WorldWideScience

Sample records for seed dormancy-release mechanism

  1. Interaction between seed dormancy-release mechanism, environment and seed bank strategy for a widely distributed perennial legume, Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpinaceae).

    Van Klinken, Rieks D; Lukitsch, Bert; Cook, Carly

    2008-08-01

    Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpinaceae) is a perennial legume with seeds that have hard-seeded (physical) dormancy and are potentially very long-lived. Seed dormancy is a characteristic that can both help maximize the probability of seedling establishment and spread the risk of recruitment failure across years (bet-hedging). In this study, dormancy-release patterns are described across the diverse environments in which this species occurs in order to test whether wet heat (incubation under wet, warm-to-hot, conditions) alone can explain those patterns, and in order to determine the likely ecological role of physical dormancy across this species distribution. A seed burial trial was conducted across the full environmental distribution of P. aculeata in Australia (arid to wet-dry tropics, uplands to wetlands, soil surface to 10 cm deep). Wet heat explained the pattern of dormancy release across all environments. Most seeds stored in the laboratory remained dormant throughout the trial (at least 84 %). Dormancy release was quickest for seeds buried during the wet season at relatively high rainfall, upland sites (only 3 % of seeds remained dormant after 35 d). The longest-lived seeds were in wetlands (9 % remained dormant after almost 4 years) and on the soil surface (57 % after 2 years). There was no consistent correlation between increased aridity and rate of dormancy release. The results suggest that physical dormancy in P. aculeata is a mechanism for maximizing seedling establishment rather than a bet-hedging strategy. However, seed persistence can occur in environmental refuges where dormancy-release cues are weak and conditions for germination and establishment are poor (e.g. under dense vegetation or in more arid micro-environments) or unsuitable (e.g. when seeds are inundated or on the soil surface). Risks of recruitment failure in suboptimal environments could therefore be reduced by inter-year fluctuations in microclimate or seed movement.

  2. physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release

    ACSS

    of deep dormancy, during which potato seeds do not germinate after ... dormancy period and sprouting behaviour are major criteria ... develop once sprouting begins; such as changes ...... an example of plant information processing. Plant Cell ...

  3. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria

    2016-05-20

    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in endogenous abscisic acid levels during dormancy release and maintenance of mature seeds: studies with the Cape Verde Islands ecotype, the dormant model of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Ali-Rachedi, Sonia; Bouinot, Denise; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Bonnet, Magda; Sotta, Bruno; Grappin, Philippe; Jullien, Marc

    2004-07-01

    Mature seeds of the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. show a very marked dormancy. Dormant (D) seeds completely fail to germinate in conditions that are favourable for germination whereas non-dormant (ND) seeds germinate easily. Cvi seed dormancy is alleviated by after-ripening, stratification, and also by nitrate or fluridone treatment. Addition of gibberellins to D seeds does not suppress dormancy efficiently, suggesting that gibberellins are not directly involved in the breaking of dormancy. Dormancy expression of Cvi seeds is strongly dependent on temperature: D seeds do not germinate at warm temperatures (20-27 degrees C) but do so easily at a low temperature (13 degrees C) or when a fluridone treatment is given to D seeds sown at high temperature. To investigate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in dormancy release and maintenance, we measured the ABA content in both ND and D seeds imbibed using various dormancy-breaking conditions. It was found that dry D seeds contained higher amounts of ABA than dry ND after-ripened seeds. During early imbibition in standard conditions, there was a decrease in ABA content in both seeds, the rate of which was slower in D seeds. Three days after sowing, the ABA content in D seeds increased specifically and then remained at a high level. When imbibed with fluridone, nitrate or stratified, the ABA content of D seeds decreased and reached a level very near to that of ND seeds. In contrast, gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment caused a transient increase in ABA content. When D seeds were sown at low optimal temperature their ABA content also decreased to the level observed in ND seeds. The present study indicates that Cvi D and ND seeds can be easily distinguished by their ability to synthesize ABA following imbibition. Treatments used here to break dormancy reduced the ABA level in imbibed D seeds to the level observed in ND seeds, with the exception of GA3 treatment, which was active in promoting

  6. A potential role for endogenous microflora in dormancy release, cytokinin metabolism and the response to fluridone in Lolium rigidum seeds.

    Goggin, Danica E; Emery, R J Neil; Kurepin, Leonid V; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-02-01

    Dormancy in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) seeds can be alleviated by warm stratification in the dark or by application of fluridone, an inhibitor of plant abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis via phytoene desaturase. However, germination and absolute ABA concentration are not particularly strongly correlated. The aim of this study was to determine if cytokinins of both plant and bacterial origin are involved in mediating dormancy status and in the response to fluridone. Seeds with normal or greatly decreased (by dry heat pre-treatment) bacterial populations were stratified in the light or dark and in the presence or absence of fluridone in order to modify their dormancy status. Germination was assessed and seed cytokinin concentration and composition were measured in embryo-containing or embryo-free seed portions. Seeds lacking bacteria were no longer able to lose dormancy in the dark unless supplied with exogenous gibberellin or fluridone. Although these seeds showed a dramatic switch from active cytokinin free bases to O-glucosylated storage forms, the concentrations of individual cytokinin species were only weakly correlated to dormancy status. However, cytokinins of apparently bacterial origin were affected by fluridone and light treatment of the seeds. It is probable that resident microflora contribute to dormancy status in L. rigidum seeds via a complex interaction between hormones of both plant and bacterial origin. This interaction needs to be taken into account in studies on endogenous seed hormones or the response of seeds to plant growth regulators. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Seed dormancy release in Arabidopsis Cvi by dry after-ripening, low temperature, nitrate and light shows common quantitative patterns of gene expression directed by environment specific sensing

    Finch-Savage, W.E.; Cadman, C.S.C.; Toorop, P.E.; Lynn, J.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The depth of seed dormancy can be influenced by a number of different environmental signals, but whether a common mechanism underlies this apparently similar response has yet to be investigated. Full-genome microarrays were used for a global transcript analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Cape Verde

  8. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  10. Seed dormancy and germination of Halophila ovalis mediated by simulated seasonal temperature changes

    Statton, John; Sellers, Robert; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Kilminster, Kieryn; Merritt, David J.; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2017-11-01

    The seagrass, Halophila ovalis plays an important ecological and sediment stability role in estuarine systems in Australia with the species in decline in many sites. Halophila ovalis is a facultative annual, relying mainly on recruitment from the sediment seed bank for the annual regeneration of meadows. Despite this, there is little understanding of seed dormancy releasing mechanisms and germination cues. Using H. ovalis seed from the warm temperate Swan River Estuary in Western Australia, the germination ecology of H. ovalis was investigated by simulating the natural seasonal variation in water temperatures. The proportion of germinating seeds was found to be significantly different among temperature treatments (p < 0.001). The treatment with the longest period of cold exposure at 15 °C followed by an increase in temperature to 20-25 °C (i.e. cold stratification) had the highest final mean germination of 32% and the fastest germination rate. Seeds exposed to constant mean winter temperatures of 15 °C had the slowest germination rate with less than two seeds germinating over 118 days. Thus temperature is a key germination cue for H. ovalis seeds and these data infer that cold stratification is an important dormancy releasing mechanism. This finding has implications for recruitment in facultative annual species like H. ovalis under global warming since the trend for increasing water temperatures in the region may limit seed-based recruitment in the future.

  11. Regulation of wheat seed dormancy by after-ripening is mediated by specific transcriptional switches that induce changes in seed hormone metabolism and signaling.

    Aihua Liu

    Full Text Available Treatments that promote dormancy release are often correlated with changes in seed hormone content and/or sensitivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening (seed dry storage in triggering hormone related changes and dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum, temporal expression patterns of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellin (GA, jasmonate and indole acetic acid (IAA metabolism and signaling, and levels of the respective hormones were examined in dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. After-ripening mediated developmental switch from dormancy to germination appears to be associated with declines in seed sensitivity to ABA and IAA, which are mediated by transcriptional repressions of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, ABA INSENSITIVE5 and LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHTASE2, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR and RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1 genes. Transcriptomic analysis of wheat seed responsiveness to ABA suggests that ABA inhibits the germination of wheat seeds partly by repressing the transcription of genes related to chromatin assembly and cell wall modification, and activating that of GA catabolic genes. After-ripening induced seed dormancy decay in wheat is also associated with the modulation of seed IAA and jasmonate contents. Transcriptional control of members of the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE, 3-KETOACYL COENZYME A THIOLASE, LIPOXYGENASE and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE gene families appears to regulate seed jasmonate levels. Changes in the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, GA 20-OXIDASE and GA 3-OXIDASE, in response to after-ripening implicate this hormone in enhancing dormancy release and germination. These findings have important implications in the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy in cereals.

  12. NITRIC OXIDE IMPLICATION IN THE CONTROL OF SEED DORMANCY AND GERMINATION

    Erwann eArc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Germination ability is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and antagonistic effects. Nitric oxide (NO is a potent dormancy-releasing agent in many species, including Arabidopsis, and has been suggested to behave as an endogenous regulator of this physiological blockage. Distinct reports have also highlighted a positive impact of NO on seed germination under sub-optimal conditions. However, its molecular mode of action in the context of seed biology remains poorly documented. This review aims to focus on the implications of this radical in the control of seed dormancy and germination. The consequences of NO chemistry on the investigations on both its signaling and its targets in seeds are discussed. NO-dependant protein post-translational modifications are proposed as a key mechanism underlying NO signalling during early seed germination.

  13. Expression Analysis of the MdCIbHLH1 Gene in Apple Flower Buds and Seeds in the Process of Dormancy

    Yiran Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A bHLH transcription factor that is induced by low temperature was found in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. To understand the sequence characteristics of the gene, bioinformatics analysis was performed. Furthermore, gene expression patterns of the laminated apple seeds and lateral flower buds were analyzed during the period of dormancy release with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Based on secondary structure predictions, the results showed that the MdCIbHLH1 protein structure mainly included α-helix and random coil, while β-sheet and extended strand content was less. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of MdCIbHLH1 were similar in laminated apple seeds and lateral flower buds during the period of dormancy release. Before dormancy release, expression levels of MdCIbHLH1 were high and gradually decreased during the period of dormancy release. These results indicated that MdCIbHLH1 might play an important role during dormancy release in apple seeds and apple buds.

  14. Agricultural robot designed for seeding mechanism

    Sunitha, K. A., Dr.; Suraj, G. S. G. S.; Sowrya, CH P. N.; Atchyut Sriram, G.; Shreyas, D.; Srinivas, T.

    2017-05-01

    In the field of agriculture, plantation begins with ploughing the land and sowing seeds. The old traditional method plough attached to an OX and tractors needs human involvement to carry the process. The driving force behind this work is to reduce the human interference in the field of agriculture and to make it cost effective. In this work, apart of the land is taken into consideration and the robot introduced localizes the path and can navigate itself without human action. For ploughing, this robot is provided with tentacles attached with saw blades. The sowing mechanism initiates with long toothed gears actuated with motors. The complete body is divided into two parts the tail part acts as a container for seeds. The successor holds on all the electronics used for automating and actuation. The locomotion is provided with wheels covered under conveyor belts. Gears at the back of the robot rotate in equal speed with respect to each other with the saw blades. For each rotation every tooth on gear will take seeds and will drop them on field. Camera at the front end tracks the path for every fixed distance and at the minimum distance it takes the path pre-programmed.

  15. Seed dormancy and germination - Emerging mechanisms and new hypotheses

    Hiroyuki eNonogaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy has played a significant role in adaptation and evolution of seed plants. While its biological significance is clear, molecular mechanisms underlying seed dormancy induction, maintenance and alleviation still remain elusive. Intensive efforts have been made to investigate gibberellin and abscisic acid metabolism in seeds, which greatly contributed to the current understanding of seed dormancy mechanisms. Other mechanisms, which might be independent of hormones, or specific to the seed dormancy pathway, are also emerging from genetic analysis of seed dormancy mutants. These studies suggest that chromatin remodeling through histone ubiquitination, methylation and acetylation, which could lead to transcription elongation or gene silencing, may play a significant role in seed dormancy regulation. Small interfering RNA and/or long non-coding RNA might be a trigger of epigenetic changes at the seed dormancy or germination loci, such as DELAY OF GERMINATION1. While new mechanisms are emerging from genetic studies of seed dormancy, novel hypotheses are also generated from seed germination study with high throughput gene expression analysis. Recent studies on tissue-specific gene expression in tomato and Arabidopsis seeds, which suggested possible mechanosensing in the regulatory mechanisms, advanced our understanding of embryo-endosperm interaction and have potential to re-draw the traditional hypotheses or integrate them into a comprehensive scheme. The progress in basic seed science will enable knowledge translation, another frontier of research to be expanded for food and fuel production.

  16. Seed propagation of Allanblackia floribunda by mechanical pre ...

    Mechanical pre-germination treatments were given to the viable seeds: total removal of seed coat, sand-paper scarification and laceration. These were sown in forest topsoil and washed river sand media respectively in completely Randomized Design in the Nursery. Seeds with testa totally removed and sown in forest ...

  17. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997).

    Seasonal

  18. Changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation during germination of white, yellow and purple maize seeds

    Deng, B.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation during the germination process of purple, yellow and white maize seeds were compared, under favorable conditions. Results showed that germination can increase non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (evaluated with ferric reducing power and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate radical scavenging capacity) and lipid peroxidation levels for all these seeds. In addition, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity observed in the germinating seeds were in the order of purple > yellow > white. However, the highest and lowest levels of lipid peroxidation could be seen during the germination processes of the white and purple seeds, respectively. In addition, the germination rates of the seeds followed the order of white > yellow > purple. Further studies showed that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ treatment can significantly promote seed germination, especially for purple seeds. In addition, DMTU (dimethylthiourea), a specific scavenger for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, could slightly but significantly arrest dormancy release. Data analysis showed that a high negative correlation (R/sup 2/ = -0.955) existed between non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and germination rates. However, a high positive correlation (R/sup 2/ = 0.860) could be detected between lipid peroxidation and germination rates. Finally, lipid peroxidation as a possible novel signaling mechanism for seed germination has been discussed under stress-free conditions. (author)

  19. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  20. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  1. Mechanism of fluridone-induced seed germination of cistanche tubulosa

    Chen, Q.L.; Tu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study disclosed that fluridone, a synthesis inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA), could stimulate seed germination in the holoparasitic plant Cistanche tubulosa . Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, an attempt was made to reveal the mechanism of fluridone breaking seed dormancy in C. tubulosa and to determine the contribution of hormones in this process. The ABA level in seeds initially decreased following fluridone treatment and was subsequently maintained at a concentration of 31 ng g/sup -1/ DW (dry weight) three days later. The contents of gibberellins (GAs) initially in creased and subsequently were maintained at a level of 40 ng g-1 DW after ten days. However, the increment of seed germination induced by fluridone was inhibited after the introduction of exogenous ABA or paclobutrazol (a synthesis inhibitor of GAs). Furthermore, inhibition from paclobutrazol was reversed by an additional treatment with exogenous GA3. When the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA reached 4:3, C. tubulosa seeds initiated germination. By contrast, although the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA content reached 2:1 by cold stratification, C. tubulosa seeds could not germinate unless exogenous GA3 was added. In summary, our current study revealed that (i) GAs and ABA play key roles for the seed germination of C. tubulosa , (ii) fluridone inhibited ABA biosynthesis but increased the concentration of GAs in seeds, and (iii) fluridone might initiate other processes associated with germination. (author)

  2. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  3. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Xi Ling Fu

    Full Text Available Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  4. Validity of the Mechanical Threshing of Onion Seeds from the Point of View of Seed Quality

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The production of seeds for horticultural crops has seen a steady growth since 2006. Onion is one of the most widespread crops that followed this trend until 2013, undergoing a slight decline in 2016. Even though these crops are characterized by high economic value, they present some important issues such as high costs and labor required by some operations such as threshing. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of a patented and dedicated system for mechanical threshing throughout the evaluation of seed quality parameters. Methods: The study was conducted comparing seed samples mechanically threshed obtained from 12 companies and samples of the same batches manually threshed to determine the maximum qualitative potential. The chosen terms for comparison are the most important qualitative parameters included within ISTA standards for seed evaluation. Results: The mechanically threshed seeds show lower values for all the considered quality parameters compared to those found in the control samples. In the same way, there is also greater variability. Conclusions: The introduction of the dedicated mechanical systems allows the reduction of seed processing time while maintaining the quality standards within the limits of merchantability, but for obtaining higher standards, further analysis is necessary.

  5. Proteome-Level Analysis of Metabolism- and Stress-Related Proteins during Seed Dormancy and Germination in Gnetum parvifolium.

    Chang, Ermei; Deng, Nan; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhao, Xiulian; Abbas, M; Jiang, Zeping; Shi, Shengqing

    2018-03-21

    Gnetum parvifolium is a rich source of materials for traditional medicines, food, and oil, but little is known about the mechanism underlying its seed dormancy and germination. In this study, we analyzed the proteome-level changes in its seeds during germination using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. In total, 1,040 differentially expressed proteins were identified, and cluster analysis revealed the distinct time points during which signal transduction and oxidation-reduction activity changed. Gene Ontology analysis showed that "carbohydrate metabolic process" and "response to oxidative stress" were the main enriched terms. Proteins associated with starch degradation and antioxidant enzymes were important for dormancy-release, while proteins associated with energy metabolism and protein synthesis were up-regulated during germination. Moreover, protein-interaction networks were mainly associated with heat-shock proteins. Furthermore, in accord with changes in the energy metabolism- and antioxidant-related proteins, indole-3-acetic acid, Peroxidase, and soluble sugar content increased, and the starch content decreased in almost all six stages of dormancy and germination analyzed (S1-S6). The activity of superoxide dismutase, abscisic acid, and malondialdehyde content increased in the dormancy stages (S1-S3) and then decreased in the germination stages (S4-S6). Our results provide new insights into G. parvifolium seed dormancy and germination at the proteome and physiological levels, with implications for improving seed propagation.

  6. A possible mechanism for the seed island formation

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is usually described by the generalized Rutherford equation allowing the mode growth from a finite level, which is referred to as seed island. It is generally accepted that the seed island is induced by some MHD event, but sometimes the NTMs start without visible triggers. Here we discuss a possible role of the error fields in producing the seeds. The analysis is based on Maxwell equations and Ohm's law for magnetic perturbation outside the plasma. The plasma enters the problem via boundary conditions. Its contribution is described by the decay/growth rate and the toroidal rotation frequency of perturbation. The model also assumes a resonant harmonic in the spectrum of the error field. It is shown that the resonant field amplification near the stability boundary of the mode may be a mechanism resulting in the 'spontaneous' formation of the seed island. In contrast to NTM seeding due to the sawteeth, fishbones, or ELMs, the considered mechanism needs some longer time. However, all the estimates give realistic values consistent with typical experimental conditions. (author)

  7. The beginning of a seed: regulatory mechanisms of double fertilization.

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Alter, Svenja; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    THE LAUNCH OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN FLOWERING PLANTS (ANGIOSPERMS) IS INITIATED BY THE PROCESS OF DOUBLE FERTILIZATION: two male gametes (sperm cells) fuse with two female gametes (egg and central cell) to form the precursor cells of the two major seed components, the embryo and endosperm, respectively. The immobile sperm cells are delivered by the pollen tube toward the ovule harboring the female gametophyte by species-specific pollen tube guidance and attraction mechanisms. After pollen tube burst inside the female gametophyte, the two sperm cells fuse with the egg and central cell initiating seed development. The fertilized central cell forms the endosperm while the fertilized egg cell, the zygote, will form the actual embryo and suspensor. The latter structure connects the embryo with the sporophytic maternal tissues of the developing seed. The underlying mechanisms of double fertilization are tightly regulated to ensure delivery of functional sperm cells and the formation of both, a functional zygote and endosperm. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge about the processes of directed pollen tube growth and its communication with the synergid cells resulting in pollen tube burst, the interaction of the four gametes leading to cell fusion and finally discuss mechanisms how flowering plants prevent multiple sperm cell entry (polyspermy) to maximize their reproductive success.

  8. Geometry and Mechanics in the Opening of Chiral Seed Pods

    Armon, Shahaf; Efrati, Efi; Kupferman, Raz; Sharon, Eran

    2011-09-01

    We studied the mechanical process of seed pods opening in Bauhinia variegate and found a chirality-creating mechanism, which turns an initially flat pod valve into a helix. We studied configurations of strips cut from pod valve tissue and from composite elastic materials that mimic its structure. The experiments reveal various helical configurations with sharp morphological transitions between them. Using the mathematical framework of “incompatible elasticity,” we modeled the pod as a thin strip with a flat intrinsic metric and a saddle-like intrinsic curvature. Our theoretical analysis quantitatively predicts all observed configurations, thus linking the pod’s microscopic structure and macroscopic conformation. We suggest that this type of incompatible strip is likely to play a role in the self-assembly of chiral macromolecules and could be used for the engineering of synthetic self-shaping devices.

  9. Mechanism of endocarp-imposed constraints of germination of Lannea microcarpa seeds

    Neya, O.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Golovina, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lannea microcarpa, a multipurpose tree species from the dry African savanna, sheds seeds that often display inhibition of germination. The underlying mechanism was investigated using seeds processed from fully matured fruits collected from natural stands in Burkina Faso. Germination of fresh seeds

  10. Mechanical scarification of Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Oxley seed ...

    ... and little seed was damaged with the correct procedure. A hammer-mill operation at reduced speed damaged the seed without effective scarification. The experiments provided a guide to the optimum number of passes for various machines. Keywords: germination; procedure; scarification; seed; stylosanthes guianensis; ...

  11. Structural mechanics of seed deterioration: Standing the test of time

    Seeds die unexpectedly during storage and current understanding of seed quality and storage conditions does not allow reliable means to predict or prevent this critical problem. Chemical degradation of seed components likely occurs through oxidative damage, but the rate of these reactions is domina...

  12. The mechanics of explosive seed dispersal in orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis).

    Hayashi, Marika; Feilich, Kara L; Ellerby, David J

    2009-01-01

    Explosive dehiscence ballistically disperses seeds in a number of plant species. During dehiscence, mechanical energy stored in specialized tissues is transferred to the seeds to increase their kinetic and potential energies. The resulting seed dispersal patterns have been investigated in some ballistic dispersers, but the mechanical performance of a launch mechanism of this type has not been measured. The properties of the energy storage tissue and the energy transfer efficiency of the launch mechanism were quantified in Impatiens capensis. In this species the valves forming the seed pod wall store mechanical energy. Their mass specific energy storage capacity (124 J kg(-1)) was comparable with that of elastin and spring steel. The energy storage capacity of the pod tissues was determined by their level of hydration, suggesting a role for turgor pressure in the energy storage mechanism. During dehiscence the valves coiled inwards, collapsing the pod and ejecting the seeds. Dehiscence took 4.2+/-0.4 ms (mean +/-SEM, n=13). The estimated efficiency with which energy was transferred to the seeds was low (0.51+/-0.26%, mean +/-SEM, n=13). The mean seed launch angle (17.4+/-5.2, mean +/-SEM, n=45) fell within the range predicted by a ballistic model to maximize dispersal distance. Low ballistic dispersal efficiency or effectiveness may be characteristic of species that also utilize secondary seed dispersal mechanisms.

  13. an evalution of some mechanical methods for shelling melon seeds ...

    Dr Obe

    When the pressure was increased, more seeds were broken and there was a lot of heat generated between the drum and the belt due to friction. In general the results of the tests on the two devices indicate that the application of pressure coupled .... The static bending properties of melon seeds show that both the shells and.

  14. Epizoochory in dry forest iguanas: an overlooked seed dispersal mechanism?

    Eloisa Lasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of animals as seed dispersal vectors is widely acknowledged, including dispersal by reptiles (saurochory. Most reports of saurochory have been via endozoochory, through feces deposition. We present the first evidence of epizoochory in Iguanas from a dry forest in Colombia via seeds attached to the snout. Our results show that seeds of a cactus Melocactus curvispinus ingested by iguana suffers from their passage through the digestive tract while seeds transported while attached to the snout germinate faster and in higher numbers. Our data suggest that we may have overlooked an alternative means of seed dispersal by lizards that does not comprise a passage through their digestive tract, and that deserves further attention for the understanding of dry forest ecology.

  15. Preparation and mechanism analysis of an environment-friendly maize seed coating agent.

    Zeng, Defang; Fan, Zhao; Tian, Xu; Wang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingchun; Li, Haochuan

    2018-06-01

    Traditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate the environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in traditional seed coating agents. This environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize was mainly made up of the natural polysaccharide polymer and other additives. The field trials results showed that the control efficacy of Helminthosporium maydis came to 93.72%, the anti-feeding rate of cutworms came to 81.29%, and the maize yield was increased by 17.75%. Besides, the LD 50 value (half the lethal dose in rats) of this seed coating agent was 10 times higher than that of the traditional seed coating agents. This seed coating agent could improve the activity of plant protective enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase) and increase the chlorophyll content. This seed coating agent has four characteristics of disease prevention, desinsectization, increasing yield and safety. Results of mechanism analyses showed that this seed coating agent could enhance disease control effectiveness by improving plant protective enzymes activity and increase maize yield by improving chlorophyll content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Mechanisms of seed dormancy in an annual population of Zostera marina (eelgrass) from the Netherlands)

    Harrison, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of dormancy of seeds from an annual population of the seagrass Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the SW Netherlands were investigated in the laboratory. Both physiological dormancy (a requirement for reduced salinity for germination) and physical dormancy (imposed by the seed coat) existed

  17. seeds

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO; LÚCIA HELENA PEREIRA NÓBREGA; GISLAINE PICOLLO DE LIMA; MÁRCIA SANTORUM; WALTER BOLLER; LORIVAN FORMIGHIERI

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial ...

  19. Determination of some mechanical properties of Ugu seed ( Telfairia ...

    products. Before the oil can be extracted, it has to pass through some processes like depoding, size reduction, cracking etc. The parameters needed in form of engineering properties of the seed to design and construct the processing, storage and ...

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of sisal fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites

    Bakare, I.O.; Okieimen, F.E.; Pavithran, C.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Brahmakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-performance composite materials from locally sourced and renewable materials was investigated. Rubber seed oil polyurethane resin synthesized using rubber seed monoglyceride derived from glycerolysis of the oil was used as matrix in the composite samples. Rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composite reinforced with unidirectional sisal fibers were prepared and characterized. Results showed that the properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites gave good thermal and mechanical properties. Also, the values of tensile strengths and flexural moduli of the polyurethane composites were more than tenfold and about twofold higher than un-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane. The improved thermal stability and the scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surface of the composites were attributed to good fiber-matrix interaction. These results indicate that high-performance 'all natural products' composite materials can be developed from resources that are readily available locally.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial flow and 3.0 mm, 15 mm and 3.0 mm for a combine with tangential flow and three cylinder rotations on the quality of soybean seeds harvested at two moisture contents. Soybean seeds of cultivar 'ND 4910' were harvested at 16.6% moisture (mid - morning and 13.7% moisture in the afternoon. The seeds quality was evaluated by germination tests, germination speed index (GSI, germination rate, moisture content, percentage of purity and vigor by tetrazolium test. Despite the combine, the results showed that the mechanical injury has most reduced seeds quality, at 16.6% moisture content, concave opening of 30 mm (axial and 10 mm (tangential and cylinder rotation of 1100 rpm (axial and 1000 (tangential, both with the highest rotations used. The combine with tangential flow had the highest degree of seeds purity. When seeds moisture content at harvest was close to 13.7%, there was the highest seed injury, while, at 16.6%, there was the highest number of crushed soybeans, regardless the combine adjustment.

  2. Amplification of ABA biosynthesis and signaling through a positive feedback mechanism in seeds.

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Sall, Khadidiatou; Nambara, Eiji; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Abscisic acid is an essential hormone for seed dormancy. Our previous study using the plant gene switch system, a chemically induced gene expression system, demonstrated that induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting ABA biosynthesis gene, was sufficient to suppress germination in imbibed Arabidopsis seeds. Here, we report development of an efficient experimental system that causes amplification of NCED expression during seed maturation. The system was created with a Triticum aestivum promoter containing ABA responsive elements (ABREs) and a Sorghum bicolor NCED to cause ABA-stimulated ABA biosynthesis and signaling, through a positive feedback mechanism. The chimeric gene pABRE:NCED enhanced NCED and ABF (ABRE-binding factor) expression in Arabidopsis Columbia-0 seeds, which caused 9- to 73-fold increases in ABA levels. The pABRE:NCED seeds exhibited unusually deep dormancy which lasted for more than 3 months. Interestingly, the amplified ABA pathways also caused enhanced expression of Arabidopsis NCED5, revealing the presence of positive feedback in the native system. These results demonstrated the robustness of positive feedback mechanisms and the significance of NCED expression, or single metabolic change, during seed maturation. The pABRE:NCED system provides an excellent experimental system producing dormant and non-dormant seeds of the same maternal origin, which differ only in zygotic ABA. The pABRE:NCED seeds contain a GFP marker which enables seed sorting between transgenic and null segregants and are ideal for comparative analysis. In addition to its utility in basic research, the system can also be applied to prevention of pre-harvest sprouting during crop production, and therefore contributes to translational biology. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds

    Rihan, HZ; Al-Issawi, M; Fuller, MP

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds journaltitle: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.011 content_type: article copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds.

    Rihan, Hail Z; Al-Issawi, Mohammed; Fuller, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The development stages of conventional cauliflower seeds were studied and the accumulation of dehydrin proteins through the maturation stages was investigated with the aim of identifying methods to improve the viability of artificial seeds of cauliflower. While carbohydrate, ash and lipids increased throughout the development of cauliflower traditional seeds, proteins increased with the development of seed and reached the maximum level after 75 days of pollination, however, the level of protein started to decrease after that. A significant increase in the accumulation of small size dehydrin proteins (12, 17, 26 KDa) was observed during the development of cauliflower seeds. Several experiments were conducted in order to increase the accumulation of important dehydrin proteins in cauliflower microshoots (artificial seeds). Mannitol and ABA (Absisic acid) increased the accumulation of dehydrins in cauliflower microshoots while cold acclimation did not have a significant impact on the accumulation of these proteins. Molybdenum treatments had a negative impact on dehydrin accumulation. Dehydrins have an important role in the drought tolerance of seeds and, therefore, the current research helps to improve the accumulation of these proteins in cauliflower artificial seeds. This in turns improves the quality of these artificial seeds. The current results suggest that dehydrins do not play an important role in cold tolerance of cauliflower artificial seeds. This study could have an important role in improving the understanding of the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Seed Proteome Web Portal

    Marc eGalland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Seed Proteome Web Portal (SPWP; http://www.seedproteome.com/ gives access to information both on quantitative seed proteomic data and on seed-related protocols. Firstly, the SPWP provides access to the 475 different Arabidopsis seed proteins annotated from 2 dimensional electrophoresis (2DE maps. Quantitative data are available for each protein according to their accumulation profile during the germination process. These proteins can be retrieved either in list format or directly on scanned 2DE maps. These proteomic data reveal that 40% of seed proteins maintain a stable abundance over germination, up to radicle protrusion. During sensu stricto germination (24 h upon imbibition about 50% of the proteins display quantitative variations, exhibiting an increased abundance (35% or a decreasing abundance (15%. Moreover, during radicle protrusion (24 h to 48 h upon imbibition, 41% proteins display quantitative variations with an increased (23% or a decreasing abundance (18%. In addition, an analysis of the seed proteome revealed the importance of protein post-translational modifications as demonstrated by the poor correlation (r2 = 0.29 between the theoretical (predicted from Arabidopsis genome and the observed protein isoelectric points. Secondly, the SPWP is a relevant technical resource for protocols specifically dedicated to Arabidopsis seed proteome studies. Concerning 2D electrophoresis, the user can find efficient procedures for sample preparation, electrophoresis coupled with gel analysis and protein identification by mass spectrometry, which we have routinely used during the last 12 years. Particular applications such as the detection of oxidized proteins or de novo synthetized proteins radiolabeled by [35S]-methionine are also given in great details. Future developments of this portal will include proteomic data from studies such as dormancy release and protein turnover through de novo protein synthesis analyses during germination.

  6. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-02-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  7. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  8. Optimization of Mechanical Expression of Castor Seeds Oil (Ricinus communis using Response Surface Methodology

    J. O. Olaoye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the processing parameters of Castor seed on its oil yield was investigated. The castor seeds were passed through drying, crushing and separation into seeds and shells. These processing conditions were further succeeded by seed roasting and subsequent mechanical expression of the roasted nut by means of screw press in the course of its preparation for oil expression. Seed samples were conditioned by adding calculated amount of distilled water to obtain different moisture levels from the initial moisture content of the seeds. Samples were roasted at the temperatures of 83.18, 90.00, 100.00, 110.00 and 116.82°C, over periods of 6.59, 10.00, 15.00, 20.00 and 23.41min, seed moisture content of 6.32, 7.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 9.68 % wb, respectively and the oil was expressed using a screw roaster-expeller. Optimization of the oil expression process was achieved by applying Central Composite Rotatable Design of Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for oil yield within the experimental range of the studied variables were 7%, 110°C and 20 min; moisture content, roasting temperature and roasting duration respectively. These values of the optimum process conditions were used to predict optimum value of oil yield to be 25.77%. A second-order model was obtained to predict oil yield as a function of moisture content, heating temperature and duration. Thus the result from this research work has established the optimal conditions for mechanical extraction of oil from castor seed. Closed agreement between experimental and predicted yield was obtained.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds in ...

    Mechanical properties are very important in the design of machines and the analysis of the behaviour of products during agricultural processing. In this research work, the mechanical properties of Moringa were determined as design parameters for the development of an oil expeller for the crop. The properties were the ...

  10. Novel mechanisms to inhibit HIV reservoir seeding using Jak inhibitors.

    Christina Gavegnano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment of HIV infection with ART, elucidating strategies to overcome HIV persistence, including blockade of viral reservoir establishment, maintenance, and expansion, remains a challenge. T cell homeostasis is a major driver of HIV persistence. Cytokines involved in regulating homeostasis of memory T cells, the major hub of the HIV reservoir, trigger the Jak-STAT pathway. We evaluated the ability of tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, two FDA-approved Jak inhibitors, to block seeding and maintenance of the HIV reservoir in vitro. We provide direct demonstration for involvement of the Jak-STAT pathway in HIV persistence in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro; pSTAT5 strongly correlates with increased levels of integrated viral DNA in vivo, and in vitro Jak inhibitors reduce the frequency of CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. We show that Jak inhibitors block viral production from infected cells, inhibit γ-C receptor cytokine (IL-15-induced viral reactivation from latent stores thereby preventing transmission of infectious particles to bystander activated T cells. These results show that dysregulation of the Jak-STAT pathway is associated with viral persistence in vivo, and that Jak inhibitors target key events downstream of γ-C cytokine (IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 ligation to their receptors, impacting the magnitude of the HIV reservoir in all memory CD4 T cell subsets in vitro and ex vivo. Jak inhibitors represent a therapeutic modality to prevent key events of T cell activation that regulate HIV persistence and together, specific, potent blockade of these events may be integrated to future curative strategies.

  11. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  12. The effect of melliferous bee (Apis mellifera carnica poll and mechanical means on seed yield, yield components and quality of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L

    Jevtić Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of alfalfa pollinators in free pollination was investigated as well as effect of measures that promote pollination alfalfa (using sugar syrup and mechanical means. In first year of investigations, with higher precipitation, higher number of others pollinators (80,8 then honeybees (45,6 on alfalfa field was determined. In second year, there were much more honeybees (139,5 then all others alfalfa pollinators (12,37. Pollination improvement with sugar syrup had positive effect on seed yield and seed yield components since by this way more seeds were obtained compare to free pollination and by using mechanical means. Highest seed yield was obtained with sugar syrup (44,90 gm-2, with mechanical improvement of pollination 40,74 gm-2 and in free pollination 30,41 gm-2. As for yield components pollination improvement gave better results compare to free pollination. Pod setting and number of seeds per pod were especially significant compare to control. There were no statistically significant differences between free pollination and improved pollination for seed quality components (mass of 1000 seeds, energy of germination and germination ability.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination mechanisms stimulated by fluridone, TIS108, and GR24.

    Ya Zhou Bao

    Full Text Available P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds. The objective of this study was to use deep RNA sequencing to learn more about the mechanisms by which TIS108 and FL stimulate the germination of unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds. Deep RNA sequencing was performed to compare the mechanisms of germination in the following treatments: (i unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds with no other treatment, (ii unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L TIS108, (iii unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L FL + 100 mg/L GA3, (iv conditioned seeds treated with sterile water, and (v conditioned seeds treated with 0.03 mg/L GR24. The de novo assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. The key gene categories involved in germination were also identified. The results showed that only 119 differentially expressed genes were identified in the conditioned treatment vs TIS108 treatment. This indicated that the vast majority of conditions for germination were met during the conditioning stage. Abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellic acid (GA played important roles during P. aegyptiaca germination. The common pathway of TIS108, FL+GA3, and GR24 in stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination was the simultaneous reduction in ABA concentrations and increase GA concentrations. These results could potentially aid the identification of more compounds that are capable of stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination. Some potential target sites of TIS108 were also identified in

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination mechanisms stimulated by fluridone, TIS108, and GR24.

    Bao, Ya Zhou; Yao, Zhao Qun; Cao, Xiao Lei; Peng, Jin Feng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Mei Xiu; Zhao, Si Feng

    2017-01-01

    P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone) and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis) both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds). The objective of this study was to use deep RNA sequencing to learn more about the mechanisms by which TIS108 and FL stimulate the germination of unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds. Deep RNA sequencing was performed to compare the mechanisms of germination in the following treatments: (i) unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds with no other treatment, (ii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L TIS108, (iii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L FL + 100 mg/L GA3, (iv) conditioned seeds treated with sterile water, and (v) conditioned seeds treated with 0.03 mg/L GR24. The de novo assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. The key gene categories involved in germination were also identified. The results showed that only 119 differentially expressed genes were identified in the conditioned treatment vs TIS108 treatment. This indicated that the vast majority of conditions for germination were met during the conditioning stage. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) played important roles during P. aegyptiaca germination. The common pathway of TIS108, FL+GA3, and GR24 in stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination was the simultaneous reduction in ABA concentrations and increase GA concentrations. These results could potentially aid the identification of more compounds that are capable of stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination. Some potential target sites of TIS108 were also identified in our

  15. Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Almond Seed ...

    Akorede

    I. INTRODUCTION. Information on mechanical properties of agricultural products as a function of moisture content is needed in the design and adjustment of machines used during harvest, separation, cleaning, handling and storage. It is also used in processing these agricultural materials into food. The properties useful for ...

  16. Mechanical response of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds under quasi-static compression: Experiments and modeling.

    Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning

    2017-09-01

    The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Almond Seed Related to Design of Food Processing Machines

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some selected mechanical properties of red and white varieties of Almond seeds grown in Nigeria were determined using Testometric M500 – 100AT machine. The fracture force, compressive strength, deformation at yield for red varieties were 2679.40 ± 580.29 N, 408.70 ± 41.90 N/mm2 and 7.03 ± 0.65 mm respectively. The values obtained for the white varieties were 2843.90 ± 330.22 N, 396.20 ± 49.40 N/mm2, and 7.27 ± 0.46 mm. The determined engineering properties are vital for the design of postharvest handling and processing systems for Almond seeds as statistical test showed that there are significant differences (at 5% level between the engineering properties of the two seeds studied.

  18. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  19. Segmentation of foreground apple targets by fusing visual attention mechanism and growth rules of seed points

    Qu, W.; Shang, W.; Shao, Y.; Wang, D.; Yu, X.; Song, H.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of apple targets is one of the most important problems to be solved in the vision system of apple picking robots. This work aimed to solve the difficulties that background targets often bring to foreground targets segmentation, by fusing the visual attention mechanism and the growth rule of seed points. Background targets could be eliminated by extracting the ROI (region of interest) of apple targets; the ROI was roughly segmented on the HSV color space, and then each of the pixels was used as a seed growing point. The growth rule of the seed points was adopted to obtain the whole area of apple targets from seed growing points. The proposed method was tested with 20 images captured in a natural scene, including 54 foreground apple targets and approximately 84 background apple targets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can remove background targets and focus on foreground targets, while the k-means algorithm and the chromatic aberration algorithm cannot. Additionally, its average segmentation error rate was 13.23%, which is 2.71% higher than that of the k-means algorithm and 2.95% lower than that of the chromatic aberration algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method contributes to the vision system of apple-picking robots to locate foreground apple targets quickly and accurately under a natural scene. (Author)

  20. Frugivores and seed dispersal: mechanisms and consequences for biodiversity of a key ecological interaction.

    Jordano, Pedro; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Lambert, Joanna E; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Traveset, Anna; Wright, S Joseph

    2011-06-23

    The 5th Symposium on Frugivores and Seed Dispersal, held in Montpellier (France), 13-18 June 2010, brought together more than 220 researchers exemplifying a wide diversity of approaches to the study of frugivory and dispersal of seeds. Following Ted Fleming and Alejandro Estrada's initiative in 1985, this event was a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the first meeting in Veracruz, Mexico. Frugivory and seed dispersal are active research areas that have diversified in multiple directions since 1985 to include evolution (e.g. phylogenetic diversity and dispersal adaptations), physiology (e.g. sensory cues and digestion), landscape ecology (movement patterns), molecular ecology (e.g. gene flow, genetic diversity and structure), community ecology (e.g. mutualistic interaction networks) and conservation biology (effects of hunting, fragmentation, invasion and extinction), among others. This meeting provided an opportunity to assess conceptual and methodological progress, to present ever more sophisticated insights into frugivory in animals and dispersal patterns in plants, and to report the advances made in examining the mechanisms and consequences of seed dispersal for plants and frugivores.

  1. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    Françoise eCORBINEAU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GAs. Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1 demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a cross-talk between hormones and other signals will be discussed.

  2. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  3. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

    A Eyvani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Giant Embryo Rice Seeds.

    Zhao, Guo-Chao; Xie, Mi-Xue; Wang, Ying-Cun; Li, Jian-Yue

    2017-06-21

    To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds, we analyzed the expression levels of GABA metabolism genes and contents of GABA and GABA metabolic intermediates in developing grains and germinated brown rice of giant embryo rice 'Shangshida No. 5' and normal embryo rice 'Chao2-10' respectively. In developing grains, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were accompanied with upregulation of gene transcripts and intermediate contents in the polyamine pathway and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts, as compared with those in 'Chao2-10'. In germinated brown rice, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were parallel with upregulation of OsGAD and polyamine pathway gene transcripts and Glu and polyamine pathway intermediate contents and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts. These results are the first to indicate that polyamine pathway and GABA catabolic genes play a crucial role in GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds.

  5. Insights into the molecular mechanism of RGL2-mediated inhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Stamm Petra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is of immense significance for agriculture and has been studied for centuries. Yet, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of dormancy and germination is still in its infancy. Gibberellins are the key phytohormones that promote germination, and the DELLA protein RGL2 is the main signalling intermediate involved in this response. Germination is completely inhibited if functional RGL2 is overexpressed and/or stabilized; however, the molecular mechanisms of RGL2 function are still largely unknown. We therefore attempted to shed light onto some of the genetic events downstream of RGL2. Results Gene ontology of the transcriptome differentially regulated by RGL2, as well as extensive cross-comparison with other available microarray data indicates that RGL2-mediated inhibition of germination causes seeds to enter a state of dormancy. RGL2 also appears to differentially regulate a number of transcription factors, many of which are known to be involved in light- or phytohormone-mediated aspects of germination. A promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes identified an enrichment of several motifs that can be bound by specific transcription factors, for example GAMYB, ARF1, or Dof-type zinc fingers. We show that Dof-binding motifs indeed play a role in RGL2-mediated transcription. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we show that RGL2 directly downregulates at least one cell wall modifying enzyme, which is predicted to constrain cell growth thereby leading to inhibition of seed germination. Conclusions Our results reveal that RGL2 controls various aspects of germination. Through the repression of cell wall modifying enzymes, cell growth is directly constrained to inhibit germination. Furthermore, RGL2 likely interacts with various types of proteins to regulate transcription, and differentially regulates several transcription factors. Collectively, our data indicate that

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Pham A. Tuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin (GA, are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Tuan, Pham A.; Kumar, Rohit; Rehal, Pawanpuneet K.; Toora, Parneet K.; Ayele, Belay T.

    2018-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA), are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic. PMID:29875780

  8. Obtaining bixin from semi-defatted annatto seeds by a mechanical method and solvent extraction: Process integration and economic evaluation.

    Alcázar-Alay, Sylvia C; Osorio-Tobón, J Felipe; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Meireles, M Angela A

    2017-09-01

    This work involves the application of physical separation methods to concentrate the pigment of semi-defatted annatto seeds, a noble vegetal biomass rich in bixin pigments. Semi-defatted annatto seeds are the residue produced after the extraction of the lipid fraction from annatto seeds using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Semi-defatted annatto seeds are use in this work due to three important reasons: i) previous lipid extraction is necessary to recovery the tocotrienol-rich oil present in the annatto seeds, ii) an initial removal of the oil via SFE process favors bixin separation and iii) the cost of raw material is null. Physical methods including i) the mechanical fractionation method and ii) an integrated process of mechanical fractionation method and low-pressure solvent extraction (LPSE) were studied. The integrated process was proposed for processing two different semi-defatted annatto materials denoted Batches 1 and 2. The cost of manufacture (COM) was calculated for two different production scales (5 and 50L) considering the integrated process vs. only the mechanical fractionation method. The integrated process showed a significantly higher COM than mechanical fractionation method. This work suggests that mechanical fractionation method is an adequate and low-cost process to obtain a rich-pigment product from semi-defatted annatto seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coagulation mechanism of salt solution-extracted active component in Moringa oleifera seeds

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC into tap water formed insoluble matters. The formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each m...

  10. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  11. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  12. Simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in a tree due to an explosive seed dispersal mechanism

    do Carmo, Eduardo; Goncalves Hönnicke, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    There are different forms to introduce/illustrate the energy concepts for the basic physics students. The explosive seed dispersal mechanism found in a variety of trees could be one of them. Sibipiruna trees carry out fruits (pods) who show such an explosive mechanism. During the explosion, the pods throw out seeds several meters away. In this manuscript we show simple methodologies to estimate the energy amount stored in the Sibipiruna tree due to such a process. Two different physics approaches were used to carry out this study: by monitoring indoor and in situ the explosive seed dispersal mechanism and by measuring the elastic constant of the pod shell. An energy of the order of kJ was found to be stored in a single tree due to such an explosive mechanism.

  13. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum-polyvinyl alcohol biodegradable composite film: Physicochemical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties.

    Monjazeb Marvdashti, Leila; Koocheki, Arash; Yavarmanesh, Masoud

    2017-01-02

    Films made from Alyssum homolocarpum seeds gum (AHSG) have poor mechanical and barrier (to oxygen) properties. In the present study poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of AHSG films. Results indicated that the addition of PVA significantly increased the moisture content, solubility, elongation at break (EB) and transparency while it decreased the density, oxygen permeability, chroma, water contact angle and Young modulus of AHSG based films. Films with higher AHSG to PVA ratios had lower water vapor permeability (WVP). The light barrier measurements presented low values of transparency at 600nm for PVA/AHSG films, indicating that films were very transparent while they had excellent barrier properties against UV light. Results for FTIR, DSC and SEM showed a clear interaction between PVA and AHSG, forming a new material. These results indicated that PVA/AHSG blend films had good compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ageing mechanisms in chickpea seeds: Relationship of sugar hydrolysis and lipid peroxidation with Amadori and Millard reactions

    mahdi shaaban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed in order to study on ageing mechanisms of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L. in natural storage and accelerated ageing conditions in seed laboratory of Gorgan Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at 2015. Experiment was in completely randomized design arrangement with four replications. Treatments were 2 and 4 years natural storage and 1-5 days of accelerated ageing with control treatment. The results showed that with increasing of natural storage and accelerated ageing duration, germination percentage was decreased. Increasing of ageing duration decreased soluble sugars, non-reducing sugars and soluble proteins but lipid peroxidation, reducing sugars, protein carbonylation and Amadori and Millard reaction were increased. In natural storage condition lipid peroxidation was more than sugar hydrolysis but in accelerated ageing condition sugar hydrolysis was more than lipid peroxidation. These results show that the main reason of Amadori and Millard reaction in chickpea seeds in natural storage condition is lipid peroxidation and in accelerated ageing condition is sugar hydrolysis. Also, the results showed that Amadori reaction in natural storage condition was more than Amadori reaction and in accelerated ageing condition Millard reaction was more than Amadori reaction. The results of the present study showed that sever Millard reaction after Amadori reaction induced higher damage on seed and results to more decrease of seed viability and reduce of seed germination percentage in accelerated ageing than natural storage.

  15. Coagulation mechanism of salt solution-extracted active component in Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-03-01

    This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each molecule of the active coagulation component in MOC-SC-PC and form a net-like structure. The coagulation mechanism of MOC-SC-PC seemed to be an enmeshment of Kaolin by the insoluble matters with the net-like structure. In case of Ca2+ ion (bivalent cations), at least 0.2 mM was necessary for coagulation at 0.3 mgC l-1 dose of MOC-SC-PC. Other coagulation mechanisms like compression of double layer, interparticle bridging or charge neutralization were not responsible for the coagulation by MOC-SC-PC.

  16. Frugivores and seed dispersal: mechanisms and consequences for biodiversity of a key ecological interaction

    Jordano, Pedro; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Lambert, Joanna E.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Traveset, Anna; Wright, S. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The 5th Symposium on Frugivores and Seed Dis- persal, held in Montpellier (France), 13 – 18 June 2010, brought together more than 220 researchers exemplifying a wide diversity of approaches to the study of frugivory and dispersal of seeds. Fol- lowing Ted Fleming and Alejandro Estrada’s initiative in 1985, this event was a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the first meeting in Veracruz, Mexico. Frugivory and seed dispersal are active research areas that hav...

  17. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell signaling mechanisms and metabolic regulation of germination and dormancy in barley seeds

    Zhenguo Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seeds, important morphological and physiological changes take place, including development of organs and tissues and activation of metabolic pathways. Germination and dormancy of seeds are regulated by abscisic acid, gibberellins, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS and several other factors. Activities of ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes, responsible for scavenging ROS, strongly increase. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, also scavenging ROS, decrease at the onset of seed germination and then increase. With the increase in aerobic metabolism after radicle protrusion, the activities of the fermentation enzymes lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase decline rapidly. The RNS-scavenging activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase decreases in the course of seed germination, in concert with elevation of nitric oxide production and protein nitrosylation. This activity supports the role of RNS in regulating seed germination. Transcription of various genes at different phases of seed germination exhibits phase-specific changes. During imbibition, genes involved in cell wall metabolism are highly expressed; in the middle phase of seed germination before radicle protrusion, genes involved in amino acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and transport and nucleic acid synthesis are upregulated significantly, and after radicle protrusion, genes involved in photosynthetic metabolism are induced. In summary, signal transduction and metabolic regulation of seed germination involve diverse reactions and complex regulation at different levels of metabolic organization. Keywords: Seed germination, Reactive oxygen species, Reactive nitrogen species, Signal transduction, Gene expression

  19. Mechanism of antihypertensive effect of Mucuna pruriens L. seed extract and its isolated compounds.

    Khan, Mohammad Yaseen; Kumar, Vimal

    2017-06-21

    Background In the search of safe and effective lead molecules from natural sources, Mucuna pruriens (MP) L. (Fabaceae) seeds were utilized for exploring the antihypertensive potential. Traditionally, it is used as diuretic and hypotensive. Methods Bioassay-guided fractions were utilized for the isolation of active compounds by column chromatography. IC50 value, enzyme kinetics and inhibition mechanism were determined. In vivo time and dose-dependent hypotensive study followed by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by angiotensin I (3 nmol/kg), angiotensin II (3 nmol/kg), and bradykinin (10 nmol/kg) in anesthetized rats was done. Plasma and tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis by spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of known compounds like genistein, ursolic acid and L-DOPA from the ethyl acetate and water fraction, respectively. In vitro study revealed MP ethyl acetate (MPEA) fraction and genistein as the most active fraction (IC50 156.45 µg/mL) and compound (IC50 253.81 µM), respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. ACE protein precipitation was the suggested mechanism for inhibition. The extract showed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in MAP. Genistein was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 53±1.5 mmHg (40 mg/kg, i.v.). As compared to control, it showed a dose-dependent decrease in plasma ACE activity of 40.61 % and 54.76 % at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. It also decreased the ACE activity in the aorta (107.67nM/ml min at 10 mg, p<0.001; 95.33nM/ml min at 20 mg p<0.001). Captopril was used as a standard for various in vitro and in vivo assays. Conclusions The study revealed the antihypertensive potential of MP seed compounds via ACE inhibition.

  20. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  1. The onset condition of equatorial plasma bubbles - the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition

    Kil, H.; Choi, J. M.; Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, W. K.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition of perturbations in the creation of equatorial plasma bubbles by analyzing the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellite observations. The initial development times of bubbles were identified by manual processing of the data, and the periodic characteristics in the occurrence of bubbles were investigated using periodograms obtained from segments of bubble chains. Our preliminary results show that bubbles initiate at the time that the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) ends. This time corresponds to the time that the F region reaches the highest altitude where the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is large. The initial onset time of bubbles varies with season and longitude in accordance with the variation of the PRE ending time. Our investigation of the periodicity in the occurrence of bubbles (spacing between bubbles) shows that a dominant periodicity does not exist; the spacing between bubbles ranges from 100 km to over 1000 km. A pronounced periodicity occurs in some series of bubbles, but, in general, multiple periodicity co-exists. The initiation of bubbles at a specific local time but the absence of a preferential wave property in the occurrence of bubbles lead to the conclusion that the onset of bubbles is controlled by the growth condition of the R-T instability.

  2. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination

    Zhaoqun Yao; Fang Tian; Xiaolei Cao; Ying Xu; Meixiu Chen; Benchun Xiang; Sifeng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds...

  3. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination

    Erwann eArc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8’-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8’-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination.

  4. Colloidal Magnetic Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Asymmetric Topologies: Seeded-Growth Synthetic Routes and Formation Mechanisms

    Scarfiello, Riccardo; Nobile, Concetta; Cozzoli, P. Davide

    2016-12-01

    Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals, free-standing crystalline nanostructures generated and processed in solution phase, represent an important class of advanced nanoscale materials owing to the flexibility with which their physical-chemical properties can be controlled through synthetic tailoring of their compositional, structural and geometric features and the versatility with which they can be integrated in technological fields as diverse as optoelectronics, energy storage/ conversion/production, catalysis and biomedicine. In recent years, building upon mechanistic knowledge acquired on the thermodynamic and kinetic processes that underlie nanocrystal evolution in liquid media, synthetic nanochemistry research has made impressive advances, opening new possibilities for the design, creation and mastering of increasingly complex “colloidal molecules”, in which nanocrystal modules of different materials are clustered together via solid-state bonding interfaces into free-standing, easily processable multifunctional nanocomposite systems. This Review will provide a glimpse into this fast-growing research field by illustrating progress achieved in the wet-chemical development of last-generation breeds of all-inorganic heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs) in asymmetric non-onionlike geometries, inorganic analogues of polyfunctional organic molecules, in which distinct nanoscale crystalline modules are interconnected in hetero-dimer, hetero-oligomer and anisotropic multidomain architectures via epitaxial heterointerfaces of limited extension. The focus will be on modular HNCs entailing at least one magnetic material component combined with semiconductors and/or metals, which hold potential for generating enhanced or unconventional magnetic properties, while offering diversified or even new chemical-physical properties and functional capabilities. The available toolkit of synthetic strategies, all based on the manipulation of seeded-growth techniques, will be described

  5. Colloidal Magnetic Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Asymmetric Topologies: Seeded-Growth Synthetic Routes and Formation Mechanisms

    Riccardo Scarfiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals, free-standing crystalline nanostructures generated and processed in solution phase, represent an important class of advanced nanoscale materials owing to the flexibility with which their physical–chemical properties can be controlled through synthetic tailoring of their compositional, structural and geometric features and the versatility with which they can be integrated in technological fields as diverse as optoelectronics, energy storage/ conversion/production, catalysis and biomedicine. In recent years, building upon mechanistic knowledge acquired on the thermodynamic and kinetic processes that underlie nanocrystal evolution in liquid media, synthetic nanochemistry research has made impressive advances, opening new possibilities for the design, creation and mastering of increasingly complex colloidal molecules, in which nanocrystal modules of different materials are clustered together via solid-state bonding interfaces into free-standing, easily processable multifunctional nanocomposite systems. This Review will provide a glimpse into this fast-growing research field by illustrating progress achieved in the wet-chemical development of last-generation breeds of all-inorganic heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs in asymmetric non-onionlike geometries, inorganic analogues of polyfunctional organic molecules, in which distinct nanoscale crystalline modules are interconnected in hetero-dimer, hetero-oligomer and anisotropic multidomain architectures via epitaxial heterointerfaces of limited extension. The focus will be on modular HNCs entailing at least one magnetic material component combined with semiconductors and/or metals, which hold potential for generating enhanced or unconventional magnetic properties, while offering diversified or even new chemical-physical properties and functional capabilities. The available toolkit of synthetic strategies, all based on the manipulation of seeded-growth techniques

  6. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination.

    Yao, Zhaoqun; Tian, Fang; Cao, Xiaolei; Xu, Ying; Chen, Meixiu; Xiang, Benchun; Zhao, Sifeng

    2016-07-15

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling) was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment.

  7. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination

    Zhaoqun Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment.

  8. Gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis Cvi seeds during dormancy cycling indicate a common underlying dormancy control mechanism.

    Cadman, Cassandra S C; Toorop, Peter E; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Finch-Savage, William E

    2006-06-01

    Physiologically dormant seeds, like those of Arabidopsis, will cycle through dormant states as seasons change until the environment is favourable for seedling establishment. This phenomenon is widespread in the plant kingdom, but has not been studied at the molecular level. Full-genome microarrays were used for a global transcript analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Cvi) seeds in a range of dormant and dry after-ripened states during cycling. Principal component analysis of the expression patterns observed showed that they differed in newly imbibed primary dormant seeds, as commonly used in experimental studies, compared with those in the maintained primary and secondary dormant states that exist during cycling. Dormant and after-ripened seeds appear to have equally active although distinct gene expression programmes, dormant seeds having greatly reduced gene expression associated with protein synthesis, potentially controlling the completion of germination. A core set of 442 genes were identified that had higher expression in all dormant states compared with after-ripened states. Abscisic acid (ABA) responsive elements were significantly over-represented in this set of genes the expression of which was enhanced when multiple copies of the elements were present. ABA regulation of dormancy was further supported by expression patterns of key genes in ABA synthesis/catabolism, and dormancy loss in the presence of fluridone. The data support an ABA-gibberelic acid hormone balance mechanism controlling cycling through dormant states that depends on synthetic and catabolic pathways of both hormones. Many of the most highly expressed genes in dormant states were stress-related even in the absence of abiotic stress, indicating that ABA, stress and dormancy responses overlap significantly at the transcriptome level.

  9. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  10. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  11. Pemecahan Dormansi Dan Perkecambahan Asam Kuranji (Dialium Indum L.) Secara Mekanis Dan Kimiawi Breaking Dormancy and Seeds Germination of Asam Kuranji (Dialium Indum L.) with Mechanical and Chemical

    Ismuhajaroh, Bakti Nur

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the dormancy breaking and the seed germination of Asam kuranji (Dialium indum L.) mechanically by sandpapering the seeds and chemically by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The experiment was conducted at the Plant Physiology Laboratory of Agricultural Faculty of Lambung Mangkurat University from June - August 2013 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 2 x 4 factorial. The first factor was the mechanical treatment  (s0 = without sandpape...

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation.

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as "peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line ( pscb )." The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin) , and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K.; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as “peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb).” The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin), and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color. PMID

  14. Seed dormancy and germination changes of snowbed species under climate warming: the role of pre- and post-dispersal temperatures

    Bernareggi, Giulietta; Carbognani, Michele; Mondoni, Andrea; Petraglia, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Climate warming has major impacts on seed germination of several alpine species, hence on their regeneration capacity. Most studies have investigated the effects of warming after seed dispersal, and little is known about the effects a warmer parental environment may have on germination and dormancy of the seed progeny. Nevertheless, temperatures during seed development and maturation could alter the state of dormancy, affecting the timing of emergence and seedling survival. Here, the interplay between pre- and post-dispersal temperatures driving seed dormancy release and germination requirements of alpine plants were investigated. Methods Three plant species inhabiting alpine snowbeds were exposed to an artificial warming treatment (i.e. +1·5 K) and to natural conditions in the field. Seeds produced were exposed to six different periods of cold stratification (0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks at 0 °C), followed by four incubation temperatures (5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) for germination testing. Key Results A warmer parental environment produced either no or a significant increase in germination, depending on the duration of cold stratification, incubation temperatures and their interaction. In contrast, the speed of germination was less sensitive to changes in the parental environment. Moreover, the effects of warming appeared to be linked to the level of (physiological) seed dormancy, with deeper dormant species showing major changes in response to incubation temperatures and less dormant species in response to cold stratification periods. Conclusions Plants developed under warmer climates will produce seeds with changed germination responses to temperature and/or cold stratification, but the extent of these changes across species could be driven by seed dormancy traits. Transgenerational plastic adjustments of seed germination and dormancy shown here may result from increased seed viability, reduced primary and secondary dormancy state, or both, and

  15. Effect of particle size and concentration on the mechanical properties of polyester/date palm seed particulate composites

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulosic materials as reinforcement in composites can greatly enhance their properties. The thrust of this study was to investigate the effect of date palm seed particle on the properties of reinforced polyester. Unsaturated polyester resin was reinforced with date palm seed particles of 0.5, 2.0 and 2.8mm particle sizes using variable particle loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25wt%. The composites obtained were subjected to various types of mechanical and physical tests in order to assess their performance. The optimum tensile strength of 16.7619N/mm2 and elastic modulus of 343.8N/mm2 were attained at 15wt% and 10wt% loading (using 0.5mm particles respectively and percent water absorption was found to be least for 0.5mm particle size. The hardness was enhanced to the maximum of 74 HRF (Rockwell Hardness Factor by 2mm particle size at 25wt% loading. Pure unsaturated polyester resin recorded tensile strength of 17.5959N/mm2, elastic modulus of 316.7N/mm2 and hardness of 33.5 HRF. The results indicated that the use of date palm seed particles as reinforcement can enhance the properties of polyester composites.

  16. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  17. MP-4 Contributes to Snake Venom Neutralization by Mucuna pruriens Seeds through an Indirect Antibody-mediated Mechanism*

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Chitra; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality due to snakebite is a serious public health problem, and available therapeutics are known to induce debilitating side effects. Traditional medicine suggests that seeds of Mucuna pruriens can provide protection against the effects of snakebite. Our aim is to identify the protein(s) that may be important for snake venom neutralization and elucidate its mechanism of action. To this end, we have identified and purified a protein from M. pruriens, which we have named MP-4. The full-length polypeptide sequence of MP-4 was obtained through N-terminal sequencing of peptide fragments. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein may belong to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family and therefore may potentially neutralize the proteases present in snake venom. Using various structural and biochemical tools coupled with in vivo assays, we are able to show that MP-4 does not afford direct protection against snake venom because it is actually a poor inhibitor of serine proteases. Further experiments showed that antibodies generated against MP-4 cross-react with the whole venom and provide protection to mice against Echis carinatus snake venom. This study shows that the MP-4 contributes significantly to the snake venom neutralization activity of M. pruriens seeds through an indirect antibody-mediated mechanism. PMID:26987900

  18. MP-4 Contributes to Snake Venom Neutralization by Mucuna pruriens Seeds through an Indirect Antibody-mediated Mechanism.

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Chitra; Nair, Deepak T; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2016-05-20

    Mortality due to snakebite is a serious public health problem, and available therapeutics are known to induce debilitating side effects. Traditional medicine suggests that seeds of Mucuna pruriens can provide protection against the effects of snakebite. Our aim is to identify the protein(s) that may be important for snake venom neutralization and elucidate its mechanism of action. To this end, we have identified and purified a protein from M. pruriens, which we have named MP-4. The full-length polypeptide sequence of MP-4 was obtained through N-terminal sequencing of peptide fragments. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein may belong to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family and therefore may potentially neutralize the proteases present in snake venom. Using various structural and biochemical tools coupled with in vivo assays, we are able to show that MP-4 does not afford direct protection against snake venom because it is actually a poor inhibitor of serine proteases. Further experiments showed that antibodies generated against MP-4 cross-react with the whole venom and provide protection to mice against Echis carinatus snake venom. This study shows that the MP-4 contributes significantly to the snake venom neutralization activity of M. pruriens seeds through an indirect antibody-mediated mechanism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Effect of solution volume covariation on the growth mechanism of Au nanorods using the seed-mediated method

    Ma, Xiao; Wang, Moo-Chin; Feng, Jinyang; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solution volume covariation on the growth mechanism of Au nanorods synthesized using a seed-mediated method was studied. The results from the ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra of gold nanorods (GNRs) revealed that the transverse surface plasmon resonance was ∼550 nm for all GNR samples synthesized in various total volumes of growth solutions. The wavelength of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance of GNRs increased from 757 to 915 nm, with the total volume of growth solution being raised from 10 to 320 ml. Moreover, the calculated aspect ratio (AR) also increased from 3.55 to 5.21 while the total volume of growth solution increased from 10 to 320 ml. Transmission electron microscopy microstructures showed that the growth mechanism of GNRs along 〈1 0 0〉 is in accordance with the hypothesis that the ratio of the number of monodispersed Au atoms existing in the growth solution to the number of seeds explain the behavior of Au atoms deposited on the nanorods with respect to all of the constituent concentrations in the growth solution on the AR of GNRs

  20. A potential human hepatocellular carcinoma inhibitor from Bauhinia purpurea L. seeds: from purification to mechanism exploration.

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-02-01

    A 20-kDa Kunitz-type trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor, Bauhinia purpurea trypsin inhibitor (BPLTI), has been isolated from the seeds of B. purpurea L. by using liquid chromatography procedures that involved ion exchange chromatography on Sp-Sepharose and Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75. BPLTI demonstrated protease inhibitory activities of 7226 BAEE units/mg and 65 BTEE units/mg toward trypsin and α-chymotrypsin, respectively. BPLTI was relatively thermal (0-60°C) and pH (3-10) stable and its activity could be decreased by dithiothreitol treatment. BPLTI exhibited a wide spectrum of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities especially on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells. However, it was devoid of a significant antiproliferative effect on immortal human hepatic WRL 68 cells. We show here that BPLTI stimulates apoptosis in Hep G2 cells, including (1) evoking DNA damage including the production of chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies; (2) induction of cell apoptosis/necrosis; (3) mitochondrial membrane depolarization; and (4) increasing the production of cytokines. Taken together, our findings show for the first time that purified protease inhibitor from B. purpurea L. seeds is a promising candidate for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. High seeding density of human chondrocytes in agarose produces tissue-engineered cartilage approaching native mechanical and biochemical properties.

    Cigan, Alexander D; Roach, Brendan L; Nims, Robert J; Tan, Andrea R; Albro, Michael B; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-06-14

    Animal cells have served as highly controllable model systems for furthering cartilage tissue engineering practices in pursuit of treating osteoarthritis. Although successful strategies for animal cells must ultimately be adapted to human cells to be clinically relevant, human chondrocytes are rarely employed in such studies. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of culture techniques established for juvenile bovine and adult canine chondrocytes to human chondrocytes obtained from fresh or expired osteochondral allografts. Human chondrocytes were expanded and encapsulated in 2% agarose scaffolds measuring ∅3-4mm×2.3mm, with cell seeding densities ranging from 15 to 90×10(6)cells/mL. Subsets of constructs were subjected to transient or sustained TGF-β treatment, or provided channels to enhance nutrient transport. Human cartilaginous constructs physically resembled native human cartilage, and reached compressive Young's moduli of up to ~250kPa (corresponding to the low end of ranges reported for native knee cartilage), dynamic moduli of ~950kPa (0.01Hz), and contained 5.7% wet weight (%/ww) of glycosaminoglycans (≥ native levels) and 1.5%/ww collagen. We found that the initial seeding density had pronounced effects on tissue outcomes, with high cell seeding densities significantly increasing nearly all measured properties. Transient TGF-β treatment was ineffective for adult human cells, and tissue construct properties plateaued or declined beyond 28 days of culture. Finally, nutrient channels improved construct mechanical properties, presumably due to enhanced rates of mass transport. These results demonstrate that our previously established culture system can be successfully translated to human chondrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. iTRAQ and RNA-Seq Analyses Provide New Insights into Regulation Mechanism of Symbiotic Germination of Dendrobium officinale Seeds (Orchidaceae).

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Si Si; Kohler, Annegret; Yan, Bo; Luo, Hong Mei; Chen, Xiao Mei; Guo, Shun Xing

    2017-06-02

    Mycorrhizal fungi colonize orchid seeds and induce germination. This so-called symbiotic germination is a critical developmental process in the lifecycle of all orchid species. However, the molecular changes that occur during orchid seed symbiotic germination remain largely unknown. To better understand the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination, we performed a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the Chinese traditional medicinal orchid Dendrobium officinale to explore the change in protein expression at the different developmental stages during asymbiotic and symbiotic germination and identify the key proteins that regulate the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Among 2256 identified plant proteins, 308 were differentially expressed across three developmental stages during asymbiotic and symbiotic germination, and 229 were differentially expressed during symbiotic germination compared to asymbiotic development. Of these, 32 proteins were coup-regulated at both the proteomic and transcriptomic levels during symbiotic germination compared to asymbiotic germination. Our results suggest that symbiotic germination of D. officinale seeds shares a common signaling pathway with asymbiotic germination during the early germination stage. However, compared to asymbiotic germination, fungal colonization of orchid seeds appears to induce higher and earlier expression of some key proteins involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and thus improves the efficiency of utilization of stored substances present in the embryo. This study provides new insight into the molecular basis of orchid seed germination.

  3. Effect of Time and Burial Depth on Breaking Seed dormancy and Germination of Weed Seeds

    marzie mazhari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crop growth, development and yield through competing. Seed bank of weeds in field is one of the sources which can affect weed management and their control methods. Environmental conditions during seed maturation and following dispersal interact to influence the germination phenology of many species. Disturbance plays a key role in the maintenance of habitat for many plant species, particularly referrals, for example, fire ephemerals, desert annuals, and arable weeds. Seed germination and emergence depend on endogenous and exogenous factors. Viable seeds are dormant when all environmental conditions are appropriate for germination but seeds fail to germinate. Thus, dormancy plays an important ecological role in preventing seed germination, being a major contributor to seed persistence of some species in soil. Buried seeds of annual weeds are certainly subjected to different soil moisture conditions during their dormancy release season (winter according to the annual rainfall pattern and burial depth. Shallow buried seeds are exposed to soil moisture fluctuations that could affect their dormancy status. Laboratory studies showed that desiccation and subsequent re-hydration of seeds could stimulate germination and modify seed light requirements. Seeds buried in deeper layers of the soil would not be exposed to such fluctuations in soil moisture, but would be exposed to different soil moisture environments depending on weather and soil characteristics. The effects of interactions between temperature, and soil or seed moisture, on seed dormancy changes have been reported for several species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of time and burial depth treatments on seed germination and seedling emergence of Aegilops cylindrica, Agropyrom repens, Avena fatua, Bromus dantoniae, Cynodon dactylon, Cyprus rotundus, Setaria viridis, Anthriscus sylvestris, Centurea cyanus. Materials and Methods: In

  4. Study of UO2-10WT%Gd2O3 fuel pellets obtained by seeding method using AUC co-precipitation and mechanical mixing processes

    Lima, M.M.F.; Ferraz, W.B.A.; Santos, M.M. dos; Pinto, L.C.M.; Santos, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of gadolinium and uranium mixed oxide as a nuclear fuel aims to obtain a fuel with a performance better than that of UO 2 fuel. In this work, seeding method was used to improve ionic diffusivity during sintering to produce high density pellets containing coarse grains by co-precipitation and mechanical mixing processes. Sintered UO 2 -10 wt% Gd 2 O 3 pellets were obtained using the reference processes with 2 wt% and 5 wt% UO 2 seeds with two granulometries, less than 20 μm and between 20 and 38 μm. Characterisation was carried out by chemical analysis, surface area, X-ray diffraction, SEM, WDS, image analysis, and densitometry. The seeding method using mechanical mixing process was more effective than the co-precipitation method. Furthermore, mechanical mixing process resulted in an increase in density of UO 2 -10wt% Gd 2 O 3 with seeds in relation to that of UO 2 -10wt% Gd 2 O 3 without seeds. (author)

  5. Infectivity versus Seeding in Neurodegenerative Diseases Sharing a Prion-Like Mechanism

    Natalia Fernández-Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions are considered the best example to prove that the biological information can be transferred protein to protein through a conformational change. The term “prion-like” is used to describe molecular mechanisms that share similarities with the mammalian prion protein self-perpetuating aggregation and spreading characteristics. Since prions are presumably composed only of protein and are infectious, the more similar the mechanisms that occur in the different neurodegenerative diseases, the more these processes will resemble an infection. In vitro and in vivo experiments carried out during the last decade in different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's diseases (PD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS have shown a convergence toward a unique mechanism of misfolded protein propagation. In spite of the term “infection” that could be used to explain the mechanism governing the diversity of the pathological processes, other concepts as “seeding” or “de novo induction” are being used to describe the in vivo propagation and transmissibility of misfolded proteins. The current studies are demanding an extended definition of “disease-causing agents” to include those already accepted as well as other misfolded proteins. In this new scenario, “seeding” would be a type of mechanism by which an infectious agent can be transmitted but should not be used to define a whole “infection” process.

  6. Mechanical properties and structure-function relationships of human chondrocyte-seeded cartilage constructs after in vitro culture.

    Middendorf, Jill M; Griffin, Darvin J; Shortkroff, Sonya; Dugopolski, Caroline; Kennedy, Stephen; Siemiatkoski, Joseph; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-10-01

    Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is a widely recognized method for the repair of focal cartilage defects. Despite the accepted use, problems with this technique still exist, including graft hypertrophy, damage to surrounding tissue by sutures, uneven cell distribution, and delamination. Modified ACI techniques overcome these challenges by seeding autologous chondrocytes onto a 3D scaffold and securing the graft into the defect. Many studies on these tissue engineered grafts have identified the compressive properties, but few have examined frictional and shear properties as suggested by FDA guidance. This study is the first to perform three mechanical tests (compressive, frictional, and shear) on human tissue engineered cartilage. The objective was to understand the complex mechanical behavior, function, and changes that occur with time in these constructs grown in vitro using compression, friction, and shear tests. Safranin-O histology and a DMMB assay both revealed increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in the scaffolds with increased maturity. Similarly, immunohistochemistry revealed increased lubricin localization on the construct surface. Confined compression and friction tests both revealed improved properties with increased construct maturity. Compressive properties correlated with the sGAG content, while improved friction coefficients were attributed to increased lubricin localization on the construct surfaces. In contrast, shear properties did not improve with increased culture time. This study suggests the various mechanical and biological properties of tissue engineered cartilage improve at different rates, indicating thorough mechanical evaluation of tissue engineered cartilage is critical to understanding the performance of repaired cartilage. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2298-2306, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  8. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity.

    Heggers, John P; Cottingham, John; Gusman, Jean; Reagor, Lee; McCoy, Lana; Carino, Edith; Cox, Robert; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Reagor, Lana

    2002-06-01

    Recent testimonials report grapefruit-seed extract, or GSE (Citricidal) to be effective against more than 800 bacterial and viral strains, 100 strains of fungus, and a large number of single and multicelled parasites. This study investigated GSE for antibacterial activity at varying time intervals and concentration levels and tissue toxicity at varying concentrations in an effort to determine if a concentration existed that was both microbicidal and nontoxic and in what period of time. Gram-negative and gram-positive isolates were introduced into graduated dilutions of GSE (twofold concentrations ranging from 1:1, through 1:512) for determination of bacterial activity. In vitro assays with human skin fibroblast cells were also performed at the same dilutions to determine toxicity. These tests indicated that from the 1:1 through the 1:128 concentrations, GSE remained toxic as well as bactericidal. However, test results indicated that at the 1:512 dilution, GSE remained bactericidal, but completely nontoxic. The initial data shows GSE to have antimicrobial properties against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms at dilutions found to be safe. With the aid of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the mechanism of GSE's antibacterial activity was revealed. It was evident that GSE disrupts the bacterial membrane and liberates the cytoplasmic contents within 15 minutes after contact even at more dilute concentrations.

  9. (Heckel) seeds

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  10. Tanned or burned: the role of fire in shaping physical seed dormancy.

    Moreira, Bruno; Pausas, Juli G

    2012-01-01

    Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment) or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps) remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes) and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C). Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

  11. Tanned or burned: the role of fire in shaping physical seed dormancy.

    Bruno Moreira

    Full Text Available Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C. Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

  12. PEMECAHAN DORMANSI DAN PERKECAMBAHAN ASAM KURANJI (Dialium indum L. SECARA MEKANIS DAN KIMIAWI Breaking Dormancy and Seeds Germination of Asam Kuranji (Dialium indum L. with Mechanical and Chemical

    Bakti Nur Ismuhajaroh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the dormancy breaking and the seed germination of Asam kuranji (Dialium indum L. mechanically by sandpapering the seeds and chemically by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H2SO4. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Physiology Laboratory of Agricultural Faculty of Lambung Mangkurat University from June - August 2013 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 2 x 4 factorial. The first factor was the mechanical treatment  (s0 = without sandpaper and s1 = with sandpaper, the second factor was the chemical treatment (a0 = without immersion, a1 = 70% of H2SO4, a2 = 80% of H2SO4, and a3 = 90% of H2SO4. The data were analyzed by ANOVA at the level of 95% followed by Tukey's test at the level test of 95%. The results showed that the treatments of sandpapering and immersing the seeds significantly affected the % of germination, the length of radicle and the length of hypocotyl. The interaction between treatments of sandpapering and immersion indicated that the higher the concentration of H2SO4 immersion the higher the % of germination, the length of radicle and the length of hypocotyl. Keywords: germination, Dialium indum L., sandpaper, concentration, H2SO4

  13. An evaluation of physical and mechanical scarification methods on seed germination of Vachellia macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Seigler & Ebinger

    Francisco Maldonado-Arciniegas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry Andean forests are ecosystems with a high diversity of flora and fauna and are at high risk of extinction due to the pressure of human activity. V. macracantha is a native species of the dry Andean forest, which has potential for reforestation and also provides benefits in agroforestry systems, due to its nitrogen fixation capacity, the supply of organic matter, the production of shade and wind protection. The multiplication of this species is limited due to the low percentage of seed germination, which present dormancy. The aim of this research was to determine the most effective scarification method for seeds germination of V. macracantha. Two types of methods were tested, the immersion in strong acids (chemical scarification, and the seed bark through filing, cutting and soaking into hot water (physical scarification. A completely randomized block design with 3 replicates was used. For the chemical methods, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acid (50% v/v were used at different exposure times: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes, respectively. Three variables were measured as follows: percentage of germination, the number of leaves and the plant height. The chemical methods did not present any significant difference in the percentage of germination. The physical method of seed filing, had achieved the highest percentage of germination with 46%, compared to control treatment, which had achieved 6%. No treatment performed significant differences in the parameters of number of leaves and plant height.

  14. Possible mechanisms of pollination failure in hybrid carrot seed and implications for industry in a changing climate.

    Broussard, Melissa Ann; Mas, Flore; Howlett, Brad; Pattemore, David; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    Approximately one-third of our food globally comes from insect-pollinated crops. The dependence on pollinators has been linked to yield instability, which could potentially become worse in a changing climate. Insect-pollinated crops produced via hybrid breeding (20% of fruit and vegetable production globally) are especially at risk as they are even more reliant on pollinators than open-pollinated plants. We already observe a wide range of fruit and seed yields between different cultivars of the same crop species, and it is unknown how existing variation will be affected in a changing climate. In this study, we examined how three hybrid carrot varieties with differential performance in the field responded to three temperature regimes (cooler than the historical average, average, and warmer that the historical average). We tested how temperature affected the plants' ability to set seed (seed set, pollen viability) as well as attract pollinators (nectar composition, floral volatiles). We found that there were significant intrinsic differences in nectar phenolics, pollen viability, and seed set between the carrot varieties, and that higher temperatures did not exaggerate those differences. However, elevated temperature did negatively affect several characteristics relating to the attraction and reward of pollinators (lower volatile production and higher nectar sugar concentration) across all varieties, which may decrease the attractiveness of this already pollinator-limited crop. Given existing predictions of lower pollinator populations in a warmer climate, reduced attractiveness would add yet another challenge to future food production.

  15. Evaluation of mechanism for antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of hexanic and hydroalcoholic extracts of celery seed in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Faezeh Tashakori-Sabzevar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae is one of the popular aromatic vegetables and part of the daily diet around the world. In this study, aqueous-ethanolic and hexane extracts of celery seed were prepared and the amount of n-butylphthalide, as an active component, was determined in each extract. Then the effects of hexanic extract on systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated in an invasive rat model. The vasodilatory effect and possible mechanisms of above mentioned extracts on aorta ring were also measured. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that hexanic extract contains significantly higher amounts of n-butylphthalide, compared to aqueous-ethanolic extract. The results indicated that hexanic extract significantly decreased the systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our data revealed that celery seed extract exerts its hypotensive effects through its bradycardic and vasodilatory properties. Moreover, the active components in celery seed extracts could induce their vasodilatory properties through Ca2+ channel blocking activity in endothelial and non-endothelial pathways and particularly by interference with the extra or intracellular calcium.

  16. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  17. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean.

    Zhang, Dajian; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shuai; Sun, Lianjun; Wang, Weidong; Cai, Chunmei; Dierking, Emily C; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy. The function of GmABI3b in modulating seed oil biosynthesis was fulfilled by direct binding to a RY (CATGCA) cis-regulatory element in the GmWRI1a promoter, which was absent in the GmWRI1b promoter, resulting in reduction of the GmWRI1b expression. Nevertheless, the three regulators each exhibited similar intensities of purifying selection to their respective duplicates since these pairs were formed by a WGD event that is proposed to have occurred approximately 13 million years ago (mya), suggesting that the differentiation in spatiotemporal expression between the duplicated genes is more likely to be the outcome of neutral variation in regulatory sequences. This study thus exemplifies the plasticity, dynamics, and novelty of regulatory networks mediated by WGD. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements

  19. Avaliação da debulha mecânica em sementes de milho Evaluation of mechanical thrashing processing in corn seeds

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available No estado da Paraíba, as perdas de sementes e grãos de milho (Zea mays L. provocadas principalmente pela colheita, debulha mecânica, beneficiamento e processos subseqüentes, são da ordem de 20%, acarretando prejuízos econômicos ao estado. Assim, estudaram-se as danificações decorrentes da debulha mecânica e da passagem das sementes de milho, variedades Cruzeta e Sertanejo, pelas diferentes etapas do beneficiamento. Para avaliar os danos provocados às sementes, utilizou-se uma debulhadora estacionária trabalhando a rotações de 520, 600 e 700 rpm, obtidas pela variação da aceleração do motor do trator ao qual a debulhadora se achava acoplada, como também das etapas promovidas pela UBS. Os danos foram avaliados visualmente e analisados em um delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial. A variedade Cruzeta foi mais resistente aos impactos provocados pela debulha e pelo beneficiamento; o efeito do impacto na qualidade das sementes torna-se mais evidente com a elevação da velocidade do cilindro debulhador; a rotação de 600 rpm mostrou-se a mais indicada para a debulha do milho Cruzeta e Sertanejo.In the State of Paraiba, the loss of seeds and grains of corn (Zea mays L. caused, mainly by harvesting, mechanical thrashing and subsequent processes is about 20% resulting in economic loss to the state. In this context, the effect of mechanical damages during the thrashing and passage of corn seeds varieties -Cruzeta- and -Sertanejo- were studied, in the different stages of processing. To evaluate the damages caused to the seeds, a stationary thrasher was used working at 520, 600 and 700 rpm, obtained by the acceleration variation of the tractor to which the thrasher was attached. The damages were visually appraised and analysed in a completely randomized statistical design with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme. -Cruzeta- variety was more resistant to the

  20. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  1. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish

    Pollux, Bart J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to

  2. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  3. seed oils

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  4. seed flour

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  5. Robotic seeding

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  6. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  7. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  8. Influence of Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafting on the Mechanical, Water Absorption, and Thermal Properties of Recycled High-Density Polyethylene/Rubber Seed Shell Particle Composites

    Kaimeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber seed shell (RSS was modified by grafting treatment using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA at various concentrations. The RSS was then used to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE. The effects of modification on the mechanical, water absorption, and thermal properties of the RSS/HDPE composites were studied using a mechanical testing instrument, weighing method, Vicat softening temperature (VST testing, thermogravimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that the GMA grafting produced an improvement in the flexural and tensile properties of the composites. The water absorption rate of the composites also had an obvious decrease. While a slight increase in VST was found, the various concentrations of GMA showed no improvement in VST. GMA modification also could elevate the thermal stability of the composites at the initial decomposition stage. The optimum grafting concentration of GMA (2.5% led to the lowest thermal weight loss (37.07% and 26.56% during the first and second decomposition stages. The E’ values of the composites had a significant increase with the addition of GMA. There were two peaks of tan δ for the untreated samples, but the modified samples exhibited a shift in the transition peak at higher temperatures; moreover, the second peak disappeared.

  9. Mechanisms of combined effects of salt and alkaline stresses on seed germination and seedlings of melilotus officials (fabaceae) in northeast of china

    VU, T. S.; Zhang, D.; Xiao, W.; Chi, C.; Xing, Y.; Fu, D.; Yuan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In line with the salt-alkalinized soils found in the northeast of China, the conditions were simulated to investigate the mechanisms associated with this combination of stresses on Melilotus officinalis. The effects of salinity (NaCl: 0-300mM) in combination with alkali (pH: 7.1-9.8) on the seed germination and seedlings of M. officinalis were investigated. The results showed that germination was not inhibited completely by the salt-alkali conditions tested. The recovery germinations were significant higher than the control or had no significant differences with the control under the conditions of NaCl less than 200mM and pH=9.0, suggesting that non-germinated seeds may have a strategy to get through and resist the stress during germination stage. For the seedling growth, M. officinalis was capable of surviving at high pH (pH=9.8) and the salinity (NaCl=200mM) (seedling survival rate: 84.77 ± 8.62 percentage). The characteristic feature for combined salt-alkali stresses is the reciprocal enhancement between salt and alkali stresses. The combined action of salinity and pH should be considered when evaluating the effects of salt-alkali stresses. Correlation and regression analyses showed that salinity was the dominant stress factor, while pH was a secondary factor. From the physiological and ecological parameters, we suggested that M. officinalis is a salt-alkali tolerant species which can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the northeast of China. (author)

  10. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, D. (Danuše); Turečková, V. (Veronika); Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, T. (Terezie); Strnad, M. (Miroslav); Leubner-Metzger, G. (Gerhard)

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) gene, known for providing dormancy adaptation to distinct environments, determines the optimal temperature for seed germination. By reciprocal gene-swapp...

  11. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Xiaojun Du; Qinfeng Guo; Xianming Gao; Keping Na

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms.We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan,...

  12. A Metabolomics-Based Strategy for the Mechanism Exploration of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Descurainia sophia Seeds Extract and Fractions as a Case Study

    Ning Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A UPLC-QTOF-MS based metabolomics research was conducted to explore potential biomarkers which would increase our understanding of the model and to assess the integral efficacy of Descurainia sophia seeds extract (DS-A. Additionally, DS-A was split into five fractions in descending order of polarity, which were utilized to illustrate the mechanism together. The 26 identified biomarkers were mainly related to disturbances in phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, purine, arginine, and proline metabolism. Furthermore, heat map, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and correlation network diagram of biomarkers perturbed by modeling were all conducted. The results of heat map and HCA suggested that fat oil fraction could reverse the abnormal metabolism in the model to some extent; meanwhile the metabolic inhibitory effect produced by the other four fractions helped to relieve cardiac load and compensate the insufficient energy supplement induced by the existing heart and lung injury in model rats. Briefly, the split fractions interfered with the model from different aspects and ultimately constituted the overall effects of extract. In conclusion, the metabolomics method, combined with split fractions of extract, is a powerful approach for illustrating pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  14. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  15. Molecular mechanisms of celery seed extract induced apoptosis via s phase cell cycle arrest in the BGC-823 human stomach cancer cell line.

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Lei; Yao, Shu-Tong; Jiao, Peng; Qin, Shu-Cun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ya-Bin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important field of tumor therapy and cancer molecular biology. Loss of cell cycle control, leading to uncontrolled proliferation, is common in cancer. Therefore, the identification of potent and selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors is a priority for anti-cancer drug discovery. There are at least two major apoptotic pathways, initiated by caspase-8 and caspase-9, respectively, which can activate caspase cascades. Apoptosis triggered by activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway represents the main programmed cell death mechanism. This is activated by various intracellular stresses that induce permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Anti-tumor effects of celery seed extract (CSE) and related mechanisms regarding apoptosis were here investigated in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. CSE was produced by supercritical fluid extraction. Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by flow cytometry using Annexin/PI staining and DAPI staining and a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Cell cycling was evaluated using PI staining with flow cytometry and expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins cyclin A, CDK2, bcl-2 and bax was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. CSE had an anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment, the apoptotic rate significantly increased, with morphological changes typical of apoptosis observed with LSCM by DAPI staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2 and bcl-2 were all down-regulated, whereas bax was up-regulated. The molecular determinants of inhibition of cell proliferation as well as apoptosis of CSE may be associated with cycle arrest in the S phase.

  16. Transcriptional mechanisms associated with seed dormancy and dormancy loss in the gibberellin-insensitive sly1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    While widespread transcriptome changes have been previously observed with seed dormancy loss, this study specifically characterized transcriptional changes associated with the increased seed dormancy and dormancy loss of the gibberellin (GA) hormone-insensitive sleepy1-2 (sly1-2) mutant. The SLY1 g...

  17. seed oil

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  18. Biaxial mechanics and inter-lamellar shearing of stem-cell seeded electrospun angle-ply laminates for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering.

    Driscoll, Tristan P; Nakasone, Ryan H; Szczesny, Spencer E; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disk plays a critical role in vertebral load transmission that is heavily dependent on the microscale structure and composition of the tissue. With degeneration, both structure and composition are compromised, resulting in a loss of AF mechanical function. Numerous tissue engineering strategies have addressed the issue of AF degeneration, but few have focused on recapitulation of AF microstructure and function. One approach that allows for generation of engineered AF with appropriate (+/-)30° lamellar microstructure is the use of aligned electrospun scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and assembled into angle-ply laminates (APL). Previous work indicates that opposing lamellar orientation is necessary for development of near native uniaxial tensile properties. However, most native AF tensile loads are applied biaxially, as the disk is subjected to multi-axial loads and is constrained by its attachments to the vertebral bodies. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biaxial mechanical response of engineered AF bilayers, and to determine the importance of opposing lamellar structure under this loading regime. Opposing bilayers, which replicate native AF structure, showed a significantly higher modulus in both testing directions compared to parallel bilayers, and reached ∼60% of native AF biaxial properties. Associated with this increase in biaxial properties, significantly less shear, and significantly higher stretch in the fiber direction, was observed. These results provide additional insight into native tissue structure-function relationships, as well as new benchmarks for engineering functional AF tissue constructs. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Epicormic buds in trees: a review of bud establishment, development and dormancy release

    Andrew R. ​Meier; Michael R. Saunders; Charles H. Michler

    2012-01-01

    The formation of epicormic sprouts on the boles of trees is a phenomenon that has, until recently, been poorly understood. Renewed interest in the topic in the last two decades has led to significant advances in our knowledge of the subject, especially in regard to bud anatomy, morphology and ontogeny. There exists, however, no comprehensive synthesis of results from...

  20. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Vieira, D. S.; Menezes, M.; Gonçalves, G.; Mukai, H.; Lenzi, E. K.; Pereira, N. C.; Fernandes, P. R.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  1. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  2. Cadmium effects on embryo growth of pea seeds during germination: Investigation of the mechanisms of interference of the heavy metal with protein mobilization-related factors.

    Jaouani, Khadija; Karmous, Inès; Ostrowski, Maciej; Ferjani, Ezzedine El; Jakubowska, Anna; Chaoui, Abdelilah

    2018-04-16

    This work aims to give more insight into mechanisms of action of cadmium (Cd) on germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. var. douce province), specifically the different ways by which Cd cations may interfere with the principal factors involved during germination process, notably storage proteins mobilization, amino acids freeing and proteolytic activities. Obtained results revealed that the process of hydrolysis of main storage proteins showed a significant disruption, which resulted in the decrease of the release of free amino acids, thus imposing a lack in nitrogen supply of essential nutrients to growing embryo under Cd stress. This hypothesis was evidenced by Cd-induced changes occurring in main purified protein fractions; Albumins, Legumins and Vicilins, during their breakdown. Besides, at enzymatic level, the activities of main proteases responsible for this hydrolysis were altered. Indeed, assays using synthetic substrates and specific protease inhibitors followed by protease activity measurements demonstrated that Cd inhibited drastically the total azocaseinolytic activity (ACA) and activities of different proteolytic classes: cysteine-, aspartic-, serine- and metallo-endopeptidases (EP), leucine- and proline-aminopeptidases (LAP and PAP, respectively), and glycine-carboxypeptidases (Gly-CP). The data here presented may suggest that the vulnerability of the embryonic axes towards Cd toxicity could be explained as a result of eventual disruption of metabolic pathways that affect mobilization of reserves and availability of nutrients. In vitro studies suggest that Cd cations may act either directly on the catalytic sites of the proteolytic enzymes, which may cause their deactivation, or indirectly via the generation of oxidative stress and overproduction of free radicals that can interact with enzymes, by altering their activity and structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel approach of proteomics to study the mechanism of action of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on diabetic retinopathy in rats

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among the people of occupational age. To prevent the progress of retina injury, effective therapies directed toward the key molecular target are required. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) have been reported to be effective in treating diabetic complications, while little is discussed about the functional protein changes. Methods We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes in rats. GSPE (250 mg/kg body weight per day) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined. Consequently, 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to investigate retina protein profiles among control, STZ-induced diabetic rats, and GSPE treated diabetic rats. Results GSPE significantly reduced the AGEs of diabetic rats (P <0.05). Moreover, GSPE significantly suppressed the vascular lesions of central regions, decreased capillary enlargements and neovascularization, similar to those of the control rats under light microscope. Eighteen proteins were found either up-regulated or down-regulated in the retina of STZ-induced diabetic rats. And seven proteins in the retina of diabetic rats were found to be back-regulated to normal levels after GSPE therapy. These back-regulated proteins are involved in many important biological processes such as heat shock, ubiquitin-proteasome system, cell proliferation, cell growth and glucose metabolism. Conclusions These findings might promote a better understanding for the mechanism of DR, and provide novel targets for evaluating the effects of GSPE therapy.

  4. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  5. Defense enzyme responses in dormant wild oat and wheat caryopses challenged with a seed decay pathogen

    Seed dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms are fundamental ecological strategies for weed seed persistence in the weed seed-bank. Seeds have well-established physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores....

  6. Seed counting system evaluation using arduino microcontroller

    Paulo Fernando Escobar Paim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of automated systems has been highlighted in the most diverse productive sectors, among them, the agricultural sector. These systems aim to optimize activities by increasing operational efficiency and quality of work. In this sense, the present work has the objective of evaluating a prototype developed for seed count in laboratory, using Arduino microcontroller. The prototype of the system for seed counting was built using a dosing mechanism commonly used in seeders, electric motor, Arduino Uno, light dependent resistor and light emitting diode. To test the prototype, a completely randomized design (CRD was used in a two-factorial scheme composed of three groups defined according to the number of seeds (500, 1000 and 1500 seeds tested, three speeds of the dosing disc that allowed the distribution in 17, 21 and 32 seeds per second, with 40 repetitions evaluating the seed counting prototype performance in different speeds. The prototype of the bench counter showed a moderate variability of seed number of counted within the nine tests and a high precision in the seed count on the distribution speeds of 17 and 21 seeds per second (s-1 up to 1500 seeds tested. Therefore, based on the observed results, the developed prototype presents itself as an excellent tool for counting seeds in laboratory.

  7. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  8. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  9. Incidência de patógenos e vigor de sementes de milho doce submetidas a danos mecânicos Pathogen incidence and vigor in sweet corn seed after mechanical damage

    Francisco Guilhien Gomes Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de patógenos e o vigor de sementes de milho doce de diferentes classes de tamanhos submetidas a diferentes níveis de danos mecânicos, sementes do híbrido 'SWB551' Dow AgroSciences® foram classificadas em peneiras com crivos de diferentes tamanhos e formas (RG, RM1, RM2 e RP com crivos circulares de 8,7; 7,9; 7,1 e 6,4 mm de diâmetro, respectivamente, e CG, CM e CP com crivos oblongos com dimensões de 8,7 x 19,0, 7,9 x 19,0, 6,4 x 19,0 mm, respectivamente, submetidas a impactos contra uma placa metálica de maneira que fossem obtidos tratamentos com diferentes intensidades de danos mecânicos (0, 1, 3, 5 e 7 impactos e armazenadas por 5 meses em ambiente com temperatura de 20ºC e 50-60% de umidade relativa do ar. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, perfazendo um fatorial 7 x 5 (7 peneiras x 5 intensidades de danos, totalizando 35 tratamentos. Foram realizadas as avaliações de teor de água das sementes, teste de danos mecânicos (tintura de iodo, teste de germinação, teste de frio e teste de sanidade. Foram evidenciadas variações nos níveis de incidência de patógenos entre as sementes de milho doce com diferentes tamanhos e formas. O aumento da intensidade dos danos mecânicos não favoreceu o aumento da incidência de patógenos nas sementes, mas reduziu o vigor das mesmas.The objective of this study was to evaluate pathogen incidence and vigor in different size classes of sweet corn seeds, after mechanical damage. Hybrid seeds 'SWB551' Dow AgroSciences® were classified by sieves with different sizes and forms (RG, RM1, RM2 and RP, with circular sieves of 8.7, 7.9, 7.1 and 6.4 mm of diameter, respectively, and CG, CM and CP with oblong sieves with dimensions of 8.7 x 19.0, 7.9 x 19.0, 6.4 x 19.0 mm, respectively. Seeds were submitted for impacts against a metallic plate in order to have different intensities of mechanical damage (0, 1, 3, 5 and

  10. Plataformas de colheita e colheita manual com trilha mecânica sobre a qualidade de sementes de arroz ( Oryza sativa, L. Harvest header and manual harvest with mechanical strip on rice ( Oryza sativa, L. seeds quality

    Daniel Fernandez Franco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a colheita do arroz irrigado ocorrem perdas e danos físicos e fisiológicos às sementes. No final da década de oitenta, surgiram as plataformas recolhedoras, que retiram ou arrancam o grão ao invés de cortar a panícula, porém, pouco se conhece a respeito dos danos físicos e fisiológicos que este sistema de plataforma pode causar às sementes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os danos mecânicos causados às sementes dos cultivares de arroz BR-IRGA 409 e BR-IRGA 410, por três formas de colheita: (a colheita manual e trilha mecânica; (b colheita com plataforma de corte; (c colheita com plataforma recolhedora. Quando a colheita foi mecânica, realizou-se a coleta das amostras diretamente no graneleiro. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que as sementes de arroz irrigado dos cultivares estudados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em suas qualidades físicas e fisiológicas, quando colhidas com plataforma de corte e com a plataforma recolhedora. Estes dois métodos de colheita, porém, apresentaram danos significativamente maiores quando comparados à colheita manual e trilha mecânica.During irrigated rice harvesting occur losses and physical and phisiological seed damage. Late 80's, appeared the strippers headers that strip the grain, instead of cutting the spike. However, little is know about physical and phisiological seed damage by harvest header. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mechanical damage caused to BR-IRGA 409 and BR-IRGA 410 rice cultivars by three harvesting methods: (a manual harvesting and mechanical strip; (b cutterbar harvesting and; (c stripper header harvesting. Samples were collected directly in the grain tank when the harvest was mechanical. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications. Results demonstrated that the rice seeds of the studied variety didn't showed significant differences in

  11. Gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis Cvi seeds during cycling through dormant and non-dormant states indicate a common underlying dormancy control mechanism

    Cadman, C.S.C.; Toorop, P.E.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically dormant seeds, like those of Arabidopsis, will cycle through dormant states as seasons change until the environment is favourable for seedling establishment. This phenomenon is widespread in the plant kingdom, but has not been studied at the molecular level. Full-genome microarrays

  12. Proteomics offers insight to the mechanism behind Pisum sativum L. response to pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV)

    Černá, H.; Černý, M.; Habanová, H.; Šafářová, D.; Abushamsiya, K.; Navrátil, M.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, FEB2017 (2017), s. 78-88 ISSN 1874-3919 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Proteome * Pea seed-borne mosaic virus PSbMV * Potyvirus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  13. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y.; Messing, E.; Rubens, D.; Sarkar, N.; Ng, W.

    2008-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  14. A combined histology and transcriptome analysis unravels novel questions on Medicago truncatula seed coat

    Abirached-Darmency, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The seed coat is involved in the determination of seed quality traits such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Understanding seed coat structure is therefore a prerequisite to deciphering the genetic mechanisms that govern seed coat functions. By combining histological and transcriptomic data analyses, cellular and molecular events occurring during Medicago truncatula seed coat development were dissected in order to relate structure to function and pinpoint target genes potentially involved in seed coat traits controlling final seed quality traits. The analyses revealed the complexity of the seed coat transcriptome, which contains >30 000 genes. In parallel, a set of genes showing a preferential expression in seed coat that may be involved in more specific functions was identified. The study describes how seed coat anatomy and morphological changes affect final seed quality such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Putative regulator genes of different processes have been identified as potential candidates for further functional genomic studies to improve agronomical seed traits. The study also raises new questions concerning the implication of seed coat endopolyploidy in cell expansion and the participation of the seed coat in de novo abscisic acid biosynthesis at early seed filling. PMID:23125357

  15. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  16. 大豆籽粒的化学-力学特性灰色关联度及本构模拟%Gray relation degree and constitutive modeling of chemo-mechanical properties for soybean seed

    张涛; 张锋伟; 孙伟; 孙步功; 王婷; 吴建民

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of soybean seeds has an important effect on the mechanical properties,and there is an inevitable connection between them.In order to study the mechanical properties of soybean seed under different loading types,and to explore the relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties of soybean seed,11 kinds of soybeans were selected as research material with the moisture content of 8.65%,and the chemical components test,the needle inserting test,the shear test and the compression test were carried out.Depending on the outline structure of soybean seed,compression types included flat placing,side placing,stand placing,and shear types included horizontal and vertical.The experiment was carried out in Gansu Agricultural University from March to July in 2016.Gray relation degree method was used to study the relationship of the 2 types of indices,chemical indices were set as the reference sequence,mechanical parameters were set as the comparison sequence,and the correlation degree and correlation order were analyzed with DPS software.With the support of Abaqus software,soybean seed constitutive modeling was set up,which defined the structure and properties by using the finite element software,and 3 types of compression test processes were simulated.The validity of the constitutive model was verified by comparing the simulation curve and the testing curve.Through mechanical test and compression simulation of soybean seed,the results indicated that the hardness of soybean seed was between 18.39 and 52.58 N/rm,the crippling strength of soybean seed was between 3.65 and 15.32 MPa,the ultimate shear force of soybean seed was between 12.70 and 52.33 N,and the variety had a highly significant effect on its mechanical properties (P<0.01).The resistance shear capacity of the virtical axis was significantly higher than the horizontal axis,and the ability of resisting damage from higher to lower was flat placing,side placing,and stand

  17. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  18. Efeito de diferentes graus de dano mecânico na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de sorgo Effect of different mechanical damage degrees in sorghum seeds

    Dea Alecia Martins netto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas amostras de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench., cultivar BR 303, com diferentes níveis de danos mecânicos, foram analisadas com o objetivo de determinar o efeito imediato de danos mecânicos sobre a qualidade fisiológica. Os percentuais de dano mecânico foram determinados pelo teste de verde rápido, e a qualidade fisiológica das sementes pelos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio, índice de velocidade de emergência e população inicial de plântulas. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análises de Sementes da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS, em Sete Lagoas, MG. Através da análise de regressão, verificou-se que houve redução significativa da germinação e do vigor quando as sementes apresentaram até 5% de dano; de 5% a 15% de dano a redução na qualidade fisiológica não foi significativa. Acima de 15% até 23% de dano a germinação e o vigor sofreram um decréscimo de 22,5%, em comparação com o controle. O efeito prejudicial imediato dos danos mecânicos sobre a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de sorgo pôde ser detectada pelos testes aplicados.Twelve seed lots of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench., cultivar BR 303, with different degrees of mechanical damage were evaluated on germination and vigor test. The data of mechanical damage based upon fast green test, accelerating aging, cold test, speed of emergence and stand establishment. The experiment was conducted in Seed Laboratory Analysis of the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS, in Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. There were significantly decrease through regressions analysis on germination and vigor tests, when the seeds were damaged up to 5%; from 5% to 15% of damage the decrease was not significant. From 15% to 23% of damage, the germination and vigor declined 22.5% compared to the control. The immediate hazard effect of mechanical damages on physiological

  19. Design on opposed inclined-plate high-speed precision seed-metering device and its working mechanism analysis%对置斜盘高速精密大豆排种器设计与充种机理分析

    刘宏新; 刘俊孝; 唐师法; 徐晓萌

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical precision seed-metering device has low price, compact structure, good manufacturability and other advantages. However, in recent years, the pneumatic precision seed-metering device has occupied the dominant position, mainly because of the fatal flaw of the hole filling rate declining rapidly in high speed for mechanical precision seed-metering device, which resulted in grievous decline in the quality of operation and serious seed-leakage phenomenon. Due to the structure characteristic of seed-metering device and mixing characteristic of granular soybean seeds, the value of filling force in the form of compressive stress was limited. For this reason, how to improve the filling force was a crucial factor for mechanical precision seed-metering device. In this paper, the model of filling force of hole was built. And an opposed inclined seed-metering device was innovatively designed by theoretical analysis, which combined the advantages of a variety of mechanical seed-metering devices. It could improve seeding frequency by using double-plate to seed in single line. It changed the seed filling pattern from structure, made full use of the structure of the shell space, improved the compaction force and the filling force type, and further improved the qualified rate and its performance under high-speed operation to adapt to the modern high-speed operation requirements. Relying on gravity cleaning of seed, it effectively avoided the injury of seeds. The double-cavity composite vertical seed-metering device was chosen as a comparison, which also had high speed operation ability. The mathematical models were established according to the working principle. The filling force of the vertical disk seed-metering device and opposed inclined-plate seed-metering device was contrasted and analyzed. Through analyzing the filling force changing rule of the seed-metering device in different angles, and drawing the function image by Matlab (MATrix LABoratory) software, the

  20. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  1. Seed germination, seedling traits, and seed bank of the tree Moringa peregrina (Moringaceae) in a hyper-arid environment.

    Gomaa, Nasr H; Picó, F Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Water-limited hot environments are good examples of hyper-aridity. Trees are scarce in these environments but some manage to survive, such as the tree Moringa peregrina. Understanding how trees maintain viable populations in extremely arid environments may provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms by which trees cope with extremely arid weather conditions. This understanding is relevant to the current increasing aridity in several regions of the world. Seed germination experiments were conducted to assess variation in seed mass, seed germination, and seedling traits of Moringa peregrina plants and the correlations among these traits. A seed burial experiment was also designed to study the fate of M. peregrina seeds buried at two depths in the soil for two time periods. On average, seeds germinated in three days and seedling shoots grew 0.7 cm per day over three weeks. Larger seeds decreased germination time and increased seedling growth rates relative to smaller seeds. Seeds remained quiescent in the soil and germination was very high at both depths and burial times. The after-ripening time of Moringa peregrina seeds is short and seeds germinate quickly after imbibition. Plants of M. peregrina may increase in hyper-arid environments from seeds with larger mass, shorter germination times, and faster seedling growth rates. The results also illustrate the adjustment in allocation to seed biomass and correlations among seed and seedling traits that allows M. peregrina to be successful in coping with aridity in its environment.

  2. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  3. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  4. What Are Chia Seeds?

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  5. Seeds and Synergies

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  6. Seeds as biosocial commons

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  7. Seed dispersal in fens

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  8. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling ...

    Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were obtained from acid ...

  9. Efecto del Contenido de Humedad sobre Algunas Propiedades Mecánicas de la Semilla de Vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana Effect of Moisture Content on Some Mechanical Properties of Vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana Seeds

    Ángel Francisco Rojas Barahona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La semilla de vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana es una alternativa de fuente proteica para la producción de alimento animal. Actualmente en Colombia se obtiene un bajo aprovechamiento de ésta por el desconocimiento de su alto potencial nutricional, de sus propiedades medicinales, fitosanitarias y su proceso agroindustrial. Las propiedades mecánicas, son importantes para el diseño eficiente de equipos y estructuras en los procesos de postcosecha. En la actualidad, las metodologías de medición para la evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de los materiales vegetales difieren y en algunos casos no se conocen, lo cual no permite la adecuada comparación e interpretación de los resultados dificultando modelar algunos procesos tecnológicos. Las propiedades mecánicas fueron evaluadas en diferentes niveles de humedad y en diferentes planos de la semilla, con pruebas de compresión uniaxial y el consumo de energía de molienda se evaluó en un molino de martillos oscilatorio. El módulo proporcional de deformabilidad decreció cuando se incrementó la humedad y la deformación unitaria, siendo mayor en el plano horizontal y de menor valor en el plano longitudinal. La fuerza de ruptura varió en los tres planos de la semilla y decreció significativamente (PAbstract. Vitabosa seed (Mucuna deeringiana is an alternative protein source for animal feed production. Currently in Colombia gets a poor use of this seed by not knowing of its nutritional potential, its medicinal properties, agroindustrial process. The mechanical properties are important for efficient design of equipment and structures in post-harvest processes. Presently, measurement methodologies for evaluating the mechanical properties of different vegetable materials and in some cases are not known, which does not allow suitable comparison and interpretation of results difficult to model some technological processes. The mechanical properties were assessed at different moisture

  10. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  11. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  12. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seed development and carbohydrates

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  14. Fatty acid composition and mechanisms of the protective effects of myrtle berry seed aqueous extract in alcohol-induced peptic ulcer in rat.

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Rtibi, Kais; Tounsi, Haifa; Hosni, Karim; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sakly, Mohsen; Sebai, Hichem

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of myrtle berry seed aqueous extract (MBSAE) in a peptic ulcer model induced by ethanol in male Wistar rats. MBSAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic (18:2) and oleic (18:1) acids. MBSAE also exhibited in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC 50 = 172.1 μg/mL) and superoxide anion (IC 50 = 200.24 μg/mL) scavenging activities. In vivo, MBSAE provided dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced gastric and duodenal macroscopic and histological alterations. Also, it inhibited secretory profile disturbances and lipid peroxidation, and preserved normal antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. More importantly, we showed that acute alcohol intoxication increased gastric and duodenal calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and free iron levels, whereas MBSAE treatment protected against intracellular mediator deregulation. In conclusion, we suggest that MBSAE has potent protective effects against alcohol-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in part to its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied intracellular mediators.

  15. empirical study of the characteristics of afzelia africana seed under

    HP

    significant probably because of the thick seed coat. True density did not show a consistent variation with change in moisture content. 3.2 Mechanical Properties. The mechanical properties study was conducted using the data obtained from the compressive loading of the. Afzelia Africana seeds in a monsan to tensiometer.

  16. Seed reserve utilization and hydrolytic enzyme activities in germinating seeds of sweet corn

    Cheng, X.; Xiong, F.; Wang, C.; He, S.; Zhou, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, two sh2 sweet corn cultivars (i.e., the initial seed dry weight for FT018 and TB010 was 0.16+-0.02 g/grain and 0.09+-0.01 g/grain, respectively) were used to determine the physiological characteristics of seed reserve utilization in germination. The data implied that the weight of mobilized seed reserve (WMSR) and seed reserve utilization efficiency (SRUE) increased with seed germination. FT018 exhibited higher SRUE than TB010 due to its sufficient energy production for growth. Sugar (sucrose and fructose) contents were at different levels in the germinating seed of sh2 sweet corn. The protein content and number of protein species were highest in the early stage of germination. Enzyme activity in the germinating seed indicated that enzymes for starch and sugar hydrolysis were important and that enzyme activities significantly differed at each germination stage and between the cultivars under dark conditions. Succinate dehydrogenase, sucrose synthase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase accumulated in the late germination stage. Thus, appropriate efforts should be focused on improving the seed reserve utilization in sweet corn by identifying the physiological mechanism of germinating seed. (author)

  17. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy.

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-11

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone receptor-based plant gene switch system and the ligand methoxyfenozide. Induction of NCED6 during imbibition increased ABA levels more than 20-fold and was sufficient to prevent seed germination. Germination suppression was prevented by fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In another study, induction of the NCED6 gene in transgenic seeds of nondormant mutants tt3 and tt4 reestablished seed dormancy. Furthermore, inducing expression of NCED6 during seed development suppressed vivipary, precocious germination of developing seeds. These results indicate that expression of a hormone metabolism gene in seeds can be a sole determinant of dormancy. This study opens the possibility of developing a robust technology to suppress or promote seed germination through engineering pathways of hormone metabolism.

  18. Oil palm seed distribution

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  19. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  20. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R.; Oliva, María E.; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1) activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed. Results show that: (a) the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b) Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs) availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats. PMID:26828527

  2. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  3. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  4. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  5. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 2University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Mechanization, ... Key words: Fuzzy cotton seed, seed coating, yield components. .... gin turnout (%) characteristics are statistically important.

  6. Locomotion during digestion changes current estimates of seed dispersal kernels by fish

    van Leeuwen, Casper H.A.; Beukeboom, Rosanne; Nolet, Bart A.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Pollux, Bart J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal of seeds by animals is an important mechanism regulating plant diversity, range expansions and invasions. Many birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles regularly ingest, transport and excrete viable seeds (known as endozoochory). The effectiveness of endozoochory is modelled in dispersal

  7. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  8. Paper (essay on seed

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  9. Physiological and proteomic analyses on artificially aged Brassica napus seed

    Pingfang eYang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to long term storage or controlled deterioration treatments, by a process known as seed ageing. Based on previous studies, artificially ageing treatments have been developed to accelerate the process of seed ageing in order to understand its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used Brassica napus seeds to investigate the mechanisms of ageing initiation. B. napus seeds were exposed to artificially ageing treatment (40 oC and 90% relative humidity and their physio-biochemical characteristics were analyzed. Although the treatment delayed germination, it did not increase the concentration of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted among the control and treated seeds at different stages of germination. The proteins responded to the treatment were mainly involved in metabolism, protein modification and destination, stress response, development and miscellaneous enzymes. Except for peroxiredoxin, no changes were observed in the accumulation of other antioxidant enzymes in the artificially aged seeds. Increased content of ABA was observed in the artificially treated seeds which might be involved in the inhibition of germination. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of ABA in the initiation of seed ageing in addition to the ROS which was previously reported to mediate the seed ageing process.

  10. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seed dormancy, seedling establishment and dynamics of the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana (Poaceae on the Loess Plateau of northwestern China.

    Xiao Wen Hu

    Full Text Available Studying seed dormancy and its consequent effect can provide important information for vegetation restoration and management. The present study investigated seed dormancy, seedling emergence and seed survival in the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana, a grass species used in restoration of degraded land on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. Dormancy of fresh seeds was determined by incubation of seeds over a range of temperatures in both light and dark. Seed germination was evaluated after mechanical removal of palea and lemma (hulls, chemical scarification and dry storage. Fresh and one-year-stored seeds were sown in the field, and seedling emergence was monitored weekly for 8 weeks. Furthermore, seeds were buried at different soil depths, and then retrieved every 1 or 2 months to determine seed dormancy and seed viability in the laboratory. Fresh seeds (caryopses enclosed by palea and lemma had non-deep physiological dormancy. Removal of palea and lemma, chemical scarification, dry storage (afterripening, gibberellin (GA3 and potassium nitrate (KNO3 significantly improved germination. Dormancy was completely released by removal of the hulls, but seeds on which hulls were put back to their original position germinated to only 46%. Pretreatment of seeds with a 30% NaOH solution for 60 min increased germination from 25% to 82%. Speed of seedling emergence from fresh seeds was significantly lower than that of seeds stored for 1 year. However, final percentage of seedling emergence did not differ significantly for seeds sown at depths of 0 and 1 cm. Most fresh seeds of S. bungeana buried in the field in early July either had germinated or lost viability by September. All seeds buried at a depth of 5 cm had lost viability after 5 months, whereas 12% and 4% seeds of those sown on the soil surface were viable after 5 and 12 months, respectively.

  12. Molecular characterization of a GA-inducible gene, Cvsus1, in developing watermelon seeds.

    Kim, Joonyul; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Jinwon; An, Gynheung

    2002-10-31

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed development, we isolated a seed-preferential gene from ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. The gene Cvsus1 encodes a protein that is 86% identical to the Vicia faba sucrose synthase expressed in developing seeds. RNA blot analysis showed that Cvsus1 was preferentially expressed in watermelon seeds. We also investigated gene expression levels both in pollinated seeds and in parthenocarpic seeds, which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcript level of Cvsus1 was rapidly increased during normal seed development, the expression was not significantly increased in the parthenocarpic seeds. However, treating the parthenocarpic fruits with GA3 strongly induced Cvsus1 expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that Cvsus1 is induced in maternal tissues via signals from the zygotic tissues, and that GA may be one of those signals.

  13. Mechanics

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  14. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  15. Seed thioredoxin h

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  16. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  17. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  18. The involvement of mitochondrial phosphate transporter in accelerating bud dormancy release during chilling treatment of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa).

    Huang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Dai, Silan; Gai, Shupeng; Zheng, Guosheng; Zheng, Chengchao

    2008-09-01

    A cDNA clone was isolated from tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) subtractive cDNA library of burst buds and characterized with regard to its sequence, expression in response to chilling treatment during the release of bud dormancy, and its function in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The clone, designated as PsMPT, contains 1,615 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1,119 nucleotides, and the deduced amino acid sequence shows high homology with mitochondrial phosphate transporters (MPTs) from various organisms. The mRNA accumulation of PsMPT in tree peony was strongly induced by chilling treatment during the release of bud dormancy. When the treated plants were transferred to normal growth conditions, the level of PsMPT transcripts induced by sufficient chilling could be maintained high, whereas that induced by insufficient chilling decreased sharply. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress PsMPT showed rapid growth and earlier flowering than wild-type plants. ATP contents in the transgenic plants were much higher than that in wild-type plants through various developmental stages. Together, these results suggest that the product of PsMPT is a MPT and might play an important role during the release of bud dormancy in tree peony.

  19. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated ...

  20. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone recept...

  1. The Effect of Tempering on Strength Properties and Seed Coat ...

    The effect of tempering on seed coat adhesion strength and mechanical strength of sorghum and millet grain kernels was investigated at different tempering durations. Tempering reduced the kernel breaking strength and had significant effect on seed coat adhesion strength. Tempering the grain for 60 minutes at ambient ...

  2. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  3. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  4. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  5. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  6. Research on tomato seed vigor based on X-ray digital image

    Zhao, Xueguan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiu; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Songlin; Feng, Qinghun

    2016-10-01

    Seed size, interior abnormal and damage of the tomato seeds will affect the germination. The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between the internal morphology, seed size and seed germination of tomato. The preprocessing algorithm of X-ray image of tomato seeds was studied, and the internal structure characteristics of tomato seeds were extracted by image processing algorithm. By developing the image processing software, the cavity area between embryo and endosperm and the whole seed zone were determined. According to the difference of area of embryo and endosperm and Internal structural condition, seeds were divided into six categories, Respectively for three kinds of tomato seed germination test, the relationship between seed vigor and seed size , internal free cavity was explored through germination experiment. Through seedling evaluation test found that X-ray image analysis provide a perfect view of the inside part of the seed and seed morphology research methods. The larger the area of the endosperm and the embryo, the greater the probability of healthy seedlings sprout from the same size seeds. Mechanical damage adversely effects on seed germination, deterioration of tissue prone to produce week seedlings and abnormal seedlings.

  7. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    User

    Keywords: Prosopis africana, okpeye seeds, thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity, .... 2.3 Determination of Thermal Properties of Prosopis. Africana .... and the guard ring was filled with fiber glass at both the.

  8. Oil seed marketing prospects

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  9. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  10. Germination ecophysiology of Annona crassiflora Mart. seeds

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Melo, de D.L.B.; Davide, A.C.; Bode, N.; Abreu, G.B.; Faria, J.M.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Little is known about environmental factors that break morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Annonaceae and the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphological and physiological components of dormancy of Annona crassiflora, a tree species

  11. Seeds of impurity

    Andrea Pavoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s art installation Kui Hua Zi [Sunflower Seeds] took place between 2010 and 2011 in the gigantic Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Gallery, in London. It consisted of 100 millions hand-crafted porcelain seeds made in Jingdezhen, China.1 An uneven surface to dive into, a haptic space of undulating vision, rustling steps, unusual horizontality, a meaningless quicksand where the separation between artwork and spectator is engulfed, the immunity of distant contemplation denied.

  12. Mechanics

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  13. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  14. Seed dispersal in fens

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  15. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse. From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat (mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion and complete seed coat removal and one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD. Screenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RBD. We evaluated the total percentage, the speed index and the average time of germination or emergence. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by LSD test, at 5%. Under the conditions of this work, it was possible to infer that, in laboratory, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water increases the proportion and germination speed index (GSI, in the greenhouse, the complete seed coat removal increases the percentage and emergence speed index (ESI, and in the screenhouse, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water and chemical scarification presented the best results. The average germination time was not significantly different in the three experiments evaluated.

  16. Postradiation recovery and radioresistance of seeds

    Atayan, R.R.; Semerdzhyan, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Problems on radiobiology of seeds were studied. Irradiation was shown to induce primary injuries in chromosomes sensitive to various modifying factors. Primary injuries can eliminate and form stable physico-chemical injuries as a result of physico-chemical reactions and under concomitant factors. These injuries can be reversible and nonreversible character. Reversible injuries turned out to be potential for they can be repaired at biochemical level. The cells of strong ability to repair postirradiation injuries under various equal conditions reveal a relatively high level of radioresistance. The mechanisms were shown to be basical in the observed differences of radiosensitivity of large and small seeds. 7 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China

    Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study

  18. Effect of Cream Formulation of Fenugreek Seed Extract on Some ...

    Erah

    Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, ... Results: The results indicate that the effects of the creams on skin mechanical ..... Dreher F, Maibach H. Protective effects of topical.

  19. Dormancy breaking in Mauritia flexuosa seeds by using mechanical scarification and soaking = Superação de dormência em sementes de buriti por meio da escarificação mecânica e embebição

    Alexsander Seleguini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Arecaceae species presents difficulties to germinate, even under appropriate conditions, complicating the seedlings production process. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of seed scarification and soaking in the emergence and development of Mauritia flexuosa seedlings. The treatments consisted of a combination of seed soaking and scarification methods, in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial scheme, with five replications. Seeds with and without scarification, combined with soaking methods (not soaked seeds and seeds soaked for 30 days, with and without daily water renewal, plus an additional treatment, where the seeds were scarified after soaking for 30 days, were tested. The seedlingemergence up to 146 days after sowing (d.a.s. was evaluated, as well as the emergence rate index (46 and 146 d.a.s. and growth components (146 d.a.s.. The results were submitted to the variance analysis (F test and means compared by using the Tukey test, at 5%. It was possible to conclude that the Mauritia flexuosa seeds presented tegument dormancy. The seed scarification increased the germination rate, however, it contributed to increase the seeds mortality rate. The soaking of nonscarified seeds for 30 days, with daily water renewal, improved the potential for seed germination. The mechanical scarification, without or after soaking the seeds in water, increased the Mauritia flexuosa seedlings mortality rate, and it is not, therefore, a suitable method for dormancy breaking. = A maioria das espécies de Arecaceae apresenta dificuldades para germinar, mesmo sob condições adequadas, dificultando a produção de mudas. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência da escarificação e embebição de sementes na emergência e desenvolvimento de mudas de buritizeiro. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação de métodos de embebição e escarificação de sementes, adotando-se o delineamento inteiramente

  20. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  1. The importance of using certified seed

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  2. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy.

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica

    2013-12-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  3. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  4. The repeated evolution of large seeds on islands.

    Kavanagh, Patrick H; Burns, Kevin C

    2014-07-07

    Several plant traits are known to evolve in predictable ways on islands. For example, herbaceous species often evolve to become woody and species frequently evolve larger leaves, regardless of growth form. However, our understanding of how seed sizes might evolve on islands lags far behind other plant traits. Here, we conduct the first test for macroevolutionary patterns of seed size on islands. We tested for differences in seed size between 40 island-mainland taxonomic pairings from four island groups surrounding New Zealand. Seed size data were collected in the field and then augmented by published seed descriptions to produce a more comprehensive dataset. Seed sizes of insular plants were consistently larger than mainland relatives, even after accounting for differences in growth form, dispersal mode and evolutionary history. Selection may favour seed size increases on islands to reduce dispersibility, as long-distance dispersal may result in propagule mortality at sea. Alternatively, larger seeds tend to generate larger seedlings, which are more likely to establish and outcompete neighbours. Our results indicate there is a general tendency for the evolution of large seeds on islands, but the mechanisms responsible for this evolutionary pathway have yet to be fully resolved. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Molecular physiology of seeds

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  8. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  11. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  12. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  13. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  14. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  15. seed germination and seedlings growth

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  16. Seed research for improved technologies

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  17. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  18. Seed for change

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  19. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  20. Grape Seed Extract

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  1. The SEED Initiative

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  2. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  3. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  4. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  5. [Study on seed testing for Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en

    2008-09-01

    To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.

  6. Germination of red alder seed.

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  7. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  8. Seed systems support in Kenya

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, De Bram

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector

  9. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  10. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  11. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Alford, Adam; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn) seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  12. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Adam Alford

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  13. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  14. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  15. Freeing Crop Genetics through the Open Source Seed Initiative.

    Claire H Luby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For millennia, seeds have been freely available to use for farming and plant breeding without restriction. Within the past century, however, intellectual property rights (IPRs have threatened this tradition. In response, a movement has emerged to counter the trend toward increasing consolidation of control and ownership of plant germplasm. One effort, the Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI, www.osseeds.org, aims to ensure access to crop genetic resources by embracing an open source mechanism that fosters exchange and innovation among farmers, plant breeders, and seed companies. Plant breeders across many sectors have taken the OSSI Pledge to create a protected commons of plant germplasm for future generations.

  16. Freeing Crop Genetics through the Open Source Seed Initiative.

    Luby, Claire H; Goldman, Irwin L

    2016-04-01

    For millennia, seeds have been freely available to use for farming and plant breeding without restriction. Within the past century, however, intellectual property rights (IPRs) have threatened this tradition. In response, a movement has emerged to counter the trend toward increasing consolidation of control and ownership of plant germplasm. One effort, the Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI, www.osseeds.org), aims to ensure access to crop genetic resources by embracing an open source mechanism that fosters exchange and innovation among farmers, plant breeders, and seed companies. Plant breeders across many sectors have taken the OSSI Pledge to create a protected commons of plant germplasm for future generations.

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  18. Characteristics of Color Development in Seeds of Brown- and Yellow-Seeded Heading Chinese Cabbage and Molecular Analysis of Brsc, the Candidate Gene Controlling Seed Coat Color.

    Ren, Yanjing; He, Qiong; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-01-01

    The proanthocyanidin (PA) is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147) and yellow-seeded (B80) heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis ). It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) staining and toluidine blue O (TBO) staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped. The results of whole genome re-sequencing showed that there are large fragment deletions variation in the mapping region between the brown-seeded parent '92S105' and the yellow-seeded parent '91-125.' Based on the B. rapa genome annotation information, the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ( TTG1 ), is likely to be the candidate gene controlling seed coat color. A 94-base deletion was found in the 96th base downstream of the initiation codon in the TTG1 of yellow seed, thus, the termination codon TGA was occurred in the 297th base which makes the full length of TTG1 of yellow seed is 300 bp. Based on the differential sequences of TTG1 of brown and yellow seed, a functional marker, Brsc-yettg1, was developed to detect the variation of TTG1 . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of BrTTG1 in different tissues showed that expression levels of BrTTG1 was not tissue-specific. During the whole seed development period, the expression of BrTTG1 in B147 was higher than that of B80. The expression levels of four structural genes, BrDFR, BrANS, BrANR1 , and BrANR2 in B147 were also higher than those in B80. The co-segregation molecular markers obtained in this report and TTG1 related information provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed coat color in heading Chinese cabbage.

  19. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  20. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  1. Seeds of the Future

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet. 

  3. Use of seeds to control precipitation of calcium carbonate and determination of seed nature.

    Donnet, Marcel; Bowen, Paul; Jongen, Nathalie; Lemaître, Jacques; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2005-01-04

    Understanding and controlling precipitation reactions is a major challenge for industrial crystallization. Calcium carbonate is a widely studied system: more than 3000 papers have been devoted to the subject over the past 10 years. The first step of the precipitation of calcium carbonate, from relatively concentrated solutions (0.01 mol/L), involves the formation of an initial gel phase which later transforms into calcite, vaterite, or a mixture of both phases. Our work aimed at controlling this first step. Nanosized seeds (8 nm), formed in situ, were used in order to control the often chaotic nucleation step which normally leads to poor phase selection and broad particle size distributions. Seeding has often been used to avoid spontaneous nucleation in metastable solutions for growth mechanism investigations of single-crystal calcium carbonate. Here the ability of a seeding method to control the precipitation reaction evolution even in the case of high supersaturation is demonstrated. The seeds and the presence of a polymeric additive (poly(acrylic acid)) allow the control of the precipitated polymorph and the specific surface area, while maintaining a narrow particle size distribution in the submicron range. Direct characterization methods did not succeed in identifying these nanoseeds; indirect methods using solubility calculations are used to demonstrate their existence and quantify size and number density of the nanosized seeds.

  4. Cellular recycling of proteins in seed dormancy alleviation and germination

    Krystyna Oracz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant’s photosynthetic tissues have been well characterized since many years, but in nonphotosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is

  5. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  6. Thermal Changes of Maize Seed by Laser Irradiation

    Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this research, the thermal evolution in maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) was studied when low-intensity laser irradiation was applied during 60 s. The seeds were irradiated in three different conditions: suspended in air, placed on an aluminum surface, and finally placed on a cardboard; the evolution of the seed temperature was measured by an infrared camera. Photoacoustic spectroscopy and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient (β ) of the seeds. The results indicate that using 650 nm laser light and 27.4 mW, it is possible to produce temperature changes (up to 9.06°C after 1 min) on the seeds. Comparing the mean temperature of the seeds, during and after the incidence of light from a laser, it was found that there were statistically significant differences (P≤ 0.05) from time t1 to time t_{16} (t1 to t_{16}) and t3 to t_{16}, for the laser turned on and off, respectively. The seed condition that had the highest temperature variation, relative to the initial temperature (during the irradiation laser exposure), involved the seeds suspended in air. With regard to the stage of decay of the temperature, it was found that the seed condition that decays more slowly was the seed placed on the cardboard. It was also found that black-dyed maize seeds are optically opaque in the 300 nm to 700 nm range Also, the thermal diffusion length is smaller than the optical penetration length. In the present investigation, it was shown that there is a thermal component associated with the mechanisms of laser biostimulation, which is also a function of the container materials of the seed. In this way, the effects of laser treatment on maize seeds involve at least a temperature effect. It is important to know the temperature changes in the seeds that have been irradiated with a laser beam since they could have substantial practical and theoretical importance.

  7. Proteome-wide characterization of seed aging in Arabidopsis. A comparison between artificial and natural aging protocols

    Rajjou, L.; Lovigny, Y.; Groot, S.P.C.; Belghazi, M.; Job, C.; Job, D.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms has been proposed to account for the extension of life span in seeds (seed longevity). In the present work, we have used Arabidopsis thaliana seeds as a model and carried out differential proteomics to investigate this trait, which is of both ecological and agricultural

  8. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  9. Sunflower seed allergy

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  10. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodr?guez, Mar?a Ver?nica

    2013-01-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneous...

  11. Seed maturation associated transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying genotypic difference in seed dormancy and size/weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2017-09-16

    Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype. The embryo and endosperm tissues of maturing seeds appeared to exhibit genotype-specific temporal shifts in gene expression profile that might contribute to the seed phenotypic variations. Functional annotations of gene clusters suggest that the two tissues exhibit distinct but genotypically overlapping molecular functions. Motif enrichment predicts genotypically distinct abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) regulated transcriptional networks contribute to the contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotypes between the two genotypes. While other ABA responsive element (ABRE) motifs are enriched in both genotypes, the prevalence of G-box-like motif specifically in tissues of the dormant genotype suggests distinct ABA mediated transcriptional mechanisms control the establishment of dormancy during seed maturation. In agreement with this, the bZIP transcription factors that co-express with ABRE enriched embryonic genes differ with genotype. The enrichment of SITEIIATCYTC motif specifically in embryo clusters of maturing seeds irrespective of genotype predicts a tissue specific role for the respective TCP transcription factors with no or minimal contribution to the variations in seed dormancy. The results of this study advance our understanding of the seed maturation associated molecular mechanisms underlying variation in dormancy and weight/size in wheat seeds, which is a critical step towards the designing of molecular strategies

  12. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  13. Technology seed Sebastiania membranifolia Mull Arg (Euphorbiaceae

    Neidiquele Maria Silveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiania membranifolia, popularly known as sarandi, is a tree species native to Brazil, usually found in land of alluvial floodplains and river banks, suitable for restoration of degraded areas. Despite the commercial importance of this species, little is known about its mechanisms of propagation. This research evaluated the germinating seeds under different conditions of temperature, substrate and light, and determined methods of scarification in order to establish a suitable protocol for sexual propagation. The study was conducted in chambers with BOD and thermal control photoperiod, testing the following treatments: temperatures of 25, 30 and alternating 20/30º C; substrates (sand-EA, on paper-SP and from paper -EP, four solutions gibberellin (50, 100, 200, 400 mgL-1; potassium nitrate (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% in the presence (12 h photoperiod and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds each. We found that the average degree of seed moisture was 10.4% and the weight of a thousand seeds (PMS of 3.16 g. The highest percentage of germination was obtained with photoperiod at 25 º C, on paper (SP and between role (EP. The concentrations of 100 mg L-1 gibberellin and 0.1% potassium nitrate showed higher germination and vigor. Seed treatment with a gibberellin solution of 100 mgL-1 favored the growth of seedlings, unlike potassium nitrate that inhibit the growth even at low concentration.

  14. IAA production during germination of Orobanche spp. seeds.

    Slavov, Slavtcho; van Onckelen, Henry; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Atanassov, Atanas; Prinsen, Els

    2004-07-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are parasitic plants, whose growth and development fully depend on the nutritional connection established between the parasite and the roots of the respective host plant. Phytohormones are known to play a role in establishing the specific Orobanche-host plant interaction. The first step in the interaction is seed germination triggered by a germination stimulant secreted by the host-plant roots. We quantified indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the seed germination of tobacco broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and sunflower broomrape (O. cumana). IAA was mainly released from Orobanche seeds in host-parasite interactions as compared to non-host-parasite interactions. Moreover, germinating seeds of O. ramosa released IAA as early as 24 h after the seeds were exposed to the germination stimulant, even before development of the germ tube. ABA levels remained unchanged during the germination of the parasites' seeds. The results presented here show that IAA production is probably part of a mechanism triggering germination upon the induction by the host factor, thus resulting in seed germination.

  15. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  16. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  17. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  18. A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm

    Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.

  19. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  20. Transverse beam diagnostics for the XUV seeding experiment at FLASH

    Boedewadt, Joern

    2011-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FEL) offer intense, transversely coherent, and ultra short radiation pulses in the extreme ultraviolet, the soft- and the hard-X-ray spectral range. Undulator radiation from spontaneous emission is amplified. Due to the stochastic emission process, the radiation exhibits a low temporal coherence, and the structure of the amplified radiation in the temporal and in the spectral domain shows large shot-to-shot fluctuations. In order to improve the temporal coherence, an external radiation pulse is used to induce (or seed) the FEL process. With this, only a defined wavelength range within the FEL bandwidth is amplified provided that the irradiance of the external radiation exceeds the noise level of the FEL amplifier. In addition to the improved longitudinal coherence, a seeded FEL provides the possibility to perform pump-probe experiments with an expected temporal resolution of the order of the pulse durations. In order to experimentally proof this statement, a test experiment for direct HHG-seeding at wavelength below 40 nm was installed at the free-electron laser facility FLASH at DESY. Crucial for the seeded operation of an FEL is the six-dimensional laser-electron overlap of the seed laser pulses with the electron bunches. Hence, dedicated diagnostics to measure and mechanisms to control the overlap are essential. Within this thesis, a transport beamline for the seed laser beam and the transverse diagnostics for seed laser- and the electron-beam were developed and commissioned. Results of the performance of the seed injection beamline are presented, and first measurements of the seeded operation of the FEL are analyzed and evaluated. (orig.)

  1. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2015-02-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  3. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  4. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    Mourik, van T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Murdoch, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate

  5. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  6. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... depth control system this variability was reduced to±2 mm. The system with the active control system operated more accurately at an operational speed of 12 km h−1 than at 4 km h−1 without the activated control system.......An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...

  7. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interest...

  8. Fruit and seed discoveries in Stichoneuron membranaceum Hook. f. (Stemonaceae: an endemic to Indo-Myanmar

    Koushik Majumdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stichoneuron membranaceum Hook. f. is an endemic species of Indo-Myanmar hotspot whose fruit and seed remained unknown to science since 1850, until they were collected from Tripura, Northeast India. Based on these gatherings, this study is the first report about the development and morphological features of fruit and seed. Earlier historical collections of this species were discussed. Its preferred habitat, possible pollinating agents and seed dispersal mechanism were also investigated.

  9. MYB52 Negatively Regulates Pectin Demethylesterification in Seed Coat Mucilage.

    Shi, Dachuan; Ren, Angyan; Tang, Xianfeng; Qi, Guang; Xu, Zongchang; Chai, Guohua; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2018-04-01

    Pectin, which is a major component of the plant primary cell walls, is synthesized and methyl-esterified in the Golgi apparatus and then demethylesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) located in the cell wall. The degree of methylesterification affects the functional properties of pectin, and thereby influences plant growth, development and defense. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate pectin demethylesterification. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seed coat mucilage, the absence of the MYB52 transcription factor is correlated with an increase in PME activity and a decrease in the degree of pectin methylesterification. Decreased methylesterification in the myb52 mutant is also correlated with an increase in the calcium content of the seed mucilage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and molecular genetic studies suggest that MYB52 transcriptionally activates PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 ( PMEI6 ), PMEI14 , and SUBTILISIN-LIKE SER PROTEASE1.7 ( SBT1.7 ) by binding to their promoters. PMEI6 and SBT1.7 have previously been shown to be involved in seed coat mucilage demethylesterification. Our characterization of two PMEI14 mutants suggests that PMEI14 has a role in seed coat mucilage demethylesterification, although its activity may be confined to the seed coat in contrast to PMEI6, which functions in the whole seed. Our demonstration that MYB52 negatively regulates pectin demethylesterification in seed coat mucilage, and the identification of components of the molecular network involved, provides new insight into the regulatory mechanism controlling pectin demethylesterification and increases our understanding of the transcriptional regulation network involved in seed coat mucilage formation. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Pradhan, Seema; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Shah, Niraj; Kant, Chandra; Gaur, Rashmi; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-01-01

    Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilized to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analyzed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs), about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding.

  11. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. seeds

    Seema ePradhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilised to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analysed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs, about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding.

  12. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or... sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert...

  13. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  14. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  15. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  16. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  17. Orthodox seeds and resurrection plants

    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias; Cooper, Keren; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.; Farrant, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Although staple crops do not survive extended periods of drought, their seeds possess desiccation tolerance (DT), as they survive almost complete dehydration (desiccation) during the late maturation phase of development. Resurrection plants are plant species whose seeds and vegetative tissues are

  18. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  19. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  20. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  1. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  2. Anticancer activity of Nigella sativa (black seed) and its relationship with the thermal processing and quinone composition of the seed.

    Agbaria, Riad; Gabarin, Adi; Dahan, Arik; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    The traditional preparation process of Nigella sativa (NS) oil starts with roasting of the seeds, an allegedly unnecessary step that was never skipped. The aims of this study were to investigate the role and boundaries of thermal processing of NS seeds in the preparation of therapeutic extracts and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. NS extracts obtained by various seed thermal processing methods were investigated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity in mouse colon carcinoma (MC38) cells and for their thymoquinone content. The effect of the different methods of thermal processing on the ability of the obtained NS oil to inhibit the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway was then investigated in Hodgkin's lymphoma (L428) cells. The different thermal processing protocols yielded three distinct patterns: heating the NS seeds to 50°C, 100°C, or 150°C produced oil with a strong ability to inhibit tumor cell growth; no heating or heating to 25°C had a mild antiproliferative effect; and heating to 200°C or 250°C had no effect. Similar patterns were obtained for the thymoquinone content of the corresponding oils, which showed an excellent correlation with the antiproliferative data. It is proposed that there is an oxidative transition mechanism between quinones after controlled thermal processing of the seeds. While NS oil from heated seeds delayed the expression of NF-κB transcription, non-heated seeds resulted in only 50% inhibition. The data indicate that controlled thermal processing of NS seeds (at 50°C-150°C) produces significantly higher anticancer activity associated with a higher thymoquinone oil content, and inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  3. Proteomic analysis of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch seed germination.

    Lu, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Mei, Mei; Liu, Guang-Lin; Ma, Bei-Bei

    2016-02-05

    embryo for growth. These data may help us to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physiological status and mobilisation mechanisms in M. sieboldii seed germination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Respiration of seed lobes after γ-irradiation of seeds with stimulating doses

    Vagabova, M.Eh.

    1975-01-01

    Air-dry black bean, mustard, castor-oil plant and maize seeds were exposed to caesium-137 gamma rays. Are the radiation doses used during the early stages of development the process of respiration in the cotyledons proved to be stimulated. As the author points out, this increases the energy supply to the developing embryo and contributes to the general mechanisms involved in the radiation stimulation of plant development. (V.A.P.)

  5. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  6. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  7. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  8. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F.

  9. Nootropic activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed.

    Bhanumathy, M; Harish, M S; Shivaprasad, H N; Sushma, G

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Celastraceae) seed aqueous extract on learning and memory was studied using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance test (sodium nitrite induced amnesia rodent model). The aqueous seed extract was administered orally in two different doses to rats (350 and 1050 mg/kg) and to mice (500 and 1500 mg/kg). The results were compared to piracetam (100 mg/kg, p.o.) used as a standard drug. Chemical hypoxia was induced by subcutaneous administration of sodium nitrite (35 mg/kg), immediately after acquisition training. In elevated plus maze and sodium nitrite-induced amnesia model, Celastrus paniculatus extract has showed statistically significant improvement in memory process when compared to control. The estimation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in rat brain supports the plus maze and passive avoidance test by reducing acetylcholinesterase activity which helps in memory performance. The study reveals that the aqueous extract of Celastrus paniculatus seed has dose-dependent cholinergic activity, thereby improving memory performance. The mechanism by which Celastrus paniculatus enhances cognition may be due to increased acetylcholine level in rat brain.

  10. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  12. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  13. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  14. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From an economic viewpoint, tomato is considered as the second most valuable crop after potato. It is also preceded by the potato in terms of per capita consumption in the world. In 2008, the cultivation area used for the tomato as equal to 163,539 hectares in Iran and the production of it was equal to 5,887,715 tons with an average production of 117,887 tons in 4352 hectares in the provinces, respectively. Having high production volume and quality, costly hybrid seeds are currently used for the major planting areas of vegetable in Iran. Most of the used transplanted seedlings are 83%. Since the seeds are expensive, the percentage of seedlings and healthy and disease-free seeds should be used for maximized germination and be transferred to the fields of open space. Preparing seedlings in transplanting trays is a technology to respond to this need. Trays are covered with a layer of Peat and Miculite fertilizers. Then, one seed is manually placed in each cell after gauging and preparing a suitable field. However, manually placing seeds is time-consuming and requires hard labor. Sixteen working labors per hour are required for 15 × 7 cell in order to have 10200 seedlings grown in 100 trays. Due to lack of adequate labor, production capacity of greenhouses is reduced, especially in the farming season when finding labor for planting vegetable sprouts is laborious. Therefore, mechanizing tray seeding operations is essential to increase the capacity of the growing industry of greenhouses in Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, the tomato seeds were examined in the laboratory. The most important parameters of the study included size, shape, weight, the speed of getting out of the tank and the minimum carrying speed. Then, a vacuum-based single seed picking unit was prepared to investigate the factors influencing the design, so that a single tomato seed can be harvested from the masses. The most important factors considered in the

  15. Gibberellin requirement for Arabidopsis seed germination is determined both by testa characteristics and embryonic abscisic acid

    Debeaujon, I.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms imposing a gibberellin (GA) requirement to promote the germination of dormant and non-dormant Arabidopsis seeds were analyzed using the GA-deficient mutant ga1, several seed coat pigmentation and structure mutants, and the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant aba1. Testa mutants,

  16. A functional analysis of cell cycle events in developing and germinating tomato seeds

    Castro, de R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds are complex biological structures and the primary dispersal units of higher plants. They consist of nutrient reserve storage tissue(s), an embryo and encapsulating structures designated for protection and that may also regulate germination. Seeds have developed mechanisms of

  17. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free

  18. Locomotion during digestion changes current estimates of seed dispersal kernels by fish

    Leeuwen, van C.H.A.; Beukeboom, R.; Nolet, B.A.; Bakker, E.S.; Pollux, B.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    1.Dispersal of seeds by animals is an important mechanism regulating plant diversity, range expansions and invasions. Many birds, mammals, fish and reptiles regularly ingest, transport and excrete viable seeds (known as endozoochory). 2.The effectiveness of endozoochory is modelled in dispersal

  19. EVALUATION OFAMATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR OIL EXTRACTION FROM OLEAGINOUS SEEDS

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extraction from seeds represents an important process in the production of vegetable oils. The efficiency of this step can have an effect on the economic convenience of the entire production chain of vegetable oils. However, the mechanical presses used for extraction are designed following criteria based more on the experience and intuition of the operators than on rigorous analyses of the physical principles involved in the process. In this study we have tested the possibility of applying a mathematical model that reproduces oil extraction from seeds, on a laboratory type of continuous press. In other words, we have compared the results of our mathematical model with those obtained from real extractions with mechanical presses on sunflower seeds. Our model is based on determining the main operating parameters of mechanical extraction, such as temperature, pressure and compression time, and on the knowledge of some physical characteristics of the solid matrix of the seeds. The results obtained are interesting because they include the role of operating parameters involved in extraction while the application of the mathematical model studied here allows, although with potential for improvement, a mathematical instrument to be developed for optimising the sizing and the operating conditions of mechanical presses.

  20. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  1. Production, Marketing and Value Chain Mapping of 'Srijana' Tomato Hybrid Seed in Nepal

    Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar

    2016-12-01

    had complaints on supply of poor quality seed in the market. As a result, there was declining faith on the quality of Srijana tomato seed. Limited access to parental lines and poor availability of skilled human resources were the key constraints to produce the quality Srijana seed. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be a provision of efficient quality control mechanisms, and development of human resources including public private partnerships for maintaining the genetic purity of parental lines and also improving the capacities of seed value chain actors for sustainable Srijana seed production in Nepal.

  2. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of the seed coat of field pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes in relation to cracks and damage of seeds

    Lazarević Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the morphological characteristics of the seed and micromorphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics of the seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes, Jezero, Javor and NS Junior. Our aim was to investigate whether these genotypes can be differentiated based on seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, depending on the harvest treatment. The observations and measurements of seed coat cross-sections were performed using light microscopy. The seed coat surface was observed using SEM. A tuberculate seed coat surface characterized all examined pea genotypes, and the average diameter of the tubercle was about 12 μm. Statistical and laboratory analyses revealed that major damage was the most frequent defect type as the result of mechanized harvest in all the examined genotypes. Genotype NS Junior had the shortest seed length (6.1 mm. Micromorphological analysis revealed that the seed surface was tuberculate in all genotypes. The genotype Jezero had the highest number of tubercle ribs (11.0 and a significantly higher proportion of parenchyma tissue (50.6%, while NS Junior was characterized by the greatest share of macrosclereids (49.8%. The highest number of osteosclereids (832/mm2 was counted in genotype Javor. In addition, genotype NS Junior stands out due to the highest percentage of crude fiber (62.75 g/100g in the seed coat. There was a marked difference among the studied genotypes with regard to the seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, which is confirmed by the results of multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA. These results suggested that the morphological, micromorphological and anatomical characteristics of the seed might have an impact on the seed coat damage level at harvest. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 31024 and Grant no. 173002

  3. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested ... fruits into plastic bag that was exposed in ambient air in the field; SFD, seeds ..... Concepts and technologies of selected.

  4. Improving the traditional sesame seed planting with seed pelleting

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 1Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey. 2Fethiye ... the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly ... Sesame holds a special importance in the world's oil.

  5. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria.

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-19

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  6. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    Mustey, A; Leighs, J A; Appleby, G J; Wood, D C; Hazael, R; McMillan, P F; Hazell, P J

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  7. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    Mustey, A.; Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  8. Seed dispersal in six species of terrestrial orchids in Biebrza National Park (NE Poland

    Emilia Brzosko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about seed dispersal is required to explain problems in ecology, phylogeography, and conservation biology. Even though seed dispersal is a fundamental mechanism to understand problems at different levels of biological organization (individual, population, species, landscape, it remains one of the least recognized processes. Similar to other groups of plants, very little is known regarding patterns and distances of seed dispersal in orchids. Orchid seeds are generally assumed to be widely dispersed by wind because of their small size and low weight. Between 2006 and 2008, we conducted a field study of the distances at which orchid seeds are dispersed, and determined factors affecting dispersal. Investigations included 13 populations of six terrestrial orchid species – Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera repens, Neottia ovata, and Platanthera bifolia. To evaluate seed dispersal in orchid populations, 8.5-cm Petri dishes (traps with self-adhesive paper were placed along transects, starting from a group of fruiting plants, which were considered to be the dispersal source. Seeds of the investigated orchid species were dispersed over relatively short distances. There were statistically significant negative correlations between seed density and distance from the fruiting plants. Seeds of species with taller fruiting shoots were dispersed farther than those with shorter ones (R = 0.68, p < 0.05. We discuss the causes and consequences of the dispersal patterns of orchid seeds.

  9. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    Ariadna S. Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  10. Laser treatment of radish seed

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  11. Systematic Analysis and Innovation for Development Policies of Beijing Seed Industry at Transformation Stage

    Qing LIU; Fengjun LU; Guozhi ZHANG; Lijiao XIE

    2015-01-01

    At transformation stage,seed Industry is not only a fundamental and strategic industry during the construction of World City,but also part of urban and modern agriculture in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the theory of industrial economics and system theory,the article constructs the seed industry policy analysis model,systematically analyzes the support points of national level and the city of Beijing seed industry policy,and studies policy input,mechanism,output and effects by way of systematic analysis,as well as proposes polices and suggestions on promotion of development for Beijing seed industry and on construction of new seed industry from talent incentive,platform construction,seed trading and enterprise cultivation.

  12. Optimization of castor seed oil extraction process using response surface methodology

    J. D. Mosquera-Artamonov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the oil extraction yield from castor seed using three different seed conditions: whole, minced and bare endosperm. Taguchi design was used to determine the contribution of the following parameters: seed condition, seed load in the extractor, temperature, and pressure. It was proved that it is necessary to introduce the whole seed and that the presence of the pericarp increases the extraction yield. The contribution of the control factors has an extraction yield limit. After determining which factors contributed to the process, these were left at their optimum levels aiming to reduce the control factors to only two. The complete analysis was done using a surface response methodology giving the best parameter for temperature and pressure that allows a better yielding mechanical extraction. The oil extraction yield can be kept up to 35% of the seed.

  13. Iron Deficiency Prolongs Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis Plants

    Irene Murgia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of seed dormancy, germination and longevity are important goals in plant biology, with relevant applications for agriculture, food industry and also human nutrition. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS are key molecules involved in the release of dormancy, when their concentrations fall within the so called ‘oxidative window.’ The mechanisms of ROS distribution and sensing in seeds, from dormant to germinating ones, still need elucidation. Also, the impact of iron (Fe deficiency on seed dormancy is still unexplored; this is surprising, given the known pro-oxidant role of Fe when in a free form. We provide evidence of a link between plant Fe nutrition and dormancy of progeny seeds by using different Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants with different dormancy strengths grown in control soil or under severe Fe deficiency. The latter condition extends the dormancy in several genotypes. The focus on the mechanisms involved in the Fe deficiency-dependent alteration of dormancy and longevity promises to be a key issue in seed (redox biology.

  14. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  15. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  16. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  17. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  18. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  19. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  20. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  1. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  3. Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review

    Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-11-01

    Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider

  4. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  5. The role of the persistent fruit wall in seed water regulation in Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae).

    Cousens, Roger D; Young, Kenneth R; Tadayyon, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Dry fruits remain around the seeds at dispersal in a number of species, especially the Brassicaceae. Explanations for this vary, but usually involve mechanisms of innate dormancy. We speculate that, instead, a persistent fruit may give additional protection through control of dehydration, to species growing in arid or Mediterranean environments where water is sporadic. X-rays and weight measurements were used to determine the extent to which Raphanus raphanistrum seeds within mature fruits imbibe water, and germination tests determined the roles of the fruit and seed coat in seed dormancy. Rates of water uptake and desiccation, and seedling emergence were compared with and without the fruit. Finally, germinability of seeds extracted from fruits was determined after various periods of moist conditions followed by a range of dry conditions. Most seeds rapidly take up water within the fruit, but they do not fully imbibe when compared with naked seeds. The seed coat is more important than the dry fruit wall in maintaining seed dormancy. The presence of a dry fruit slows emergence from the soil by up to 6-8 weeks. The fruit slows the rate of desiccation of the seed to a limited extent. The presence of the fruit for a few days during imbibition somehow primes more seeds to germinate than if the fruit is absent; longer moist periods within the pod appear to induce dormancy. The fruit certainly modifies the seed environment as external conditions change between wet and dry, but not to a great extent. The major role seems to be: (a) the physical restriction of imbibition and germination; and (b) the release and then re-imposition of dormancy within the seed. The ecological significance of the results requires more research under field conditions.

  6. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    Sullivan, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  7. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size

  8. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  9. Manejos de cobertura, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação sobre a semeadura direta da cultura do milho Covering management, furrowing mechanisms and working speed over direct seeding of corn cultivation

    Emerson Trogello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A palhada de cobertura residual representa o grande diferencial do sistema de semeadura direta, propiciando melhorias nas condições biológicas, químicas e físicas do solo, em contrapartida esta matéria seca residual pode implicar em dificuldades no processo de semeadura, necessitando por vezes de um manejo deste resíduo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e produtividade da cultura do milho submetido a diferentes métodos de manejo de palhada, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas, composto por 16 tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 64 unidades experimentais. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro manejos de palhada (palha gradeada, rolada, triturada e dessecada, dois mecanismos sulcadores (disco duplo e haste sulcadora e duas velocidades de semeadura (4,5 e 7,0 km h-1. Avaliou-se a profundidade de deposição de sementes, área de solo mobilizada, uniformidade de distribuição de sementes, estande inicial de plantas, número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira, massa de mil grãos e produtividade da cultura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e havendo diferenças significativas, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. A velocidade de operação de 7,0 km h-1 apresentou valores de espaçamentos falhos e duplos mais elevados. Os tratamentos empregados não influenciaram os componentes de rendimento da cultura, bem como não se observou diferenças significativas para a produtividade média da cultura de milho.The stubble covering left over represents the biggest difference of the direct seeding cultivation, providing improvement on biological, chemical and physical soil conditions. Nevertheless, the dry matter remaining may difficult the seeding process, demanding additional management of covering. The aim of

  10. Manejos de cobertura, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação sobre a semeadura direta da cultura do milho Covering management, furrowing mechanisms and working speed over direct seeding of corn cultivation

    Emerson Trogello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A palhada de cobertura residual representa o grande diferencial do sistema de semeadura direta, propiciando melhorias nas condições biológicas, químicas e físicas do solo, em contrapartida esta matéria seca residual pode implicar em dificuldades no processo de semeadura, necessitando por vezes de um manejo deste resíduo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e produtividade da cultura do milho submetido a diferentes métodos de manejo de palhada, mecanismos sulcadores e velocidades de operação. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas, composto por 16 tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 64 unidades experimentais. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro manejos de palhada (palha gradeada, rolada, triturada e dessecada, dois mecanismos sulcadores (disco duplo e haste sulcadora e duas velocidades de semeadura (4,5 e 7,0 km h-1. Avaliou-se a profundidade de deposição de sementes, área de solo mobilizada, uniformidade de distribuição de sementes, estande inicial de plantas, número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira, massa de mil grãos e produtividade da cultura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e havendo diferenças significativas, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. A velocidade de operação de 7,0 km h-1 apresentou valores de espaçamentos falhos e duplos mais elevados. Os tratamentos empregados não influenciaram os componentes de rendimento da cultura, bem como não se observou diferenças significativas para a produtividade média da cultura de milho.The stubble covering left over represents the biggest difference of the direct seeding cultivation, providing improvement on biological, chemical and physical soil conditions. Nevertheless, the dry matter remaining may difficult the seeding process, demanding additional management of covering. The aim of

  11. Moringa Seed Oils

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  12. Small scale industrial application of rubber seed oil in soap ...

    The oil, which was extracted from the rubber seed using the mechanical pressing method, was of high acid value, that is, the free fatty acid content is high and the oil is not edible, with an average saponification value. Its pH was slightly basic which makes it suitable for use in soap manufacture. It was, therefore, used as a ...

  13. Weight loss in bamboo ( Bambusa vulgaris ) treated with neem seed ...

    Split-bamboo samples conditioned to 11.76% moisture content were converted to test specimens for Percentage Weight Loss (PWL) and treated with mechanically extracted neem seed oil at two different treatment temperature regimes by completely soaking a set in oil at ambient room temperature of 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours ...

  14. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  15. Insect Seed Predators in Erythrina falcata (Fabaceae): Identification of Predatory Species and Ecological Consequences of Asynchronous Flowering.

    Pereira, C M; Moura, M O; Da-Silva, P R

    2014-06-01

    Seed predation by insects exerts negative effects on plant reproduction by limiting the supply of seeds and preventing germination. Seed predators of the family Fabaceae are usually generalists, which increases the rate of predation. One strategy to minimize seed predation, developed by plants from temperate regions, is "escape in time," i.e., flowering before or after the peak of predation. For tropical species, few studies have investigated the strategies used by plants to minimize seed predation. Here, using Erythrina falcata, a tropical species of Fabaceae, we test three main hypotheses: (i) escape in time is a mechanism used by E. falcata to minimize seed predation, (ii) the predators of E. falcata seeds are generalists, and (iii) the biometric variables of the pods can influence seed predation. In order to test these hypotheses, we determined the flowering time of E. falcata, rate of seed predation, the predators insects, and biometric variables of the pods. The analyzed trees were grouped into three classes: "early," "peak," and "late" flowering. The average seed predation rates on trees in the early and late classes were 65% and 50%, respectively, and in the peak class, 80%; thus, our first hypothesis can be accepted. Three species of Lepidoptera and two of Coleoptera were found preying on E. falcata seeds. These species were observed to be generalist predators; thus, our second hypothesis can be accepted. The biometric variables of the pods cannot influence seed predation rate. The ecological consequences of asynchronous flowering on plants and insects are discussed.

  16. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  17. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  18. Effects of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat ...

    Effects of different treatment methods on the germination of seeds of Parkia biglobosa (mimosaceae) were carried out. Prior treatment of seeds with sulphuric acid, wet heat and mechanical scarification were found to induce germination of the dormant seeds. These methods could be applied to raise seedlings of the plant for ...

  19. Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds

    Atayan, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus. (author)

  20. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  1. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  2. Report on seed born diseases in organic seed and propagation material

    Micheloni, C.; Plakolm, G.; Schärer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The key questions which will be addressed in this report are: • Are seed born diseases an important factor that prevents seed companies from producing organic seeds and organic farmers from using them? • Which seed treatments are available in organic farming? Which treatments are or will be acceptable? To which degree are they effective? • Are the thresholds for seed born diseases different among Member States? Can this cause unfair competition among farmers and seed producers? • ...

  3. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking.

    Senda, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiraoka, Miho; Kawada, So; Iiyoshi, Ryota; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sonoki, Tomonori; Maeda, Hayato; Kawasaki, Michio

    2017-03-01

    Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking. In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

  4. Barley seed ageing: genetics behind the dry elevated pressure of oxygen ageing and moist controlled deterioration

    Manuela eNagel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental seed ageing approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the elevated partial pressure of oxygen (EPPO approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed ageing under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of ageing with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (OWB-D, carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to ageing in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (OWB-R, carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses using 2,832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.

  5. Pre-germination treatments on palm tree seeds

    Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm tree seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments in promoting germination and early seedling growth of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius. Treatments were: control, immersion in GA3 solution, exposure to ethylene, water immersion, H2SO4 immersion, mechanical scarification, stratification for 30 days at 10 °C, and scarification followed by stratification. Soaking seeds in gibberellic acid (GA3; 2000 µL L-1 for 24 h or their exposure to ethylene (1000 µL L-1 for 24 h are effective for promoting emergence, which started 30 days after seed treatment, and for early seedling growth of palm tree.

  6. Tree regeneration by seed in bottomland hardwood forests: A review

    Kroschel, Whitney A.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests (BLH) are found in temperate, humid regions of the southeastern US, primarily on alluvial floodplains adjacent to rivers. Altered hydrology in rivers and floodplains has caused changes in stand development and species composition of BLHs. We hypothesize that the driving mechanisms behind these changes are related to the regeneration process because of the complexity of recruitment and the vulnerability of species at that age in development. Here we review the state of our understanding regarding BLH regeneration, and identify potential bottlenecks throughout the stages of seed production, seed dispersal, germination, establishment, and survival. Our process-level understanding of regeneration by seed in BLHs is rudimentary, thus limiting our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic alterations on species composition. By focusing future research on the appropriate stages of regeneration, we can better understand the sources of forest-community transitions across the diverse range of BLH systems.

  7. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  8. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  9. Effects of water level on three wetlands soil seed banks on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.

  10. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  11. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    1968-10-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    1968-01-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Effect of cesium seeding on hydrogen negative ion volume production

    Bacal, M.; Balghiti-Sube, F. El; Elizarov, L. I.; Tontegode, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of cesium vapor partial pressure on the plasma parameters has been studied in the dc hybrid negative ion source ''CAMEMBERT III.'' The cesium vapor pressure was varied up to 10 -5 Torr and was determined by a surface ionization gauge in the absence of the discharge. The negative ion relative density measured by laser photodetachment in the center of the plasma extraction region increases by a factor of four when the plasma is seeded with cesium. However the plasma density and the electron temperature (determined using a cylindrical electrostatic probe) are reduced by the cesium seeding. As a result, the negative ion density goes up by a factor of two at the lowest hydrogen pressure studied. The velocity of the directed negative ion flow to the plasma electrode, determined from two-laser beam photodetachment experiments, appears to be affected by the cesium seeding. The variation of the extracted negative ion and electron currents versus the plasma electrode bias will also be reported for pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. The cesium seeding leads to a dramatic reduction of the electron component, which is consistent with the reduced electron density and temperature. The negative ion current is enhanced and a goes through a maximum at plasma electrode bias lower than 1 V. These observations lead to the conclusion that the enhancement of pure volume production occurs in this type of plasma. Possible mechanisms for this type of volume process will be discussed

  15. Is gene transcription involved in seed dry after-ripening?

    Patrice Meimoun

    Full Text Available Orthodox seeds are living organisms that survive anhydrobiosis and may display dormancy, an inability to germinate at harvest. Seed germination potential can be acquired during a prolonged period of dry storage called after-ripening. The aim of this work was to determine if gene transcription is an underlying regulatory mechanism for dormancy alleviation during after-ripening. To identify changes in gene transcription strictly associated with the acquisition of germination potential but not with storage, we used seed storage at low relative humidity that maintains dormancy as control. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarray to compare change in gene transcript abundance between dormant (D, after-ripened non-dormant (ND and after-ripened dormant seeds (control, C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to confirm gene expression. Comparison between D and ND showed the differential expression of 115 probesets at cut-off values of two-fold change (p<0.05. Comparisons between both D and C with ND in transcript abundance showed that only 13 transcripts, among 115, could be specific to dormancy alleviation. qPCR confirms the expression pattern of these transcripts but without significant variation between conditions. Here we show that sunflower seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state is not related to regulated changes in gene expression.

  16. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  17. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  18. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  19. Dormancy release of Norway spruce under climatic warming: testing ecophysiological models of bud burst with a whole-tree chamber experiment.

    Hänninen, Heikki; Slaney, Michelle; Linder, Sune

    2007-02-01

    Ecophysiological models predicting timing of bud burst were tested with data gathered from 40-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees growing in northern Sweden in whole-tree chambers under climatic conditions predicted to prevail in 2100. Norway spruce trees, with heights between 5 and 7 m, were enclosed in individual chambers that provided a factorial combination of ambient (365 micromol mol-1) or elevated (700 micromol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], and ambient or elevated air temperature. Temperature elevation above ambient ranged from +2.8 degrees C in summer to +5.6 degrees C in winter. Compared with control trees, elevated air temperature hastened bud burst by 2 to 3 weeks, whereas elevated [CO2] had no effect on the timing of bud burst. A simple model based on the assumption that bud rest completion takes place on a fixed calendar day predicted timing of bud burst more accurately than two more complicated models in which bud rest completion is caused by accumulated chilling. Together with some recent studies, the results suggest that, in adult trees, some additional environmental cues besides chilling are required for bud rest completion. Although it appears that these additional factors will protect trees under predicted climatic warming conditions, increased risk of frost damage associated with earlier bud burst cannot be ruled out. Inconsistent and partially anomalous results obtained in the model fitting show that, in addition to phenological data gathered under field conditions, more specific data from growth chamber and greenhouse experiments are needed for further development and testing of the models.

  20. [Dynamics of seed rain of Tripterygium hypoglaucum and soil seed bank].

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Su, Shu; Qu, Xian-You; Wang, Chang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Tripterygium hypoglaucum is an endangered species in arid areas of Xiannvshan Chongqing, China. The dynamic characteristics of seed rain and soil seed bank of T. hypoglaucum were studied in this paper.Results showed that T. hypoglaucum years of mature seeds distribution number up to October; the seed rain occurred from the last ten-day of September to in the first ten-day of November and the peak of scattered seed rain concentrated in the October.The numbers of soil seed bank at 2-5 cm soil layer,mainly concentrated in the 1.5-3.5 m range. T. hypoglaucum seeds to the wind as a force for transmission, the transmission ability is strong, but in the process of natural reproduction, full mature seed rate is low, the soil seed bank seeds seed short-lived factors these were unfavorable for the natural reproduction of T. hypoglaucum population. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  2. Formation of seed productivity in lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of inflorescence habitus

    Н. В. Лещук

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is explained the essence of the formation of seed production of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of the inflorescence habitus, which formed during the different areas of plant nutrition. It is substantiated the mechanism of seed formation on different parts of the inflorescence of female plant with identification of it’s sowing quality. It is developed the agrotehnologcal measures aimed at improving the productivity of lettuce seed by overcoming its matrical heteroquality

  3. Formation of seed productivity in lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of inflorescence habitus

    Н. В. Лещук

    2009-01-01

    It is explained the essence of the formation of seed production of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of the inflorescence habitus, which formed during the different areas of plant nutrition. It is substantiated the mechanism of seed formation on different parts of the inflorescence of female plant with identification of it’s sowing quality. It is developed the agrotehnologcal measures aimed at improving the productivity of lettuce seed by overcoming its matrical he...

  4. Factors influencing upon the incidence of seed migration in I-125 seed transperineal prostate implantation

    Itami, Jun; Onishi, Kayoko; Kanemura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer is rapidly expanding in Japan. Seed migrations to lung and abdomen are well known complication in the seed brachytherapy. The rate of incidence and the predisposing factors were studied. From April 2004 through January 2005, 36 patients underwent transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. In all patients loose I-125 seeds were inserted with Mick applicator according to modified peripheral loading pattern. One day, 1 week, and 1 month after the procedure, posteroanterior and lateral chest X-rays and abdominal X-ray were performed. Abdominal and chest seed migrations were seen in 11 (30.6%) and 14 (38.9%) patients, respectively. In total, 20 patients (55.6%) showed seed migrations. Forty-two I-125 seeds migrated out of 2,508 implanted seeds. Most of the migrations were seen until 1 month after the procedure. The preplanned number of the extraprostatic seeds had a statistically significant influence upon the incidence of seed migration. Seed migration is not a rare phenomenon in transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. To confirm seed migration, X-ray examinations 1 month after the procedure are suited. At the preplanning, the number of extraprostatic seeds should be limited to minimal to decrease the incidence of seed migration. In future, the introduction of linked I-125 seeds is preferred. (author)

  5. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... bottles were seal-locked and kept in the accelerated ageing cham- ber at three ... Hundred (100) seeds of each treatment were performed in plastic ..... by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in.

  6. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... high, suggesting that wet soil is necessary for an on farm reliable evaluation of seed fermentation method in the .... with tap water, and sundried in ambient air until attaining 6 to 7% moisture. ..... arabica in Brazil. Int. J. Food ...

  7. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  8. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the

  9. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... As a result, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were improved. Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling growth of maize under salt stress. ... Salinization is more spreading in irrigated lands because of inappropriate management of irrigation and drainage.

  10. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  11. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed δ15N and δ13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-watered. Foliar boron (FB) in the form of boric acid was applied twice at a rate of 1.1 kg ha−1. The first application was during flowering stage, and the second application was during seed-fill stage. Treatments were water stressed plants with no FB (WS–B); water stressed plants with FB (WS+B); watered plants without FB (W–B), and watered plants with FB (W+B). The treatment W–B was used as a control. Comparing with WS–B plants, B concentration was the highest in leaves and seed of W+B plants (84% increase in leaves and 73% in seed). Seeds of W+B plants had higher protein (11% increase), oleic acid (27% increase), sucrose (up to 40% increase), glucose, and fructose comparing with W–B. However, seed stachyose concentrations increased by 43% in WS–B plants seed compared with W–B plants. Cell wall (structural) B concentration in leaves was higher in all plants under water stress, especially in WS–B plants where the percentage of cell wall B reached up to 90%. Water stress changed seed δ15N and δ13C values in both B applied and non-B applied plants, indicating possible effects on nitrogen and carbon metabolism. This research demonstrated that FB increased B accumulation in leaves and seed, and altered seed composition of well-watered and water stressed plants, indicating a possible involvement of B in seed protein, and oleic and linolenic fatty acids. Further research is needed to explain mechanisms of B involvement in seed protein and fatty acids. PMID:23888163

  12. De novo transcriptome assembly and quantification reveal differentially expressed genes between soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate (Punica granatum L..

    Hui Xue

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belongs to Punicaceae, and is valued for its social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic values, as well as more recently for its health benefits. The 'Tunisia' variety has softer seeds and big arils that are easily swallowed. It is a widely popular fruit; however, the molecular mechanisms of the formation of hard and soft seeds is not yet clear. We conducted a de novo assembly of the seed transcriptome in P. granatum L. and revealed differential gene expression between the soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate varieties. A total of 35.1 Gb of data were acquired in this study, including 280,881,106 raw reads. Additionally, de novo transcriptome assembly generated 132,287 transcripts and 105,743 representative unigenes; approximately 13,805 unigenes (37.7% were longer than 1,000 bp. Using bioinformatics annotation libraries, a total of 76,806 unigenes were annotated and, among the high-quality reads, 72.63% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. Gene expression and differentially expressed genes were analyzed. The seed formation of the two pomegranate cultivars involves lignin biosynthesis and metabolism, including some genes encoding laccase and peroxidase, WRKY, MYB, and NAC transcription factors. In the hard-seed pomegranate, lignin-related genes and cellulose synthesis-related genes were highly expressed; in soft-seed pomegranates, expression of genes related to flavonoids and programmed cell death was slightly higher. We validated selection of the identified genes using qRT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of P. granatum L. This transcription sequencing greatly enriched the pomegranate molecular database, and the high-quality SSRs generated in this study will aid the gene cloning from pomegranate in the future. It provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of soft seeds in pomegranate.

  13. De novo transcriptome assembly and quantification reveal differentially expressed genes between soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

    Xue, Hui; Cao, Shangyin; Li, Haoxian; Zhang, Jie; Niu, Juan; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Fuhong; Zhao, Diguang

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) belongs to Punicaceae, and is valued for its social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic values, as well as more recently for its health benefits. The 'Tunisia' variety has softer seeds and big arils that are easily swallowed. It is a widely popular fruit; however, the molecular mechanisms of the formation of hard and soft seeds is not yet clear. We conducted a de novo assembly of the seed transcriptome in P. granatum L. and revealed differential gene expression between the soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate varieties. A total of 35.1 Gb of data were acquired in this study, including 280,881,106 raw reads. Additionally, de novo transcriptome assembly generated 132,287 transcripts and 105,743 representative unigenes; approximately 13,805 unigenes (37.7%) were longer than 1,000 bp. Using bioinformatics annotation libraries, a total of 76,806 unigenes were annotated and, among the high-quality reads, 72.63% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. Gene expression and differentially expressed genes were analyzed. The seed formation of the two pomegranate cultivars involves lignin biosynthesis and metabolism, including some genes encoding laccase and peroxidase, WRKY, MYB, and NAC transcription factors. In the hard-seed pomegranate, lignin-related genes and cellulose synthesis-related genes were highly expressed; in soft-seed pomegranates, expression of genes related to flavonoids and programmed cell death was slightly higher. We validated selection of the identified genes using qRT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of P. granatum L. This transcription sequencing greatly enriched the pomegranate molecular database, and the high-quality SSRs generated in this study will aid the gene cloning from pomegranate in the future. It provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of soft seeds in pomegranate.

  14. Forest Seed Collection, Processing,and Testing

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    This chapter pertains to the techniques of capturing the best genetic quality seeds a seed source can produce at the optimal time of high physiological maturity and maintaining these qualities throughout the handling processes, all at a minimum cost. Different collection and processing techniques...... apply to different species, seed types, situations, and purposes. Yet the collection and processing toolbox contains a number of “standard” methods for most of these groups. Records and documentation help in evaluating “best practice” for future method improvement, and it helps in linking offspring...... to seed source. Conditions are set for short- and long-term seed storage by their inert storability physiology. The potential storage life of seed may for some robust “orthodox” species be several decades, while no available storage conditions can maintain viability for sensitive “recalcitrant” seed. Seed...

  15. Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and ...

    -5 years. ... with a sharp steel knife from which healthy seeds were selected. ... Total carbohydrate was determined by difference. .... resistance to microbial attack of plant tissue (Taiz and. Zeiger, 1991 ... Maintenance of soybean seed quality in ...

  16. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  17. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  18. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  19. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  20. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  1. Structural changes of cotton seeds due to fast neurons-irradiation

    Osiris, W G [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of irradiation with different fast neutron fluences in the range 10{sub 5}- 10{sub 8} n/cm{sup 2} were studied on one egyptian cotton seeds (Dandara, Giza 31). Both pre-and post-irradiated seeds were implanted and the effects of fast neutrons on the first generation were investigated through the use of: X-ray fluorescence analysis, infrared spectral,combustion technique, analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy. The changes in cellulose and heme cellulose contents in the seeds relative to the unirradiated one were also detected. From the obtained results,it was found that significant structural changes are indicated which may be attributed to the variation in the internal mechanisms that occurred by the radiation effect on thr structure of seeds. In conclusion, irradiation with fast neutrons may cause genetic changes in seeds. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment on plant seeds

    Mustey, Adrian; Leighs, James; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds have both been previously investigated (primarily driven by an interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia respectively). However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods of applying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in such data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder set-up and shock compression via employment of a 50-mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer-plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set.

  3. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Minor, Rebecca L; Koprowski, John L

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  4. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Rebecca L Minor

    Full Text Available Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis, which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  5. Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on ...

    Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but ... Seed predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted in July, August and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype relationship study in 31 ... Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. ... to the Mesoamerican gene pool, comprising the cultigroups Sieva-Big Lima, ...

  7. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  8. Invasive Australian Acacia seed banks: Size and relationship with stem diameter in the presence of gall-forming biological control agents.

    Matthys Strydom

    Full Text Available Australian Acacia are invasive in many parts of the world. Despite significant mechanical and biological efforts to control their invasion and spread, soil-stored seed banks prevent their effective and sustained removal. In response South Africa has had a strong focus on employing seed reducing biological control agents to deal with Australian Acacia invasion, a programme that is considered as being successful. To provide a predictive understanding for their management, seed banks of four invasive Australian acacia species (Acacia longifolia, A. mearnsii, A. pycnantha and A. saligna were studied in the Western Cape of South Africa. Across six to seven sites for each species, seed bank sizes were estimated from dense, monospecific stands by collecting 30 litter and soil samples. Average estimated seed bank size was large (1017 to 17261 seed m-2 as was annual input into the seed bank, suggesting that these seed banks are not residual but are replenished in size annually. A clear relationship between seed bank size and stem diameter was established indicating that mechanical clearing should be conducted shortly after fire-stimulated recruitment events or within old populations when seed banks are small. In dense, monospecific stands seed-feeding biological control agents are not effective in reducing seed bank size.

  9. Experimental Testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Maple Seeds and Performance Analysis as a Wind Turbine

    Holden, Jacob R.

    Descending maple seeds generate lift to slow their fall and remain aloft in a blowing wind; have the wings of these seeds evolved to descend as slowly as possible? A unique energy balance equation, experimental data, and computational fluid dynamics simulations have all been developed to explore this question from a turbomachinery perspective. The computational fluid dynamics in this work is the first to be performed in the relative reference frame. Maple seed performance has been analyzed for the first time based on principles of wind turbine analysis. Application of the Betz Limit and one-dimensional momentum theory allowed for empirical and computational power and thrust coefficients to be computed for maple seeds. It has been determined that the investigated species of maple seeds perform near the Betz limit for power conversion and thrust coefficient. The power coefficient for a maple seed is found to be in the range of 48-54% and the thrust coefficient in the range of 66-84%. From Betz theory, the stream tube area expansion of the maple seed is necessary for power extraction. Further investigation of computational solutions and mechanical analysis find three key reasons for high maple seed performance. First, the area expansion is driven by maple seed lift generation changing the fluid momentum and requiring area to increase. Second, radial flow along the seed surface is promoted by a sustained leading edge vortex that centrifuges low momentum fluid outward. Finally, the area expansion is also driven by the spanwise area variation of the maple seed imparting a radial force on the flow. These mechanisms result in a highly effective device for the purpose of seed dispersal. However, the maple seed also provides insight into fundamental questions about how turbines can most effectively change the momentum of moving fluids in order to extract useful power or dissipate kinetic energy.

  10. Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees

    Allali, Julien; Chauve, Cédric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe...

  11. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  12. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  13. Training and research in seed technology. No quality seeds without skilled staff

    Groot, S.P.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The seed industry in the Netherlands is the largest exporter of horticultural seeds, reaching farmers in every country of the world. High seed quality is one of the key factors of this success. Maintaining and increasing the level of seed qualtiy requires skilled staff, innovation and collaboration

  14. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  15. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  16. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  17. Seed Germination Ecology of the Cold Desert Annual Isatis violascens (Brassicaceae: Two Levels of Physiological Dormancy and Role of the Pericarp.

    Yuan M Zhou

    Full Text Available The occurrence of various species of Brassicaceae with indehiscent fruits in the cold deserts of NW China suggests that there are adaptive advantages of this trait. We hypothesized that the pericarp of the single-seeded silicles of Isatis violascens restricts embryo expansion and thus prevents germination for 1 or more years. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of the pericarp in seed dormancy and germination of this species. The effects of afterripening, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3 and cold stratification on seed dormancy-break were tested using intact silicles and isolated seeds, and germination phenology was monitored in an experimental garden. The pericarp has a role in mechanically inhibiting germination of fresh seeds and promotes germination of nondormant seeds, but it does not facilitate formation of a persistent seed bank. Seeds in silicles in watered soil began to germinate earlier in autumn and germinated to higher percentages than isolated seeds. Sixty-two percent of seeds in the buried silicles germinated by the end of the first spring, and only 3% remained nongerminated and viable. Twenty to twenty-five percent of the seeds have nondeep physiological dormancy (PD and 75-80% intermediate PD. Seeds with nondeep PD afterripen in summer and germinate inside the silicles in autumn if the soil is moist. Afterripening during summer significantly decreased the amount of cold stratification required to break intermediate PD. The presence of both nondeep and intermediate PD in the seed cohort may be a bet-hedging strategy.

  18. seed germination and seedlings growth

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... however, abscisic acid (ABA) can counter this effect by keeping seeds ... Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.8, with constant current set at 20 mA/gel. The gels were ..... on plants is rarely studied and the importance of 20E in the life cycle ...

  19. The Seed Is the Law

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  20. Seed production for fuel oils

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  1. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  2. Seed germination of Phillyrea angustifolia L., a species of difficult propagation

    Mira, Sara; Arnal, Alberto; Pérez-García, Félix

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae) seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain) were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84%) or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%). Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.

  3. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  4. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity

    Souza Vidigal, De D.; Willems, L.A.J.; Arkel, van J.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increasedcosts in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive forseed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive

  5. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  6. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  7. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  8. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  9. Running title: Water distribution in chickpea seeds

    agriphy20

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... molecular mobility of cellular water in magnetically exposed seeds as compared to unexposed seeds. Analysis of ... protrusion takes place through the seed coat and absorption .... directly related to water activity (aw) of the cell water. (Gambhir ..... plants, including photosynthesis, respiration and enzymatic ...

  10. Strategies for Seed Propagation of Native Forbs

    Susan E. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Native forbs are an increasingly important component of container production for many public and private nurseries. Propagators are often called upon to grow species with unknown requirements. A systematic approach is required to obtain plants from seeds of these species, beginning with determining what is a propagule and evaluating seed quality. Next, seed dormancy...

  11. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Seed dormancy has been defined as the failure of an intact, viable seed to ... expected ratio of 3 dormant : 1 non-dormant seeds in F2 generations of crosses of ICGV 87378 and ICGV ... ICGV 87378 x ICGV 86158. 163. 0. 163.

  12. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  13. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  14. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    Danying Wang

    Full Text Available Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2. In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice.

  15. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  16. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  17. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  18. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubation and germination peak, ranged from first to third day. All groups of A. polyphylla and B.cheilantha showed high germination rate (> 90%, being reduced only when seeds were attacked by insects (< 25%. Mechanic scarification was efficient in A. polyphylla by enhancing germination to maximum (100% and accelerating germination. A. colubrina showed no difference among groups, and germination rate was lower (< 50%, which was attributed to infestation by fungi, commonly reported in this species and apparently independent of usual hygiene procedures. Finally, except the fungi infestation in A. colubrina, evaluated species were independent of pre-germination treatment to obtain a high rate of germination.

  19. Proteomic dissection of seed germination and seedling establishment in Brassica napus

    Jianwei Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only few studies have focused on the genetic control of the seed germination by proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE in B. napus. One hundred thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, which were mainly involved in storage proteins (23.4%, energy metabolism (18.9%, protein metabolism (16.2%, defense/disease (12.6%, seed maturation (11.7%, carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%, lipid metabolism (4.5%, amino acids metabolism (3.6%, cell growth/division (3.6%, and some unclear proteins (2.7% were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed the heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and the onset of defense system might start during seed germination. These findings will help us more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of germination process in B. napus.

  20. Behavior of Jatropha curcas L. seeds under osmotic stress: germination and cell cycle activity

    Cristiane Dantas de Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is an oil-rich Euphorbiaceae seed species renowned for its apparent tolerance to environmental stresses. It is considered a promising source of renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in the Brazilian semiarid region where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to proper seed and plant behavior under water restrictive conditions. This study describes physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds imbibed in water restriction conditions by means of osmotic stress or osmoconditioning. Seeds were characterized by size, weight, moisture content and dry mass, germinability, and cell cycle activation by means of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton accumulation. Osmoconditioning at -0.8 MPa did not induce priming effects as it did not improve the physiological quality of the seed lots. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis revealed an increasing accumulation of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton in seeds imbibed in water for 48h onwards, culminating in the onset of mitotic configurations after germination. Only cortical microtubules were observed during seed osmoconditioning, whereas mitotic microtubules only occurred after re-imbibition of osmoconditioned seeds in water and subsequent germination.

  1. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  2. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  3. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  4. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  5. Differentially expressed genes during the imbibition of dormant and after-ripened seeds - a reverse genetics approach

    Yazdanpanah, Farzaneh; Hanson, Johannes; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.; Bentsink, Leónie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Seed dormancy, defined as the incapability of a viable seed to germinate under favourable conditions, is an important trait in nature and agriculture. Despite extensive research on dormancy and germination, many questions about the molecular mechanisms controlling these traits remain

  6. Heat shock and plant leachates regulate seed germination of the endangered carnivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicum

    S. Gómez-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In fire-prone ecosystems, many plant species have specialized mechanisms of seed dormancy that ensure a successful recruitment after fire. A well-documented mechanism is the germination stimulated by fire-related cues, such as heat shock and smoke. However, less is known about the role of inhibitory germination signals (e.g. allelopathy in regulating post-fire recruitment. Plant leachates derived from the unburned vegetation can enforce dormancy by means of allelopathic compounds, acting as a signal of unfavourable (highly competitive niche for germination in pyrophyte species. Here, we assessed the separate effects of heat shock and plant leachates on seed germination of Drosophyllum lusitanicum, an endangered carnivorous plant endemic to Mediterranean fire-prone heathlands. We performed a germination experiment in which seeds were subjected to three treatments: (1 5 min at 100 °C, (2 watering with plant leachate, and (3 control. Germination rate and seed viability was determined after 63 days. Heat shock stimulated seed germination in D. lusitanicum while plant leachates had inhibitory germination effects without reducing seed viability. Thus, both positive and negative signals could be involved in its successful post-fire recruitment. Fire would break seed dormancy and stimulate seed germination of D. lusitanicum through high temperatures, but also by eliminating allelochemical compounds from the soil. These results help to understand the population dynamics patterns found for D. lusitanicum in natural populations, and highlight the role of fire in the ecology and conservation of this endangered species. Seed dormancy imposed by plant-derived leachates as an adaptive mechanism should be considered more in fire ecology theory.

  7. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  8. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  9. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    testing records. Genetic quality is documented as documents on origin or seed source. New types of tree planting by smallholders imply special problems in distribution and supply systems since production systems for tree seeds have large areas while many consumers have small space for planting....... A centralized forest seed supply contains large central units with good facilities for production and procurement but is far from seed users. Alternative decentralized systems with many small producers may have problems meeting high standards of seed quality and dealing with central regulations....

  10. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  11. Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in ammodendron biofolium

    Zhu, Y.; She, X.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the mobilization of storage reserves during seed germination of Ammodendron bifolium by host plant-endophytic bacteria interaction and to determine the contribution of endophytic bacteria in plant establishment. The seeds were inoculated with three different endophytic bacteria from A. bifolium, Staphylococcus sp. AY3, Kocuria sp. AY9 and Bacillus sp. AG18, and they were germinated in the dark. Fresh weight changes and early seedling growth were assessed, and the content of storage compounds was quantified using biochemical assays in all germinated and non-germinated seeds. To understand the mechanism promoting seed germination, the activities of extracellular enzymes of bacterial isolates were also analyzed by the plate assay method. The results showed that treatment with endophytic bacteria accelerated seed germination; promoted further water absorption and radicle growth; and also promoted degradation of sucrose, protein and lipids during the germination process. At the same time, our results also showed that strain AG18 was able to produce protease and amylase, strain AY9 had only amylase activity, and strain AY3 had no extracellular enzyme activity. In summary, our current study showed that (i) endophytic bacteria improved seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of A. bifolium; (ii) inoculation with endophytic bacteria could promote storage reserve mobilization during or following germination; (iii) the degradation of protein, lipids and sucrose could provide essential energy for post-germination growth; and (iv) three bacterial isolates might have different action mechanisms on seed germination. (author)

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  13. Effect of cold and scarification on seeds germination of pistacia atlantica l. for rapid multiplication

    Meziou, C.; Merabet, A. [University of Boumerdes (Algeria). Dept. of Biology

    2014-03-15

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of mechanical scarification and cold treatment of seeds at + 4 degree C before sowing seed of Pistacia atlantica. In these cases, the durations at cold temperature, which have been taken into account, are successively 60, 50, 40, and 30 days. After these periods, the rate of germination and the speed of germination are calculated every 4 days. The rates of germinations concerning the not scarified seeds having undergone a cold treatment lasting 50 days are the most important that is a value of 39% from the 09-05-2010 until the 29-05-2010. The speed germination is maximum that is 89 germinated seeds /4 days. In addition this same rate reaches a maximum of 70%. Concerning the pistachio tree seeds of the atlas treated mechanically with duration of cold treatment at + 4 degree C during 30 days. For the same category of seed the speed of germination is maximum that is 214 seeds/4 days. Thus the scarification and the 30 days stay are the fastest means which allow to obtain the seedlings of pistachio tree in a rather short time. (author)

  14. Repair of Avascular Meniscus Tears with Electrospun Collagen Scaffolds Seeded with Human Cells.

    Baek, Jihye; Sovani, Sujata; Glembotski, Nicholas E; Du, Jiang; Jin, Sungho; Grogan, Shawn P; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2016-03-01

    The self-healing capacity of an injured meniscus is limited to the vascularized regions and is especially challenging in the inner avascular regions. As such, we investigated the use of human meniscus cell-seeded electrospun (ES) collagen type I scaffolds to produce meniscal tissue and explored whether these cell-seeded scaffolds can be implanted to repair defects created in meniscal avascular tissue explants. Human meniscal cells (derived from vascular and avascular meniscal tissue) were seeded on ES scaffolds and cultured. Constructs were evaluated for cell viability, gene expression, and mechanical properties. To determine potential for repair of meniscal defects, human meniscus avascular cells were seeded and cultured on aligned ES collagen scaffolds for 4 weeks before implantation. Surgical defects resembling "longitudinal tears" were created in the avascular zone of bovine meniscus and implanted with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks. Tissue regeneration and integration were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, mechanical testing, and magentic resonance imaging. Ex vivo implantation with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds resulted in neotissue that was significantly better integrated with the native tissue than acellular collagen scaffolds or untreated defects. Human meniscal cell-seeded ES collagen scaffolds may therefore be useful in facilitating meniscal repair of avascular meniscus tears.

  15. Ultrahigh harmonics generation in a FEL with a seed laser

    Goloviznin, V.V.; Amersfoort, P.W. van

    1995-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in modern FEL technology is to operate in the X-ray region, especially in the open-quotes water windowclose quotes. Because of the absence of optical resonators in this range of wavelengths, only a single-pass device may be suitable for this task. The Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mechanism is now under active discussion as a realistic way to provide high-power coherent emission in the X-ray range. Both the undulator parameters and the electron beam parameters required for the lasing are achieveable at today's technological level. On the other hand, the SASE approach implies a very long and expensive periodic magnetic structure, typically several tens of meters long. This is mainly because of the rather long build-up time necessary to establish a coherent mode from incoherent noise. A mechanism of shortening this time would be therefore highly desirable. In the present paper we consider a scheme using two undulators and a seed-laser to produce coherent X-ray emission. The first undulator and the seed-laser provide a pre-modulation of the beam while the second undulator serves as a source of coherent spontaneous radiation at a very high harmonic of the seed-laser frequency; the whole scheme may then be considered to be an FEL-based frequency upconvertor. The total length of the periodic magnetic structure is shown to be of the order of several meters, nearly an order of magnitude shorter than in the SASE case. For the same beam quality as in the SASE scheme and with realistic seed-laser parameters, the efficiency of the beam pre-modulation at the 50-th (exclamation point) harmonic is shown to be as high as 15%. The output radiation is tunable between discrete harmonics of the seed-frequency

  16. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  17. Longitudinal space charge assisted echo seeding of a free-electron laser with laser-spoiler noise suppression

    Kirsten Hacker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed lasers are employed to improve the temporal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL light. However, when these seed pulses are short relative to the particle bunch, the noisy, temporally incoherent radiation from the unseeded electrons can overwhelm the coherent, seeded radiation. In this paper, a technique to seed a particle bunch with an external laser is presented in which a new mechanism to improve the contrast between coherent and incoherent free electron laser radiation is employed together with a novel, simplified echo-seeding method. The concept relies on a combination of longitudinal space charge wakes and an echo-seeding technique to make a short, coherent pulse of FEL light together with noise background suppression. Several different simulation codes are used to illustrate the concept with conditions at the soft x-ray free-electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH.

  18. An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national

  19. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  20. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  1. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  2. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  4. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Borland, Helena; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    . The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors......, mainly for Parkinson's disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds....

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P

    2013-01-01

    production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among...... species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like...

  6. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  7. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S.; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to bet...

  8. Noahs Ark of the seeds

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'vault of the end of the world', located in the archipelago Arctic Svalbard, brings together more than 860,000 samples seeds from around the world. The purpose of your existence -like the of thousands of other banks of its kind in all the planet - is to preserve the genetic diversity of crops, most of them are now disappearing. An international treaty approved by the United Nations, and in force since 2004, allowed the construction of this 'Sanctuary' where more than one hundred countries maintain their own banks of seeds, freezing them to 18 degrees below zero to lower its biological activity. (Author)

  9. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  10. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  11. Iron in seeds – loading pathways and subcellular localization

    Louis eGrillet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is one of the most abundant elements on earth, but its limited bioavailability poses a major constraint for agriculture and constitutes a serious problem in human health. Due to an improved understanding of the mechanisms that control Fe homeostasis in plants, major advances towards engineering biofortified crops have been made during the past decade. Examples of successful biofortification strategies are, however, still scarce and the process of Fe loading into seeds is far from being well understood in most crop species. In particular in grains where the embryo represents the main storage compartment such as legumes, increasing the seed Fe content remains a challenging task. This review aims at placing the recently identified actors in Fe transport into the unsolved puzzle of grain filling, taking the differences of Fe distribution between various species into consideration. We summarize the current knowledge on Fe transport between symplasmic and apoplasmic compartments, and provide models for Fe trafficking and localization in different seed types that may help to develop high seed Fe germplasms.

  12. Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed

    D. Mohd Nazrul Hisham; J. Mohd Lip; R. Suri; H. Mohamed Shafit; Z.Kharis; K. Shazlin; A. Normah; M.F. Nurul Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and pur...

  13. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  14. Comparative study of different seeding methods based on a multilayer SIS scaffold: Which is the optimal procedure for urethral tissue engineering?

    Lv, Xiang-Guo; Feng, Chao; Fu, Qiang; Xie, Hong; Wang, Ying; Huang, Jian-Wen; Xie, Min-Kai; Atala, Anthony; Xu, Yue-Min; Zhao, Wei-Xin

    2016-08-01

    Seeding cells efficiently and uniformly onto three-dimensional scaffolds is key for engineering urological tissue with an ideal histological structure in vitro. Using an optimized seeding technology allows cells to cooperate positively with biomaterials, resulting in successful reconstructive surgery. In this study, we used four different types of seeding methods in a scaffold of small intestinal submucosa (SIS). The efficiency of the sandwich co-culture, layered co-culture, static-agitation seeding, and centrifugation seeding methods were compared. It was demonstrated that dynamic seeding methods, such as static-agitation and centrifugation seeding, had superior cell-matrix infiltration and mechanical properties. The seeding time could be reduced by 5-10 min using the centrifugation method. Furthermore, functional assessment of the barriers revealed that this function was better in the centrifugation seeding method than in any other method. Our study suggests that both the static-agitation and centrifugation methods are suitable for cell seeding on SIS. There is no significant change in surface area of SIS with different seeding methods. These methods reinforce the physiological and mechanical properties of biomaterials and allow for the future in vivo study of tissue-engineered urethral reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1098-1108, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Termites and large herbivores influence seed removal rates in an African savanna.

    Acanakwo, Erik Francis; Sheil, Douglas; Moe, Stein R

    2017-12-01

    Seed removal can influence plant community dynamics, composition, and resulting vegetation characteristics. In the African savanna, termites and large herbivores influence vegetation in various ways, likely including indirect effects on seed predators and secondary dispersers. However, the intensity and variation of seed removal rates in African savannas has seldom been studied. We experimentally investigated whether termites and large herbivores were important factors in the mechanisms contributing to observed patterns in tree species composition on and off mounds, in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Within fenced (excluding large herbivores) and unfenced termite mound and adjacent savanna plots, we placed seeds of nine native tree species within small open "cages," accessed by all animals, roofed cages that only allowed access to small vertebrates and invertebrates, and closed cages that permitted access by smaller invertebrates only (5 mm wire mesh). We found that mean seed removal rate was high (up to 87.3% per 3 d). Mound habitats experienced significantly higher removal rates than off-mound habitats. The mean removal rate of native seeds from closed cages was 11.1% per 3 d compared with 19.4% and 23.3% removed per 3 d in the roofed and open cages, respectively. Smaller seeds experienced higher removal rates than larger seeds. Large herbivore exclusion on mounds reduced native seed removal rates by a mean of 8.8% in the open cages, but increased removal rates by 1.7% in the open cages when off-mound habitats were fenced. While removal rates from open cages were higher on active mounds (30.9%) than on inactive mounds (26.7%), the removal rates from closed cages were lower on active vs. inactive mounds (6.1% vs. 11.6%, respectively). Thus, we conclude that large herbivores and Macrotermes mounds influence seed removal rates, though these effects appear indirect. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Mountain bikes as seed dispersers and their potential socio-ecological consequences.

    Weiss, Fabio; Brummer, Tyler J; Pufal, Gesine

    2016-10-01

    Seed dispersal critically influences plant community composition and species distributions. Increasingly, human mediated dispersal is acknowledged as important dispersal mechanism, but we are just beginning to understand the different vectors that might play a role. We assessed the role of mountain bikes as potential dispersal vectors and associated social-ecological consequences in areas of conservation concern near Freiburg, Germany. Seed attachment and detachment on a mountain bike were measured experimentally at distances from 0 to 500 m. We assessed effects of seed traits, weather conditions, riding distance and tire combinations using generalized linear mixed effect models. Most seeds detached from the mountain bike within the first 5-20 m. However, a small proportion of seeds remained on tires after 200-500 m. Attachment was higher, and the rate of detachment slower, in semi-wet conditions and lighter seeds travelled farther. Seed dispersal by mountain bikes was moderate compared to other forms of human mediated dispersal. However, we found that lighter seeds could attach to other bike parts and remain there until cleaning which, depending on riders' preferences, might only be after 70 km and in different habitats. Ecological impacts of mountain biking are growing with the popularity of the activity. We demonstrate that mountain bikes are effective seeds dispersers at landscape scales. Thus, management to mitigate their potential to spread non-native species is warranted. We suggest bike cleaning between rides, control of non-native species at trailheads and increased awareness for recreationalists in areas of conservation concern to mitigate the potential negative consequences of seed dispersal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a two-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines. Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source to seed (sink. This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for

  19. Seasonal dynamics of the plant community and soil seed bank along a successional gradient in a subalpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge about how change the importance of soil seed bank and relationship between seed mass and abundance during vegetation succession is crucial for understanding vegetation dynamics. Many studies have been conducted, but their ecological mechanisms of community assembly are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We examined the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation and soil seed bank as well as seed size distribution along a successional gradient. We also explored the potential role of the soil seed bank in plant community regeneration, the relationship between seed mass and species abundance, and the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes along a successional gradient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness of seed bank increased (shallow layer and the total and seed density decreased (each layer and the total significantly with succession. Species richness and seed density differed significantly between different seasons and among soil depths. Seed mass showed a significant negative relationship with relative abundance in the earliest successional stage, but the relationships were not significant in later stages. Seed mass showed no relationship with relative abundance in the whole successional series in seed bank. Results were similar for both July 2005 and April 2006. CONCLUSIONS: The seed mass and abundance relationship was determined by a complex interaction between small and larger seeded species and environmental factors. Both stochastic processes and deterministic processes were important determinants of the structure of the earliest stage. The importance of seed bank decreased with succession. The restoration of abandoned farmed and grazed meadows to the species-rich subalpine meadow in Tibetan Plateau can be successfully achieved from the soil seed bank. However, at least 20 years are required to fully restore an abandoned agricultural meadow to a natural mature subalpine meadow.

  20. Economic governance of property rights: comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in genetically modified soybean seeds

    Guilherme Fowler de Avila Monteiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the governance of property rights on genetically modified (GM soybean seeds. Specifically, the article undertakes a comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in GM soybean seeds in the U.S. and Brazil. For each country, the authors describe the regulatory framework governing the protection of biotechnology innovations in agriculture and investigate the mechanisms of royalty collection in GM soybean seeds. The paper also offers econometric evidence linking the capture of value on biotech innovations and the protection mechanisms deployed by biotech firms. The results suggest that, subject to the institutional environment, firms may choose to transact a GM attribute separated from the seed, building specialized governance structures framed around the genetic attribute and not around the seed as a whole.

  1. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  3. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  4. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  5. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  6. Impurities in alfalfa seed and their impact on processing technology

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Marković, Jordan; Terzić, Dragan; Anđelković, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine relevant parameters and optimal alfalfa seed processing technology by a comparative analysis of two systems of machinery for processing natural alfalfa seed of different purity (59.0% and 71.0%) and with different content of impurities. The relevant parameters monitored during the test were: pure seed (%), weed seeds and seeds of other crops (%), inert matter (%), amount of processed seed (kg), seed processing time (min), consumption of steel powder (...

  7. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  8. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  10. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Chia-Cheng Wei

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%. Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans.This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  11. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  12. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  13. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  14. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  15. Control of DNA synthesis in inhibited and activated Agrostemma githago seeds

    Hecker, M [Sektion Biologie, FG Algemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitaet Greifswald (German Democratic Republic)

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between DNA synthesis and germination capacity of Agrostemma seeds had been studied. Protein synthesis and RNA synthesis were activated at the very beginning of imbibition, whereas DNA synthesis started in the second part of the imbibition phase. Agrostemma seeds inhibited by higher temperature (30 degC), or aged seeds with a low germination capacity were characterized by a significantly reduced protein synthesis. DNA synthesis was also reduced. The inhibition of the protein synthesis of Agrostemma embryos fed with cycloheximide or actinomycin D caused a depression of DNA synthesis. The results indicated that the initiation of DNA synthesis of imbibing Agrostemma seeds depended on the synthesis of special proteins. Abscisic acid inhibited the growth as well as DNA synthesis of isolated Agrostemma embryos. Nitomycin inhibited germination and DNA synthesis to the same extent. Dormant seeds with an undiminished intensity of protein synthesis also showed a reduced incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine by DNA. It is suggested that DNA synthesis of imbibed seeds, which is a necessary prerequisite for the radicle protrusion, was involved in the mechanism of ripening of the Agrostemma seeds.

  16. Control of DNA synthesis in inhibited and activated Agrostemma githago seeds

    Hecker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between DNA synthesis and germination capacity of Agrostemma seeds had been studied. Protein synthesis and RNA synthesis were activated at the very beginning of imbibition, whereas DNA synthesis started in the second part of the imbibition phase. Agrostemma seeds inhibited by higher temperature (30 degC), or aged seeds with a low germination capacity were characterized by a significantly reduced protein synthesis. DNA synthesis was also reduced. The inhibition of the protein synthesis of Agrostemma embryos fed with cycloheximide or actinomycin D caused a depression of DNA synthesis. The results indicated that the initiation of DNA synthesis of imbibing Agrostemma seeds depended on the synthesis of special proteins. Abscisic acid inhibited the growth as well as DNA synthesis of isolated Agrostemma embryos. Nitomycin inhibited germination and DNA synthesis to the same extent. Dormant seeds with an undiminished intensity of protein synthesis also showed a reduced incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by DNA. It is suggested that DNA synthesis of imbibed seeds, which is a necessary prerequisite for the radicle protrusion, was involved in the mechanism of ripening of the Agrostemma seeds. (author)

  17. The impact of different agroecological conditions on the nutritional composition of quinoa seeds.

    Reguera, María; Conesa, Carlos Manuel; Gil-Gómez, Alejandro; Haros, Claudia Mónika; Pérez-Casas, Miguel Ángel; Briones-Labarca, Vilbett; Bolaños, Luis; Bonilla, Ildefonso; Álvarez, Rodrigo; Pinto, Katherine; Mujica, Ángel; Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food's quality. Thus, aiming to evaluate the effect of the agroecological conditions on the nutritional profile of quinoa seeds we analyzed three quinoa cultivars (Salcedo-INIA, Titicaca and Regalona) at different locations (Spain, Peru and Chile). The results revealed that several nutritional parameters such as the amino acid profile, the protein content, the mineral composition and the phytate amount in the seeds depend on the location and cultivar while other parameters such as saponin or fiber were more stable across locations. Our results support the notion that nutritional characteristics of seeds may be determined by seed's origin and further analysis are needed to define the exact mechanisms that control the changes in the seeds nutritional properties.

  18. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  19. Estimates of genetics and phenotypics parameters for the yield and quality of soybean seeds.

    Zambiazzi, E V; Bruzi, A T; Guilherme, S R; Pereira, D R; Lima, J G; Zuffo, A M; Ribeiro, F O; Mendes, A E S; Godinho, S H M; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-09-27

    Estimating genotype x environment (GxE) parameters for quality and yield in soybean seed grown in different environments in Minas Gerais State was the goal of this study, as well as to evaluate interaction effects of GxE for soybean seeds yield and quality. Seeds were produced in three locations in Minas Gerais State (Lavras, Inconfidentes, and Patos de Minas) in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Field experiments were conducted in randomized blocks in a factorial 17 x 6 (GxE), and three replications. Seed yield and quality were evaluated for germination in substrates paper and sand, seedling emergence, speed emergency index, mechanical damage by sodium hypochlorite, electrical conductivity, speed aging, vigor and viability of seeds by tetrazolium test in laboratory using completely randomized design. Quadratic component genotypic, GXE variance component, genotype determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and environmental variation coefficient were estimated using the Genes software. Percentage analysis of genotypes contribution, environments and genotype x environment interaction were conducted by sites combination two by two and three sites combination, using the R software. Considering genotypes selection of broad adaptation, TMG 1179 RR, CD 2737 RR, and CD 237 RR associated better yield performance at high physical and physiological potential of seed. Environmental effect was more expressive for most of the characters related to soybean seed quality. GxE interaction effects were expressive though genotypes did not present coincidental behavior in different environments.

  20. Theoretical and practical aspects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of the seeds

    Gładyszewska, B.; Kornas-Czuczwar, B.; Koper, R.; Lipski, S.

    1998-01-01

    Against the background of recent literature review basic aspects of the mechanism responsible for pre-sowing laser bio-stimulation of the seeds were discussed. Developed by professor W. Sedlak theory of bioplasma was the main point of reference. Presented results of own research works proved the positive influence of pre-sowing laser treatment of seeds on their yielding and nutritive value. The yield rises caused by pre-sowing laser seed bio-stimulation for some examined plant crops were as follows: maize (from 10 to 15%), spring wheat (from 20 to 30%), spring barley (from 20 to 25%), sugar beets (from 10 to 30%), rape seeds (from 10 to 15%). The quality of crops frawn from the laser treated seeds was also better than the control ones. For example, the protein content in grain of spring wheat grown from the seeds bio-stimulated with a the He-Ne laser increased from about 12 up to 14%. Similarly, in roots of the sugar beets grown from laser treated seeds, the sugar content rose from about 15 up to about 17% [pl