和生产提供理论依据.[方法]以熟期相近的9份菜用大豆品种为供试材料,在菜用大豆籽粒发育期分析籽粒Vc及钾、镁、钙、铁等矿物质元素的含量变化.[结果]随着菜用大豆籽粒的不断发育,其Vc含量呈先上升后下降的变化趋势,在花后50 d最高;钾元素含量呈一直下降的变化趋势,而钙元素含量呈逐渐上升的变化趋势;籽粒百粒鲜重、镁和铁元素平均含量呈现先上升后下降的变化趋势,其最高值出现在花后55 d.[结论]菜用大豆籽粒百粒鲜重、镁和铁、Vc含量的变化规律较相似,而钾和钙元素的含量变化规律有所不同.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to analyze the changes in vitamin C and mineral content during seeds development process in vegetable soybean to provide practical basis for high-quality vegetable soybean production. [Method]Nine vegetable soybean varieties with similar growth duration were used to analyze the contents of vitamin C (Vc), potassium (K) , magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in seeds during seed development. [Result]With the development of seeds in vegetable soybean, 100-seed weight, Vc, Mg and Fe contents increased and then showed a decreasing trend. Vc content was found the highest at 50 days after flowering, while 100-seed weight, Mg and Fe contents were the highest at 55 days. The K content showed a declining trend, while Ca content showed an increasing trend. [Conclusion]The weight of 100 seeds, and Vc, Mg and Fe contents showed similar trends of change during seed development process, while K and Ca behaved differently. The results may provide the help in breeding programs tailored to develop fine vegetable soybean varieties.

  19. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  20. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  1. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  2. Treatment with soy isoflavones during early adulthood improves metabolism in early postnatally overfed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.

  3. Phosphorylation of Isoflavones by Bacillus subtilis BCRC 80517 May Represent Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen; Wu, Bo-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Fon; Chiou, Tai-Ying; Su, Nan-Wei

    2018-01-10

    The soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have beneficial effects on human health. However, their oral bioavailability is hampered by their low aqueous solubility. Our previous study revealed two water-soluble phosphorylated conjugates of isoflavones, daidzein 7-O-phosphate and genistein 7-O-phosphate, generated via biotransformation by Bacillus subtilis BCRC80517 cultivated with isoflavones. In this study, two novel derivatives of isoflavones, daidzein 4'-O-phosphate and genistein 4'-O-phosphate, were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P NMR, and their biotransformation roadmaps were proposed. Primarily, isoflavone glucosides were deglycosylated and then phosphorylated predominantly into 7-O-phosphate conjugates with traces of 4'-O-phosphate conjugates. Inevitably, trace quantities of glucosides were converted into 6″-O-succinyl glucosides. GEN was more efficiently phosphorylated than DAI. Nevertheless, the presence of GEN prolonged the time until the exponential phase of cell growth, whereas the other isoflavones showed little effect on cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into the novel microbial phosphorylation of isoflavones involved in xenobiotic metabolism.

  4. Omega-3 versus isoflavones in the control of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S; Lilue, M; Mejia, A; Menendez, C

    2017-12-01

    Determine the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids versus soybean isoflavones in reducing the vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) frequency in postmenopausal women. A randomized, prospective, two-arm study was performed in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65. The two arms were: two capsules/day of omega-3 (425 mg of omega-3/capsule) administered orally (n = 38) and two tablets/day of soybean isoflavones (54.4 mg of isoflavones/tablet) (n = 30), over 16 weeks. The mean baseline frequency of moderate and severe VMSs per week in the omega-3 group was 24.56 and 23.90, respectively, and 19.65 and 19.51 in the isoflavone group. After 4 months, the reduction in moderate and severe hot flashes with omega-3 was significant (p Omega-3 did not demonstrate significant efficacy differences versus isoflavones over time. The use of omega-3 has a beneficial effect on hot flash reduction after 4 months of treatment. This is comparable to the benefits found with soybean isoflavones after 3-4 weeks and after 4 months in severe hot flash women, but higher than those found with soybean isoflavones in moderate symptom women.

  5. An Efficient and Versatile Synthesis of Isoflavones from 2-Methoxybenzoic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae In [Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Isoflavones (3-aryl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones) are found naturally in soybeans and many plants of the Leguminosae family. They have attracted much attention due to their biological activities, such as their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal properties. Isoflavones intake through foods is important to human health, because they potentially regulate fatty acid metabolism and methoxy-substituted isoflavones in particular increase cell permeability. Isoflavones have also been synthesized by the coupling of 3-iodochromones with arylboronic acids. The condensation of 2'-hydroxyacetophenones with DMF dimethyl acetal formed 3-(dimethylamino)-2'-hydroxyphenylpropenones, which were cyclized using iodine to form 3-iodochromones. This process was followed by Suzuki coupling with arylboronic acids or aryl boronates to obtain isoflavones. The synthesis of isoflavones (6) from 5 was based on the formylation of the methylene group of 5 using DMF-POCl{sub 3}. Previously, the reaction of the DMF-POCl{sub 3} complex on benzyl 2-hydroxyphenyl ketones led to isoflavones, for which DMF was used as the reagent and solvent for 18 h at gentle reflux.

  6. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  7. Dietary isoflavone absorption, excretion, and metabolism in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Cave, Nicholas J; Ugarte, Claudia E; Waldron, Lucy A; Prasain, Jeevan K; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Thomas, David G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration-time curve, metabolite profile, and urinary and fecal excretion of genistein and daidzein in cheetahs following consumption of isoflavones. Four adult cheetahs were administered a single oral bolus of genistein and daidzein, and five juvenile cheetahs consuming a milk replacer formula found to contain isoflavones were also included. Urine was collected from all animals, and blood and feces were also collected from adult cheetahs following isoflavone exposure. Samples were analyzed for isoflavone metabolite concentration by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sulfate conjugates were the primary metabolites detected of both genistein and daidzein (60-80% of total isoflavones present) in the plasma and urine of cheetahs. A smaller proportion of daidzein was detected as conjugates in the urine of juvenile cheetahs, compared to adult cheetahs. Other metabolites included unconjugated genistein and daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and dihydrodaidzein, but not equol. Only 33% of the ingested genistein dose, and 9% of daidzein, was detected in plasma from adult cheetahs. However, of the ingested dose, 67% of genistein and 45% of daidzein were detected in the feces of adults. This study revealed that cheetahs appear efficient in their conjugation of absorbed dietary isoflavones and only a small fraction of ingested dose is absorbed. However, the capacity of the cheetah to conjugate genistein and daidzein with sulfate moieties appears lower than reported in the domestic cat. This may confer greater opportunity for biologic

  8. Soy-isoflavone supplementation tends to reduce menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Wratsangka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women tend to decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The present study’s objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms of healthy postmenopausal women. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens abundantly found in soy beans, and several studies have demonstrated that isoflavones are the best among the phytoestrogens. Methods The study was a community-based double blind randomized controlled trial involving 60 healthy postmenopausal women, aged between 48–60 years, in the Mampang Prapatan District, South Jakarta. Participants were block-randomized to receive either 100 mg soy-isoflavone + 500 mg calcium carbonate (intervention group or 500 mg calcium carbonate only (control group. Both supplements were taken daily for 12 weeks, from January to April 2010. Menopausal symptoms (measured by Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after supplementation. Chi-square test was used to examine the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal symptoms. Results Fifty-six (93.3% of participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the prevalence of menopausal symptoms between the isoflavone group and the control group. However, supplementation of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tended to decrease the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women with normal body mass index and adequate daily dietary isoflavone intake. Conclusion Daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tend to decrease the incidence of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  9. Relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-12-29

    Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Our study included 1076 Japanese adults aged 20-78 years. Daily isoflavone intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and sleep was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. The prevalence of regular sleep duration (7-8 h/day) and sufficient sleep quality were 13.3% and 56.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) when higher isoflavone intakes (Q2-Q4) were compared with low isoflavone intake (Q1) were Q2: 0.94 (0.53-1.56); Q3: 1.28 (0.73-2.24); and Q4: 1.84 (1.06-3.18) (p for trend = 0.013). In the final adjusted model, sufficient sleep quality across categories of isoflavone intake was Q1: 1.00 (reference); Q2: 1.30 (0.91-1.84); Q3: 1.48 (1.03-2.12); and Q4: 1.78 (1.22-2.60); (p for trend = 0.002). Higher daily isoflavone intake was positively associated with optimal sleep duration and quality in a Japanese population. This finding suggests that daily isoflavone intake may have a potentially beneficial effect on sleep status.

  10. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  11. Isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L. sprouts induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Hai-Rong; Gao, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Habasi, Madina; Hu, Rui; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-02-01

    Isoflavones are important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpeas. We systematically investigated the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) on the human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed that ICS (10-60 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining showed that ICS significantly increased cytoclasis and apoptotic body formation. Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner following ICS treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that ICS increased the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of SKBr3 and MCF-7 cells with ICS increased the expression of caspase 7, caspase 9, P53, and P21 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment. Treatment using ICS also induced a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production. This is the first study to demonstrate that ICS may be a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A study on effective extraction of isoflavones from soy germ using the electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hoon [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Beom [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Wook [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: swkim@kaeri.re.kr; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Kook Hyun [Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yukook@dongguk.edu

    2009-07-15

    Soy germ was irradiated with 2 MeV electron beam with different doses ranging from 1 to 20 kGy. The amount of isoflavones from irradiated soy germ was compared with those from natural soy germ by extracting with ethanol and methanol. The changed amounts of isoflavones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with standard calibration curve. Each extract of soy germ was quantified for antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The amount of isoflavones was found to be increased after electron-beam irradiation. Particularly ethanol extract with 15 kGy irradiated soy germ contained the maximum amount of isoflavones. Antioxidant activity of irradiated soy germ was higher than that of natural soy germ.

  13. Estrogenic effect of soy isoflavones on mammary gland morphogenesis and gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Almstrup, Kristian; Nielsen, John E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and soy isoflavones' exposure on morphogenesis and global gene expression in the murine mammary gland. Three exposure regimens were applied: isoflavones added to the diet throughout either the lactational period (via the dams) or the postweaning...... period and E2 administered orally during the lactational period. Whole mounts of mammary glands were evaluated both in juvenile and adult animals with respect to branching morphogenesis and terminal end bud (TEB) formation. At postnatal day (PND) 28, we observed a significant increase in branching...... isoflavone and E2 exposure was further substantiated by changes in gene expression, since the same groups of genes were up- and downregulated, particularly in the E2 and postweaning isoflavone regimen. All changes in gene expression correlated with changes in the cellular composition of the gland, i.e., more...

  14. Soy food frequency questionnaire does not correlate with baseline isoflavone levels in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Jill M; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Kim, KyungMann; Tangrea, Joseph A; Parnes, Howard L; House, Margaret G; Gee, Jason; Messing, Edward; Bailey, Howard H

    2015-04-01

    The isoflavone genistein, a natural soy product with receptor tyrosine kinase-inhibiting activity, as well as phytoestrogenic and other potential anticarcinogenic effects, is being studied as an anticancer agent. Since isoflavones are commonly consumed in food products containing soy proteins, a method to control for baseline isoflavone consumption is needed. HPLC was used to evaluate baseline plasma and urine concentrations of isoflavone in fifty-four participants with bladder cancer enrolled on a phase II chemoprevention study of G-2535. The soy food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participant's baseline soy intake. The association between baseline isoflavone concentrations and intakes for genistein and daidzein was assessed by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The majority of participants had no detectable genistein or daidzein in plasma at baseline. The median and range of values were 0 (0-1480) nmol/L for genistein, and 0 (0-1260) nmol/L for daidzein. In urine, the median and range of values were 91.0 (0-9030) nmol/L for genistein and 623 (0-100,000) nmol/L for daidzein. The median and range of weekly estimated genistein intake was 0 (0-236) mg/wk; the median and range of weekly estimated daidzein intake was 0 (0-114) mg/wk. There was no relationship to soy intake as measured by the food frequency questionnaire and baseline isoflavone levels in plasma or urine and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were not significant. The soy food frequency questionnaire did not correlate with plasma or urine concentrations of either isoflavone. Alternative methods for controlling for soy consumption, including measuring plasma and urine concentrations, in isoflavone chemoprevention trials should be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. The Role of Colonic Bacteria in the Metabolism of the Natural Isoflavone Daidzin to Equol

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are found in leguminous plants, especially soybeans. They have a structural similarity to natural estrogens, which enables them to bind to estrogen receptors and elicit biological activities similar to natural estrogens. They have been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of hormone-dependent diseases. After soy products are consumed, the bacteria of the intestinal microflora metabolize isoflavones to metabolites with altered absorption, bioavailability, and e...

  16. Influence of dietary isoflavone intake on gastrointestinal symptoms in ulcerative colitis individuals in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Grudzińska, Dominika; Lech, Gustaw

    2017-08-07

    To analyse the association between isoflavone intake and ulcerative colitis motility symptoms in individuals in remission. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of ulcerative colitis remission individuals, in sub-groups characterised by various intestinal motility and functioning characteristics (abdominal pain, flatulence, constipations, tenesmus). Total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 d of the weekend). The daily isoflavone intake (daidzein, genistein, glycitein and total isoflavones) and daily isoflavone intake per 1000 kcal of diet were assessed. No correlations between isoflavone intake levels and number of bowel movements per day were observed both in the case of intake and intake per 1000 kcal of diet. In the group of individuals declaring lack of abdominal pain, the higher intakes of daidzein ( P = 0.0075), daidzein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0358) and total isoflavone ( P = 0.0358) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring abdominal pain. In the group of individuals declaring lack of constipations, the lower intakes of glycitein ( P = 0.0213) and glycitein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0213) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring presence of constipations. No differences were observed in isoflavone intake between groups of ulcerative colitis individuals declaring lack of flatulence and declaring presence of flatulence, as well as between groups declaring lack of tenesmus and declaring presence of tenesmus. The moderate dietary isoflavone intake may be beneficial for individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission, however, before including it into recommendations, further prospective studies are needed.

  17. Anti-Photoaging Effects of Soy Isoflavone Extract (Aglycone and Acetylglucoside Form from Soybean Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones, found in soybean and soybean products, have been reported to possess many physiological activities such as antioxidant activity, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, reduction of cardiovascular risk, prevention of osteoporosis and alleviation of postmenopausal syndrome. In our previous study, soy isoflavone extract ISO-1 (containing 12 soy isoflavones from soybean cake was demonstrated to prevent skin damage caused by UVB exposure. In this study, soy isoflavone extract from soybean cake was further purified and evaluated for the protective effects on UVB-induced damage. The results revealed that Fraction 3, which contains the aglycone group (daidzein, genistein and glycitein and acetylglucoside group (acetyldaidzin, acetylgenistin and acetylglycitin of soy isoflavones, could inhibit UVB-induced death of human keratinocytes and reduce the level of desquamation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema and epidermal thickness in mouse skin. Furthermore, topical application of Fraction 3 increased the activity of catalase and suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression in mice exposed to UVB. In addition, in comparison with ISO-1 and genistein, the Fraction 3 possessed much greater protective effects on both UVB-induced oxidative stress and keratinocyte death than other fractions. Therefore, the soy isoflavone extract Fraction 3 from soybean cake is a desirable anti-photoaging agent for skin care.

  18. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  19. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES CONCÓRDIA CARRÃO-PANIZZI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  20. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Manuscript s • Submitted to the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Feb 21, 2012) “The soy isoflavone equol may increase cancer malignancy via upregulation...29] Ko KP, Park SK, Park B et al. Isoflavones from phytoestrogens and gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study within the Korean...Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING

  1. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  3. Characterization and Ectopic Expression of CoWRI1, an AP2/EREBP Domain-Containing Transcription Factor from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Endosperm, Changes the Seeds Oil Content in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, RuHao; Ye, Rongjian; Gao, Lingchao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Mao, Ting; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae ( Palmaceae ). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1 . Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( BCCP2 ) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively. Functional characterization was carried out through seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis and endosperm-specific expression in rice. In transgenic Arabidopsis , high over-expressions of CoWRI1 in seven independent T2 lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative mRNA accumulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in either fatty acid biosynthesis or triacylglycerols assembly (BCCP2, KASI, MAT, ENR, FATA, and GPDH) were also assayed in mature seeds. Furthermore, lipid and fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 significantly increased. In two homozygous T2 transgenic rice lines (G5 and G2), different CoWRI1 expression levels were detected, but no CoWRI1 transcripts were detected in the wild type. Analyses of the seed oil content, starch content, and total protein content indicated that the two T2 transgenic lines showed a significant increase ( P oil content. The transgenic lines also showed a significant increase in starch content, whereas total protein content decreased significantly. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly in the seeds of the transgenic rice lines, but oleic acid (C18:1) levels significantly declined.

  4. Importance of nickel in Fabaceae. Pt. 1. Comparative studies on the content of nickel and certain other elements in vegetative parts and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1985-02-28

    Vegetative parts and seeds of 15 Fabaceae were analyzed with respect to concentrations of Ni as well as K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. The distribution pattern of the examined elements is different. For the macronutrients and iron mostly a significant higher concentration could be found in the shoot, whilst micronutrients frequently were accumulated in the seed. Nickel is that element, which is accumulated relatively highest in the seed. This is a criterion for a specific importance of nickel, which is a compound of urease and in this function could be involved in the mobilization of nitrogen storage substances of the seed.

  5. Changes in seed oil and protein contents of maize cultivars at different positions on the ear in response to water limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out as split-split plot in 2014 to assess the effects of four irrigation treatments (irrigations after 60, 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation, respectively on oil and protein changes of maize cultivars (SC704, NS640 and DC303: Late, mid and early maturing cultivars, respectively at different seed positions on the ear (upper, middle and lower positions on the ear. Overall, the highest seed yield was obtained from SC704, followed by NS640 and DC303 cultivars. Seed yield of all cultivars was higher at lower seed position on ear than at middle and upper parts of the ear under different irrigation treatments. The highest oil and protein yields were also recorded for seeds at lower position on the ear. Seed yield of all maize cultivars at various seed positions decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Oil percentage decreased, but protein percentage increased with decreasing water availability. Water limitation decreased oil and protein yields of maize cultivars. Changes in protein and oil yields of maize cultivars at different seed positions and irrigation treatments were attributed to changes in seed yield.

  6. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  7. Do Soy Isoflavones Provide Protection Against Prostate Cancer Via a Classical Estrogen Receptor-Alpha (Era) Independent Mechanism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lubahn, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    .... Our hypothesis is that soy isoflavones, specifically genistein and daidzein, will provide protection from development and progression of prostate cancer in mice lacking functional estrogen receptor...

  8. Efficient Synthesis of Glaziovianin A Isoflavone Series from Dill and Parsley Extracts and Their in Vitro/in Vivo Antimitotic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Victor V; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Semenova, Marina N; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Volynchuk, Polina B; Marusich, Elena I; Nazarenko, Vera V; Leonov, Sergey V; Kiselyov, Alex S

    2016-05-27

    A concise six-step protocol for the synthesis of isoflavone glaziovianin A (GVA) and its alkoxyphenyl derivatives 9 starting with readily available plant metabolites from dill and parsley seeds was developed. The reaction sequence involved an efficient conversion of the key intermediate epoxides 7 into the respective β-ketoaldehydes 8 followed by their Cu(I)-mediated cyclization into the target series 9. The biological activity of GVA and its derivatives was evaluated using a panel of seven human cancer cell lines and an in vivo sea urchin embryo assay. Both screening platforms confirmed the antimitotic effect of the parent GVA (9cg) and its alkoxy derivatives. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that compounds 9cd and 9cf substituted with trimethoxy- and dillapiol-derived B-rings, respectively, were less active than the parent 9cg. Of the evaluated human cancer cell lines, the A375 melanoma cell line was the most sensitive to the tested molecules. Notably, the target compounds were not cytotoxic against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells up to 10 μM concentration. Phenotypic readouts from the sea urchin assay unequivocally suggest a direct microtubule-destabilizing effect of isoflavones 9cg, 9cd, and 9cf.

  9. Effects of isoflavones on beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains Efeitos dos isoflavonóides no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros cozidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is the main limiting factor affecting soybean acceptability in the Occidental countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effetcs of isoflavones on soybean flavor. Differences in beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains, prepared with cultivars IAS 5 and BR-36 (136 and 54 mg of total isoflavones /100 g of sample, respectively with pre-soaking and pre-heating of grains, were sensorially analised, by an unstructured category scale of ascending intensity. Differences in isoflavone contents for both soybean cultivars were maintained in the two products, despite the pre-treatments in the processing. Pre-soaking of grains intensified beany flavor in the soymilk, reducing the perception of astringency, which is caused by the aglucones that were developed in reduced amounts.The whole soybeans grains cooked under pressure (1.5 kgf/cm² at 127°C presented reduced levels of isoflavones malonyl-glucosides. Due to thermal instability, these compounds were converted to conjugated glucosides, genistin and daidzin. In the cooked whole soybean grains, no aglucones were formed and consequently it was not possible to detect differences in astringency. Results suggest that pre-heating of grains promote better flavor in soybean products.O sabor é o principal fator que limita a aceitabilidade da soja nos países ocidentais. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos dos isoflavonóides sobre o sabor da soja. Diferenças no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros de soja cozidos, preparados com as cultivares IAS 5 e BR-36 (136 e 54 mg isoflavonóides totais /100 g de amostras, respectivamente, com pré-maceração e pré-aquecimento dos grãos, foram analisadas sensorialmente, conforme uma escala não estruturada de categoria de intensidade ascendente. As diferenças no teor dos isoflavonóides das duas cultivares foram mantidas nos dois produtos

  10. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  11. 大豆籽粒蛋白质含量相关QTL定位研究进展%Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Seed Protein Content in Soybean: Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐波; 杨加银

    2017-01-01

    籽粒蛋白质含量是大豆品质性状改良的主要目标之一.笔者介绍了大豆遗传图谱的构建与基因组测序发展历程,从基于分离群体的连锁分析和基于自然群体的关联分析两方面阐述了大豆籽粒蛋白质含量QTL定位研究进展,进而讨论了大豆蛋白质含量MAS育种存在的问题,最后展望了大豆蛋白质含量分子遗传改良的研究趋势.以期为大豆高蛋白育种提供参考.%Seed protein content is one of the main objectives of soybean quality improvement.In this paper,the authors summarized the development of soybean genetic map construction and genome sequencing,and clarified the progress of QTL mapping of soybean seed protein content from linkage analysis based on the segregating population and association analysis based on the natural population.Furthermore,the authors discussed the existing problem of marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for seed protein content in soybean.Finally,the future research trend of molecular genetic improvement of seed protein content in soybean was discussed.It is expected that this paper will provide a reference for the selection of new soybean varieties with high protein content.

  12. INTERVENSI ISOFLAVON KEDELAI TIDAK BERPENGARUH TERHADAP STATUS INFLAMASI DAN IMUNITAS PADA REMAJA DENGAN KEGEMUKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Overweight/obesity is a condition that has been proven to be interrelated with chronic inflammation and compromised immune system due to disregulation of adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of soy isoflavone on the markers of inflammation and immunity of overweight or obese teenagers. Eighteen overweight or obese teenagers, 9 boys and 9 girls each sex were randomized to one of three  intervention groups; 0 ml, 150 ml and 300 ml soy milk, equal to 0 g, 25 g and 50 mg isoflavone everyday for 30 days. The data collected were food consumption, plasma isoflavone concentration, plasma IL6 as indicator of inflammation, and lymphocyte and NK cell count as indicator of immunity. The study showed that nutrient intake of samples were still relatively low. The soy milk intervention significantly increased plasma isoflavone concentration, but not significantly had contribution to the plasma IL6 concentration and lymphocyte and NK cell count. Several kind of food consumed by samples had contribution to the plasma isoflavone concentration, and lymphocyte count. Based on the results, it was suggested that soy isoflavone intervention does not affect the inflammation status and immunity of overweight/obese teenagers.   Key words: Overweight/obesity, teenagers, soy isoflavone, inflammation, immunity

  13. Soy isoflavones, estrogen therapy, and breast cancer risk: analysis and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Charles E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been considerable investigation of the potential for soyfoods to reduce risk of cancer, and in particular cancer of the breast. Most interest in this relationship is because soyfoods are essentially a unique dietary source of isoflavones, compounds which bind to estrogen receptors and exhibit weak estrogen-like effects under certain experimental conditions. In recent years the relationship between soyfoods and breast cancer has become controversial because of concerns – based mostly on in vitro and rodent data – that isoflavones may stimulate the growth of existing estrogen-sensitive breast tumors. This controversy carries considerable public health significance because of the increasing popularity of soyfoods and the commercial availability of isoflavone supplements. In this analysis and commentary we attempt to outline current concerns regarding the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones in the breast focusing primarily on the clinical trial data and place these concerns in the context of recent evidence regarding estrogen therapy use in postmenopausal women. Overall, there is little clinical evidence to suggest that isoflavones will increase breast cancer risk in healthy women or worsen the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Although relatively limited research has been conducted, and the clinical trials often involved small numbers of subjects, there is no evidence that isoflavone intake increases breast tissue density in pre- or postmenopausal women or increases breast cell proliferation in postmenopausal women with or without a history of breast cancer. The epidemiologic data are generally consistent with the clinical data, showing no indication of increased risk. Furthermore, these clinical and epidemiologic data are consistent with what appears to be a low overall breast cancer risk associated with pharmacologic unopposed estrogen exposure in postmenopausal women. While more research is required to definitively

  14. Influence of pre-sowing irradiation of soya seeds with low doses of gamma rays on the yields of grain and on the content of crude protein in the grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ch.V.

    1985-01-01

    Pre-sowing irradiation of air-dry soya seeds of the Hodson variety, calibrated in size and humidity (12%), with gamma rays in the range of relatively low intensities of irradiation of 0.27 to 5 Gy/min and doses of 10 to 20 Gy increases both the yield of grain and the content of crude protein in the grain in relation to the absolute dry matter. The dependence of radiostimulation effect on the factors of the environment cannot be reason for neglecting it as a posssible reserve for increasing the yield of grain from soya and the content of crude protein in the grain. Possible results are exspected from production experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of seeds of Hodson variety using gamma rays in the range of the above intensities and doses

  15. Improvement of sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) using mutations induced by gamma rays and chemical mutagens. I-Study of variation in radiosensitivity of sesame as a function of seed water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.; Almouslem, A.B.

    2000-02-01

    Sorption curve representing the development of water content versus relative. The study of humidity in sesame seeds (cv. Zoury), shows that water is present in three different states: constitutive water at less than 2.89%, absorption between 2.89 and 5.57% an free water more than 5.57%. Along with these water states, radiosensitivity is found to be high, low and high respectively. (Author)

  16. Biotransformation and recovery of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from industrial antibiotic fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mark; Reeves, Andrew R.; Seshadri, Ramya; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Gray, Danielle L.; Wesley, Roy K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein and daidzein, together make up 0.1 - 0.2% of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by x-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of S. erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance were also found to have isoflavone coproduct potential. PMID:23604533

  17. Effect of Different Doses of Soy Isoflavones on Spatial Learning and Memory in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safahani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies indicate that estrogen use increase performance on some tests of cognition especially in postmenopausal women. These steroids have many side effects, thus, other estrogenic agents with fewer side effects are needed to develop alternative treatment strategies. The main objection of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of dietary soy meals (with or without isoflavone on spatial learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats with the exception of intact group were ovariectomized at the first line of study. Subjects were divided into six groups. The control group rats (c were gonadally intact, while the others were OVX. OVX groups received normal diet (0, treated with 10 gr soy (10, 20 gr soy (20, 10 gr isoflavone free soy (-10 or 20 gr isoflavone free soy (-20 in daily diet for four weeks. The spatial learning and memory were tested using Morris water maze. Rats were trained in water maze to find a hidden escape Platform. Rats received 6 blocks that each block consisted of 3 trials. Following acquisition trials, one probe trial were conducted in which the platform was removed. Results: Soy meal diet (with or without isoflavone in ovariectomized rats caused improvement of performance across 18 trials of Acquisition. Discussion: Our results suggest that soy consumption apart from containing isoflavone or not is a potential alternative to estrogen in the improvement of cognition.

  18. Validation of a technique by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of total isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar A. Soledispa Cañarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Isoflavones may act as selective regulators in the prevention of various diseases. The most important source of isoflavones is the soy, from which different phytotherapeutics are elaborated of use in Ecuadorian population. However, its concentration varies depending on several factors, therefore quality assessment need to be carried out through out several analytical methods. Aims: To validate an analytical method by high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify total isoflavones in herbal medicine. Methods: To quantify isoflavones, it was used a brand liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detector at 260 nm, C-18 column using isocratic method. The mobile phase was composed of 2% acetic acid: acetonitrile (75:25. The quantification was performed against reference standard. The parameters for the validation followed the established in the USP 33. Results: The chromatogram presented six peaks with elution between 1.557 and 18.913 min. The linearity of the system and the method got r2 equal to 0.98 and 0.99 respectively. The coefficients of variation 1.5% in the study of repetitiveness and 2% in intermediate precision. The accuracy of the adjusted lineal model exhibited r=0.95 and intercept reliable interval (-0.921; 1.743. Conclusions: The validated method was specific, accurate, precise and linear. It can be used for quality control and stability studies of isoflavones present in herbal medicine.

  19. Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Rafidah; Kouidhi, Wided; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Husain, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men.

  20. Preparation and characterization of solid oral dosage forms containing soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela R. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones have been extensively used for menopausal symptoms and prevention of hormone-related cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Commercially available forms of isoflavones include supplements, capsules and tablets. However, the non-standardization of soy isoflavones extracts and different dissolution profiles of these solid dosage forms highlight the need of additional studies on the development of well characterized pharmaceutical dosage forms of isoflavones. In this work, immediate release oral tablets of soy isoflavones were obtained and evaluated. Genistein and daidzein, were the main constituents of the dried soy extract. Preparation of the tables was accomplished in a rotary tableting machine following either a dry mixture for direct compression or wet granulation with different excipients. Powder, granules and tablets were evaluated for several parameters, including flow properties, Carr and Hausner indexes, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release profile. Also, a fast and validated HPLC analytical method for both genistein and daidzein was developed. Formulations containing sodium croscarmellose and sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in better flowability as indicated by the flow rate and angle of repose, faster disintegration time and immediate release dissolution profile.

  1. 不同类型大豆品种籽粒蛋白质含量的积累规律研究%Accumulation Regulation of Protein Content during Seed Developing of Different Soybeans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明珠; 刘迎雪; 李文华; 尹春佳; 张春宵; 刘丽; 邢华铭

    2009-01-01

    选用在黑龙江省种植面积较大的12个大豆品种为材料,从鼓粒期开始,每隔7 d取一次样,研究不同类型大豆品种籽粒蛋白质含量的积累动态规律.结果表明:不同类型大豆品种籽粒蛋白质的积累动态规律不同.高蛋白品种呈双峰曲线变化,高油品种和中间型品种呈单峰曲线变化,但峰值出现的时间不同.在籽粒形成的中后期,不同类型大豆品种平均籽粒蛋白质含量的变化趋于平稳,高蛋白品种蛋白质含量最高,高油品种最低,中间型品种介于两者之间.不同类型大豆品种在各取样时期的平均籽粒蛋白质含量的差异达到显著或极显著水平,且蛋白质的合成以籽粒形成的中后期为主.%Soybean is a very important grain and oil crop,and the protein content is one of main indicators of soybean quality , so study the dynamic accumulation of protein content in soybean seeds is important for quality improvement. This experiment chose twelve popular soybean varieties in Heilongjiang province, including four high- protein, four high- oil and four general varieties, as material, and the dynamic accumulation of protein content among different soybean seeds was investigated. The results showed that the accumulation dynamics of seed protein varied with varieties, the high- protein variety showed a double-peak curve trend,and the peak value appeared 14 days and 28 days after seed filling;the high-oil variety and general variety showed a single- peak curve, and the peak appeared 28 days after seed filling for high- oil variety. The average protein content of different soybean varieties changed obviously in former period of seeds formation, and remain stable in later period. During the later seed formation, high- protein variety had the highest protein content, while high- oil variety had the lowest protein content. The final protein content of different soybean was mainly determined by middle or later period of the seeds formation

  2. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  3. Release, partitioning and stability of isoflavones from enriched custards during mouth, stomach and intestine in vitro simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Custard desserts were enriched with a soy germ extract as source of isoflavones and the influence of the thickening agent (starch or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)) and the presence of fat on the release, partitioning and stability of the isoflavones after mouth, stomach and small intestine in vitro

  4. Increasing storability of Ceratoides arborescens seeds in ultradry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... After ultradrying, aging was accelerated in the seeds (45°C,. 2 days), and some .... According to International Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA, 1993). Seed moisture content was ... Statistical analysis. Data were subjected to ...

  5. EFFECTS OF NATURAL LONG STORAGE DURATION ON SEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lep

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... germination and viability, seed vigor index and seed vigor under a 7.3% moisture content when .... containing two disks of Whatman filter papers soaked in distilled water. ..... desiccation tolerance (Review Update). Seed Sci.

  6. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  7. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF ISOFLAVON TEMPE SECARA CEPAT DAN SEDERHANA MENGGUNAKAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS- DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Setiawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rapid and simple quantitative analysis isoflavones tempe using densitometric TLC has been done. The mobile phase of the system was chloroform: methanol: ethylacetate (45: 5: 0.75. Thin layer chromatography was performed on aluminium TLC plates.Ascending distance of 1 μL sample was performanced 10 cm. Then the plate was scanned at 261 nm. A linear relationship obtained at 0.08 - 2 μg/spot with r= 0.9986. The LOD and LOQ of isoflavone were 0.014 μg/spot and 0.048 μg/spot. Genistein contained in tempe was 0.151± 0.005 % b/b. Keywords: tempe, isoflavon, TLC

  8. Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the changes of isoflavones in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Chang, P-S; Lee, J H

    2008-09-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the distribution of isoflavones in commercially available soymilk were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total isoflavones (TI) in soymilk with riboflavin (1000 ppm, w/v) under light were significantly different from those stored in the dark for 24 h (P riboflavin were not significant from each other in dark conditions (P > 0.05). To test the effects of the concentration of riboflavin on TI, soymilk was mixed with riboflavin to make 0, 100, 250, and 500 ppm (w/v) and stored under light at 25 degrees C for 24 h. TI in soymilk with 100 ppm riboflavin under light significantly decreased by 13.5% for 24 h (P 0.05). Daidzin and genistin were predominant isoflavones in soymilk, and the rate of photo degradation of genistin was higher than that of daidzin for 24 h in soymilk under riboflavin photosensitization.

  9. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Impurities in alfalfa seed and their impact on processing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Marković, Jordan; Terzić, Dragan; Anđelković, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine relevant parameters and optimal alfalfa seed processing technology by a comparative analysis of two systems of machinery for processing natural alfalfa seed of different purity (59.0% and 71.0%) and with different content of impurities. The relevant parameters monitored during the test were: pure seed (%), weed seeds and seeds of other crops (%), inert matter (%), amount of processed seed (kg), seed processing time (min), consumption of steel powder (...

  11. Efeitos de diversos níveis de umidade e tratamento fungicida, na longevidade de sementes de amendoim Effects of several moisture content and fungicide treatments on the longevity of peanut seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Tella

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de cinco níveis de umidade na longevidade de sementes de amendoim descascadas mecanicamente, tratadas e não tratadas com fungicidas, acondicionadas em frascos de vidro hermeticamente fechados e colocados em sala de condições ambientes não controladas, por um período de 22 meses. A gradativa deterioração das sementes durante esse período foi medida pelo teste-padrão de germinação. As umidades de 8,0 e 9,1% foram extremamente prejudiciais à longevidade das sementes, inclusive para aquelas tratadas com fungicida. Sementes com a umidade original (7,0% e tratadas com fungicida mantiveram razoável poder germinativo até aos nove meses. Sementes com 4,5 e 6,0% de umidade apresentaram germinação mais alta em todos os períodos, e foram as únicas a apresentar alguma germinação aos 18 e 22 meses, quando não tratadas com fungicida. Nos períodos finais de armazenamento a germinação das sementes com 4,5% de umidade foi estatisticamente superior à de 6,0%. Em todos os períodos a germinação de sementes tratadas com fungicida foi estatisticamente superior à das não tratadas. Com exceção do período de dois meses, não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os fungicidas utilizados.The effects of five moisture content on the longevity of mechanically shelled peanut seeds treated and not treated with fungicide were studied. The seeds were placed in hermetically sealed glass jars and stored in an unconditioned room in Campinas, State of São Paulo for a period of up to 22 months. The rate of deterioration was measured by the standard germination test. The 8.0 and 9.1% moisture content were extremely damaging to the longevity of the seeds including to those treated with fungicide. Seeds with the original moisture (7.0% and treated with fungicide maintained reasonably well the germinability until nine months storage when they provided a percent germination around 60%. Seeds with 4.5 and 6.0% moisture content

  12. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vascellari

    Full Text Available Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(Res. Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8 and 10(-13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  13. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  14. Factorial design applied to the optimization of lipid composition of topical antiherpetic nanoemulsions containing isoflavone genistein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenta DF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Débora Fretes Argenta,1 Cristiane Bastos de Mattos,1 Fabíola Dallarosa Misturini,1 Leticia Scherer Koester,1 Valquiria Linck Bassani,1 Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões,2 Helder Ferreira Teixeira1 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-graduação em Farmácia da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to optimize topical nanoemulsions containing genistein, by means of a 23 full factorial design based on physicochemical properties and skin retention. The experimental arrangement was constructed using oil type (isopropyl myristate or castor oil, phospholipid type (distearoylphosphatidylcholine [DSPC] or dioleylphosphaditylcholine [DOPC], and ionic cosurfactant type (oleic acid or oleylamine as independent variables. The analysis of variance showed effect of third order for particle size, polydispersity index, and skin retention of genistein. Nanoemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine showed the smallest diameter and highest genistein amount in porcine ear skin whereas the formulation composed of isopropyl myristate/DSPC/oleylamine exhibited the lowest polydispersity index. Thus, these two formulations were selected for further studies. The formulations presented positive ζ potential values (>25 mV and genistein content close to 100% (at 1 mg/mL. The incorporation of genistein in nanoemulsions significantly increased the retention of this isoflavone in epidermis and dermis, especially when the formulation composed by isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine was used. These results were supported by confocal images. Such formulations exhibited antiherpetic activity in vitro against herpes simplex virus 1 (strain KOS and herpes simplex virus 22 (strain 333. Taken together, the results show that the genistein-loaded nanoemulsions developed in this study are promising

  15. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  16. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content Sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS para diagnóstico do teor de óleo em grão de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.O Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS pode melhorar a interpretação da análise foliar, contribuindo com a avaliação do estado nutricional. Para diagnósticos obtidos com esse método, é imprescindível que as normas DRIS sejam previamente estabelecidas, o que ainda não foi efetuado para o teor de óleo do grão de soja. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer as normas DRIS e avaliar esse método, em relação ao teor de óleo do grão de soja (cultivares do grupo II de maturação. Foram determinados os teores de macro e de micronutrientes de 207 amostras de folhas dessa cultura, coletadas no estádio do pleno florescimento, e avaliada a relação entre a razão dos nutrientes e o teor de óleo no

  17. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  18. Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes and gel formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone complexes in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone complexes then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk.

  19. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  20. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soy food and isoflavone intake reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Sakai, Tohru; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2018-01-18

    Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 403 men and 373 women aged 60-81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study at least once. Bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MMSE scores of ≤23 were used to define cognitive impairment. The relationship between bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake and cognitive impairment was assessed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for cognitive impairment with a 1 s.d. increase in total bean, total soybean and total soy isoflavone intakes were 0.48 (0.28-0.81; p = 0.006), 0.51 (0.32-0.83; p = 0.007), and 0.55 (0.32-0.93; p = 0.026), respectively, in women. Total soybean and soy isoflavone intake might decrease the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese women.

  2. Free-Radical-Scavenging, Antityrosinase, and Cellular Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activities of Synthetic Isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tzy-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Ng, Lean-Teik; Hsieh, Yen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examined the potential of synthetic isoflavones for application in cosmeceuticals. Twenty-five isoflavones were synthesized and their capacities of free-radical-scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, as well as their impact on cell viability of B16F10 murine melanoma cells and HaCaT human keratinocytes were evaluated. Isoflavones that showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities were further studied on reduction of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activities in B16F10 melanocytes in vitro. Among the isoflavones tested, 6-hydroxydaidzein (2) was the strongest scavenger of both ABTS(.+) and DPPH(.) radicals with SC50 values of 11.3 ± 0.3 and 9.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Texasin (20) exhibited the most potent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 14.9 ± 4.5 μM), whereas retusin (17) showed the most efficient inhibition both of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activity in B16F10 melanocytes, respectively. In summary, both retusin (17) and texasin (20) exhibited potent free-radical-scavenging capacities as well as efficient inhibition of cellular melanogenesis, suggesting that they are valuable hit compounds with potential for advanced cosmeceutical development. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Soy Isoflavones in Nutritionally Relevant Amounts Have Varied Nutrigenomic Effects on Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Giordano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD. Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1 purified control diet; or (2 purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix. Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk.

  4. Soy isoflavones in nutritionally relevant amounts have varied nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Dávalos, Alberto; Crespo, Maria Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-01-30

    Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts) with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1) purified control diet; or (2) purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix). Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s) in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk.

  5. Cellular DNA breakage by soy isoflavone genistein and its methylated structural analogue biochanin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohd Fahad; Shamim, Uzma; Hanif, Sarmad; Azmi, Asfar S; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2009-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that populations with high isoflavone intake through soy consumption have lower rates of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. The isoflavone polyphenol genistein in soybean is considered to be a potent chemopreventive agent against cancer. In order to explore the chemical basis of chemopreventive activity of genistein, in this paper we have examined the structure-activity relationship between genistein and its structural analogue biochanin A. We show that both genistein and its methylated derivative biochanin A are able to mobilize nuclear copper in human lymphocyte, leading to degradation of cellular DNA. However, the relative rate of DNA breakage was greater in the case of genistein. Further, the cellular DNA degradation was inhibited by copper chelator (neocuproine/bathocuproine) but not by compounds that specifically bind iron and zinc (desferrioxamine mesylate and histidine, respectively). We also compared the antioxidant activity of the two isoflavones against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative breakage in lymphocytes. Again genistein was found to be more effective than biochanin A in providing protection against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. It would therefore appear that the structural features of isoflavones that are important for antioxidant properties are also the ones that contribute to their pro-oxidant action through a mechanism that involves redox cycling of chromatin-bound nuclear copper.

  6. Combined red clover isoflavones and probiotics potently reduce menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thorup, Anne Cathrine Sønderstgaard; Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben

    2017-01-01

    IU/L. Participants received either twice daily treatment with bioavailable RC extract (RCE), providing 34 mg/d isoflavones and probiotics, or masked placebo formulation for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in daily hot flush frequency (HFF) from baseline to 12 weeks using 24hr SC. Secondary...

  7. Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

    PhD-thesis Mohammed Ariful Islam

    This thesis describes the results of a research project that aimed at the improvement of

  8. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  9. Food matrix and isoflavones bioavailability in early post menopausal women: A European clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanteranne, B.; Branca, F.; Kardinaal, A.; Wahala, K.; Braesco, V.; Ladroite, P.; Brouns, F.; Coxam, V.

    2008-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones (IF) on symptoms of menopause are of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to improve compliance of IF in two IF-enriched foods providing the same IF circulating levels in postmenopausal women. Forty-two healthy postmenopausal women (mean

  10. Improvement of Bone-Sparing Effect of Soy Isoflavones by Pre- and Probiotics in Postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mathey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phytoestrogens consumption is targeted as a possible way to achieve hormonal permeation in postmenopausal women. However, their health effect could depend on their bioavailability. Objectives As phytoestrogens bioavailability could be improved by modulating intestinal microflora, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether isoflavones and pre-or probiotics may improve bone markers. Design An intervention trial (2 months was carried out on 39 postmenopausal women receiving 100 mg of IF aglycon equivalents daily, incorporated in two jelly milk and two cereal bars. After the first month, the participants were randomised into three treatment groups: soy (control group, soy + fructooligosaccharides (prebiotics group and soy + yoghurt cultures (probiotics group. Results Level of isoflavone intake was associated with a significant increase in plasma isoflavone levels from baseline to day 15 which was maintained until day 60. Probiotics consumption was associated with increased plasma equol levels at day 60. A 5% increase of bone alkaline phosphatase was elicited on day 30, compared to initial values. Pre- or probiotics did not modulate this parameter. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was slightly increased at day 60. Prebiotics and probiotics consumption improved this parameter. The effect of prebiotics was exacerbated in early compared to late postmenopausal women. Conclusion Addition of prebiotics or probiotics to a diet providing isoflavones is able to improve parameters of bone turnover in early menopause.

  11. The Role of Colonic Bacteria in the Metabolism of the Natural Isoflavone Daidzin to Equol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous plants, especially soybeans. They have a structural similarity to natural estrogens, which enables them to bind to estrogen receptors and elicit biological activities similar to natural estrogens. They have been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of hormone-dependent diseases. After soy products are consumed, the bacteria of the intestinal microflora metabolize isoflavones to metabolites with altered absorption, bioavailability, and estrogenic characteristics. Variations in the effect of soy products have been correlated with the isoflavone metabolites found in plasma and urine samples of the individuals consuming soy products. The beneficial effects of the soy isoflavone daidzin, the glycoside of daidzein, have been reported in individuals producing equol, a reduction product of daidzein produced by specific colonic bacteria in individuals called equol producers. These individuals comprise 30% and 60% of populations consuming Western and soy-rich Asian diets, respectively. Since the higher percentage of equol producers in populations consuming soy-rich diets is correlated with a lower incidence of hormone-dependent diseases, considerable efforts have been made to detect the specific colonic bacteria involved in the metabolism of daidzein to the more estrogenic compound, equol, which should facilitate the investigation of the metabolic activities related to this compound.

  12. Adsorption of isoflavones onto PVPP in the presence of a soy matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, Lena; Avermaete, Van Ivonne; Boom, Remko; Goot, Van Der Atze Jan

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of isoflavones from an okara extract onto polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) was studied for a pH ranging from 4 to 7. In general, the affinity of aglycones to PVPP was around 10 times higher than the affinity of the glycosides. Towards lower pH, the adsorption performance improved

  13. 不同环境条件下大豆籽粒蛋白质和油分含量与指数的遗传效应分析%Analysis of Genetic Effects on Contents and Indexed of Protein and Oil in Soybean Seeds in Different Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁海龙; 李文霞; 李文滨; 王继安

    2005-01-01

    Protein and oil are two of the important quantitative traits closely related to the nutrient quality in soybean(Glycine max [L. ] Merry). The content and yield of protein and oil have become one of the main goals in soybean breeding. For soybean breeding programs, understanding the inheritance is of importance. Genetic analyses of protein and oil content in soybean seed have been reported. Most of the studies showed that protein and oil content are quantitatively inherited. Genetic effects, heritability and correlation of protein and oil content in soybean seeds have been estimated.

  14. Physiological seed quality of sweet corn seeds as a function of the moisture content at harvest and the drying temperature / Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho doce BR 401 (su em função do teor de água na colheita e da temperatura de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Dutra Zanotto

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study physiological seed quality of sweet corn as a function of water content and drying temperatures of ears at harvesting time. Experiments were made in the Agriculture School of São Paulo State University located in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Ears of sweet corn cultivar, BR 401 Doce de Ouro (sugary, were harvested at different times, starting at physiological seed maturity, and submitted to different drying temperatures (30o C and 40o C in an air circulation chamber. After drying, ears were shelled and seeds were stored in paper bags under laboratory environmental conditions. Field dried seeds, with 10.1% of moisture, were utilized as a control. Physiological seed quality for each harvesting date and drying temperature were analyzed before storage and six months after. The following characteristics were utilized: seedling emergency under field condition, speed of seedling emergence, seedling dry matter content, germination, first counting of germination, accelerated ageing test, cold test without soil, electrical conductivity and Ca, Mg, K and Na lixiviated from seeds in the water of the in conductivity test. The following conclusions were drawn: seeds showed a higher sensitivity to drying temperature of 40oC than to 30oC, in the first evaluation, but not after six months of storage. Artificial drying of seeds did not affect seed quality, if harvest occurred between 17.6% and 50.7% of moisture, when compared to field dried harvested seeds.Sementes de milho doce possuem, em geral, germinação inferior, sendo o baixo vigor que essas apresentam, em grande parte, resultado da inadequação da época de colheita e da temperatura de secagem utilizada. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milho doce cv. BR 401 (su em função do teor de água na colheita e da temperatura de secagem em espiga. O experimento foi conduzido na FCA/Unesp, Botucatu- SP, em

  15. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  16. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  17. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1988-12-01

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U- 14 C]triadimenol in the formulation as [ 14 C]Baytan 075 FS and [ 14 C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  19. THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF SOYBEANS [(GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.] SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Macák, Milan; Candráková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Field experiment was carry out at experimental farm Oponice (West Slovakia, 48° 28´N, 18° 9´E) ) in 2004-2007. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization treatments on yield and yield component and selected quality parameters (proteins, oil, fibre, isoflavones) of soybeen seeds variety Korada, in agri-environmental condition of western part of Slovakia. The fertilization treatments were as follows: (I) unfertilized treatment; (II) application of nitrogen ferti...

  20. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition.

  1. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Nande, Marta; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae) is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain) and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD), and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition. PMID:29039745

  2. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Vidigal, De D.; Willems, L.A.J.; Arkel, van J.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increasedcosts in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive forseed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive

  3. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  4. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  5. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  6. Combined bioavailable isoflavones and probiotics improve bone status and estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thybo, Catrine Bundgaard; Lykkeboe, Simon

    2017-01-01

    estrogen receptor affinity show potential to prevent and treat osteoporosis while minimizing or eliminating carcinogenic side effects. Objective: In this study, we sought to determine the beneficial effects of a bioavailable isoflavone and probiotic treatment against postmenopausal osteopenia. Design: We...... used a novel red clover extract (RCE) rich in isoflavone aglycones and probiotics to concomitantly promote uptake and a favorable intestinal bacterial profile to enhance isoflavone bioavailability. This was a 12-mo, double-blind, parallel design, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial of 78...... postmenopausal osteopenic women supplemented with calcium (1200 mg/d), magnesium (550 mg/d), and calcitriol (25 mg/d) given either RCE (60 mg isoflavone aglycones/d and probiotics) or a masked placebo [control (CON)]. Results: RCE significantly attenuated bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the L2–L4 lumbar spine...

  7. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  8. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  9. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  10. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  11. Concentrations of isoflavones and their metabolites in the blood of pregnant and non-pregnant heifers fed soy bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Piskula, Mariusz Krzysztof; Bah, Mamadou; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta; Korzekwa, Anna; Brzezicka, Edyta; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan

    2008-10-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cyclic and pregnant heifers after feeding with soy bean. Twelve healthy heifers were divided into three groups: cyclic heifers (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle; control group; n=4), an early pregnancy group (2 months pregnant; n=4) and a late pregnancy group (8 months pregnant; n=4). All heifers were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on an HPLC system. In the blood plasma of the early- and late-pregnant heifers, we found lower concentrations and time-dependent decreases in daidzein and genistein in comparison to cyclic heifers (P0.05). In conclusion, physiological status (cyclicity or pregnancy) of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the heifers. The stage of pregnancy affects isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism differently and results in higher concentrations of active metabolites of isoflavones during early pregnancy in comparison to their lower concentrations during late pregnancy. Therefore, we surmise that cows are more sensitive to active isoflavone metabolite actions during early pregnancy than cyclic heifers and heifers in late pregnancy.

  12. Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ravi Kumar; M, Siva Selva Kumar; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Soy is the main source of phytoestrogens, which has long been used as traditional food. One major subtype of phytoestrogens includes isoflavones and they are scientifically validated for their beneficial actions on many hormone-dependent conditions. The present study examines the effect of soy isoflavones on letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. PCOS was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with of 1 mg/kg letrozole, p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Soy isoflavones (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after PCOS induction. Physical parameters (body weight, oestrous cycle determination, ovary and uterus weight) metabolic parameters (oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol), steroidal hormone profile (testosterone and 17β-oestradiol), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD), oxidative stress and histopathology of ovary were studied. Soy isoflavones (100 mg/kg) treatment significantly altered the letrozole-induced PCOS symptoms as observed by decreased body weight gain (p PCOS rats resulted in well-developed antral follicles and normal granulosa cell layer in rat ovary. Treatment with soy isoflavones exerts beneficial effects in PCOS rats (with decreased aromatase activity) which might be due to their ability to decrease testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood. Analysis of physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that soy isoflavones may be beneficial in PCOS.

  13. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  14. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  15. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  16. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  17. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  18. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  19. Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hong; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Wei-Min; Guan, Ya-Jing; Fu, Yu-Ying; Fang, Yong-Feng; Hu, Jin

    2017-03-01

    Timely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far. The seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had a lower value, which was maintained until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and remained at a very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation, while both soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at the early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly positively correlated with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid, gibberellin content, electrical conductivity, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were significantly negatively correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters were obviously more closely related with seed vigor than with seed germinability during seed development. Seed vigor could be better used as a comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It is suggested that for ZLY06 seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP, whereas for CY84 the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Estimation for Retention Factor of Isoflavones in Physico-Chemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ki; Row, Kyung Ho

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of retention factors by correlation equations with physico-chmical properties maybe helpful in chromatographic work. The physico-chemical properties were water solubility (S), hydrophobicity (P), total energy (Et), connectivity index 1 (1χ), hydrophilic-lipophlic balance (x) and hydrophilic surface area (h) of isoflavones. The retention factors were experimentally measured by RP-HPLC. Especially, the empirical regulations of water solubility and hydrophobicity were expressed in a linear form. The equation between retention factors and various physico-chemical properties of isoflavones was suggested as k = a0 + a 1 log S + a2 log P Q + a3 (E t ) + a4 ( 1 χ) + a5 (x) + a6 (h), and the correlation coefficients estimated were relatively higher than 0.95. The empirical equations might be successfully used for a prediction of the various chromatographic characteristics of substances, with a similar chemical structure

  1. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  2. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSOsupplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content ofthin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep wereused as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were twotreatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II.Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0%(K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Severalvariables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fattyacid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected datawere statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completelyrandomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was notsignificantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level ofRB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combinationwith 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  3. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bachrudin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completely randomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  4. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  5. Comparative studies of drying methods on the seed quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed moisture content (MC) is a key component that determines storability of germplasm conserved in seed genebanks. The purpose of this research was to compare the efficiency of sun-, shade-, silica geland conventional room drying in terms of rice seed MC and viability using seeds of two interspecific progenies ...

  6. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  7. Increase and improvement of protein content of cereals and legumes. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjichristodoulou, A.

    1979-11-01

    Mutation breeding was studied on barley (variety Athenais) and Italian drurum wheat (variety Capeiti). Gamma radiation and fast neutrons were used. The intention is to use high protein lines of barley and wheat in crosses with the high-yielding varieties grown in Cyprus, in order to develop new varieties with high seed protein, without reducing grain yield. The work on forage legumes was limited to the screening of varieties of forage vetches and medics, as part of the programme on improving dryland forage crops. Tables indicate the relative performance of M 6 -lines of Attiki barley (1977-79) and of M 4 Athenais barley (1978-79). A list of 8 publications by the author, some of them jointly with A. della, is given, relating to the project

  8. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  9. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei; Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI 50 ) concentration of 2.35 μM. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  10. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  11. Efecto del Contenido de Humedad sobre Algunas Propiedades Mecánicas de la Semilla de Vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana Effect of Moisture Content on Some Mechanical Properties of Vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Francisco Rojas Barahona

    2012-06-01

    levels and in different planes of the seed, with uniaxial compression tests and the grinding energy consumption was evaluated in an oscillating hammer mill. The proportional deformability modulus decreased when the moisture and the unitary deformation were increased, being higher in the horizontal side and the lowest value in the longitudinal side. The rupture force varied in the three sides of the seed and it decreased significantly (P<0.05 when increased moisture in the longitudinal and transverse side, while in the horizontal side increase when increased moisture of 10 to 14% w.b. The deformation increased significantly (P<0.05 with moisture from the moisture ranges from 10 to 14% w.b. The absorbed energy was increased when the moisture content varied from 10 to 14% w.b., for moisture content greater that 14% w.b., it decreased in all three planes tested. In the milling process, the specific energy consumption was proportional to the moisture content of the seed.

  12. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic analysis of seed-soluble oligosaccharides in relation to seed storability of Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentsink, L.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Tesnier, K.; Groot, S.P.C.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    Seed oligosaccharides (OSs) and especially raffinose series OSs (RSOs) are hypothesized to play an important role in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and consequently in seed storability. In the present work we analyzed the seed-soluble OS (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) content of

  14. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  15. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  16. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  17. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  18. Thermal Properties of Kerstingiella geocarpa Seeds as Influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Kerstingiella geocarpa seeds were determined as a function of moisture content. The initial moisture content of the seeds determined using the ASAE standard test was 10.0 % (d.b). The specific heat capacity of Kerstingiella geocarpa seed increased ...

  19. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Aziz, Akram M.; Al-Tamer, Marwa H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PET was converted to activated carbon and then sulfonated to prepare carbon acid catalyst. • Carbon acid catalyst was used for esterification of high acid value Silybum marianum L. seed oil. • Biodiesel was obtained with 96.98% efficiency. - Abstract: In this research work, waste of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was converted into activated carbon and the latter was used in the preparation of a carbon acid catalyst. Waste of PET was converted into activated carbon via carbonization and steam activation, then the activated carbon was sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid in order to produce the carbon acid catalyst. The prepared carbon acid catalyst was tested for esterification of high acid value non-edible oil, Silybum marianum L. seed oil (SMSO) via optimized protocol. Amount of the carbon acid catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and time were the experimental variables optimized. Esterification of SMSO with methanol using the prepared carbon acid catalyst reduced its parent acid value (20.0 mg KOH/g) to the acceptable limits for base-catalyzed transesterification (<2.0 mg KOH/g) using 6.0% w/w of the catalyst, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 68 °C reaction temperature and 180 min of reaction. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 60.0% at the 5th cycle. Kinetics of esterification of SMSO using the prepared carbon acid catalyst followed pseudo first order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 70.98 kJ/mol. The esterified oil was converted to biodiesel through optimized base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Biodiesel with (96.98% yield and purity of 96.69% w/w) yield was obtained using 0.80% KOH w/w, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 °C reaction temperature, 75 min of reaction and 600 rpm rate of stirring. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. Transesterification of

  20. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  1. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  2. Seed maturation in Arabidopsis is characterised by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van M.; Koini, M.A.; Geyer, R.; Liu, Y.; Brambilla, V.; Bartels, D.; Koornneef, M.; Fransz, P.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become

  3. Seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, M.; Koini, M. A.; Geyer, R.; Liu, Y.; Brambilla, V.; Bartels, D.; Koornneef, M.; Fransz, P.; Soppe, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become

  4. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  5. High production of succinyl isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 resting cells in aqueous miscible organic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Chen, Guoguang; Chu, Jianlin; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2015-01-01

    To achieve efficient production of succinyldaidzin and succinylgenistin, resting cells of a solvent-stable strain Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 were used to react with pure isoflavones or soybean flour extract in a reaction medium with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Strikingly, 0.8 mM daidzein, 0.8 mM genistein, 2.0 mM daidzin, and 2.0 mM genistin were transformed to succinyl isoflavone glycosides in 27 H (yield >90%). The soybean flour extract (6.1%, w/v) contained 0.32 mM daidzein, 0.84 mM daidzin, 0.38 mM genistein, and 1.04 mM genistin. Over 95% of total isoflavones (daidzein, daidzin, genistein, and genistin) in the soybean flour extract were converted to succinyl isoflavone glycosides after 27 H. Strain ZSP01 shows both high glycosylation and succinylation activities. These results suggest that B. licheniformis ZSP01 could be useful for the efficient production of succinyl soybean isoflavone glycosides. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method for the separation of isoflavones using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Hanqiu; Zhou, Weie; Cheng, Yan; Li, Hongna; Zhang, Chuanbin; Li, Lulu; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Isoflavones are natural substances that exhibit hormone-like pharmacological activities. The separation of isoflavones remains an analytical challenge because of their similar structures. We show that ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography can be an appropriate tool to achieve the fast separation of 12 common dietary isoflavones. Among the five tested columns the Torus DEA column was found to be the most effective column for the separation of these isoflavones. The impact of individual parameters on the retention time and separation factor was evaluated. These parameters were optimized to develop a simple, rapid, and green method for the separation of the 12 target analytes. It only took 12.91 min using gradient elution with methanol as an organic modifier and formic acid as an additive. These isoflavones were determined with limit of quantitation ranging from 0.10 to 0.50 μg/mL, which was sufficient for reliable determination of various matrixes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effects of genistein, a soybean-derived isoflavone, on proliferation and differentiation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C H; Chen, X G; Li, Y; Han, R

    1999-01-01

    Genistein, a soybean-derived isoflavone, may contribute to the lower cancer incidence in South Asian countries. In this study, the effects and molecular mechanisms of genistein on growth and differentiation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were investigated. Genistein suppressed the growth of these melanoma cells. The IC50 value is 15.5 microM. On the other hand, genistein induced the changes of cell shape and cytoskeletal network. The cytoskeletal filaments were induced to form a bundle along the direction of elongation of the cells. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cytoskeleton-associated proteins decreased after the cells were exposed to 20 or 30 microM of genistein for 3 days. All these morphological and molecular changes were accompanied by appearance of the differentiated phenotypes. Genistein induced the increase of cellular melanin content, enhancement of tyrosinase activity, and decrease of colonization potentials in soft agar in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. The effective concentration was no more than 10 microM after 3 days' exposure. The tumorigenic potentials of B16-BL6 cells in C57BL/6 mouse also decreased after exposure to 20 or 30 microM of genistein for 3 days. When expressions of tumor-related genes were investigated in the differentiation-induced cells, the content of P53 dramatically increased while that of c-Myc protein decreased. Therefore, due to its ability to induce cellular and molecular changes, genistein suppressed the growth and induced differentiated phenotypes in B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

  8. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    TIANSAWANG,Kasarin; LUANGPITUKSA,Pairoj; VARANYANOND,Warunee; HANSAWASDI,Chanida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  9. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  10. Water properties in seeds from wild species native to Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature, water content and relative humidity are critical factors contributing to seed longevity during storage. Water sorption isotherms describe the interrelationships between these critical factors. Understanding these relationships can lead to predictions about how best to process seeds for...

  11. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  12. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  13. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hloucalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”, alfalfa (variety “Holyně”, and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Higher levels ( p < 0.05 of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g −1 of dry weight and formononetin (4.315 mg·g −1 of dry weight were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05, representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest.

  14. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Pine seed predation by mice: an experimental assessment of preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Peredo, R.; BolIvar Cime, B.S.

    2016-07-01

    Seed traits are considered an essential factor influencing rodents’ foraging preferences. We evaluated the mouse’s preferences for seeds of four pine species, Pinus patula, P. pseudostrobus, P. teocote and P. montezumae, that differ in length, width, nutritional content, and concentrated tannins. In ‘cafeteria experiments’ in the laboratory, we tested six of the nine mice species commonly found in the temperate forest of Southern Mexico. Longer and wider seeds were those of P. teocote and P. montezumae. P. teocote seeds had the highest protein content, P. patula were highest in lipids, and P. montezumae seeds were highest in carbohydrates. In concentrated tannins, gallic acid content was highest in P. patula seeds and tannic acid content was highest in P. teocote seeds. Mice preferred small pine seeds with a high lipid and gallic acid content, a low tannic acid content, and an intermediate protein and carbohydrate content. The foraging behavior of rodents, their energy optimization, and the likely effects on seed fate and plant composition would thus be mediated by combinations of seed traits rather than by single seed traits such as size or tannin contents. (Author)

  16. Effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavone accumulation and physiological-biochemical changes of soybean during germination: Physiological-biochemical change of germinated soybean induced by UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavones accumulation, physiological and nutritional quality, water status, and characteristics of proteins in germinated soybeans were investigated. The results showed that isoflavones content in soybeans increased with appropriate intensity and time of UV-B radiation and decreased with excessive treatment. Fresh weight, length, free amino acids, reducing sugar contents and bulk water (T 23 ) in germinated soybeans decreased with increasing radiation time, indicating that UV-B inhibited the growth and nutrients metabolism of soybean during germination. Cell damage was detected in germinated soybeans with excessive UV-B radiation, as shown by the black spots in cotyledons and the increased intercellular water determined by LF-NMR. Germination resulted in an increase in random coil structures, while UV-B radiation induced no obvious changes in FT-IR spectrum and protein conformation of soybeans. Both UV-B radiation and germination caused the increase in soluble proteins, especially in 1.0-75.0 kDa fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  18. Plant isoflavone and isoflavanone O-methyltransferase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Liu, Chang-Jun; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-19

    The invention provides enzymes that encode O-methyltransferases (OMTs) from Medicago truncatula that allow modification to plant (iso)flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. In certain aspects of the invention, the genes encoding these enzymes are provided. The invention therefore allows the modification of plants for isoflavonoid content. Transgenic plants comprising such enzymes are also provided, as well as methods for improving disease resistance in plants. Methods for producing food and nutraceuticals, and the resulting compositions, are also provided.

  19. Development of a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds=Desenvolvimento de um bioensaio para quantificar o teor da toxina ricina em sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Auld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean seeds. Existing quantification methods do not always reflect actual toxicity of the seeds analyzed, which may present lower ricin content even though they are more toxic than seeds presenting a higher content of ricin. This is because these methods actually measure the addition of ricin RCA, which is a compound less toxic than pure ricin. We decided to use in this study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry. We tested two strains of C. elegans using different methods in 8 experiments. We examined 4 methods of extracting the ricin complex and 3 methods of exposing the nematodes. Among the nematode strains and ricin extraction methods tested, we concluded that the best strain for testing ricin toxicity was the strain called N2 and that the best method for ricin extraction was a rotating bath followed by centrifugation and exposing the nematodes in 24 well plates with a solution of nematodes extracted from the media with destilated waterexposing the nematodes in 24-well plates This method is inexpensive, quick and adequate for the selection of offspring with lower RIP content.Foi desenvolvido um bioensaio para quantificar o teor de ricina nas sementes de mamona. Os métodos de quantificação existentes não refletem a toxidez real das sementes analizadas, que pode mostrar um resultado de menor teor de ricina e ainda assim ser mais toxico do que as sementes que apresentaram teores maiores. Isto ocorre por que estes métodos medem alem da ricina a RCA, que é um composto menos tóxico que a ricina pura. Foi decidido utilizar neste estudo o nematoide Caenorhabditis elegans, que tem sido amplamente utilizado na industria farmacêutica. Foram testadas duas estirpes de C.elegans usadas em diferentes métodos contando com 8 experimentos distintos. nós examinamos 4 métodos de extração de ricina e 3 m

  20. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  1. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  2. Dietary soy and isoflavone intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Munira; Inoue, Manami; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-01

    Several experimental studies have reported that the anticarcinogenic properties of dietary soy play an important role in preventing colorectal cancer. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined this association in general populations and their findings have been inconsistent. We investigated the association between dietary soy and isoflavone intake and incidence of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort study of 83,063 Japanese men and women, ages 45 to 74 years. Dietary soy and isoflavone intake was measured through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 1998. Throughout 2004, a total of 886 cases of colorectal cancer were newly identified (291 proximal colon, 286 distal colon, and 277 rectum). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by fitting a Cox proportional hazards model. The intake of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food was not associated with colorectal cancer in either men or women. By colorectal cancer subsite, the risk of proximal colon cancer in men decreased with increasing consumption of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food. Compared with men in the lowest quartiles of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food intake, the hazard ratios in the highest quartiles were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.33-0.92), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.43-1.21), and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.30-0.87), respectively. The results showed no association for distal colon and rectal cancer in men or for subsites of colorectal cancer in women. These findings suggest that the intake of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food has no substantial effect on the risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese men and women.

  3. Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Guo, Kaiping; Chen, Chaogang; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Quan; Mei, Fang; Su, Yixiang

    2012-11-14

    Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG (-38·2 (95 % CI -70·4, -5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT (-4·9 (95 % CI -9·7, -0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes (-5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT (-16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.

  4. Antioxidative and Antitumor Effects of Isoflavones Isolated from the Leaves of Maackia fauriei .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Maackia fauriei have traditionally been used to treat hypertension, apoplexy, hemostasis, vaginal bleeding, and dystocia; moreover, the bark of this plant has been used as a natural dye. In the present study, activity-guided isolation of the leaves of M. fauriei yielded five isoflavones [genistein (1, pratensein (2, genistin (3, 2'-hydroxygenistein-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, and 2,3-dehydrokievitone (5]; three pterocarpans [medicarpin (6, maackiain (7, and 4-hydroxy maackiain (8]; and one flavonol [isoquercitrin (9]. To evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of these compounds, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT superoxide scavenging assays were measured. And the anti-tumor activity against human cancer cell lines in genital system, LNCaP, PC-3,HeLa and OVCAR-3 cells were evaluated by MTT method. Furthermore, the apoptosis of the PC-3 and HeLa cells were determined by by annexin V-FITC and PI their fluorescence was analyzed by flow cytometry. The flavonol (9, isoquercitrin and pterocarpan (8, 4-hydroxymaackiain showed strong anti-oxidative activities. Besides, the isoflavones (1-5 did not showed anti-oxidative activity and the isoflavones (1-5 and pterocarpans (6-8 generally showed the potent cytotoxic activity against all of four human genital cancer cells. Especially, 2,3-dehydrokievitone (5 which had a prenyl group at C-8 position of the A-ring exhibited strong cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis efficiently in cancer cells.

  5. Plasma isoflavones and fibrocystic breast conditions and breast cancer among women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Ray, Roberta M; Wu, Chunyuan; Li, Wenjin; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Hu, Yongwei; Shannon, Jackilen; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy L; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, David B

    2007-12-01

    Proliferative benign breast conditions are associated with elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas nonproliferative conditions are not strongly associated with risk. Factors acting before onset of hyperplasia might be associated with both benign conditions and breast cancer, whereas those on the proliferative disease-to-cancer pathway would be associated only with cancer. Soy isoflavone exposure may influence breast cancer risk, but little is known of its association with benign conditions. We examined possible relationships between plasma genistein and daidzein concentrations and risk of breast disease in women, in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai, China, diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 196) or a benign breast condition (n = 304), and 1,002 age-matched controls with no known breast disease. Benign conditions were classified as nonproliferative (n = 131) or proliferative with or without atypia (n = 173). Isoflavone concentrations were inversely associated with risk of nonproliferative and proliferative benign fibrocystic conditions, as well as with breast cancer, both with and without concomitant proliferative changes in ipsilateral noncancerous mammary epithelium (P(trend) 76.95 ng/mL) were less likely to have breast cancer (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.50) or benign conditions (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.70) compared with women in the lowest quartile (breast cancer with and without surrounding proliferative changes were not different, respectively, from observed risks for benign proliferative and nonproliferative conditions alone. Isoflavone exposure was inversely associated with fibrocystic breast conditions and breast cancer, and the results suggest that effects on cancer risk occur early in carcinogenesis.

  6. Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Yukimasa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Hirao, Toru; Takeuchi, Shinji; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. • Isoflavones have RORα/γ agonistic activities. • Isoflavones enhance the interaction of RORα/γ with co-activator. • These compounds enhance the expression of Il17a mRNA in mouse EL4 cells. • Dietary isoflavones can act as modulators of Il17a expression via RORα/γ. - Abstract: The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on RORα/γ activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced RORα- or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the RORα- or RORγ-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 1 × 10 −6 M to 1 × 10 −5 M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the RORα- or RORγ-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in RORα/γ-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between RORγt and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between RORα/γ and co-activators. This also

  7. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  8. ASSOCIATION OF PESTICIDES WITH SOYBEAN LEAF MICRONUTRIENTS CONTENTS AND SEEDS YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY ASSOCIAÇÃO DE AGROTÓXICOS AOS TEORES FOLIARES DE MICRONUTRIENTES E À PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Glyphosate effects on leaf micronutrients contents of transgenic soybean have been widely reported, however, little is known about these effects associated with other pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologic quality and yield of soybean seeds, as well as leaf micronutrients contents, according to weed control methods. Ten RBD treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme with four replications. The application or non-application of endosulphan + tebuconazole was evaluated in the plots, while the weeds control methods were assessed in the subplots (weeded control; non-weeded control; single application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 and fomesafen + fluazifop-?-butil (180 + 225 g ha-1, both at 15 DAE; and sequential application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 at 15, 30, and 45 DAE. After harvesting, the soybean seeds were sampled, in order to evaluate their germination, vigor, and yield. Copper and manganese contents were only influenced by the sequential application of glyphosate, associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. The cold test germination was reduced in seeds of plants treated with fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. Among the treatments without endosulphan + tebuconazole, the sequential application of glyphosate promoted the highest 100-seeds weight, as well as, when associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole, reduced the leaf concentrations of Cu and Mn, however, it improved seeds germination and showed no effects on seeds vigor, when compared with the weeded soybean.

  9. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans from Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendup, Tshewang; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2014-05-01

    Three new isoflavanones (1-3) and thirteen known compounds (4-16) were isolated from the roots of Mucuna pruriens. The absolute configurations of isoflavanones 1-3 and parvisoflavanone (4), lespedeol C (5), and uncinanone C (6) were addressed by a circular dichroism technique. Isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans of M. pruriens were found to be α-glucosidase inhibitors. Medicarpin (7) and parvisoflavone B (9) were potent α-glucosidase inhibitors (twofold less active than the standard drug acarbose). The production of bioactive metabolites in M. pruriens seems to be season-dependent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Soy isoflavones inducing overt hypothyroidism in a patient with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuya; Ohsawa, Isao; Goto, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Mayumi; Oguchi, Tatsunori; Sato, Naoki; Kiuchi, Yuji; Fukumura, Motonori; Inagaki, Masahiro; Gotoh, Hiromichi

    2017-09-05

    Many people have thyroid conditions that make them susceptible to hypothyroidism. If the foods they eat may interfere with the production of thyroid hormone, which can lead to development of serious hypothyroidism. The danger of health drinks should always be noted. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was previously diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis caused by a goiter and had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level (6.56 μIU/ml), a high anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody level (>600 IU/ml), and a high antithyroglobulin level (> 4000 IU/ml) but normal levels of free triiodothyronine (3.08 pg/ml) and thyroxine (1.18 ng/ml). She presented to our hospital with sudden-onset general malaise, edema, and hoarseness with an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (373.3 μIU/ml) level and very low triiodothyronine (Hypothyroidism might be affected by ingredients of health drinks. She discontinued consumption of the health drink immediately and began taking 12.5 μg of levothyroxine. The amount of levothyroxine was gradually increased every 3 days up to 100 μg. At day 61, her thyroid-stimulating hormone level had decreased (6.12 μIU/ml), her free triiodothyronine (2.69 pg/ml) and thyroxine (1.56 ng/ml) levels had increased, and her general condition was improved. Among risky foods lowering thyroid function, some experimental studies have revealed that isoflavones reduce thyroid function. Therefore, we measured the presence of isoflavones in the patient's frozen serum with thin-layer chromatography. After she discontinued consumption of the health drink, two components quickly disappeared, and the other three components gradually decreased. On the basis of developing solvent composition and a positive ferric chloride reaction in thin-layer chromatography experiment, the five ingredients that disappeared or decreased were highly suspected to be soy isoflavones. This case emphasizes that consuming health drinks that include soy isoflavone powder extracts

  11. Effects of soybean isoflavone on intestinal antioxidant capacity and cytokines in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-Yong; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Hu, You-Jun; Zheng, Chun-Tian; Yang, Xue-Fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-Guo

    To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (Poil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets.

  12. 大豆籽粒维生素E含量的QTL分析%Identification of QTL Associated with Vitamin E Content in Soybean Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 李海朝; 自翔; 顾和平; 袁星星; 陈华涛; 崔晓艳; 陈新; 卢为国

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E has effects on human immunity, anti-cancer and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E from soy-bean has the advantages of higher security and higher human body absorption rate. The objective of the present study was to map the additive, additive × additive (epistasis), additive × year and epistasis × year QTLs for vitamin E and relative tocopherol con-tents with the RIL population BIEX (Essex×ZDD2315) using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method and soft-ware QTLNetwork 2.1. Eight additive QTLs and twelve additive × additive (epistasis) QTLs were detected for vitamin E and relative tocopherol contents. The contributions to the phenotypic variances of additive QTL and epistatic QTL pairs were 8.68%(two QTLs) and 15.57% (four pairs) for α-tocopherol, 8.59% (two QTL) and 11.57% (two pairs) for γ-tocopherol, 5.44% (one QTL) and 17.61% (three pairs) for δ-tocopherol and 11.39% (three QTL) and 9.48% (three pairs) for total vitamin E contents, respectively. Those of additive and epistatic QTLs by year interaction were not found. The accumulated contribution of the un-mapped minor QTLs was 66.16%–75.32%, indicating the variance of unmapped minor QTLs accounting for more than two thirds. In genetic composition, undetected minor QTLs accounted for a considerably large part additive QTLs and epistatic QTLs were nearly equal in α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and total vitamin E contents. Accordingly, in breeding for vitamin E con-tents, the strategy of pyramiding multiple QTLs, both additive and epistatic, by using marker-assisted selection combined with accumulating minor effect QTLs through conversional procedures should be considered.%维生素 E (VE)具有提高人体免疫力、抗癌、预防心血管疾病等保健作用,从大豆中提取的 VE 安全性更高。本研究采用高效液相色谱技术(HPLC)检测大豆 BIEX 群体(Essex×ZDD2315)维生素 E 的α-生育酚、γ-生育酚

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying seed protein content of soybean including main, epistatic, and QTL × environment effects in different regions of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weili; Li, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Depeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Haiyan; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin

    2017-08-01

    The objective here was to identify QTL underlying soybean protein content (PC), and to evaluate the additive and epistatic effects of the QTLs. A mapping population, consisting of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was created by crossing 'Dongnong 46' and 'L-100'. Phenotypic data of the parents and RILs were collected for 4 years in three locations of Heilongjiang Province of China. A total of 213 SSR markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. Eight QTLs, located on seven chromosomes (Chr), were identified to be associated with PC among the 10 tested environments. Of the seven QTLs, five QTLs, qPR-2 (Satt710, on Chr9), qPR-3 (Sat_122, on Chr12), qPR-5 (Satt543, on Chr17), qPR-7 (Satt163, on Chr18), and qPR-8 (Satt614, on Chr20), were detected in six, seven, seven, six, and seven environments, respectively, implying relatively stable QTLs. qPR-3 could explain 3.33%-11.26% of the phenotypic variation across eight tested environments. qPR-5 and qPR-8 explained 3.64%-10.1% and 11.86%-18.40% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, across seven tested environments. Eight QTLs associated with PC exhibited additive and (or) additive × environment interaction effects. The results showed that environment-independent QTLs often had higher additive effects. Moreover, five epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in the 10 environments.

  14. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20–40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. PMID:26438413

  15. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  16. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Gurchani, M.A.; Hussain, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed