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Sample records for sediment reconnaissance quality

  1. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  2. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  3. Sample collection: an overview of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four national laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most samples are collected at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multi-element analytical data, which can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  4. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  5. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  6. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance program at LLL

    Tinney, J.F.

    1977-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is conducting a Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) survey in support of ERDA's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Included in the LLL portion of this survey are seven western states (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington). Similar surveys are being carried out in the rest of the continental United States, including Alaska, as part of a systematic nationwide study of the distribution of uranium in surface water, groundwater, and stream sediment. The overall objective is to identify favorable areas for uranium exploration. This paper describes the program being conducted by LLL to complete our portion of the survey by 1981. The topics discussed are geology and sample acquisition, sample preparation and analysis, and data-base management

  8. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-07-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnasissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy Laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. Each laboratory was assigned a geographic region of the United States. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  9. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program (NURE): hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in the eastern United States

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A geochemical reconnaissance of twenty-five eastern states for uranium will be conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. A sound technical basis for the reconnaissance is being developed by intensive studies of sampling, analysis, and data management. Results of three orientation studies in the southern Appalachian Piedmont and Blue Ridge areas indicate that multi-element analysis of -100 mesh (less than 149 μm) stream sediments will provide adequate information for reconnaissance. Stream and groundwater samples also provide useful information but are not considered cost-effective for regional reconnaissance in the areas studied

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1986-87

    Setmire, J.G.; Wolfe, J.C.; Stroud, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986 and 1987 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine the current or potential threat to the wildlife of the Salton National Wildlife Refuge from irrigation projects sponsored or operated by the Department of the Interior. Results of the investigation indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 microg/L was detected in a tile-drain sample, and the minimum concentration of 1 microg/L was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 microg/L. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 mg/kg was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. The selenium detected in samples of waterfowl and fish also are of concern, but, to date, no studies have been done in the Salton Sea area to determine if selenium has caused adverse biological effects. Concentrations of boron and manganese were elevated in tile-drain samples throughout the Imperial Valley. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl were at levels that could cause reproduction impairment. Elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel, and zinc were detected in the Whitewater River , but they were not associated with irrigation drainage. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in bottom sediment throughout the study area at levels approaching those measured more than 10 years ago. More detailed studies would be needed to determine if these residues are affecting the waterfowl. (USGS)

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  13. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Milbank NTMS Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey are reported for the Milbank Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 662 groundwater and 319 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting

  14. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993

    Bartolino, J.R.; Garrabrant, L.A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other

  15. FORTRAN computer programs to process Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data

    Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    FORTRAN computer programs have been written to read, edit, and reformat the hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data produced by Savannah River Laboratory for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The data are presorted by Savannah River Laboratory into stream sediment, ground water, and stream water for each 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Extraneous information is eliminated, and missing analyses are assigned a specific value (-99999.0). Negative analyses are below the detection limit; the absolute value of a negative analysis is assumed to be the detection limit

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  17. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Valdez NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-05-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Valdez NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System (GJOIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples.

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Healy NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Healy NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements multivariate statistical analyses have been included

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Seldovia NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Seldovia NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and Laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Chandalar NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Chandalar NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, may field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  4. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data report for Kingman NTMS Quadrangle, Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Qualheim, B.J.

    1978-07-01

    This report presents the results of the geochemical reconnaissance sampling in the Kingman 1 x 2 quadrangle of the National Topographical Map Series (NTMS). Wet and dry sediment samples were collected throughout the 18,770-km arid to semiarid area and water samples at available streams, springs, and wells. Neutron activation analysis of uranium and trace elements and other measurements made in the field and laboratory are presented in tabular hardcopy and microfiche format. The report includes five full-size overlays for use with the Kingman NTMS 1 : 250,000 quadrangle. Water sampling sites, water sample uranium concentrations, water-sample conductivity, sediment sampling sites, and sediment-sample total uranium and thorium concentrations are shown on the separate overlays. General geological and structural descriptions of the area are included and known uranium occurrences on this quadrangle are delineated. Results of the reconnaissance are briefly discussed and related to rock types in the final section of the report. The results are suggestive of uranium mineralization in only two areas: the Cerbat Mountains and near some of the western intrusives

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data report for Kingman NTMS Quadrangle, Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Qualheim, B.J.

    1978-07-01

    This report presents the results of the geochemical reconnaissance sampling in the Kingman 1 x 2 quadrangle of the National Topographical Map Series (NTMS). Wet and dry sediment samples were collected throughout the 18,770-km arid to semiarid area and water samples at available streams, springs, and wells. Neutron activation analysis of uranium and trace elements and other measurements made in the field and laboratory are presented in tabular hardcopy and microfiche format. The report includes five full-size overlays for use with the Kingman NTMS 1 : 250,000 quadrangle. Water sampling sites, water sample uranium concentrations, water-sample conductivity, sediment sampling sites, and sediment-sample total uranium and thorium concentrations are shown on the separate overlays. General geological and structural descriptions of the area are included and known uranium occurrences on this quadrangle are delineated. Results of the reconnaissance are briefly discussed and related to rock types in the final section of the report. The results are suggestive of uranium mineralization in only two areas: the Cerbat Mountains and near some of the western intrusives.

  6. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Introduction to Data Files, United States: Volume 1

    1985-01-01

    One product of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program, a component of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), is a data-base of interest to scientists and professionals in the academic, business, industrial, and governmental communities. This database contains individual records for water and sediment samples taken during the reconnaissance survey of the entire United States, excluding Hawaii. The purpose of this report is to describe the NURE HSSR data by highlighting its key characteristics and providing user guides to the data. A companion report, ''A Technical History of the NURE HSSR Program,'' summarizes those aspects of the HSSR Program which are likely to be important in helping users understand the database. Each record on the database contains varying information on general field or site characteristics and analytical results for elemental concentrations in the sample; the database is potentially valuable for describing the geochemistry of specified locations and addressing issues or questions in other areas such as water quality, geoexploration, and hydrologic studies. This report is organized in twelve volumes. This first volume presents a brief history of the NURE HSSR program, a description of the data files produced by ISP, a Users' Dictionary for the Analysis File and graphs showing the distribution of elemental concentrations for sediments at the US level. Volumes 2 through 12 are comprised of Data Summary Tables displaying the percentile distribution of the elemental concentrations on the file. Volume 2 contains data for the individual states. Volumes 3 through 12 contain data for the 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles, organized into eleven regional files; the data for the two regional files for Alaska (North and South) are bound together as Volume 12

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dallas NTMS Quadrangle, Texas

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dallas Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 284 groundwater and 545 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distribution plots of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided. Groundwater produced from the Navarro Group, Neylandville Formation, Marlbrook Marl, and the Glen Rose and Twin Mountains Formations exhibit anomalous uranium (> 9.05 ppB) and specific conductance (> 1871 μmhos/cm) values. The anomalies represent a southern extension of a similar trend observed in the Sherman Quadrangle, K/UR-110. Stream sediments representing the Eagle Ford Group and Woodbine Formation exhibit the highest concentrations of total and hot-acid-soluble uranium and thorium of samples collected in the Dallas Quadrangle. The U/TU value indicates that > 80% of this uranium is present in a soluble form

  8. Roanoke 10 x 20 NTMS area, Virginia. Data report (abbreviated): National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series Roanoke 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1235 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 767 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.50 to 83.50 ppM with a mean of 6.67 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th + Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. Uranium, thorium, and the rare earth elements show a striking correlation with the geology of the area

  9. Analysis of Fluvial Bed Sediments Along the Apalachicola River, Florida through Field Reconnaissance Studies

    Passeri, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Daranpob, A.; Smar, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    River competence is an important parameter in understanding sediment transport in fluvial systems. Competence is defined as the measure of a stream's ability to transport a certain maximum grain size of sediment. Studies have shown that bed sediment particle size in rivers and streams tends to vary spatially along the direction of stream flow. Over a river section several reaches long, variability of sediment particle sizes can be seen, often becoming finer downstream. This phenomenon is attributed to mechanisms such as local control of stream gradient, coarse tributary sediment supply or particle breakdown. Average particle size may also be smaller in tributary sections of rivers due to river morphology. The relationship between river mean velocity and particle size that can be transported has also been explored. The Hjulstrom curve classifies this relationship by relating particle size to velocity, dividing the regions of sedimentation, transportation, and erosion. The curve can also be used to find values such as the critical erosion velocity (the velocity required to transport particles of various sizes in suspension) and settling velocity (the velocity at which particles of a given size become too heavy to be transported and fall out of suspension, consequently causing deposition). The purpose of this research is to explore the principles of river competence through field reconnaissance collection and laboratory analysis of fluvial sediment core samples along the Apalachicola River, FL and its distributaries. Sediment core samples were collected in the wetlands and estuarine regions of the Apalachicola River. Sieve and hydrometer analyses were performed to determine the spatial distribution of particle sizes along the river. An existing high resolution hydrodynamic model of the study domain was used to simulate tides and generate river velocities. The Hjulstrom curve and the generated river velocities were used to define whether sediment was being transported

  10. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ashland NTMS Quadrangle, Wisconsin; Michigan; Minnesota

    1979-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Ashland Quadrangle, Wisconsin; Michigan; Minnesota are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 312 groundwater and 383 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs along the Douglas Thrust Fault in northern Douglas County, Wisconsin. The Douglas Fault brings Fond du Lac Formation sediments in contact with Chengwatana volcanics where carbonate-rich water derived from the mafic volcanics enter the arkosic Fond du Lac Formation. Another area of interest surrounds the Bad River Indian Reservation in northern Ashland and Iron Counties. The waters here are produced from red lithic sandstone and are also associated with the Douglas Fault. Water chemistry of these waters appears similar to the waters from the Douglas County area. The stream sediment data are inconclusive because of the extensive cover of glacial deposits. A moderately favorable area is present in a strip along Lake Superior in Douglas County, where sediments are derived from arkoses of the Fond du Lac Formation

  11. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data report for Winnemucca NTMS Quadrangle, Nevada

    Puchlik, K.P.

    1978-05-01

    Results are presented of the geochemical reconnaissance sampling in the Winnemucca 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). Wet and dry sediment samples were collected throughout the 18,770-km 2 arid to semi-arid area and water samples at available streams, springs and wells. Results of neutron activation analyses are presented of uranium and trace elements and other measurements made in the field and laboratory in tabular hardcopy and microfiche format. The report includes 5 full-size overlays for use with the Winnemucca NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle. Water sampling sites, water-sample uranium and thorium concentrations, sediment sampling sites, and sediment-sample total uranium and thorium concentrations are shown on the separate overlays. General geological and structural descriptions of the area are given and the 12 known uranium occurrences are described. The results indicate that the uranium geochemistry of the area is diverse. High concentrations (greater than 5 ppM) of uranium in sediments are associated mainly with rhyolitic ash falls and flows and silicic intrusives. In defining areas of interest the ratio of relatively insoluble thorium to uranium was considered. The anomalies as defined are then the sediment samples containing low Th/U and high uranium concentrations. These areas consist mainly of fluvial-lacustrine units. Most known uranium occurrences were also identified by this technique. The main Humboldt River shows an irregular increase in uranium concentration downstream which may be related to agricultural modification of the stream flow. U/Cl ratios were used to evaluate the effects of evaporative concentration. Of interest are spring and tributary waters containing high U/Cl and high uranium values. These waters mainly drain acid intrusives, silicic volcanic rocks and related sediments. One such area is the Shoshone and Cortez Mountains

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Grand Island NTMS Quadrangle, Nebraska/Kansas

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Grand Island Quadrangle, Nebraska/Kansas are reported. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 564 groundwater and 532 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting. Groundwater data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur primarily in shallow wells (0 to 20 m) along or near the Platte and Republican Rivers, which flow west to east along the northern and southern portions of the quadrangle, respectively. Waters containing high concentration of uranium in the northern portion of the quadrangle occur in recent alluvium and nearby glacial deposits. In the southern portion of the quadrangle, waters containing high uranium concentrations occur in Recent alluvium and the Niobrara Chalk in the southeast. Stream sediment data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur in sediments along the Platte River in the northern portion of the quadrangle and paralleling the Republican River in the southeastern portion. Sediments with high uranium values along the Platte River are derived from glacial and alluvial deposits. High uranium values paralleling the Republican River in the southeast are derived from the Niobrara Chalk, the Carlile Shale, and glacial and alluvial deposits. High U-NT and thorium values, and high values for cerium, niobium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium suggest the presence of clays and/or residual minerals in the southeast. Sediment derivation and the leaching of possible ash-rich loess and alluvial deposits and/or uranium-rich alkaline evaporite deposits could account for high uranium concentrations in sediment and groundwaters within the quadrangle

  13. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north

  14. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in the San Juan Mountains, Southwest Colorado

    Maxwell, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    From 1995 sites in the San Juan Mountains area, 1706 water and 1982 sediment samples were collected during June--July 1976 and analyzed for uranium. The area includes the southern third of the Colorado mineral belt which has yielded rich ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and molybdenum. The broadly domed mountains are capped by 2500 m of Tertiary volcanics, deeply eroded to expose a Precambrian crystalline core. Adjacent plateaus underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were included in the reconnaissance. Average value of uranium in water samples from mountains was less than 0.5 ppB, from plateaus was 1 to 2 ppB, from Mancos shale areas exceeded 2 ppB. Anomalous sediment samples, 40 ppM uranium, came from near Storm King Mountain and upper Vallecito Creek. Other anomalous areas, including the Lake City mining district, were well defined by 4 to 30 ppM uranium in sediment and 3 to 30 ppB uranium in water. Anomalous areas not previously reported indicate favorable areas for future exploration

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Kenai NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance of the Kenai NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in the San Juan Mountains, Southwest Colorado

    Maxwell, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    From 1995 sites in the San Juan Mountains area, 1706 water and 1982 sediment samples were collected during June--July 1976 and analyzed for uranium. The area includes the southern third of the Colorado mineral belt which has yielded rich ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and molybdenum. The broadly domed mountains are capped by 2500 m of Tertiary volcanics, deeply eroded to expose a Precambrian crystalline core. Adjacent plateaus underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were included in the reconnaissance. Average value of uranium in water samples from mountains was less than 0.5 ppB, from plateaus was 1 to 2 ppB, from Mancos shale areas exceeded 2 ppB. Anomalous sediment samples, 40 ppM uranium, came from near Storm King Mountain and upper Vallecito Creek. Other anomalous areas, including the Lake City mining district, were well defined by 4 to 30 ppM uranium in sediment and 3 to 30 ppB uranium in water. Anomalous areas not previously reported indicate favorable areas for future exploration.

  17. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dickinson NTMS Quadrangle, North Dakota

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dickinson Quadrangle, North Dakota are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 544 groundwater and 554 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Interpretation of the groundwater data indicates that scattered localities in the central portion of the quadrangle appear most promising for uranium mineralization. High values of uranium in this area are usually found in waters of the Sentinel Butte and Tongue River Formations. Uranium is believed to be concentrated in the lignite beds of the Fort Union Group, with concentrations increasing with proximity to the pre-Oligocene unconformity. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium values distributed over the central area of the quadrangle. Uranium in stream sediments does not appear to be associated with any particular geologic unit and is perhaps following a structural trend

  18. National uranium resource evaluation. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Greeley NTMS quadrangle, Colorado

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance of the Greeley NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses

  19. Results of uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the San Juan area, southwestern Colorado

    Maxwell, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    During June-July 1976, 1706 water samples and 1982 sediment samples were collected from 1995 sites in the San Juan Mountains area and analyzed for uranium. The area includes the southern third of the Colorado mineral belt which has yielded rich ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and molybdenum. The broadly domed mountains are capped by 2500 m of Tertiary volcanics, deeply eroded to expose a Precambrian crystalline core. Adjacent plateaus underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were included in the reconnaissance. Average value of uranium in water samples from mountains was less than 0.5 ppb, from plateaus was 1 to 2 ppb, and from Mancos shale areas exceeded 2 ppb. Anomalous sediment samples, 40 ppM uranium, came from near Storm King Mountain and upper Vallecito Creek. Other anomalous areas, including the Lake City mining district, were well defined by 4 to 30 ppM uranium in sediment and 3 to 30 ppB uranium in water. Above-average concentrations of uranium not previously reported indicate areas favorable for detailed exploration

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Grand Junction NTMS quadrangle, Colorado/Utah

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance of the Kenai NTMS quadrangle, Colorado/Utah. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Denver NTMS quadrangle, Colorado

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance of the Denver NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through E describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses

  2. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Seguin NTMS quadrangle, Texas

    1978-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Sequin Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 848 groundwater, 950 stream sediment, and 406 stream water samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and other possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur along several northeast-southwest trends paralleling the regional strike of the major formations located within the survey area. The stream sediment data indicate that uranium is associated with heavy and/or resistate minerals in the Carrizo Sand and certain members of the Claiborne Group. Soluble uranium is primarily associated with the Cretaceous Formations, the Whitsett and Catahoula Formations, and sections of the Oakville and Fleming Formations. Stream water data corroborate well with both groundwater and stream sediment data. Anomalous values for uranium and associated pathfinder elements indicate that the Whitsett and Catahoula Formations and sections of the Oakville and Fleming Formations are potentially favorable for uranium mineralization. Anomalous values for certain pathfinder elements also occur in basins draining from the Beaumont Formation and may warrant further investigation

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Hughes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Youngquist, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Hughes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  4. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Watertown NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota; Minnesota

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Watertown Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 711 groundwater and 603 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that high uranium concentrations are derived predominantly from glacial aquifers of variable water composition located on the Coteau des Prairies. Elements associated with high uranium values in these waters include barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Low uranium values were observed in waters originating from the Cretaceous Dakota sandstone whose water chemistry is characterized by high concentrations of boron, sodium, and chloride. Stream sediment data indicate that high uranium concentrations are scattered across the glacial deposits of the Coteau des Prairies. A major clustering of high uranium values occurs in the eastern portion of the glaciated quadrangle and is associated with high concentrations of selenium, lithium, iron, arsenic, chromium, and vanadium. The sediment data suggest that the drift covering the Watertown Quadrangle is compositionally homogeneous, although subtle geochemical differences were observed as a result of localized contrasts in drift source-rock mineralogy and modification of elemental distributions by contemporaneous and postglacial hydrologic processes

  5. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory approach to hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for uranium in the United States

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the United States is conducting a geochemical survey for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in Alaska. This survey is part of a national hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in which four Department of Energy laboratories will study the uranium resources of the United States to provide data for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The reconnaissance will identify areas having higher than background concentrations of uranium in ground waters, surface waters, and water-transported sediments. The reconnaissance data will be combined with data from airborne radiometric surveys and geological and geophysical investigations to provide an improved estimate for the economics and availability of nuclear fuel resources in the United States and to make information available to industry for use in the exploration and development of uranium resources. Water samples are analyzed for uranium by fluorometry which has a 0.02 parts per billion lower limit of detection. Concentrations of 12 additional elements in water are determined by plasma-source emission spectrography. All sediments are analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting and a 20 parts per billion lower limit of detection. Elemental concentrations in sediments are also determined by neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and by arc-source emission spectrography. To date, all of four Rocky Mountain states and about 80% of Alaska have been sampled. About 220,000 samples have been collected from an area of nearly 2,500,000 km 2 . The philosophy, sampling methodology, analytical techniques, and progress of the reconnaissance are described in several published pilot study, reconnaissance, and technical reports. The Los Alamos program was designed to maximize the identification of uranium in terrains of varied geography, geology, and climate

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Arctic NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Youngquist, C.A.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Arctic NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendix A describes the sample media and summarizes the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others into stream sediment samples. For the group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Nome NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Youngquist, C.A.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Nome NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others into groups of stream sediment and stream water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL, and will not be included in this report

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Teshekpuk NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Teshekpuk NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendix A describes the sample media and summarizes the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Cordova NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Youngquist, C.A.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Cordova NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others into groups of stream sediment and stream water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the White Sulfur Springs NTMS quadrangle, Montana

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the White Sulphur Springs NTMS quadrangle, Montana. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through C describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, stream-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Atlin NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Altin NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Only 6 samples were taken in the Atlin Quadrangle. Appendix A describes the sample media and summarizes the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into stream-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report. Chemical analysis and field data for water samples from this quadrangle were open filed by the DOE Grand Junction Office as GJX-166

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dodge City NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dodge City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 756 groundwater and 321 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are as follows: (1) in the north central area of the quadrangle within close proximity to the Arkansas River, mostly from waters of the Ogallala Formation; (2) in the west central area, from groundwater samples of the Dakota and the Ogallala Formations; and (3) between the North Fork of the Cimarron River and the main Cimarron River, mostly in waters from the Ogallala Formation. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations for magnesium, strontium, and sulfate. Of the groundwater samples taken 81% were collected from the Ogallala Formation. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium concentrations in scattered samples in the northwestern, central, and southwestern areas of the quadrangle. Most of the samples with high uranium values were collected from the Quaternary alluvium. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations of barium, cerium, iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program: the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program at LLNL

    Higgins, G.H.

    1980-08-01

    From early 1975 to mid 1979, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) participated in the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory was initially responsible for collecting, analyzing, and evaluating sediment and water samples from approximately 200,000 sites in seven western states. Eventually, however, the NURE program redefined its sampling priorities, objectives, schedules, and budgets, with the increasingly obvious result that LLNL objectives and methodologies were not compatible with those of the NURE program office, and the LLNL geochemical studies were not relevant to the program goal. The LLNL portion of the HSSR program was consequently terminated, and all work was suspended by June 1979. Of the 38,000 sites sampled, 30,000 were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and automated chloride-sulfate analyses (SC). Data from about 13,000 sites have been formally reported. From each site, analyses were published of about 30 of the 60 elements observed. Uranium mineralization has been identified at several places which were previously not recognized as potential uranium source areas, and a number of other geochemical anomalies were discovered

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Brownsville-McAllen NTMS Quadrangles, Texas

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Brownsville-McAllen Quadrangles, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 427 groundwater and 171 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. Pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs in the northwestern section of the quadrangles (Jim Hogg, Starr, and Zapata Counties), where waters are derived from the Catahoula Formation. These groundwaters have high concentrations of uranium, uranium associated elements, and low values for specific conductance. Another area with high uranium concentrations is in the southeastern portion of the survey area (Hidalgo, Cameron, and Willacy Counties). Shallow wells <10 m (30 ft) are numerous in this area and high specific conductance values may indicate contamination from extensive fertilization. Stream sediment data for the survey does not indicate an area favorable for uranium mineralization. Anomalous acid soluble uranium values in the southeastern area (Hidalgo, Cameron, and Willacy Counties) can be attributed to phosphate fertilizer contamination. Four samples in the western part of the area (western Starr County) have anomalously high total uranium values and low acid soluble uranium values, indicating the uranium may be contained in resistate minerals

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Solomon NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Youngquist, C.A.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Solomon NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others into groups of stream sediment and stream water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  16. Uraniam hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Wiseman NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Wiseman NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendix A describes the sample media and summarizes the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others (198a) into stream sediment samples. For the group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  17. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Valdez NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-05-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Valdez NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System (GJOIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Nulato NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Znkl, R.J.; Shellel, D.C. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Nulato NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Sagavanirktok NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Sagavanirktok NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Candle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Candle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Port Alexander NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Port Alexander NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available fom DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  2. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Tanacross NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-01-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Tanacross NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Point Lay NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Point Lay NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Unalakleet NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Unalakleet NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information onthe field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance Misheguk Mountain NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Misheguk Mountain NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Umiat NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Umiat NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Howard Pass NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-01-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Howard Pass NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analysis, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Circle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Circle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Ruby NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Ruby NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Selawik NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Selawik NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Melozitna NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Melozitna NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Beechey Point NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-01-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Beechey Point NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANI) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory (see, for example, Planner and others, 1981) and will not be included in this report

  14. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Utukok River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Utukok River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1;1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Nabesne NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Garcia, S.R.; Hanks, D.; George, W.E.; Boliver, S.L.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Nabesna NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory (see, for example, Planner and others, 1981), and will not be included in this report

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Limon NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Minor, M.M.; McInteer, C.; Hansel, J.N.; Broxton, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Limon NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume, these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information of the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory (see, for example, Planner and others, 1981) and will not be included in this report

  17. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Coleen NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Coleen NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these date are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laborarory and will not be included in this report

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Big Delta NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L. C.; D& #x27; Andrea, Jr., R. F.; Zinkl, R. J.; Shettel, Jr., D. L.; Langfeldt, S. L. [comps.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Big Delta NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Big Delta NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Big Delta NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Wainwright NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Wainwright NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Michelson NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Mt. Michelson NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Glasgow NTMS quadrangle, Montana

    1982-06-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Glasgow NTMS quadrangle, Montana. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through C describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, stream-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  3. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) 1973-1984. Technical history

    1985-01-01

    The Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) generated a database of interest to scientists and other professional personnel in the academic, business, industrial, and governmental communities. NURE was a program of the Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. The HSSR program provided for the collection of water and sediment samples located on the 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle grid across the conterminous United States and Alaska and the analysis of these samples for uranium as well as for a number of additional elements. Although the initial purpose of the program was to provide information regarding uranium resources, the information recorded about other elements and general field or site characteristics has made this database potentially valuable for describing the geochemistry of a location and addressing other issues such as water quality. The purpose of this Technical History is to summarize in one report those aspects of the HSSR program that are likely to be important in helping users assess the database and make informed judgements about its application to specific research questions. The history begins with an overview of the NURE Program and its components. Following a general description of the goals, objectives, and key features of the HSSR program, the implementation of the program at each of the four federal laboratories is presented in four separate chapters. These typically cover such topics as sample collection, sample analysis, and data management. 80 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Data report: Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Fay, W.M.; Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following samples were collected: Arkansas-3292 stream sediments, 5121 ground waters, 1711 stream waters; Louisiana-1017 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Misissippi-0 stream sediments, 814 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Missouri-2162 stream sediments, 3423 ground waters 1340 stream waters; Oklahoma-2493 stream sediments, 2751 ground waters, 375 stream waters; and Texas-279 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 563 ground water sites in Mississippi. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  6. Data report: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The following sample types were collected in each state: Illinois - 716 stream sediment, 1046 ground water, 337 stream water; Indiana - 126 stream sediment, 443 ground water, 111 stream water; Kentucky - 4901 stream sediment, 6408 ground water, 3966 stream water; Tennessee - 3309 stream sediment, 3574 ground water, 1584 stream water; Ohio - 1214 stream sediment, 2049 ground water, 1205 stream water. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 248 sediment samples from Tennessee. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  7. Savannah River Laboratory semiannual report, April-September 1979. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance: National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments, status, and program of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. SRL has accepted responsibility for Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of 1,500,000 square miles in 30 eastern and 7 far-western states. The report is a progress report covering the period April 1979 through September 1979. SRL efforts in the following areas are discussed: reconnaissance and detailed studies in geological programs; management, analysis, and interpretation of analytical and field data; reporting of HSSR results; sample preparation methods; and neutron activation analysis and other analytical techniques. Appendix A to the report summarizes the SRL-NURE production of the April 1979-September 1979 period and the program plans for the first half of FY-1980. Page-scale maps are included that show the status of completed sampling, analysis, and data reports placed on open file

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Livengood NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Livengood NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-water and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  9. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Data Summary Tables, United States: Volume 2

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across states. Hawaii is missing from all tables since no sampling was done in that state. The following section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. The third section contains the summary tables organized by sample type (water and sediment) and displaying elements within states and states within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  10. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, North Region: Volume 7

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the North Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the North Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  11. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South East Region: Volume 5

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  12. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South West Region: Volume 9

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  13. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, East Region: Volume 4

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  14. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, Mid West Region: Volume 8

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the Mid West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the Mid West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  15. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, North West Region: Volume 11

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the North West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the North West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  16. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, West Region: Volume 10

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  17. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, Mid East Region: Volume 6

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the Mid East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the Mid East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  18. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory approach to hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for uranium in the United States

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the United States is conducting a geochemical survey for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in Alaska. This survey is part of a national hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in which four Department of Energy laboratories will study the uranium resources of the United States to provide data for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The reconnaissance will identify areas having higher than background concentrations of uranium in ground waters, surface waters, and water-transported sediments. Water and sediment samples are collected at a nominal density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/ except for lake areas of Alaska where the density is one sample location per 23 km/sup 2/. Water samples are analyzed for uranium by fluorometry which has a 0.02 parts per billion lower limit of detection. Concentrations of 12 additional elements in water are determined by plasma-source emission spectrography. All sediments are analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting with a 20 parts per billion lower limit of detection, which is well below the range of uranium concentrations in natural sediment samples. Elemental concentrations in sediments are also determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. The multielement analyses provide valuable data for studies concerning pathfinder elements, environmental pollution, elemental distributions, dispersion halos, and economic ore deposits other than uranium. To date, all of four Rocky Mountain states and about 80% of Alaska have been sampled. About 220,000 samples have been collected from an area of nearly 2,500,000 km/sup 2/.

  19. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory approach to hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for uranium in the United States

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the United States is conducting a geochemical survey for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in Alaska. This survey is part of a national hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in which four Department of Energy laboratories will study the uranium resources of the United States to provide data for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The reconnaissance will identify areas having higher than background concentrations of uranium in ground waters, surface waters, and water-transported sediments. Water and sediment samples are collected at a nominal density of one sample location per 10 km 2 except for lake areas of Alaska where the density is one sample location per 23 km 2 . Water samples are analyzed for uranium by fluorometry which has a 0.02 parts per billion lower limit of detection. Concentrations of 12 additional elements in water are determined by plasma-source emission spectrography. All sediments are analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting with a 20 parts per billion lower limit of detection, which is well below the range of uranium concentrations in natural sediment samples. Elemental concentrations in sediments are also determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. The multielement analyses provide valuable data for studies concerning pathfinder elements, environmental pollution, elemental distributions, dispersion halos, and economic ore deposits other than uranium. To date, all of four Rocky Mountain states and about 80% of Alaska have been sampled. About 220,000 samples have been collected from an area of nearly 2,500,000 km 2

  20. Reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and wastewater indicators in streambed sediments of the lower Columbia River basin, Oregon and Washington

    Nilsen, Elena; Furlong, Edward T.; Rosenbauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One by-product of advances in modern chemistry is the accumulation of synthetic chemicals in the natural environment. These compounds include contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), some of which are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) that can have detrimental reproductive effects. The role of sediments in accumulating these types of chemicals and acting as a source of exposure for aquatic organisms is not well understood. Here we present a small-scale reconnaissance of CECs in bed sediments of the lower Columbia River and several tributaries and urban streams. Surficial bed sediment samples were collected from the Columbia River, the Willamette River, the Tualatin River, and several small urban creeks in Oregon. Thirty-nine compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from 1,000 ng [g sediment]-1 dry weight basis. Columbia River mainstem, suggesting a higher risk of exposure to aquatic life in lower order streams. Ten known or suspected EDCs were detected during the study. At least one EDC was detected at 21 of 23 sites sampled; several EDCs were detected in sediment from most sites. This study is the first to document the occurrence of a large suite of CECs in the sediments of the Columbia River basin. A better understanding of the role of sediment in the fate and effects of emerging contaminants is needed.

  1. Boston 10 x 20 NTMS area, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Data report (abbreviated): National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Boston 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Surface sediment samples were collected at 669 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 303 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included on the microfiche. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Ci, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). The maximum uranium concentration in the sediments of the Boston quadrangle was 82.1 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations in sediments was 0.68, which corresponds to 4.8 ppM uranium. A cluster of samples with uranium values greater than 40 ppM and which have low thorium concentrations occurs in Essex County, Massachusetts

  2. Lake Champlain 10 x 20 NTMS area New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1196 sites. Ground-water samples were collected at 619 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground-water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. A real distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mg, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.30 to 43.40 ppM with a mean of 3.03 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th+Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. The U x 1000/conductivity ratio in surface water is high in this same area

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Wyoming portions of the Driggs, Preston, and Ogden NTMS Quadrangles

    Broxton, D.E.; Nunes, H.P.

    1978-04-01

    This report describes work done in the Wyoming portions of the Driggs and Preston, Wyoming/Idaho, and the Ogden, Wyoming/Utah, National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangles (1 : 250,000 scale) by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) as part of the nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The HSSR is designed to identify areas having higher than normal concentrations of uranium in ground waters, surface waters, and water-transported sediments. During the fall of 1976, 1108 water samples and 1956 sediment samples were taken from 1999 locations by a private contractor within the Wyoming portion of Driggs, Preston, and Ogden quadrangles. An additional 108 water samples and 128 sediment samples were collected in the Grand Teton National Park during the fall of 1977 by staff members from the LASL. All of the samples were collected and treated according to standard specifications described in Appendix A. Uranium concentrations were determined at the LASL using standard analytical methods and procedures, also described briefly in Appendix A. Appendixes B-I through B-III and C-I through C-III are listings of all field and analytical data for the water and sediment samples, respectively. Appendixes D-I and D-II provide keys to codes used in the data listings. Statistical data describing the mean, range, and standard deviations of uranium concentrations are summarized by quadrangle and sample source-type in Tables I through III

  4. Data report: Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. Ground water samples were collected at 5734 sites in Pennsylvania, 1038 sites in New Jersey, and 4829 sites in New York. Stream sediment samples were collected at 4499 sites in Pennsylvania, 628 sites in New Jersey, and 5696 sites in New York. Stream water samples were collected at 4401 sites in Pennsylvania, 382 sites in New Jersey, and 5047 sites in New York. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 6947 sediment samples. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  5. Death Valley 10 x 20 NTMS area, California and Nevada. Data report: National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Death Valley 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 649 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 20 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 62 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 220 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and surface water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) scintillometer readings, and (3) elemental analyses (U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, and V). Supplementary data include site descriptors, tabulated analytical data for Al, Dy, and Mg, and histograms and cumulative frequency plots for all elements. Key data from stream sediment sites include (1) water quality measurements (2) important elemental analyses, (U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Sc, Na, Ti, and V), and (3) scintillometer readings. Supplementary data from stream sediment sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.), additional elemental analyses (Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, and Yb), and histograms and cumulative frequency plots for all elements

  6. Water-quality reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste facility, Florida

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality sampling reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste disposal facility (landfill) near Carol City, Florida, was conducted during 1977-78. The purpose of the reconnaissance was to determine selected quality characteristics of the surface- and ground-water of the landfill and contiguous area; and to assess, generally, if leachate produced by the decomposition of landfill wastes was adversely impacting the downgradient water quality. Sampling results indicated that several water-quality characteristics were present in landfill ground water at significantly higher levels than in ground water upgradient or downgradient from the landfill. Moreover, many of these water-quality characteristics were found at slightly higher levels at down gradient site 5 than at upgradient site 1 which suggested that some downgradient movement of landfill leachate had occurred. For example, chloride and alkalinity in ground water had average concentrations of 20 and 290 mg/L at background wells (site 1), 144 and 610 mg/L at landfill wells (sites 2 and 4), and 29 and 338 mg/L at downgradient wells (site 5). A comparison of the 1977-78 sampling results with the National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations indicated that levels of iron and color in ground water of the study area frequently exceeded national maximum contaminant levels, dissolved solids, turbidity, lead, and manganese occasionally exceeded regulations. Concentrations of iron and levels of color and turbidity in some surface water samples also exceeded National maximum contaminant levels. (USGS)

  7. Pocatello 10 x 20 NTMS area Idaho. Data report: National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    This data report presents results of groundwater and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Pocatello 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface samples (sediment) were collected from 1701 sites. The target sampling density was one site per 16 square kilometers (six square miles). Ground water samples were collected at 381 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements where applicable (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements; U/Th, U/Hf, and U/La ratios; and scintillometer readings for sediment sample sites are included on the microfiche. Data from groundwater sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from stream water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); and (2) elemental analyses

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the thermopolis NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Maassen, L.W.

    1980-08-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance for uranium in the Thermopolis National Topographic Map Series quadrangle, Wyoming. Totals of 920 water and 1821 sediment samples were collected from 1977 locations at an average density of one sample location per 9 km 2 over an 18,000-km 2 area. Water samples were collected from streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. The uranium contents of water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 307.98 ppB with a median of 0.56 ppB. Six clusters of anomalous water samples were delineated within the Wind River Basin and are associated predominantly with the Wind River formation. Two clusters of anomalous waters were collected on the southern margin of the Bighorn Basin and are associated with sandstone and shales of Permian through Cretaceous age. The uranium contents of sediment samples range from 0.43 to 94.65 ppM with a median of 2.90 ppM. Most sediment samples with uranium concentrations of greater than 12 ppM are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Wind River Range; this area contains the highest uranium values found in sediments from the Thermopolis quadrangle. Other samples containing greater than 12 ppM uranium are found associated with the Wind River and Aycross formations along the northern margin of the Wind River Basin, and one sample was collected from Precambrian granitic terrain of the Owl Creek Mountains

  9. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    overlying land-use practices by as much as 400 feet of unsaturated sediments. Consequently, one may hypothesize that recently recharged water is not present in the formation. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance study in 1999 to establish (a) if recently recharged water was present in the Ogallala Formation underlying irrigated cropland and (b) if agricultural land-use practices affect water quality. Results from the reconnaissance study will be used to determine whether a full-scale land-use study is warranted.

  10. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance, eastern United States. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Semiannual report, April--September 1978

    1978-11-01

    SRL development efforts in the following areas are discussed: orientation, reconnaissance, and anomaly follow-up in geological programs; management, analysis, and interpretation of analytical and field data; reporting of HSSR results; and sample preparation methods, neutron activation analysis, and other analytical developments including emission spectrometry and electron microprobe analysis of sediments, and mass spectrometric analysis of helium and neon in groundwater. Appendices to the report discuss the SRL--NURE production of the April--September 1978 period and the production program plans for the first half of FY-1979. Page scale maps of the eastern United States are included showing the status of completed sampling, analysis, and Basic Data Reports placed on open file. Other appendices to the report discuss groundwater sample collection procedures for helium and neon analyses, the analysis procedures for helium and neon in groundwater, and an example of a hydrology report to be included in future selected Basic Data Releases

  11. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  12. National uranium resource evaluation. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Fairweather NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Martell, C.J.; Maassen, L.W.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Mt. Fairweather NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in macine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  13. U, Th, K content, heat production and thermal conductivity of Sao Paulo, Brazil continental shelf sediments: a reconnaissance work

    Pereira, E.B.; Hamza, V.M.; Furtado, V.V.; Adams, J.A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the natural potassium, uranium and thorium content, the radiogenic heat production and the thermal conductivity of 80 bottom surface sediment samples collected from the Brazilian continental shelf off Sao Paulo was made. The average equivalent contents of these radio-elements in an estuarine ambient were 1.21%, 1.75 ppm and 4.29 ppm respectively, and 1.20%, 1.21 ppm and 4.05 ppm, respectively, in the shelf samples. The largest radioelement contents were associated with the more fine-grained sediments. The 234 U to 238 U isotopic ratios varied from 0.60 to 1.75 with an average of 1.11, indicating that the sources for the uranium in these sediments are both terrigenous and from the sea water. An average radiogenic heat production of 0.63 (+ - 0.04) μW.m -3 was calculated from the experimental concentration data. Data for the thermal conductivity measurements ranged from 0.83 to 2.51 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 , with an average of 1.81 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 . (Author) [pt

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Progress report, January--March 1978

    Weaver, T.A.; Bunker, M.E.; Hansel, J.M. Jr.

    1978-10-01

    The modifications to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program, necessary to incorporate the expansion and revision of the overall HSSR program as required by the Department of Energy, have been completed. To date, approximately 57% of the total area assigned to the LASL in the Rocky Mountain region and Alaska has been sampled and plans are well under way to sample an additional 28% during FY 78. Contracts have been let to complete the sampling of the LASL area in the lower states and bids to sample an additional 33% of Alaska are being evaluated. Twenty reports (2 in press and 18 in preparation) are presently scheduled to be open filed within six months, reporting uranium data only for 18 complete quadrangles and multielement data for 11 complete quadrangles. In addition, data releases are being prepared to open file the uranium data from portions of 13 quadrangles that are now outside the LASL reporting boundary but which had been sampled by the LASL prior to the establishment of the new boundary in October 1977. By the end of the quarter, all multielement analysis systems were operational. Water samples from 7780 locations and sediment samples from 4170 locations were analyzed for uranium. Samples from approximately 6500 locations were analyzed by one or more of the multielement methods.

  15. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Emory Peak NTMS Quadrangle, Texas. Uranium Resource Evaluation Project

    1978-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Emory Peak Quadrangle, Texas, are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 193 groundwater samples and 491 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and other possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and the pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. In groundwater, uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile outline an area in the northwest portion of the quadrangle which is dominated by tertiary tuffaceous ash beds which disconformably overlie cretaceous units. The relationship between uranium and related variables indicates this area appears to have the best potential for uranium mineralization within the quadrangle. Stream sediment data indicate four areas that appear to be favorable for potential uranium mineralization: the Upper Green Valley-Paradise Valley region, the Terlingua Creek-Solitario region, an area in the vicinity of Big Bend National Park, and an area east of long. 102 0 15' W. In the first three of the preceding areas, soluble uranium is associated with tertiary igneous rocks. In the fourth area, soluble uranium is present in carbonate-dominant cretaceous strata

  16. Field procedures for the uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance as used by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1978-04-01

    This manual of field procedures is prepared to aid personnel involved in the field sampling of natural waters and waterborne sediment for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. It presents the procedural guidelines to be followed by all contractors, contractor employees, and others who collect, treat, or otherwise handle samples taken for the LASL as part of the HSSR program. Part I relates to all sampling in the conterminous states of the US for which the LASL is responsible to the DOE for carrying out the HSSR work. Part II describes procedures to be followed for HSSR work, using helicopter support, in the state of Alaska. The objective of the manual is to insure that consistent techniques are used throughout the survey. If any procedure is unclear or cannot be followed, telephone collect to Group G-5, LASL, (505) 667-7590, for further instructions. No variations in the specific procedures should be made without prior approval of the LASL

  17. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Progress report, January--March 1978

    Weaver, T.A.; Bunker, M.E.; Hansel, J.M. Jr.

    1978-10-01

    The modifications to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program, necessary to incorporate the expansion and revision of the overall HSSR program as required by the Department of Energy, have been completed. To date, approximately 57% of the total area assigned to the LASL in the Rocky Mountain region and Alaska has been sampled and plans are well under way to sample an additional 28% during FY 78. Contracts have been let to complete the sampling of the LASL area in the lower states and bids to sample an additional 33% of Alaska are being evaluated. Twenty reports (2 in press and 18 in preparation) are presently scheduled to be open filed within six months, reporting uranium data only for 18 complete quadrangles and multielement data for 11 complete quadrangles. In addition, data releases are being prepared to open file the uranium data from portions of 13 quadrangles that are now outside the LASL reporting boundary but which had been sampled by the LASL prior to the establishment of the new boundary in October 1977. By the end of the quarter, all multielement analysis systems were operational. Water samples from 7780 locations and sediment samples from 4170 locations were analyzed for uranium. Samples from approximately 6500 locations were analyzed by one or more of the multielement methods

  18. Savannah River Laboratory Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance. Preliminary raw data release: Spartanburg 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina and South Carolina. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Heffner, J.D.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1977-12-01

    Preliminary results are presented of stream sediment and ground water reconnaissance in the Spartanburg National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 1202 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 771 sites for a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten square miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from stream sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) elements that may be related to potential uranium and thorium mineralization in this area (U, Th, Hf, Ce, and Dy), and (3) elements useful for geologic classification of the sample area (Ti, V, Fe, Mn, A, and Sc). Supplementary data from stream sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, stream width, etc.) and additional elemental analyses that may be useful (F, Eu, Sm, La, Yb, and Lu). Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Mn, Br, V, and F). Supplementary data include site descriptors, information about the collection of the samples (well age, well depth, frequency of use of well, etc.), and analytical data for dyprosium

  19. Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Preliminary raw data release, Charlotte 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina and South Carolina. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Heffner, J.D.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents preliminary results of stream sediment and ground water reconnaissance in the Charlotte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 1254 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 759 sites for a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten squre miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from stream sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) elements that may be related to potential uranium and thorium mineralization in this area (U, Th, Hf, Ce, and Dy), and (3) elements useful for geologic classification of the sample area (Ti, V, Fe, Mn, Al, and Sc). Supplementary data from stream sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, stream width, etc.) and additional elemental analyses that may be useful (F, Eu, Sm, La, Yb, and Lu). Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Mn, Br, V, and F). Supplementary data include site descriptors, information about the collection of the samples (well age, well depth, frequency of use of well, etc.), and analytical data for dysprosium

  20. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data report for Williams NTMS quadrangle, Arizona

    Wagoner, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    Wet and dry sediments were collected throughout the 18,500-km 2 arid-to-semiarid region and water samples at available streams, springs, and wells. Samples were collected between August 1977 and January 1978. Results of neutron activation analyses of uranium and trace elements and other field and laboratory analyses are presented in tabular hardcopy and microfiche format. The report includes six full-size overlays for use with the Williams NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle. Sediment samples are divided into five general groups according to the source rock from which the sediment was derived. Background uranium concentrations for the quadrangle are relatively low, ranging from 1.91 to 2.40 ppM, with the highest associated with the Precambrian igneous and metamorphic complexes of the Basin and Range province. Uranium correlates best with the rare-earth elements and iron, scandium, titanium, and manganese. Known uranium occurrences are not readily identified by the stream sediment data

  1. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Teller NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    1982-06-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Teller NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  3. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance of the Bendeleben NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Bendeleben NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting program of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Noatak NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Noatak NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report. 16 figures, 12 tables

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Charley River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Charley River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  6. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Shishmaref NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Shishmaref NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Kateel River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Kateel River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  8. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Shungnak NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Shungnak NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Clovis NTMS Quadrangle, New Mexico. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Clovis NTMS Quadrangle, New Mexico. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through E describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses.Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Black River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Black River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  11. National uranium resource evaluation. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Lookout Ridge NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; Garcia, S.R.; Hanks, D.; George, W.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the lookout Ridge NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  12. National uranium resource evaluation. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Harrison Bay NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Minor, M.M.; McInteer, C.; Hansel, J.N.; Broxton, D.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Harrison Bay NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  13. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance of the Seward NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, D.L.; Hardy, L.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Seward NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  14. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Ophir NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Ophir NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report. 14 figures, 10 tables

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Kantishna River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Kantishna River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Tanana NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    1982-04-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Tanana NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendix A describes the sample medium and summarizes the analytical results for that medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting program of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will be included in this report

  17. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Eagle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Hardy, L.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Eagle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  18. Albany 10 x 20 NTMS area Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont: supplemental data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    This data report presents supplemental analytical results for 1328 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Albany 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Results are reported for 23 Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis were open-filed in DPST-79-146-10 [GJBX-140(79)

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Rawlins NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming

    Weaver, T.A.; Morris, W.A.; Trexler, P.K.

    1978-04-01

    During the spring and winter of 1976 and January and June of 1977, 570 natural water and 1281 waterborne sediment samples were collected from 1369 locations in the Rawlins, Wyoming, NTMS quadrangle. The samples obtained from this 18 700-km 2 area were analyzed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for total uranium. The uranium concentrations in waters ranged from less than the detectable limit of 0.2 parts per billion (ppB) to 448 ppB, with a mean value of 6 ppB. The concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.2 parts per million (ppM) to 60.4 ppM, with a mean value of 4.1 ppM. Based on simple statistical analyses of these data, arbitrary anomaly thresholds were set at 50 ppB for water samples and 9 ppM for sediment samples. Eleven water and 44 sediment samples were considered anomalous; 1 anomalous water and 25 anomalous sediments could be associated with four of the five major uranium occurrences in the quadrangle. Only the Ketchum Buttes area did not show up in the data. Twelve minor reported occurrences could not be identified by the data. Eleven anomalous samples (8 waters and 3 sediments) and 13 near-anomalous samples (10 waters and 3 sediments) outline a broad area in the northeast corner of the quadrangle (corresponding to the drainage area of the Medicine Bow River) where two airborne radiometric anomalies were discovered in an earlier study. This area, and perhaps others, may warrant further, more detailed geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigations

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Cheyenne NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming

    Trexler, P.K.

    1978-06-01

    Between June 1976 and October 1977, 1138 water and 600 sediment samples were systematically collected from 1498 locations in the Cheyenne NTMS quadrangle of southeast Wyoming. The samples were analyzed for total uranium at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The uranium concentration in waters ranged from 0.01 to 296.30 parts per billion (ppB), with a median of 3.19 ppB and a mean of 8.34 ppB. The uranium in sediments ranged from 0.8 to 83.0 parts per million (ppM) with a median of 3.4 ppM and a mean of 4.5 ppM. Arbitrary anomaly thresholds were selected to isolate those water and sediment samples containing uranium concentrations above those of 98% of the population sampled. Using this procedure, 23 water samples above 54.50 ppB and 12 sediment samples above 14.0 ppM were considered anomalous. Several areas appear favorable for further investigation for possible uranium mineralization. High uranium concentrations were detected in waters from the northeast corner of the Cheyenne quadrangle. High uranium concentrations were detected in sediments from locations in the southern and central Laramie Mountains and along the southeast and east-central edges of the study area

  1. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Lawton NTMS quadrangle, Oklahoma; Texas

    1978-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 703 groundwater and 782 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for potential uranium mineralization occur in the Lower Permian units surrounding the granite outcrops of the Wichita Mountains. Waters from the Hennessey and Clearfork Groups and the Garber Sandstone contain the highest uranium values. Elements associated with the uranium are arsenic, boron, barium, molybdenum, sodium, selenium, and vandium. Stream sediment data indicate that the promising areas for potential uranium mineralization occur around the Wichita Mountains where stream sediments are derived from the Lower Permian Post Oak Conglomerate, Hennessey Group, and Garber Sandstone and from the Cambrian igneous rocks. Other areas of interest occur (1) in the western part of the quadrangle where the sediments are derived from rocks of the El Reno Group, and (2) along the southern border of the quadrangle where the sediments are derived from the Wichita Group

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Durango NTMS quadrangle, Colorado

    Dawson, H.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 1976, 1518 water and 1604 waterborne sediment samples were collected from 1804 locations in the Durango NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. The samples obtained from this 19 940-km 2 area were analyzed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for total uranium. The uranium concentrations in waters ranged from less than the detectable limit of 0.2 ppB to 25.7 ppB, with a mean value of 0.84 ppB. The concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.0 ppM to 71.6 ppM, with a mean value of 4.2 ppM. Study of total water and total sediment populations indicated that both are actually mixtures of several populations. Consequently, samples were chosen for discussion on the basis of their having conspicuously high uranium concentrations relative to surrounding background values. Thirty-four water samples (approximately 2.2% of the total water population) had uranium concentrations above 5.00 ppB, the highest of which were well water samples from the San Luis Valley. Thirty-seven sediment samples (approximately 2.3% of the total sediment population) had uranium concentrations above 12.0 ppM. The majority of these were taken from sites in Precambrian rocks, but several came from Paleozoic and Mesozoic strate and Tertiary volcanics. The uranium concentrations in sediment samples from areas of Precambrian rock were especially high and these areas may warrant further, more detailed investigations

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Bozeman NTMS quadrangle, Montana

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1978-11-01

    A total of 1251 water and 1536 sediment samples were collected from 1586 locations over a 17 400-km 2 area at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . Samples were collected predominantly from surface streams although 38 ground water locations were also sampled. The uranium concentrations in waters sampled range from below the detection limit of 0.20 ppB to 41.35 ppB, with a mean concentration of 1.17 ppB. Waters with anomalous uranium concentrations as defined were found in tributaries of the Boulder River which drain Precambrian rocks in the Beartooth Mountains and in tributaries of the Three Forks basin which are underlain predominantly by Tertiary-Quaternary sediments. The two areas appearing most favorable for future exploration on the basis of water data are in the Three Forks basin in the vicinity of the Madison plateau and in a district about 20 km due west of Three Forks. Sediment samples from the quadrangle were found to have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 94.30 ppM, with a mean concentration of 3.71 ppM. The majority of anomalous sediment samples were collected from areas underlain by Precambrian rocks. Based on the data from sediments, the areas appearing most favorable for future exploration include the tributaries of the Boulder River in the Beartooth Mountains, the northern part of the Madison Range, and the Tobacco Root Mountains just north of Virginia City. The uranium concentrations in the sediments from these areas are probably associated with uraniferous siliceous veins or pegmatites

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Raton NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico

    Morgan, T.L.; Broxton, D.E.

    1978-10-01

    A total of 824 water and 1340 sediment samples were collected from 1844 sample locations in the Raton NTMS quadrangle and analyzed for uranium. Samples were collected at a nominal density of one per 10 km 2 . Notably high uranium values were found in both water and sediment samples collected from tributaries of Costilla Creek in the Culebra Range. Uranium contents in stream waters from this area range from individual high values of 145.1 and 76.1 to values slightly higher than the background concentrations in adjacent areas. Stream sediments range from 4.1 to 202.2 ppM uranium and average 30 ppM. The Culebra Range is a favorable setting for hard-rock type uranium mineralization. The uraniferous water and sediment samples call attention to this area as a possible exploration target. Numerous groups of ground waters with high uranium concentrations come from locations along the Cimarron and Sierra Grande Arches in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The Cimarron Arch is the locus of the largest group of uraniferous ground waters, with concentrations ranging between 5.2 and 103.3 ppB. Aquifers from which these samples were derived include the Fort Hays and Smoky Hill members of the Niobrara formation, the Pierre shale, and Quaternary surficial deposits. Most of the uraniferous ground waters along the Sierra Grande Arch occur in small, isolated groups that probably represent minor, local sources of uranium. Carbonate complexing of uranium may contribute to the high uranium values seen in these samples. Stream sediment samples with high uranium concentrations (10.1 to 51.4 ppM) were found in several drainages from the western front of the Taos Range. One group of locations providing high-uranium sediments is near known uranium occurrence in the vicinity of Cabresto and Latir Peaks. The western Taos Range is a favorable setting for hard rock uranium mineralization and may also warrant further study

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Preston Quadrangle, Wyoming; Idaho

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 410 water samples and 702 sediment samples from the Preston Quadrangle, Wyoming; Idaho. Uranium values have been reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Report GJBX-70(78). The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  6. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Aztec Quadrangle, New Mexico

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 331 water samples and 1693 sediment samples from the Aztec Quadrangle, New Mexico. Uranium values have been reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Report GJBX-129(78). The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Rawlings quadrangle, Wyoming

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 454 water samples and 1279 sediment samples from the Rawlins Quadrangle, Wyoming. Uranium values have been reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Report GJBX-81(78). The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data report for Williams NTMS quadrangle, Arizona

    Wagoner, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    Wet and dry sediments were collected throughout the 18,500-km/sup 2/arid-to-semiarid region and water samples at available streams, springs, and wells. Samples were collected between August 1977 and January 1978. Results of neutron activation analyses of uranium and trace elements and other field and laboratory analyses are presented in tabular hardcopy and microfiche format. The report includes six full-size overlays for use with the Williams NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle. Sediment samples are divided into five general groups according to the source rock from which the sediment was derived. Background uranium concentrations for the quadrangle are relatively low, ranging from 1.91 to 2.40 ppM, with the highest associated with the Precambrian igneous and metamorphic complexes of the Basin and Range province. Uranium correlates best with the rare-earth elements and iron, scandium, titanium, and manganese. Known uranium occurrences are not readily identified by the stream sediment data.

  9. Field manual for stream sediment reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1976-07-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, stream sediment sample collection, water sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  10. Orientation study of northern Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance

    Steele, K.F.

    1982-08-01

    Samples of ground water, stream water, and sediment were collected at 335 sites for an orientation study of northern Arkansas. Each stream site consisted of both sediment and stream water (if available), and each sediment sample was sieved to produce four size fractions for analysis. The orientation area included all or parts of Benton, Carroll, Madison, and Washington Counties. Several black shales, including the Chattanooga Shale, crop out in this area, and the Sylamore Sandstone Member has local radiation anomalies. The following analyses were performed for all water samples (both ground water and stream water): pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, temperature, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and sulfate. Additional water was collected, filtered, and reacted with a resin that was then analyzed by neutron activation analysis for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, and Dy. In addition, ground water samples were analyzed for He. The stream sediments were analyzed by neutron activation for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu

  11. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Cheyenne Quadrangle, Wyoming

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 884 water samples and 598 sediment samples from the Cheyenne Quadrangle, Wyoming. Uranium values have been reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Report GJBX-106(78). The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Silver City Quadrangle, New Mexico; Arizona

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 405 water samples and 736 sediment samples from the Silver City Quadrangle, New Mexico; Arizona. Uranium values have been reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Report GJBX-69(78). The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Wolf Point NTMS Quadrangle, Montana

    1982-06-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Wolf Point NTMS quadrangle, Montana. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  14. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km 2 . Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Denver and Greeley NTMS Quadrangles, Colorado

    Bolivar, S.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Olsen, C.E.

    1978-03-01

    Although this report covers two National Topographic Map Series 2 0 quadrangles, the data for each quadrangle are presented separately. Evaluation of the data by quadrangle resulted in the delineation of areas in which water and/or sediment uranium concentrations are notably higher than surrounding background concentrations. The major clusters of anomalous water samples were found in areas of the Denver Basin underlain by the Pierre, Laramie, Fox Hills, Denver, and Arapahoe formations. Most of the anomalous sediment samples were collected in areas of the Front Range underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks, particularly granites of the Silver Plume-Sherman group. Many of the anomalous sediment samples are from sites located near fault zones. The data in this report are also presented by geologic/physiographic province because background uranium concentrations in Front Range samples differ significantly from those in the Denver Basin. Denver Basin waters have higher mean uranium concentrations (mean 14.4 ppB) than Front Range waters (mean 3.3 ppB). Conversely, Front Range sediments are more uraniferous (mean 14.7 ppM) than those in the Denver Basin (mean 6.1 ppM). These differences in background uranium concentrations between Front Range and Denver Basin samples can be attributed to differences in regional geology, physiography, and (in the case of water) the ratio of surface water to ground water sites sampled. There is a significant northward increase in uranium concentrations in water samples from the Denver Basin. The higher uranium concentrations in water samples from the northern part of the basin are probably due to leaching of uraniferous strata in the Pierre and Laramie formations which crop out in that area

  16. Reconnaissance sediment budget for selected watersheds of West Maui, Hawai‘i

    Stock, Jonathan D.; Falinski, Kim A.; Callender, Tova

    2016-01-12

    Episodic runoff brings suspended sediment to the nearshore waters of West Maui, Hawaiʻi. Even small rainfalls create visible plumes over a few hours. We used mapping, field experiments, and analysis of recent (July 19–20, 2014) and historic rainfall to estimate sources of land-based pollution for two watersheds in West Maui: Honolua, and Honokōwai. Former agricultural fields and some unimproved roads are plausible sources for polluted runoff, but have saturated hydraulic conductivities greater than the 10–15 millimeters per hour (mm/hr) rainfalls of July 2014. These fields and roads showed minor evidence for storm runoff, and could not have contributed substantially to July 2014 plume generation. Since 1978, rain at intensities capable of causing runoff from former agricultural fields sustained for 1–2 hours is also rare; such intensities have 2–5 year recurrence rates in the north, and greater than 25 year recurrence rates to the south near Lahaina. Streambanks now eroding into historic terraces of sands, silts, and clays are a more plausible source. Although past large storms contributed to sediment loading, annual plume generation is now caused by smaller rainfalls eroding these near-stream legacy deposits. Treatments of former agricultural fields, roads, and reserve forests are consequently not likely to measurably affect sediment pollution from smaller, more frequent storms. Increased runoff from the development of West Maui has the potential to exacerbate sediment plumes from such storms unless there is an effective strategy to reduce bank erosion. Uncertainties in the extent and erosion rate of historic terraces, however, limit our ability to plan mitigation.

  17. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Lubbock NTMS Quadrangle, Texas

    1979-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 994 groundwater and 602 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Interpretation of the groundwater data indicate that the area which appears most promising for uranium mineralization is located in the southwestern part of the quadrangle, particularly in Crosby, Garza, Lynn, and Lubbock Counties. The waters produced from the Ogallala Formation in this area have high values for arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Groundwaters from the Dockum Group in Garza County where uranium is associated with selenium, molybdenum, and copper indicate potential for uranium mineralization. Uranium is generally associated with copper, iron, and sulfate in the Permian aquifers reflecting the red bed evaporite lithology of those units. The stream sediment data indicate that the Dockum Group has the highest potential for uranium mineralization, particularly in and around Garza County. Associated elements indicate that uranium may occur in residual minerals or in hydrous manganese oxides. Sediment data also indicate that the Blaine Formation shows limited potential for small red bed copper-uranium deposits

  18. Detailed uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the eastern portion of the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    Maassen, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    In September and October 1979, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed geochemical survey for uranium primarily in the Sawatch Range in the eastern part of the Montrose National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, Colorado, as part of the National Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). Totals of 1034 water and 2087 sediment samples were collected from streams and springs from 2088 locations within a 5420-km 2 area. Statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples are presented. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments in appendices. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. This report contains uranium analyses for water samples and multielement analyses for sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sm, Sc, Se, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. Sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Descriptions of procedures as analytical precisions and detection limits are given in the appendix

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Ketchikan NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; Minor, M.M.; McInteer, C.; Hansel, J.N.; Broxton, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaisance (HSSR) of the Ketchikan NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume, these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1;1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Beaver NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Martell, C.J.; Maassen, L.W.

    1981-11-01

    The report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaisance (HSSR) of the Ketchikan NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) protion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume, these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1;1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Sterling NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Garcia, S.R.; Hanks, D.; George, W.E.; Boliver, S.L.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaisance (HSSR) of the Sterling NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume, these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1;1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the McCarthy NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaisance (HSSR) of the McCarthy NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of stream sediments. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume, these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendix A describes the sample media and summarizes the analytical result. Statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1;1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  3. Johnson City 10 x 20 NTMS area, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Fay, W.M.

    1980-10-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Johnson City 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Surface sediment samples were collected at 959 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 1099 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Data from ground water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements; and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are given. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included on the microfiche. The Johnson City Quadrangle is underlain by Precambrian cyrstalline rocks in the southeastern corner of the quadrangle and by Paleozoic sediments in the remainder of the quadrangle. The highest uranium concentrations in sediments (up to 22 ppM) are in samples from the Precambrian crystalline rock areas. These samples also have high thorium concentrations suggesting that most of the uranium is in resistate minerals such as monazite. The U/Th ratios in sediment samples are generaly low with the higher values (up to 2.07) mostly within the lower Paleozoic sediments, particularly the Copper Ridge Dolomite. The uranium concentration in ground water is also highest in the lower Paleozoic sediments

  4. Knoxville 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee: data release. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 1430 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 14 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 791 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten square miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) well depth, (3) elemental analyses (U, Br, Cl, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Supplementary data include site descriptors (well age, frequency of use of well, etc.) and tabulated analytical data for Al and Dy. Key data from stream sediment sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) important elemental analyses (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, and V). Supplementary data from stream sediment sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) and additional elemental analyses

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Rock Springs NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Morgan, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains data collected by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) during a regional geochemical survey for uranium in the Rock Springs National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, southwestern Wyoming, as part of the nationwide hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). Totals of 397 water and 1794 sediment samples were collected from 1830 locations in the Rock Springs quadrangle of southern Wyoming during the summer of 1976. The average uranium concentration of all water samples is 6.57 ppb and the average sediment uranium concentration is 3.64 ppM. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments in the appendices. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. A sample location overlay (Plate I) at 1:250 000 scale for use in conjunction with the Rock Springs NTMS quadrangle sheet (US Geological Survey, 1954) is provided. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, T, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. These analytical methods are described briefly in the appendix. This report is simply a data release and is intended to make the data available to the DOE and to the public as quickly as possible

  6. Santa Cruz 10 x 20 NTMS area, California: data report (abbreviated), National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Santa Cruz 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1270 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles). Ground water samples were collected at 636 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, and BB

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Basic Data Reports Computer Program Requests Manual

    1980-01-01

    This manual is intended to aid those who are unfamiliar with ordering computer output for verification and preparation of Uranium Resource Evaluation (URE) Project reconnaissance basic data reports. The manual is also intended to help standardize the procedures for preparing the reports. Each section describes a program or group of related programs. The sections are divided into three parts: Purpose, Request Forms, and Requested Information

  8. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described.

  9. LASL approach to uranium geochemical reconnaissance

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The US ERDA, as part of the NURE program, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The aims of the NURE program are to provide data on which to base more accurate estimates of US uranium reserves for long-range planning and to aid in meeting the nation's projected uranium demands into the next century. The HSSR objective is to complete, by 1980, a reconnaissance of the nation's surface waters, ground waters, and stream and lake sediments, to aid in assessment of uranium reserves and identification of areas of interest for exploration. Patterned after extensive uranium reconnaissance done in many other countries, the LASL project is comprised of the following five components: (1) organization and planning, which includes management, design, and execution; (2) field sampling, which includes orientation studies, generation of specifications, and contracting and inspection of field work; (3) sample receiving and analysis, which includes development of methods and hardware, quality assurance, and archival storage; (4) data handling and presentation, including verification, storage, output, and plotting; and (5) data evaluation and publication, which incorporates geochemical, geological, statistical, and empirical evaluation and report writing. The LASL approach to each component and the current status in each state are described

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the vernal NTMS quadrangle, Utah/Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Purson, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Vernal NTMS quadrangle, Utah/Colorado, in the summers of 1977 and 1978. Totals of 422 water and 1552 sediment samples were collected from 1652 locations. These samples were collected at an average density of one sample location per 11 km 2 over an 18,800 km 2 area. Water samples were collected from streams and springs. Only those samples containing >10 ppB uranium for waters and >8 ppM uranium for sediments are discussed; however, all field and analytical data are included in the appendixes. The uranium concentrations in waters range from below the detection limit of 0.01 ppB to 108.04 ppB, with a mean uranium concentration for all water types of 3.11 ppB. Three clusters of samples containing relatively high uranium values are defined; they are associated with the Duchesne River formation, the Mancos shale, or the Uinta Mountain group and Browns Park formations. A few of the samples having the highest uranium values are associated with host rocks favorable for significant uranium mineralization. Sediments collected in this study have uranium concentrations that range between 0.70 ppM and 56.70 ppM, with a mean of 3.46 ppM. The majority of sediment samples with relatively high uranium concentrations were collected from one area in the Sand Wash basin in the northeastern corner of the quadrangle and are associated with the Wasatch formation. None of the water clusters define areas of significant interest; however, the area having high uranium values in sediments is worthy of further study

  11. Supplement to hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance basic data reports K/UR-445 through K/UR-457 [GJBX-165(82) through GJBX-177(82)]. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) Program was to provide information to be used in accomplishing the overall National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program objectives. This was accomplished by a reconnaissance of surface water, groundwater, stream sediment, and lake sediment. The survey was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The samples in the reports were collected by SRL and analyzed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Laboratory analyses were completed in August 1982. The following quadrangles located in the states of California, Nevada, Oregon, Arizona, Maine, Washington, and South Carolina are covered in this report: Adel, Bangor, Bath, Boise, Challis, Caliente, Death Valley, Elko, Ely, Fresno, Hailey, Idaho Falls, Jordan Valley, Lund, Mariposa, Phoenix, San Luis Obispo, Sacramento, Santa Cruz, Twin Falls, and Vya

  12. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  13. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beeville NTMS Quadrangle, Texas. Uranium resource evaluation project

    1979-10-31

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Beeville Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 373 groundwater and 364 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the northwestern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential uranium mineralization. Favorability is indicated by high uranium concentrations; high arsenic, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations; and proximity and similar geologic setting to the mines of the Karnes County mining district. Other areas that appear favorable are an area in Bee and Refugio Counties and the northeastern part of the quadrangle. Both areas have water chemistry similar to the Karnes County area, but the northeastern area does not have high concentrations of pathfinder elements. The stream sediment data indicate that the northeastern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential mineralization, but agricultural practices and mineralogy of the outcropping Beaumont Formation may indicate a false anomaly. The northwestern corner of the quadrangle is considered favorable because of its proximity to the known uranium deposits, but the data do not seem to support this.

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beeville NTMS Quadrangle, Texas. Uranium resource evaluation project

    1979-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Beeville Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 373 groundwater and 364 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the northwestern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential uranium mineralization. Favorability is indicated by high uranium concentrations; high arsenic, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations; and proximity and similar geologic setting to the mines of the Karnes County mining district. Other areas that appear favorable are an area in Bee and Refugio Counties and the northeastern part of the quadrangle. Both areas have water chemistry similar to the Karnes County area, but the northeastern area does not have high concentrations of pathfinder elements. The stream sediment data indicate that the northeastern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential mineralization, but agricultural practices and mineralogy of the outcropping Beaumont Formation may indicate a false anomaly. The northwestern corner of the quadrangle is considered favorable because of its proximity to the known uranium deposits, but the data do not seem to support this

  16. Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Preliminary raw data release: Greenville 10 x 20 NTMS area Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Ferguson, R.B.

    1978-03-01

    Preliminary results of stream sediment and ground water reconnaissance in the Greenville National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 1413 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 731 sites for a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from stream sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) elements that may be related to potential uranium and thorium mineralization in this area (U, Th, Hf, Ce, and Dy) and (3) elements useful for geologic classification of the sample area (Ti, V, Fe, Mn, Al, and Sc). Supplementary data from stream sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, stream width, etc.) and additional elemental analyses that may be useful (F, Eu, Sm, La, Yb, and Lu). Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Mn, Br, V, and F). Supplementary data include site descriptors, information about the collection of the samples (well age, well depth, frequency of use of well, etc.), and analytical data for dysprosium

  17. Estuarine bed-sediment-quality data collected in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy, 2013

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.; Loftin, Keith A.; Benzel, William M.; Jones, Daniel K.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene J.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Jenkins, Darkus E.; Bowers, Luke; Boehlke, Adam; Foreman, William T.; Deetz, Anna C.; Carper, Lisa G.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a reconnaissance study of estuarine bed-sediment quality conducted June–October 2013 in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 to assess the extent of contamination and the potential long-term human and ecological impacts of the storm. The study, funded through the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (PL 113-2), was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. In addition to presenting the bed-sediment-quality data, the report describes the study design, documents the methods of sample collection and analysis, and discusses the steps taken to assure the quality of the data.

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Pueblo NTMS quadrangel, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This report is a supplement to the HSSR uranium evaluation report for the Pueblo quadrangle (Shannon, 1978), which presented the field and uranium data for the 861 water and 1060 sediment samples collected from 1402 locations in the quadrangle. This supplement presents those data again and the results of subsequent multielement analyses of those HSSR samples. In addition to uranium, the concentrations of 12 elements are presented for the waters and 42 elements for the sediments

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Bozeman NTMS quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Bolivar, S.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Van Haaften, I.J.; Pirtle, J.; George, W.E.; Gallimore, D.; Apel, C.; Hansel, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report contains uranium analyses for 1251 water samples and multielement analyses for 1536 sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  20. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    . The largest copper, lead, silver, and zinc concentrations, measured for a sample collected from Sand Creek downstream from Newton, Kansas, likely were related to urban sources of contamination. Radionuclide activities and bacterial densities in the streambed sediment varied throughout the basin. Variability in the former may be indicative of subbasin differences in the contribution of sediment from surface-soil and channel-bank sources. Streambed sediment may be useful for reconnaissance purposes to determine sources of particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and other sediment-associated constituents in the basin. If flow conditions prior to streambed-sediment sampling and during water-quality sampling are considered, it may be possible to use streambed sediment as an indicator of water quality for nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon. Flow conditions affect sediment-associated constituent concentrations in streambed-sediment and water samples, in part, because the sources of sediment (surface soils, channel banks) can vary with flow as can the size of the particles transported.

  1. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Progress report, July--September 1976

    Morris, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Water and/or sediment samples have been collected from some 47,000 sample locations covering about 504,000 km 2 which represents 19% of the area assigned to the LASL for the HSSR program. Slightly over half of this sampling work was done this quarter and included the first commercial, helicopter-borne sampling contract in Alaska where 4468 locations were sampled over an area of 94,000 km 2 . Thus far, uranium determinations have been made for some 12,000 water samples by fluorometry and for over 15,000 sediment samples by delayed-neutron counting. The main effort of this quarter has been directed toward completing all outstanding commercial sampling contracts and analyzing the backlog of water and sediment samples

  2. Incorporating Contaminant Bioavailability into Sediment Quality Assessment Frameworks

    The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the State of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence(LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemis...

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Morgan, T.L.

    1979-11-01

    During the summers of 1976 and 1977, 570 water and 1249 sediment samples were collected from 1517 locations within the 18,000-km 2 area of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle of central Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, streams, and artifical ponds; sediment samples were collected from wet and dry streams, springs, and wet and dry ponds. All water samples were analyzed for 13 elements, including uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit to 84.60 parts per billion (ppb) with a mean of 4.32 ppb. All water sample types except pond water samples were considered as a single population in interpreting the data. Pond water samples were excluded due to possible concentration of uranium by evaporation. Most of the water samples containing greater than 20 ppb uranium grouped into six clusters that indicate possible areas of interest for further investigation. One cluster is associated with the Pumpkin Buttes District, and two others are near the Kaycee and Mayoworth areas of uranium mineralization. The largest cluster is located on the west side of the Powder River Basin. One cluster is located in the central Big Horn Basin and another is in the Wind River Basin; both are in areas underlain by favorable host units. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.08 parts per million (ppm) to 115.50 ppm with a mean of 3.50 ppm. Two clusters of sediment samples over 7 ppm were delineated. The first, containing the two highest-concentration samples, corresponds with the Copper Mountain District. Many of the high uranium concentrations in samples in this cluster may be due to contamination from mining or prospecting activity upstream from the sample sites. The second cluster encompasses a wide area in the Wind River Basin along the southern boundary of the quadrangle

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Gillette NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Warren, R.G.; George, W.E.; Minor, M.M.; Simi, O.R.; Talcott, C.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Cheadle, J.M. III.

    1980-08-01

    During 1976 and 1977, 752 water and 843 sediment samples were collected from 1419 locations within the 17 700-km 2 area of the Gillette quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected primarily from wells, and also from springs, ponds, and streams; sediment samples were collected primarily from stream channels, and also from springs and ponds. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 to 212.20 ppB and have a median of 1.10 ppB. The highest background uranium concentrations, as well as the highest individual uranium values, are in areas where favorable host units for uranium mineralization crop out. These units are the Wasatch and Fort Union formations in the Powder River Basin and the Inyan Kara group in the Black Hills. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.64 to 29.83 ppM and have a median of 3.24 ppM. Background uranium concentrations are strongly controlled by the exposed geologic unit, and range from 4 to 8 ppM for the Cretaceous Colorado group to 1 to 3 ppM for the Triassic and Paleozoic units exposed in the Black Hills. Several areas where the Wasatch and Fort Union formations are exposed exhibit uranium concentrations in sediment samples that are slightly, but distinctly, above background values for these units. All of these areas are also associated with notably high uranium concentrations in water samples. Because epigenetic uranium mineralization in economically important areas can exhibit a similar geochemical signature, these areas within the Gillette quadrangle should be further examined for the possible presence of uranium mineralization

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Morgan, T.L.

    1979-11-01

    During the summers of 1976 and 1977, 570 water and 1249 sediment samples were collected from 1517 locations within the 18,000-km/sup 2/ area of the Arminto NTMS quadrangle of central Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, streams, and artifical ponds; sediment samples were collected from wet and dry streams, springs, and wet and dry ponds. All water samples were analyzed for 13 elements, including uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit to 84.60 parts per billion (ppb) with a mean of 4.32 ppb. All water sample types except pond water samples were considered as a single population in interpreting the data. Pond water samples were excluded due to possible concentration of uranium by evaporation. Most of the water samples containing greater than 20 ppb uranium grouped into six clusters that indicate possible areas of interest for further investigation. One cluster is associated with the Pumpkin Buttes District, and two others are near the Kaycee and Mayoworth areas of uranium mineralization. The largest cluster is located on the west side of the Powder River Basin. One cluster is located in the central Big Horn Basin and another is in the Wind River Basin; both are in areas underlain by favorable host units. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.08 parts per million (ppm) to 115.50 ppm with a mean of 3.50 ppm. Two clusters of sediment samples over 7 ppm were delineated. The first, containing the two highest-concentration samples, corresponds with the Copper Mountain District. Many of the high uranium concentrations in samples in this cluster may be due to contamination from mining or prospecting activity upstream from the sample sites. The second cluster encompasses a wide area in the Wind River Basin along the southern boundary of the quadrangle.

  7. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the area of the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and Kateel River Quadrangles, Seward Peninsula and vicinity, Alaska

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-05-01

    During July-August 1976, 2026 natural waters and 2085 bottom sediments were collected from 2209 sample locations (at a nominal density of one location each 23 km 2 ) on streams and small lakes throughout the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and western one-third of the Kateel River NTMS quadrangles, Alaska. Total uranium was measured in the waters by fluorometry and in the sediments and a few waters by delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of the waters ranged from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to a high of 14.50 ppB, averaging 0.44 ppB, and that of the sediments ranged from a low of 0.2 parts per million (ppM) to a high of 107.4 ppM, averaing 3.93 ppM. The uranium data for water and sediment are separately presented--as computer listings that include pertinent field measurements from each location, as graphically portrayed concentration overlays at 1:250,000 scale for each quadrangle, and as reduced figures showing contours drawn at various concentration levels for each quadrangle--and their areal distributions are compared and correlated with the known features and uranium showings. A test of increasingly detailed methods of data evaluation shows that the more extensive the evaluation, the more useful the reconnaissance uranium data are likely to be. The validity and potential usefulness of the HSSR uranium data are conclusively substantiated by the fact that evidence of all 23 of the reported uranium showings in the 50,000-km 2 study area can be discerned. Several new locations of interest for further field investigation are identified in each of the quadrangles, and most notably in the Bendeleben Mountains. However, the data presented would appear equally useful in guiding field investigation around the uranium occurrences already known, as noteworthy samples often come from close by but on tributary drainages adjacent, opposite, or above them

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance program in central United States. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    Arendt, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Basic data reports were open filed for eight NTMS quadrangles during the reporting period: Sherman, Houston, Ardmore, Emory Peak, Presidio, Enig, Austin, and Lawton. Basic data reports, which have been prepared and are in the process of being open filed, include Wichita, St. Cloud, Ashland, and Clinton. Results indicate that the most favorable areas for the occurrence of uranium mineralization in the open filed quadrangles reported are as follows: Austin Quadrangle, Lawton Quadrangle, Emory Peak Quadrangle. During the period, approximately 13,886 samples of groundwater and stream sediments were collected by the URE Project. Approximately 20,738 samples were analyzed by the URE Laboratory

  9. APPLICATION OF SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE SURFACE SEDIMENT IN MENGKABONG LAGOON, SABAH, MALAYSIA

    S. M. Praveena, M. Radojevic, M. H. Abdullah, A. Z. Aris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous sediment quality guidelines developed to monitor the sediments. Sediment quality guidelines are very useful to screen sediment contamination by comparing sediment contaminant concentration with the corresponding quality guideline, provide useful tools for screening sediment chemical data to identify pollutants of concern and prioritise problem sites and relatively good predictors of contaminations. However, these guidelines are chemical specific and do not include biological parameters. Aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, must be assessed in multiple components (biological data, toxicity, physicochemistry by using intregrated approaches in order to establish a complete and comprehensive set of sediment quality guidelines. Numerous sediment quality guidelines Washington Department of Ecology Sediment Quality Guideline, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table, Portuguese Legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong have been applied to the Mengkabong lagoon mangrove sediment and discussed. The most appropriate guideline that meets the prioritization criteria consistent with international initiatives and regulations is interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong. The guideline verifies that all the metals are below the Interim Sediment Quality Value-low. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of exisiting benthics community structure related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong lagoon.

  10. Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program in central United States. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    Arendt, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Basic data reports were open filed for eight NTMS quadrangles during the reporting period: Sherman, Houston, Ardmore, Emory Peak, Presidio, Enid, Austin, and Lawton. Basic data reports, which have been prepared and are in the process of being open filed, include Wichita, St. Cloud, Ashland, and Clinton. Results indicate that the most favorable areas for the occurrence of uranium mineralization in the open filed quadrangles are as follows: (1) Austin Quadrangle - Whitsett, Catahoula, Oakville, and Fleming Formations (Tertiary). (2) Lawton Quadrangle - Hennessey and Clearfork Groups, Garber Sandstone, and Post Oak Conglomerate (Lower Permian); and El Reno Group (Upper Permian). (3) Emory Peak Quadrangle - Tertiary tuffaceous ash beds and other igneous rocks, carbonate-dominant Cretaceous strata. During the period, approximately 13,886 samples of groundwater and stream sediments were collected by the URE Project. Approximately 20,738 samples were analyzed by the URE Laboratory

  11. Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Raw data release. III. Orientation study in the Williamsport, Pennsylvania, area

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.; Baucom, E.I.

    1976-09-01

    This report presents raw data from an orientation study in the Williamsport 1 0 x 2 0 AMS Quadrangle. The data includes sample locality maps, tables of water quality and field measurement data, and tables of uranium analyses

  12. Sedimentation

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  13. Methods of assessment of stormwater sediments quality

    Sałata Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in sediments collected from the stormwater treatment plant located in the urbanised catchment were investigated using geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor to determine metal accumulation and pollution status. Total metal concentrations varied widely in studied materials and the mean values were higher than their background values. The Igeo results indicate that tested sediments were uncontaminated with respect to Cd. The study area is moderately to strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cu. The other elements are within the scope moderate contamination.

  14. Reconnaissance of surface-water quality in the North Platte Natural Resources District, western Nebraska, 1993

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a 3-year study to determine the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The objectives of the study were to determine the geohydrologic properties of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, to establish a well network for long- term monitoring of concentrations of agricultural chemicals including nitrate and herbicides, and to establish baseline concentrations of major ions in the ground water. To meet these objectives, monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrologic properties of the aquifer were estimated from water-level measurements at selected irrigation wells located in the study area and short- term constant-discharge aquifer tests at two monitor wells. Water samples were collected bimonthly and analyzed for specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients including dissolved nitrate. Samples were collected semiannually for analysis of major ions, and annually for triazine and acetamide herbicides. Evaluation of the aquifer-test data indicates the hydraulic conductivities of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer range between 169 and 184 feet per day and transmissivities ranged from 12,700 to 26,700 feet-squared per day. The average specific yield for the alluvial aquifer, based on the two aquifer tests, was 0.2. Additional hydrologic data for the alluvial aquifer include a horizontal gradient of about 0.002 foot per foot and estimated ground- water flow velocities of about 0.1 to 1.8 feet per day. Evaluation of the water-quality data indicates that nitrate concentrations exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Maximum Contamination Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water in areas to the east and west of Oshkosh. In these areas, nitrate concentrations generally are continuing to rise. West of Oshkosh the highest

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data from the area of the Noatak and portions of the Baird Mountains and Ambler River Quadrangles, Alaska

    Aamodt, P.L.; Hill, D.E.; Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    During August 1976, a total of 876 natural waters and 861 bottom sediments were collected at a nominal density of one location each 23 km 2 from streams and small lakes throughout the Noatak NTMS quadrangle, the southern two-thirds of the Baird Mountains NTMS quadrangle, and in the southwest corner of the Ambler River NTMS quadrangle. These samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program in Alaska being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). The field collection and treatment of the samples were performed following strict LASL specifications. Total uranium was measured in the waters by fluorometry and in the sediments by delayed-neutron counting, using stringent quality assurance controls at the LASL. The uranium contents of the waters ranged from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to a high of 8.38 ppB, and the uranium contents of the sediments ranged from a low of 0.3 parts per million (ppM) to a high of 34.0 ppM. In general, the locations of waters containing relatively high uranium contents were found to occur in clusters, and particularly in the headwaters of streams draining the southern slopes of the Baird Mountains. Few sediments contained relatively high uranium contents. These usually occurred singly at isolated locations scattered throughout the area. No obvious association exists between the location of high-uranium waters and sediments anywhere in the study area. The geology, mineralogy, and hydrology of this area is only generally described in the literature; therefore, it is difficult to correlate these data with particular aspects of the physical environment where individual samples were collected. However, the data do indicate that certain areas underlaid by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and granitic intrusives within the Baird Mountains and a quartz-pebble conglomerate in the Waring Mountains may warrant more detailed field investigations

  16. Distribution and partitioning of heavy metals in estuarine sediment cores and implications for the use of sediment quality standards

    K. L. Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Total metal concentrations in surface sediments and historically contaminated sediments were determined in sediment cores collected from three estuaries (Thames, Medway and Blackwater in south-east England. The partitioning behaviour of metals in these sediments was also determined using a sequential extraction scheme. These data were then compared with sediment quality values (SQVs to determine the potential ecotoxicological risk to sediment dwelling organisms. When total metal concentrations in surface sediments are examined, no risk to biota in any of the estuaries is indicated. However, when historically contaminated sediments at depth are also considered, risks to biota are apparent and are greatest for the Thames, followed by the Medway and then the Blackwater. This suggests that regulatory authorities should examine vertical metal profiles, particularly in estuaries that are experiencing low sediment accumulation rates where historically contaminated sediments are in the shallow sub-surface zone and where erosion or dredging activities may take place. When metal partitioning characteristics are also considered, the risk to biota is comparable for the Medway and the Blackwater with the potentially bioavailable fraction presenting no ecotoxicological risk. Conversely, over 70% of metals are labile in the Thames Estuary sediments and toxic effects are probable. This suggests that the application of SQVs using total sediment metal concentrations may over- or under-estimate the risk to biota in geochemically dissimilar estuarine sediments. Keywords: sediment quality values, estuarine sediments, metal contamination, partitioning, sequential extraction

  17. A reconnaissance of the effects of a forest fire on water quality in Kings Canyon National Park, California

    Hoffman, Ray J.; Ferreira, Rodger F.

    1976-01-01

    Following two forest fires in the Roaring River drainage basin, Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., water samples were collected from May to July 1974 to determine water-quality changes resulting from the fires. Field measurements included alkalinity , pH, specific conductance, temperature, and discharge. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major dissolved chemical constituents, selected plant nutrients, trace metals, suspended sediment, total organic carbon, and seston. Periphytic algae and benthic invertebrate samples were collected. A noticeable increase in the concentration of nitrogen was found in Roaring River immediately downstream from the Moraine Creek fire. The increase in the concentration of inorganic nitrogen compounds, however, was not great enough to pose a serious threat to the aquatic ecosystem. High total organic nitrogen concentrations may have been due, in part, to factors other than the effect of fire. The results of other water-quality measurements were typical of dilute Sierra Nevada streams and indicate that Roaring River was not adversely affected by the fires. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Development, evaluation, and application of sediment quality targets for assessing and managing contaminated sediments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    MacDonald, D.D.; Carr, R.S.; Eckenrod, D.; Greening, H.; Grabe, S.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Janicki, S.; Janicki, T.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Long, E.R.; Pribble, R.; Sloane, G.; Smorong, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Tampa Bay is a large, urban estuary that is located in west central Florida. Although water quality conditions represent an important concern in this estuary, information from numerous sources indicates that sediment contamination also has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms, aquatic-dependent wildlife, and human health. As such, protecting relatively uncontaminated areas of the bay from contamination and reducing the amount of toxic chemicals in contaminated sediments have been identified as high-priority sediment management objectives for Tampa Bay. To address concerns related to sediment contamination in the bay, an ecosystem-based framework for assessing and managing sediment quality conditions was developed that included identification of sediment quality issues and concerns, development of ecosystem goals and objectives, selection of ecosystem health indicators, establishment of metrics and targets for key indicators, and incorporation of key indicators, metrics, and targets into watershed management plans and decision-making processes. This paper describes the process that was used to select and evaluate numerical sediment quality targets (SQTs) for assessing and managing contaminated sediments. These SQTs included measures of sediment chemistry, whole-sediment and pore-water toxicity, and benthic invertebrate community structure. In addition, the paper describes how the SQTs were used to develop site-specific concentration-response models that describe how the frequency of adverse biological effects changes with increasing concentrations of chemicals of potential concern. Finally, a key application of the SQTs for defining sediment management areas is discussed.

  19. Historical variations of Bera Lake (Malaysia) sediments geochemistry using radioisotopes and sediment quality indices

    Mohammadreza Gharibreza; John Kuna Raj; Ismail Yusoff; Zainudin Othman; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    The Bera Lake basin is a lacustrine mire system and the largest natural lake in Peninsular Malaysia. Three cores were collected from the lake sediments in order to assess sediment quality and ecological risks for aquatic life and human health. An index analysis approach (C f , C d , E r , and IR) and fallout 210 Pb and 137 Cs radioisotopes were applied to assess the impacts of environmental evolutionary changes. Sediment chronology was determined using the Constant Rate of Supply model with the resultant ages verified by 137 Cs horizons. Although the general contamination factors indicate low risk conditions in Bera Lake the risks associated with individual layers ranged from moderate to considerable. Five deforestation phases can be identified in the dated sediment cores with distinct variations in heavy metal influxes since 1972. These phases are in excellent agreement with the dates of land clearance and development projects undertaken over the past four decades. This study has highlighted the capability of contamination factors and chronological methods in environmental evolutionary studies where catchments have experienced extensive land use changes. The destiny of heavy metal influxes into a lake can also be revealed using this methodology. (author)

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Butte NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Broxton, D.E.; George, W.E.; Montoya, J.V.; Martell, C.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Hanks, D.

    1980-05-01

    This report contains data collected during a geochemical survey for uranium in the Butte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle of west-central Montana. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. This report contains uranium analyses for water samples and multielement analyses for sediment samples. A supplemental report containing the results of multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  1. Assessment of sediment quality in dredged and undredged areas of the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan USA, using the sediment quality triad

    Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.; Kubitz, Jody A.; Verbrugge, David A.; Coon, Thomas G.; Braselton, W. Emmett

    1996-01-01

    The “sediment quality triad” approach was used to assess the effects of dredging on the sediment quality of a new marina in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, and to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel. Samples were collected in November of 1993 (10 months after dredging) and characterized by chemical analysis, sediment bioassays, and assessment of benthic invertebrate communities. The three study components indicated little difference in sediment quality at dredged sites in the marina relative to nearby areas in the Trenton Channel, and little change in sediment quality of Trenton Channel sites relative to conditions reported in the mid-1980s. These results suggest that improvement in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel, due to dredging or natural processes, will depend on elimination of sediment “hot spots” and other upstream contaminant sources. Concentrations of chemical contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exceeded concentrations associated with effects on biota and were significantly correlated with results of sediment bioassays and characteristics of benthic communities. Laboratory sediment bioassays with Hyalella azteca andChironomus tentans produced better discrimination among sites with differing degrees of contamination than did characterization of benthic communities, which were dominated by oligochaetes at all sites in the marina and the Trenton Channel.

  2. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dixon Entrance NTMS and Prince Rupert D-6 quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Warren, R.G.; Hensley, W.K.; Hanks, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    During August 1978, sediment and water samples were collected from 203 lakes, streams, and springs in the Dixon Entrance and Prince Rupert D-6 quadrangles, Alaska. Variations in concentrations of all 43 elements among the five sieve fractions at each location are generally less than analytical uncertainty. Therefore, elemental analyses are generally comparable for a wide range in sieve fractions for sediment sample locations in southeastern Alaska. However, at some few locations, several elemental concentrations increase with finer mesh size; for uranium, such an increase may be associated with mineralization. Waterborne sediment samples collected from the center of a stream yield analyses essentially identical to those collected from the adjacent bank for most elements. Chlorine concentrations are generally higher in bank sediments, probably as a result of concentration of halogens in the vegetation that stabilizes the bank. At a few locations, concentrations of the ferrous elements, particularly Mn and Co, differ notably between the stream center and bank: such behavior is characteristic of mineralized areas. Concentrations of the ferrous elements, particularly Mn and Co, are strikingly enriched in the stream sediments compared either to lake sediments or to crustal abundances. This suggests that this area might be a favorable location for strategic resources of these elements. Uranium concentrations in all 950 sediment samples of all sieve fractions range from 0.54 to 22.80 ppM, with a median of 2.70 ppM

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Dubois NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    LaDelfe, C.M.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1024 water samples and 1600 sediment samples were collected from 1669 locations in the Dubois quadrangle. Water samples were taken at streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. All field and analytical data are presented for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than the upper detection limit of uranium were reanalyzed by delayed neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Dubois NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    LaDelfe, C.M.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1024 water samples and 1600 sediment samples were collected from 1669 locations in the Dubois quadrangle. Water samples were taken at streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. All field and analytical data are presented for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than the upper detection limit of uranium were reanalyzed by delayed neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  7. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  8. RELEVANCE OF ROOTED VASCULAR PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENT QUALITY

    Toxicity assessments and numerical quality assessment guidelines for estuarine sediments are rarely based on information for aquatic plants. The effect of this lack of information on contaminated sediment evaluations is largely unknown. For this reason, the toxicities of whole se...

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Socorro NRMS Quadrangle, New Mexico, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Planner, H.N.; Fuka, M.A.; Hanks, D.E.; Hansel, J.M.; Minor, M.M.; Montoya, J.D.; Sandoval, W.F.

    1980-10-01

    Results for uranium in water samples and uranium and 42 additional elements in sediment samples are given. A total of 650 water samples was collected from wells (525), springs (99), streams (25), and one pond. Uranium concentrations for all water samples range from below the detection limit to 157.20 parts per billion (ppB). Mean concentrations in springs and well waters are 4.91 ppB and 5.04 ppB, respectively, compared to a value of 2.78 ppB in stream waters. Of the 1384 sediment samples collected, 1246 are from dry stream beds. The remaining 138 samples are from springs (68), ponds (50), and flowing streams (20). Uranium concentrations in sediments range from 0.84 to 13.40 parts per million (ppM) with the exception of a single 445.10-ppM concentration. The mean uranium content of all sediments is 3.12 ppM. Field data, recorded at the collection site, are reported with the elemental concentrations for each water and sediment sample listed in Appendixes I-A and I-B. These data include a scintillometer determination of the equivalent uranium, pH and conductivity measurements, and geographic and weather information. Appendix II explains the codes used in Appendix I and describes the standard field and analytical procedures used by the LASL in the HSSR program

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Leadville NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Planner, H.N.

    1980-10-01

    A total of 1797 locations was sampled over a 19 330-km 2 area, providing an average density of one sample location per 11 km 2 . This report contains results for uranium in water samples and uranium and 42 additional elements in sediment samples. A total of 1279 water samples was collected from streams (1125) and springs (154). Uranium concentrations for all water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 37.56 ppB. Mean concentrations in streams and springs are 1.05 ppB and 1.19 ppB, respectively. A total of 1784 sediment samples was collected from streams (1590), springs (193), and one pond. Uranium concentrations in sediments range from 1.27 to 223.80 ppM. Statistical mean uranium concentrations for wet stream (8.55 ppM) and spring (7.51 ppM) sediments are found to be greater than their dry counterparts (5.13 ppM and 4.96 ppM, respectively). Field data, recorded at the collection site, are reported with the elemental concentrations for each water and sediment sample listed. These data include a scintillometer determination of the equivalent uranium, pH and conductivity measurements, and geographic and weather information

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km 2 area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km 2 . Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Lime Hills and Tyonek NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Jacobsen, S.I.; Aamodt, P.L.; Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The U contents of the 671 waters from the Lime Hills quadrangle range from below 0.02 ppB to a high of 11.29 ppB. U contents of the 667 sediments from this quadrangle range from a low of 0.1 ppM to a high of 94.9 ppM. Both waters and sediments containing relatively high U concentrations are found to cluster in association with plutonic rocks in the Alaska Range, and particularly so in the vicinity of the Tired Pup batholith and Mount Estelle pluton. The U contents of 575 waters from the Tyonek quadrangle range from below the detection limit to 13.13 ppB. Relatively high U concentrations in waters were found to cluster near the Mount Estelle pluton and undifferentiated igneous, metasedimentary, and volcanic rocks in the Alaska Range and in Pleistocene deposits along the Castle Mountain fault. Uranium contents in 502 sediments from the Tyonek quadrangle range from 0.1 to 58 ppM. Most sediment samples having high U concentrations are from locations near the Mount Estelle pluton and Styx River batholith in the Alaska Range. Data for samples collected in the Alaska Range and the two flanking lowlands were also examined separately. Water samples from all source types in the Alaska Range had a higher mean U concentration (0.85 ppB) than those from the Western Lowland (0.34 ppB) or the Susitna Lowland (0.51 ppB). The mean U concentrations for lake water samples from the Alaska Range and the lowland areas are similar. Sediment samples from streams and lakes in the Alaska Range have a markedly higher mean U concentration (7.00 ppM) than sediment samples from either the Western Lowland (2.46 ppM) or the Susitna Lowland area

  13. Needles 10 x 20 NTMS area, California and Arizona, data report (abbreviated). National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at 1672 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 49 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Helium analyses are given for ground water. Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements from sites where water was available and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Samples site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements; U/Th, U/Hf, U/(Th + Hf), and U/La ratios; and scintillometer readings at sediment sample sites are included on the microfiche. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above limits ranged from 0.10 to 33.90 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.52. Clusters of uranium values greater than 10 ppM occur in quadrangles AH, BH, and DA

  14. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  15. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  16. Characterization of endocrine disruption potentials of coastal sediments of Taean, Korea employing H295R and MVLN assays-Reconnaissance at 5years after Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Jung, Dawoon; Zhou, Kairu; Lee, Sangwoo; Noh, Kiwan; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kyungho

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting potentials were assessed for sediment samples collected near Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) site, between December 2007 and January 2012. For comparison, major crude oil (CO) of HSOS, or its weathered form were assessed. Both raw extracts (REs) and their fractionated samples were tested using H295R and MVLNluc bioassays. In H295R cells, REs of crude and weathered oil (WO), and nine of 14 sediments significantly increased E2 levels, which were correlated with the concentrations of PAHs. Steroidogenic disruption potentials of the sediments generally decreased over time. Among silica fractions of all REs, aromatic hydrocarbons (F2) and polar compounds (F3) caused greater E2 levels. While, in MVLN cell bioassay, only three of 14 sediment REs showed estrogen receptor binding potencies, and no temporal trend was observed. In conclusion, oil spill can cause endocrine disruption in the affected ecosystem through steroidogenic alteration for years, and such potencies attenuate over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data release for the New Mexico portions of the Hobbs and Brownfield NTMS quadrangles, New Mexico/Texas

    Warren, R.G.; Nunes, H.P.

    1978-06-01

    U concentrations in waters approximate a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.73 parts per billion (ppB) for the combined water samples from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U concentration found in a water sample is 139.7 ppb. About 93% of these samples were collected from 1008 wells. Of the remainder, 1 sample was collected from a spring and 75 samples were collected from combined surface water sources of artificial and natural ponds. The mean U content of the samples from surface water sources (7.63 ppB) is higher than that of the samples from wells (4.50 ppB). The water samples having the highest U content are from wells and ponds in the western, and especially the northwestern, portion of the Brownfield quadrangle. Most waters containing less than 20 ppB U were collected from areas in which the Dockum group underlies a thin veneer of surficial deposits, near the edge of the caprock, or from saline ponds. The U concentrations in sediments approximate a normal distribution with a mean of 2.18 ppM for the 914 sediment samples collected from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U value found in a sediment sample is 19.3 ppM. Sediments were collected from 154 dry streams, 522 dry natural ponds, 166 dry artificial ponds, and a total of 72 wet natural ponds, wet artificial ponds, and springs. The mean U content for sediments derived from the wet sources (2.77 ppM) is noticeably higher than that from dry sources (2.11 ppM).The highest U contents within the report area generally are associated with sediments collected from locations in which the Dockum group underlies a thin cover of surficial deposits. A cluster of seven sediments containing more than 3.0 ppM U is centered at 33 0 34'N, 103 0 53'W, where a U occurrence is reported at the Hoffacker test hole in the middle Dockum group

  18. Scranton 10 x 20 NTMS area: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Preliminary basic data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Ferguson, R.B.; Tones, P.L.

    1978-11-01

    Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 980 sites for a nominal density of one site per 18 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 1251 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the McGrath and Talkeetna NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    Aamodt, P.L.; Jacobsen, S.I.; Hill, D.E.

    1979-04-01

    During the summer of 1977, 1268 water and 1206 sediment samples were collected from 1292 lakes and streams throughout the two quadrangles in south-central Alaska. Each of the water samples was analyzed for uranium and 12 other elements and each of the sediment samples for uranium, thorium, and 41 other elements. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below 0.02 ppB to 19.64 ppB. In general, lake waters contain somewhat less uranium than stream waters, and the highest concentrations in both sample types were found in or near the Alaska Range. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.10 ppM to 172.40 ppM. The highest concentrations are found in samples collected in the Alaska Range near areas of felsic igneous rocks. Sediment samples having high thorium concentrations also come from areas underlain by felsic igneous rocks in the Alaska Range. The following areas were found to be most favorable for significant uranium mineralization: (1) the Windy Fork stock on the southeastern boundary of the McGrath quadrangle; (2) an area in the northwest corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle near the Mespelt prospects; (3) the Hidden River drainage in the northeast corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle; (4) an area near Chelatna Lake in the center of the Talkeetna quadrangle; (5) the Kichatna River drainage, near the western border of the Talkeetna quadrangle; and (6) an area near the Mount Estelle pluton in the extreme southwest corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle

  20. National uranium resource evaluation program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Oklahoma City NTMS Quadrangle, Oklahoma. Uranium resource evaluation project

    1978-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 812 groundwater samples and 847 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and other possibly uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on the results from groundwater sampling, the most promising formations for potential uranium mineralization in the quadrangle are the Permian Bison, Purcell-Salt Plains-Kingman, Fairmont, Dog Creek, Chickasha, Duncan, and Cedar Hills Formations. These units are characterized by relatively high average concentrations of uranium, conductivity, arsenic, calcium, lithium, molybdenum, and sulfate. In addition, groundwaters from the Pennsylvanian Oscar Formation are characterized by values above the 85th percentile for uranium, conductivity, the uranium/sulfate ratio, arsenic, and vanadium. Results of stream sediment sampling indicate that the most promising formations for potential uranium mineralization include the same Permian Formation as indicated by groundwater sampling (Bison, Purcell-Salt Plains-Kingman, Fairmont, Dog-Creek, Chickasha, Duncan, and Cedar Hill Formations) in an area where these formations crop out north of the North Canadian River. Stream sediment samples from this area are characterized by concentrations above the 85th percentile for uranium, thorium, arsenic, lithium, manganese, and vanadium

  1. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Raw data report: Winnemucca Dry Lake Basin orientation study, Lovelock and Reno 10 x 20 NTMS area, Nevada

    Puchlik, K.P.; Holder, B.E.; Smith, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Winnemucca Dry Lake Basin, Nevada, orientation study in the Lovelock and Reno 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). Wet, dry, and playa sediment samples were collected throughout the 597 km 2 semi-arid, closed basin. Water samples were collected at the few available streams and springs. In addition to neutron activation analysis for uranium and 15 to 20 trace elements on all samples, field and laboratory measurements were made on water samples. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tabular hardcopy and fiche format. Eight full-size overlays for use with the Lovelock and Reno NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangles are included. Water sample site locations, water sample uranium concentration, sediment sample site locations, and sediment sample total uranium concentration are shown on the separate overlays. A general description of the area and the rock type distribution is presented. Some of the data in this report have been issued previously in ''Preliminary Report on the Winnemucca Dry Lake Basin Pilot Study,'' GJBX-41(76), August 1976

  2. Quality Control Review of the Assistant General for Audits Office of the Inspector General, National Reconnaissance Office

    Brannin, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    ...) system of quality control to the extent considered appropriate. The tests included reviewing a judgmental sample of six of nine audit reports issued by the NRO OAIGA during the year ended July 31, 2003...

  3. Toxicities and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, China, based on sediment quality guidelines.

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Han, Yuwei; Yang, Jinxi; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhong, Wenjue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence, toxicities, and ecological risks of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in the sediment of Taihu Lake were investigated in this study. To evaluate the toxicities caused by the heavy metals, the toxicities induced by organic contaminants and ammonia in the sediments were screened out with activated carbon and zeolite. The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments were tested with benthic invertebrates (tubificid and chironomid). The correlations between toxicity of sediment and the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) derived previously were evaluated. There were significant correlations (pheavy metals based on SQGs, indicating that threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) were reliable to predict the toxicities of heavy metals in the sediments of Taihu Lake. By contrast, the method based on acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), such as ∑SEM/AVS and ∑SEM-AVS, did not show correlations with the toxicities. Moreover, the predictive ability of SQGs was confirmed by a total predicting accuracy of 77%. Ecological risk assessment based on TELs and PELs showed that the contaminations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn in the sediments of Taihu Lake were at relatively low or medium levels. The risks caused by heavy metals in the sediments of northern bay of the lake, which received more wastewater discharge from upper stream, were higher than other area of the lake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance

    Lorenzo Tripodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance is a toolbox to examine and disentangle urban complexities. Not the city, not the urban territory, not the urbanization process but the irreducible condition produced by the dialectical relation and the semantic stratification resulting from these factors.

  5. The Effect of Sediment Quality and Stocking Density on Survival and ...

    The effect of sediment quality and stocking density on the survival and growth of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra reared in nursery ponds and in pens was studied at Aqua-Lab Farm in Toliara, south west Madagascar. Three types of sediment (micro-atoll, mangrove and seagrass bed) were tested for their food quality ...

  6. A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments.

    Prica, M; Dalmacija, B; Roncević, S; Krcmar, D; Becelić, M

    2008-01-25

    The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), total metals, and pore-water metal concentrations were studied in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. In Serbia, there are no regulations concerning sediment quality standards and sediment management. Harmonization of legislation in the domain of environmental protection with EU requirements will increase the significance of the sediment issue. Sediment quality was assessed according to Dutch standards, but the results were also compared with Canadian and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) guidelines for sediment quality. A comparison of the results based on different criteria for sediment quality assessment shows that they are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, a single approach to quality assessment may be insufficient. The Sigma[SEM]/[AVS] ratio was found to be greater than one at several locations that were already recognized as places of high risk based on Dutch standards. Some other samples had Sigma[SEM]/[AVS]AVS]>1 can cause increased toxicity because there are many other metal-binding phases in sediments. Metals that are associated with AVS may be released within sediments through storms, dredging activities, oxidation, etc., and may have adverse environmental impacts. This has to be taken into account during dredging, which is for some sediments necessary because the sediment is of class 4 (Dutch evaluation), because the dredging process will certainly increase the concentration of bioavailable heavy metals and disturb the sedimentation dynamics. The obtained results will be invaluable for future activities regarding dredging and sediment management in the country.

  7. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  8. Effects of dredging operations on sediment quality. Contaminant mobilization in dredged sediments from the Port of Santos, SP, Brazil

    Torres, Ronaldo J.; Santos, Fernando C.; Mozeto, Antonio A. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica Ambiental, Dept. de Quimica, Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abessa, Denis M.S.; Maranho, Luciane A.; Davanso, Marcela B. [Campus Experimental do Litoral Paulista, UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista ' Julio de Mesquita Filho' , Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do [Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC), CNEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, MG (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Background, aim, and scope Contaminated sediments are a worldwide problem, and mobilization of contaminants is one of the most critical issues in environmental risk assessment insofar as dredging projects are concerned. The investigation of how toxic compounds are mobilized during dredging operations in the channel of the Port of Santos, Brazil, was conducted in an attempt to assess changes in the bioavailability and toxicity of these contaminants. Materials and methods Bulk sediment samples and their interstitial waters and elutriates were subjected to chemical evaluation and ecotoxicological assessment. Samples were collected from the channel before dredging, from the dredge's hopper, and from the disposal site and its surroundings. Results The results indicate that the bulk sediments from the dredging site are contaminated moderately with As, Pb, and Zn and severely with Hg, and that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are relatively high. Our results also show a 50% increase in PAH concentrations in suspended solids in the water collected from the hopper dredge. This finding is of great concern, since it refers to the dredge overflow water which is pumped back into the ecosystem. Acute toxicity tests on bulk sediment using the amphipod Tiburonella viscana showed no toxicity, while chronic tests with the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus showed toxicity in the interstitial waters and elutriates. Results are compared with widely used sediment quality guidelines and with a sediment quality assessment scheme based on various lines of evidence. Conclusions The data presented here indicate that the sediments collected in this port show a certain degree of contamination, especially those from the inner part of the channel. The classification established in this study indicated that sediments from the dredged channel are impacted detrimentally and that sea disposal may disperse contaminants. According to this classification, the sediments are

  9. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Orientation study data release VI: Leesville, South Carolina, area. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Price, V.; Jones, P.L.

    1978-03-01

    Raw data from an orientation study in the Leesville, South Carolina, area are presented. The area comprises parts of Lexington, Aiken, and Saluda Counties, South Carolina. This report includes sample locality maps, uranium distribution maps, tables of water quality and field measurement data, and tables of uranium and other elemental concentrations

  11. Uranium Districts Defined by Reconnaissance Geochemistry in South Greenland

    Armour-Brown, A.; Steenfelt, A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance exploration survey over 14 000 km2 of Precambrian terrain in South Greenland using stream-sediment and stream-water samples delineated a central uranium district of 2000 km2 with enhanced uranium levels and smaller anomalous zones in the south of the field area. The area is under...

  12. Predicting pollutant concentrations in the water column during dredging operations: Implications for sediment quality criteria

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Wasserman, Maria Angélica V.; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens G.; Almeida, Aline Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The development of new dredging techniques that can reduce, or at least predict, the environmental impacts, is in high demand by governments in developing countries. In the present work, a new methodology was developed, to evaluate the level of metals contamination (i.e. cadmium, lead and zinc) of the water column, during a dredging operation. This methodology was used to evaluate the impacts of the construction of a new maritime terminal in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil. The methodology quantifies the amount of resuspended sediments and calculates the expected contaminants concentrations in the water column. The results indicated that sediment quality criteria were not compatible with water quality criteria, because the dredging of contaminated sediments does not necessarily yield contaminated water. It is suggested that the use of sediment quality criteria for dredging operations might be abandoned, and the methodology presented in this study applied to assess dredging's environmental impacts, predicting water contamination levels. - Graphical abstract: A graphic model showing transference of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The dark sediment area represents the dredged sediments and the arrows emerging from them represent the resuspended sediments affecting the water column. - Highlights: •Developing countries demand for new dredging projects. •A new model evaluates concentrations of metals in the water, caused by dredging. •The model shows that water and sediment quality criteria are not compatible. •Local hydrodynamics have a strong influence on the contamination of the water. •Management of dredging operations reduces environmental contamination.

  13. An evaluation of contaminated estuarine sites using sediment quality guidelines and ecological assessment methodologies.

    Fulton, M; Key, P; Wirth, E; Leight, A K; Daugomah, J; Bearden, D; Sivertsen, S; Scott, G

    2006-10-01

    Toxic contaminants may enter estuarine ecosystems through a variety of pathways. When sediment contaminant levels become sufficiently high, they may impact resident biota. One approach to predict sediment-associated toxicity in estuarine ecosystems involves the use of sediment quality guidelines (ERMs, ERLs) and site-specific contaminant chemistry while a second approach utilizes site-specific ecological sampling to assess impacts at the population or community level. The goal of this study was to utilize an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, sediment quality guidelines and grass shrimp population monitoring to evaluate the impact of contaminants from industrial sources. Three impacted sites and one reference site were selected for study. Grass shrimp populations were sampled using a push-netting approach. Sediment samples were collected at each site and analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Contaminant levels were then compared to sediment quality guidelines. In general, grass shrimp population densities at the sites decreased as the ERM quotients increased. Grass shrimp densities were significantly reduced at the impacted site that had an ERM exceedance for chromium and the highest Mean ERM quotient. Regression analysis indicated that sediment chromium concentrations were negatively correlated with grass shrimp density. Grass shrimp size was reduced at two sites with intermediate levels of contamination. These findings support the use of both sediment quality guidelines and site-specific population monitoring to evaluate the impacts of sediment-associated contaminants in estuarine systems.

  14. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    Granberg, Maria E.; Selck, Henriette

    2007-01-01

    Sediment dwelling macrofauna (infauna) are important vectors for the transfer of sediment-associated contaminants to higher trophic levels. Sedimenting organic matter constitutes an important food source for all benthic organisms and changes seasonally in terms of quantity and quality. Sediment...... imply that bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of sediment-associated PAH should increase following fresh organic matter input, e.g. after sedimentation of phytoplankton blooms. We stress the importance of considering behavioural characteristics of infauna and the trophic situation of the system when...

  15. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  16. Water Quality and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Sungai Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia: A Baseline Study

    Ahmad, A.K.; Mushrifah, I.; Mohamad Shuhaimi Othman

    2009-01-01

    A study on water quality and heavy metal concentration in sediment at selected sites of Sungai Kelantan was carried out. Ten water samples were collected along the river for physical and chemical analysis and twenty-six water and sediment samples were collected for heavy metal analysis. Water was sampled at three different dates throughout the study period whereas sediments were collected once. In addition to heavy metal analysis, sediment samples were also analysed for texture, ph and organic content. The physical and chemical water quality analyses were carried out according to the ALPHA procedures. Result of water quality analysis (physico-chemical) indicated that Sungai Kelantan is characterised by excellent water quality and comparable to pristine ecosystems such as the National Park and Kenyir Lake. This river was classified into class I - class III based on Malaysian interim water quality standard criteria (INWQS). Heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was detected at low concentration in sediment samples, except for Fe and Mn. The presence of Fe and Mn in sediment samples was though to be of natural origin from the soil. Anthropogenic metal concentrations in sediment were low indicating that Sungai Kelantan has not experienced extreme pollution. (author)

  17. Uranium districts defined by reconnaissance geochemistry in South Greenland

    Armour-Brown, A.; Steenfelt, A.; Kunzendorf, H.

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance exploration survey over 14 000 km 2 of Precambrian terrain in South Greenland using stream-sediment and stream-water samples delineated a central uranium district of 2000 km 2 with enhanced uranium levels and smaller anomalous zones in the south of the field area. Limited follow-up work located 8 pitchblende occurrences in this extensive district. The pitchblende is in veins which contain quartz, calcite, iron oxide, fluorite and minor sulphides. The isotopic (U-Pb) age of the pitchblende, which ranges from 1180-1090 Ma, corresponds to the late stages of Gardar alkaline igneous activity. It is concluded, therefore, that the reconnaissance geochemistry reflects a district-wide hydrothermal event related to the late volatile differentiates derived from the highly fractionated alkaline magma. A combination of primary and secondary features have complemented each other in enhancing the geochemical reconnaissance data and emphasized its importance but has not materially altered the interpretation. (Auth.)

  18. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    Granberg, M. E.; Selck, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment dwelling macrofauna (infauna) are important vectors for the transfer of sediment-associated contaminants to higher trophic levels. Sedimenting organic matter constitutes an important food source for all benthic organisms and changes seasonally in terms of quantity and quality. Sediment...... organic matter (SOM) quality affects organism activity and feeding behaviour, and is therefore also likely to affect contaminant fate in benthic systems. We investigated the impact of SOM quality (enrichment with either labile Tetraselmis sp. or refractory lignin) on the accumulation and metabolism...... imply that bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of sediment-associated PAH should increase following fresh organic matter input, e.g. after sedimentation of phytoplankton blooms. We stress the importance of considering behavioural characteristics of infauna and the trophic situation of the system when...

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Sediment Quality of Subalpine Reservoirs: Implications on Management

    Marziali Laura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are characterized by accumulation of sediments where micropollutants may concentrate, with potential toxic effects on downstream river ecosystems. However, sediment management such as flushing is needed to maintain storage capacity. Climate change is expected to increase sediment loads, but potential effects on their quality are scarcely known. In this context, sediment contamination by trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organics (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs, Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs and C > 12 hydrocarbons was analyzed in 20 reservoirs located in Italian Central Alps. A strong As and a moderate Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment was emphasized by Igeo, with potential ecotoxicological risk according to Probable Effect Concentration quotients. Sedimentation rate, granulometry, total organic carbon (TOC and altitude resulted as the main drivers governing pollutant concentrations in sediments. According to climate change models, expected increase of rainfall erosivity will enhance soil erosion and consequently the sediment flow to reservoirs, potentially increasing coarse grain fractions and thus potentially diluting pollutants. Conversely, increased weathering may enhance metal fluxes to reservoirs. Increased vegetation cover will potentially result in higher TOC concentrations, which may contrast contaminant bioavailability and thus toxicity. Our results may provide elements for a proper management of contaminated sediments in a climate change scenario aiming at preserving water quality and ecosystem functioning.

  20. The assessment of sediment screening risk in Venice Lagoon and other coastal areas using international sediment quality guidelines

    Apitz, S.A.; Barbanti, A.; Bocci, M.; Delaney, E.; Bernstein, A.G.; Montobbio, L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies carried out in recent years have shown the presence of a wide range of contaminants in the Venice Lagoon. It is important to have a good understanding of the ecological quality of Venice Lagoon sediments, in order to: i) define and locate areas where a threat to the environment is present and therefore an intervention is needed (i.e. in situ assessment and management); and ii) define sustainable and environmentally correct ways of managing sediments which are to be dredged for navigational purposes or in relation to other interventions (i.e., ex situ management). Materials and Methods: To examine how various regional and international SQGs 'classed' screening risk in Venice Lagoon sediments, data on median contaminant levels in surface sediments in Venice Lagoon resulting from a literature review were compared to a range of local and international sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Then data on sediment contaminant levels in various areas and sub-basins of Venice Lagoon (main Lagoon, Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals) and in other regional and international transitional and coastal ecosystems with various levels of human impact (urbanization and industrialization) were evaluated based upon a selected consensus-based SQG. Finally, screening sediment quality for all of Venice Lagoon was mapped and contoured, relative to this consensus-based SQG and briefly compared with direct toxicity measurement through a battery of bioassays. Results: SQGs allow the sediment areas to be put in terms of potential, or screening, risk. Although there were some differences depending upon which specific SQGs were applied, the Venice SQGs and other international SQGs provided the same general picture of screening risk in Venice Lagoon despite geographic differences. Venice Lagoon South has the lowest screening risk levels, Venice Lagoon Central/North has the highest (and is nearest to the Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals sites). Discussion: The Venice

  1. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations

    Youn Shik Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST, provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment data were collected from 211 streams. Estimated annual sediment loads from LOADEST and subsampled data were compared to the measured annual sediment loads (true load. The means of flow for calibration data were correlated to model behavior. A regression equation was developed to compute the required mean of flow in calibration data to best calibrate the LOADEST regression model coefficients. LOADEST runs were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean flow in calibration data and model behaviors as daily water quality data were subsampled. LOADEST calibration data used sediment concentration data for flows suggested by the regression equation. Using the mean flow calibrated by the regression equation reduced errors in annual sediment load estimation from −39.7% to −10.8% compared to using all available data.

  2. Managing erosion, sediment transport and water quality in drained peatland catchments

    Marttila, H.

    2010-07-01

    Peatland drainage changes catchment conditions and increases the transport of suspended solids (SS) and nutrients. New knowledge and management methods are needed to reduce SS loading from these areas. This thesis examines sediment delivery and erosion processes in a number of peatland drainage areas and catchments in order to determine the effects of drainage on sediment and erosion dynamics and mechanics. Results from studies performed in peat mining, peatland forestry and disturbed headwater catchments in Finland are presented and potential sediment load management methods are discussed for drainage areas and headwater brooks. Particular attention is devoted to erosion of organic peat, sediment transport and methods to reduce the impacts of peatland drainage in boreal headwaters. This thesis consists of six articles. The first and second papers focus on the erosion and sediment transport processes at peat harvesting and peatland forestry drainage networks. The results indicate that in-channel processes are important in drained peatland, since the drainage network often constitutes temporary inter-storm storage for eroding and transporting material. Sediment properties determine the bed sediment erosion sensitivity, as fluffy organic peat sediment consolidates over time. As flashiness and peak runoff control sediment entrainment and transport from drained peatland areas, water quality management should include peak runoff management. The third, fourth and fifth papers studies use and application of peak runoff control (PRC) method to the peat harvesting and peatland forestry conditions for water protection. Results indicate that effective water quality management in drained peatland areas can be achieved using this method. Installation of the PRC structures is a useful and cost-effective way of storing storm runoff waters temporarily in the ditch system and providing a retention time for eroded sediment to settle to the ditch bed and drainage network. The main

  3. The Study of Heavy Metals on Sediment Quality of Kuala Perlis Coastal Area

    Zubir, A. A. Ahmad; Saad, F. N. Mohd; Dahalan, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    The contamination of heavy metals gives bad implications to the aquatic environment. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the sediment quality by using different contamination indices such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), and Pollution Load Index (PLI). Each sediment sample was collected at the surface (0-15cm) at 5 locations based on the land use activity; jetty port (A), seaside restaurant (B), roadside area (C), power plant (D) and residential area (E). All samples were undergoes acid digestion and analyzed with AAS. Four elements identified from the sediment samples which are Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were used to calculate the respective indices. Results show that, the highest EF value of Pb which categorized as very severe enrichment was at point E. Meanwhile minor enrichment was detected at point B for Cu while Cr and Zn at point A. Based on Igeo value the sediment quality along Kuala Perlis was in the unpolluted-moderately polluted condition (class 1). As for PLI it shows that the sediment of the coastal area is unpolluted (PLI<1). Therefore, this study revealed that, the main contributor of heavy metals in this area is Pb while the sediment quality of Kuala Perlis was in minor pollution condition.

  4. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  5. Assessment of sediment quality collected from the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Siong, Wee Boon; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of source and sediment quality was carried out on marine sediments collected from the Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park. Enrichment factors (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to identify the sources of pollution, degree of contamination and sediment quality, respectively. Elemental analyses of marine sediment samples were performed by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Results from the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park of Sabah indicated that most of the elements are considered to be from lithological or natural origin with EF values of less than 2 except for As (10 stations), Cr (3 stations), Lu (5 stations), Mg (2 stations), Sb (6 stations) and U (3 stations). For the sediment quality, most of the study area can be categorised as unpolluted for most of the elements (Igeo value < 2) except for As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U. A few study areas were slightly low contaminated with As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U. The contamination of As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U in the study area can be categorised as moderate with Igeo values ranged from 1 to 2. Meanwhile, the results of PLI value for sediment were ranged from 0.93 to 1.47 (PLI < 50) indicating there are not required to perform drastic rectification measures for the screening of the elements in the Tunku Abdul Rahman Park. Overall, assessment of the sediment quality at the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park showed a few elements such as As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U were slightly enriched while most of the elements were similar to background values. (author)

  6. Sediment quality guidelines for copper and zinc for filter-feeding estuarine oysters?

    Birch, G.F., E-mail: gavin.birch@sydney.edu.a [Environmental Geology Group, School of Geosciences, Sydney University, NSW (Australia); Hogg, T.D. [Environmental Geology Group, School of Geosciences, Sydney University, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) assess the ability of bottom sediment to sustain healthy infauna and water quality guidelines (WQGs) provide protection for a designated percentage of aquatic species. Filter-feeding marine species, e.g. oysters and mussels, acquire food from particles in the water column and protection of these animals is not provided by SQGs or WQGs. The current work investigated the relationship between metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in total and fine-fraction (<62.5 {mu}m) surficial sediment digested in a range of acids and chelating agents and oyster tissue metal concentrations. A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level (<45 {mu}g g{sup -1} and <1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively) for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels (70 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively). - A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels for these metals. The guidelines for fine surficial sediment developed in the present work accurately predicted oyster tissue concentrations in the field.

  7. Simultaneous Investigation of Sediment Transport and Water Quality Parameters Using An In Situ Measurement Device

    Prochnow, J. V.

    Though quality of surface waters has improved remarkably over the last twenty years, the contaminant load of soft cohesive sediments remained comparatively unimproved. That is why the new European water framework directive addresses contaminant loaded sediments and postulates criteria for assessing sediment quality. Surveys into contaminated sediment behaviour have revealed adsorption/desorption characteristics of individual toxins. Biomonitoring of pollutant pressure on specific benthic organ- isms on the other hand can be useful to elucidate potential dangers to aquatic ecosys- tems. However, it is yet unknown how a given contaminant loaded sediment will re- spond to different hypercritical flow conditions in terms of release rates and partition- ing of xenobiotica. On this account a small in situ measuring device (EROSIMESS) was constructed, that features simultaneous determination of suspended sediment con- centration (optical turbidity meter), dissolved oxygen levels, pH and temperature (membrane probes) under predefined hydraulic conditions. Samples of the suspen- sion can be withdrawn for subsequent chemical analysis. Bottom shear stresses up to 5N/m2 can be generated by means of a propeller that resides in cylindrical perspex tube (erosion chamber) two centimeters above the sediment bed. Baffles on the in- ner wall of the cylinder prevent a solid body rotation of the suspension by creating additional turbulence and a second propeller straight beneath the concentration me- ter inhibits the development of a concentration gradient within the chamber. A small CCD-camera is used to control positioning of the device. It can be used in water- depths up to 5m. The control unit consists of a trigger box and an ordinary laptop computer running LabView. EROSIMESS has been successfully used in various stud- ies on contaminant release, eutrophication, and SOD (sediment oxygen demand) in rivers (Spree: Germany; Maun: UK), reservoirs (Heimbach, Haus Ley: Germany), and

  8. USING THE SEDIMENT QUALITY TRIAD (SQT) APPROACH TO ASSESS SEDIMENTARY CONTAMINATION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

    Using the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) Approach to Assess Sedimentary Contamination in the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. Velinsky, DJ*1, Ashley, JTF1,2, Pinkney, F.3, McGee, BL3 and Norberg-King, TJ.4 1Academy of Natural Sciences-PCER, Philadelphia, PA. 2Philadelphia Universi...

  9. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    Johnson, V.G.; Wagner, J.J.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1993-08-01

    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K d 's > 10 5 reach about 1 to 5 μg/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed

  10. Data quality objectives summary report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, sediments that have accumulated on 105-N Basin surfaces will be vacuumed, collected in the North Cask Pit of the basin complex, and eventually removed. The Environmental Assessment for the Deactivation of the N Reactor Facilities describes two potential disposition paths for the 105-N Basin sediment: transfer in slurry form to a double-shell tank if determined to be a transuranic waste, or disposal in solid form as a low-level waste. Interim storage of the sediments may be required if a transfer to the Tank Waste Remediation System cannot meet schedule milestones. Selection of a particular alternative depends on the final characterization of the accumulated sediment, regulatory requirements, cost/benefit analyses, and 105-N Stabilization Project schedule requirements. Revision 0 of this Data Quality Objectives (DQO) report was issued to describe a formal DQO process that was performed according to BHI-EE-01, Environmental Investigations Procedures, EIP 1.2, Data Quality Objectives, Revision 1. Since publication of Revision 0 of this report, important changes to the disposition strategy for 100-N Deactivation sediment material have been proposed, evaluated, discussed with the US Department of Energy and State of Washington Department of Ecology, and implemented. Revision 1 of this report documents these changes

  11. Assessing the impact of preload on pyrite-rich sediment and groundwater quality.

    Karikari-Yeboah, Ohene; Addai-Mensah, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload. In this study, we investigate the effect of pyrite-rich sediment pore water transfer under preload surcharge on the receiving environment and the impact on the groundwater speciation and quality. Sediment samples were obtained at close depth intervals from boreholes established within pristine areas and those subjected to the preload application. Soil and pore water samples were subjected to solid/solution speciation, moisture contents, soil pH and the Atterberg Limits' analyses using standard analytical techniques and methods. Standpipes were also installed in the boreholes for groundwater sampling and in situ monitoring of water quality parameters. It is shown that the imposition of preload surcharge over pyritic sediment created a reducing environment rich in SO 4 2- , iron oxide minerals and organic matter. This reducing environment fostered organic carbon catabolism to generate excess pyrite and bicarbonate alkalinity, which would invariably impact adversely on soil quality and plant growth. These were accompanied by increase in pH, dissolved Al, Ca, Mg and K species beneath the surcharge.

  12. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    Sharley, David J. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: sharleyd@unimelb.edu.au; Hoffmann, Ary A. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent [Research and Technology, Melbourne Water, PO Box 4342, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated.

  13. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    Sharley, David J.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated

  14. Oak Ridge Geochemical Reconnaissance Program

    Arendt, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The Oak Ridge reconnaissance program is responsible for the geochemical survey in a 12-state area covering Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. The program concept is outlined and the planning and organization of the program is discussed

  15. Maintenance of remote reconnaissance vehicle

    Schein, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A description is provided of the maintenance program developed for remote reconnaissance vehicles, such as RRV-1, in use at the Three Mile Island Unit 2. The described approach, which is simple, effective, and flexible, helped to make the effort successful. It will be applied to future projects

  16. Application of a new sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and of the Aquatic Lemna test to assess the sediment quality of Lake Skadar

    Stesevic, D.; Sundic, D.; Mijovic, S. [Montenegro Univ., Podgorica (ME). Faculty of Sciences; Feiler, U.; Heininger, P. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hygiene; Seiler, T.B.; Hollert, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Zoology; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltforschung - Biologie V

    2007-10-15

    Goal, Scope and Background: Situated in the transboundary belt between Montenegro and Albania, the Lake Skadar is the largest freshwater reservoir in Southeastern Europe. Because of the wide range of endemic, rare or endangered plant and animal species it supports, Lake Skadar and its extensive adjacent wetlands are internationally recognised as a site of significance and importance (Ramsar site). Within the last 10 to 20 years, Lake Skadar was exposed to intensive pollution. For the assessment of the ecotoxic load of the sediments sampled in Lake Skadar, a triad approach was recently applied. Overall, a complex spectrum of ecotoxic loads was elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use plant-based bioassays for assessing the sediment quality of Lake Skadar in order to facilitate and complement the triad test battery. The newly developed sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor were applied to native sediments and pore water, respectively, allowing the investigation of different toxicity-effects caused by particle-bound pollutants as well as pollutants in the interstitial water. This investigation is the first application of the novel sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum to lake sediments. Materials and Methods: Sediment samples were taken from nine selected sites at Lake Skadar and investigated by the sediment contact assay with Myriophyllum aquaticum. The pore water was extracted from these sediment samples to be analysed in the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor. The results of the sediment contact tests were compared with each other and with those of the aquatic growth inhibition test. Results and Discussion: Both applied macrophyte biotests revealed distinct changes in the growth behaviour of the two macrophytes subsequent to the exposure to the investigated natural sediments of Lake Skadar. The Myriophyllum sediment contact test revealed significant toxicity in

  17. Data quality objectives summary report for the 107-N Basin Recirculation Building liquid/sediment

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process used for this 107-N Basin Recirculation Building liquid/sediment DQO report followed BHI-EE-01, Environmental Investigations Procedures, EIIP 1.2, Data Quality Objectives, Revision 2. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone (M-16-OIE) states that the 100-N Area deactivation must be performed according to the work scope identified in the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993c). Consistent with the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan, the scope of the 107-N liquid/sediment DQO process exclusively involves the determination of sampling requirements during the deactivation period. The sampling requirements are primarily directed at characterization for comparison to decontamination and decommissioning endpoint acceptance criteria in preparation for turnover of the facilities listed below to the D and D organization. The sample characterization will also be used for selection of the appropriate disposition option for liquid and sediment currently contained in the facility. The primary media within the scope of this DQO includes the following: Accumulated liquids and sediment contained in tanks, vessels, pump wells, sumps, associated piping, and valve pit floors; and Limited solid debris (anticipated to be discovered)

  18. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and sediment quality in the Cimadur river, Banten

    Rina Mulyaningsih; Siti Suprapti

    2015-01-01

    River sediment quality assessment can be done by the calculation of pollution index. The existence of gold mining activities in Cikotok suspected to have an impact on Cimadur river quality degradation. Calculations pollution index by heavy metal Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn contained in river sediment Cimadur Cikotok Banten have been performed. Sediment sampling has conducted at 9 locations along the Cimadur River. Quantification of heavy metals in the samples was done by using the neutron activation analysis technique. The result of assessment based on enrichment factor showed that there has been an increase in concentration of heavy metals Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn due to anthropogenic factors. Based on the value of index geo accumulation it was known that the sampling location has been polluted, predominantly by Hg and As. Heavy metals contained in the sediments provide ecological risk to the environment with following order: Cr < Zn < As < Hg. Based on the value of pollution load index (PLI), all locations were polluted by heavy metals Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn. The sources of heavy metals could be from natural rocks or gold mining activities. Evaluation based on potential ecological risk index, showed that heavy metal pollution will give impact of ecological risk to the surrounding environment from low level to high, so it is necessary to do environmental monitoring and management appropriate for reducing the pollution in that location. (author)

  19. Sediment quality guidelines for copper and zinc for filter-feeding estuarine oysters?

    Birch, G.F.; Hogg, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) assess the ability of bottom sediment to sustain healthy infauna and water quality guidelines (WQGs) provide protection for a designated percentage of aquatic species. Filter-feeding marine species, e.g. oysters and mussels, acquire food from particles in the water column and protection of these animals is not provided by SQGs or WQGs. The current work investigated the relationship between metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in total and fine-fraction ( -1 and -1 , respectively) for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels (70 μg g -1 and 1000 μg g -1 , respectively). - A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels for these metals. The guidelines for fine surficial sediment developed in the present work accurately predicted oyster tissue concentrations in the field.

  20. Integrative assessment of sediment quality in lower basin affected by former mining in Brazil.

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Buruaem, Lucas M; Morais, Lucas G; Araujo, Giuliana S; Abessa, Denis M S; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Ángel DelValls, T

    2017-06-13

    The Ribeira de Iguape River (Southeast Brazil) is metal contaminated by mining activities. Despite it has been cataloged as "in via of restoration" by the literature, this basin is still a sink of pollution in some segments of the fluvial system. This study aimed to assess the sediment quality in the lower part of the RIR basin. The employed approach was based on biological responses of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after 7-day exposure bioassays using as the reference site the Perequê Ecological Park. Toxic responses (burial activity and lethality) and biochemical biomarkers (GST, GR, GPx, LPO, MTs, AChE and DNA damage) were evaluated and then integrated with metal bioavailability and chemical concentrations to address the sediment quality in the area through the weight-of-evidence approach. A multivariate analysis identified linkages between biological responses and contamination. Results pointed that, despite being below the benchmarks of the US Environmental Protection Agency, there is slight metal contamination in the lower part of the basin which induces oxidative stress in C. fluminea; other toxic responses were sometimes attributed to As and Cr bioaccumulation. The sediment quality values (TEL-PEL values in mg/kg) were calculated for the current study for As (0.63-1.31), Cr (3.5-11.05), Cs (1.0-1.17), Cu (6.32-7.32), Ni (6.78-7.46), Ti (42.0-215), V (1.77-8.00). By comparison with other international guidelines, the sediment quality of the lower basin of the Vale de Ribeira does not identify a significant environmental risk.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data listing release for the Three Forks Basin, Spanish Peaks, and Boulder River areas for the Bozeman NTMS quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-six additional elements

    Bolivar, S.L.; George, W.E.; Gallimore, D.L.; Apel, C.T.; Gansel, J.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Van Haaften, I.J.; Pirtle, J.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 531 water and 1275 sediment samples were collected from 1275 stream and spring locations. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements (Al, Sb, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, K, Rb, Sn, Sc, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, V, Yb, and Zn), by x-ray fluorescence for 13 elements (As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Nb, Se, Ag, Sn, W, and Zr), and by arc-source emission spectrography for Li and Be. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million

  2. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  3. Sediment delivery estimates in water quality models altered by resolution and source of topographic data.

    Beeson, Peter C; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Tomer, Mark D; Daughtry, Craig S T

    2014-01-01

    Moderate-resolution (30-m) digital elevation models (DEMs) are normally used to estimate slope for the parameterization of non-point source, process-based water quality models. These models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Modified USLE to estimate sediment loss. The slope length and steepness factor, a critical parameter in USLE, significantly affects sediment loss estimates. Depending on slope range, a twofold difference in slope estimation potentially results in as little as 50% change or as much as 250% change in the LS factor and subsequent sediment estimation. Recently, the availability of much finer-resolution (∼3 m) DEMs derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data has increased. However, the use of these data may not always be appropriate because slope values derived from fine spatial resolution DEMs are usually significantly higher than slopes derived from coarser DEMs. This increased slope results in considerable variability in modeled sediment output. This paper addresses the implications of parameterizing models using slope values calculated from DEMs with different spatial resolutions (90, 30, 10, and 3 m) and sources. Overall, we observed over a 2.5-fold increase in slope when using a 3-m instead of a 90-m DEM, which increased modeled soil loss using the USLE calculation by 130%. Care should be taken when using LiDAR-derived DEMs to parameterize water quality models because doing so can result in significantly higher slopes, which considerably alter modeled sediment loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Sedimentation and Its Impacts/Effects on River System and Reservoir Water Quality: case Study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe

    Tundu, Colleta; Tumbare, Michael James; Kileshye Onema, Jean-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Sediment delivery into water sources and bodies results in the reduction of water quantity and quality, increasing costs of water purification whilst reducing the available water for various other uses. The paper gives an analysis of sedimentation in one of Zimbabwe's seven rivers, the Mazowe Catchment, and its impact on water quality. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to compute soil lost from the catchment as a result of soil erosion. The model was used in conjunction with GIS remotely sensed data and limited ground observations. The estimated annual soil loss in the catchment indicates soil loss ranging from 0 to 65 t ha yr-1. Bathymetric survey at Chimhanda Dam showed that the capacity of the dam had reduced by 39 % as a result of sedimentation and the annual sediment deposition into Chimhanda Dam was estimated to be 330 t with a specific yield of 226 t km-2 yr-1. Relationship between selected water quality parameters, TSS, DO, NO3, pH, TDS, turbidity and sediment yield for selected water sampling points and Chimhanda Dam was analyzed. It was established that there is a strong positive relationship between the sediment yield and the water quality parameters. Sediment yield showed high positive correlation with turbidity (0.63) and TDS (0.64). Water quality data from Chimhanda treatment plant water works revealed that the quality of water is deteriorating as a result of increase in sediment accumulation in the dam. The study concluded that sedimentation can affect the water quality of water sources.

  5. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  6. Chemical quality of water and bottom sediment, Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, Lahontan Valley, Nevada

    Thodal, Carl E.

    2017-12-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected data on water and bottom-sediment chemistry to be used to evaluate a new water rights acquisition program designed to enhance wetland habitat in Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. The area supports habitat critical to the feeding and resting of migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Information about how water rights acquisitions may affect the quality of water delivered to the wetlands is needed by stakeholders and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge managers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach to wetlands management. A network of six sites on waterways that deliver the majority of water to Refuge wetlands was established to monitor the quality of streamflow and bottom sediment. Each site was visited every 4 to 6 weeks and selected water-quality field parameters were measured when flowing water was present. Water samples were collected at varying frequencies and analyzed for major ions, silica, and organic carbon, and for selected species of nitrogen and phosphorus, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, and other trace organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples were collected for analysis of selected trace elements.Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the recommended criterion for protection of aquatic life (500 milligrams per liter) in 33 of 62 filtered water samples. The maximum arsenic criterion (340 micrograms per liter) was exceeded twice and the continuous criterion was exceeded seven times. Criteria protecting aquatic life from continuous exposure to aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury (87, 0.72, 2.5, and 0.77 micrograms per liter, respectively) were exceeded only once in filtered samples (27, 40, 32, and 36 samples, respectively). Mercury was the only trace element analyzed in bottom-sediment samples to exceed the published probable effect concentration (1,060 micrograms per kilogram).

  7. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000702)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  8. Neutron activation analysis in reconnaissance geochemical survey of Northwestern Mindoro

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique was used to analyze stream sediments collected in Northwestern Mindoro. The concentration levels of 18 elements were determined. It was noted that NAA is suitable for the determination of rare earth, gold, arsenic and cobalt among others because of favorable high neutron cross sections. Samples collected in regional reconnaissance geochemical surveys could be analyzed usng NAA technique to complement other non-nuclear techniques, such as atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author). 11 figs.; 2 tabs.; 12 refs

  9. Combining contamination indexes, sediment quality guidelines and multivariate data analysis for metal pollution assessment in marine sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    Peña-Icart, Mirella; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Lopes Fialho, Lucimar; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Bolaños-Alvarez, Yoelvis; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present work was to combine several tools for assessing metal pollution in marine sediments from Cienfuegos Bay. Fourteen surface sediments collected in 2013 were evaluated. Concentrations of As, Cu, Ni, Zn and V decreased respect to those previous reported. The metal contamination was spatially distributed in the north and south parts of the bay. According to the contamination factor (CF) enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (I geo ), Cd and Cu were classified in that order as the most contaminated elements in most sediment. Comparison of the total metal concentrations with the threshold (TELs) and probable (PELs) effect levels in sediment quality guidelines suggested a more worrisome situation for Cu, of which concentrations were occasional associated with adverse biological effects in thirteen sediments, followed by Ni in nine sediments; while adverse effects were rarely associated with Cd. Probably, Cu could be considered as the most dangerous in the whole bay because it was classified in the high contamination levels by all indexes and, simultaneously, associated to occasional adverse effects in most samples. Despite the bioavailability was partially evaluated with the HCl method, the low extraction of Ni (<3% in all samples) and Cu (<55%, except sample 3) and the relative high extraction of Cd (50% or more, except sample 14) could be considered as an attenuating (Ni and Cu) or increasing (Cd) factor in the risk assessment of those element. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment

    Remaili, Timothy M.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53–100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. - Highlights: • Bioturbation intensity modifies metal exposure and outcomes of sediment bioassays. • Sediment fluxes of Cu decrease and Mn and Zn increase with increased bioturbation. • Strong correlations between bioaccumulated and dissolved Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. • Weak correlations between bioaccumulated and particulate metals. - This study investigated the impact of sediment bioturbation intensity on metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the implications of this to toxicity test design.

  11. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study shows the present environmental quality of superficial sediments within the aquatorium of an industrial harbor. These results help better understand the correlation between historical pollution and present environmental state of the harbor sediments and related environmental hazards in case of dredging. The study area is the Port of Midia, situated in Romania, western Black Sea coast. The port is located at the boundary between the Danube Delta coast (widest nature protected biosphere reserve in the EU) in the north - and the almost entirely human controlled coast - starting south of the port. Midia Harbor was first built in 1942, expanded during the late 1970`s, and currently operates as an oil and general merchandise terminal. This port receives a double impact of waters: brackish Black Sea waters, as well as Danube fresh waters arriving into the aquatorium through the inshore Danube - Black Sea Canal Lock. To understand the environmental status of the port aquatorium one sampling campaign was performed during August 2011. Samples were collected within the aquatorium and in in the surrounding area outside the harbor. For a better correlation with the particularities related to the transitions in water salinity, the aquatorium was divided into five sectors with specific characteristics: Cargo Terminal Area, Oil Terminal Enclosure Area, Ships Transit Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Marine Area. The following analyses were performed on water and sediment samples: physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, pH, redox potential, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals), bulk sediments (particle size, grain size distribution, mineralogy, organic matter and carbonates content, heavy minerals load, organic compounds) and microbiological and ecotoxicological assays. The grain size analysis reveals the prevalence of very fine-silt and silty-clay fractions, and

  12. The sediments of the Venice Lagoon (Italy) evaluated in a screening risk assessment approach: part I--application of international sediment quality guidelines.

    Apitz, Sabine E; Barbanti, Andrea; Bocci, Martina; Carlin, Anna; Montobbio, Laura; Bernstein, Alberto Giulio

    2007-07-01

    A number of studies carried out in recent years have shown the presence of a wide range of contaminants in the Venice Lagoon. It is important to have a good understanding of the ecological quality of Venice Lagoon sediments in order to 1) define and locate areas where a threat to the environment is present and therefore an intervention is needed (i.e., in situ assessment and management); and 2) define sustainable and environmentally correct ways of managing sediments that are to be dredged for navigational purposes or in relation to other interventions (i.e., ex situ management). This study reports on a critical comparison of chemical quality of sediments in Venice Lagoon and its subregions. Data on the Venice Lagoon were compiled from several studies conducted during the past decade on surface sediment contamination; temporal variation and risks for contaminants at depth were not addressed. The comparison of observed pollutant concentrations with local and internationally used sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used as a tool to benchmark different sites and for a tier I (screening) ecological risk assessment. Meaning and relevance of a number of SQGs are discussed, together with the options available for carrying out the comparison with sediment data. The screening of the Venice Lagoon sediment quality is discussed from a risk-assessment perspective and appropriate values for use in an in situ-ex situ management framework are suggested. Although there were some differences depending upon which specific SQGs were applied, different SQGs provided the same general picture of screening risk in Venice Lagoon: Although there are geographic differences, median levels for several contaminants in surface sediments exceeded a number of SQGs. Many contaminants exceed threshold effects SQGs, and Hg exceeds probable effects SQGs in most sub-basins except the southern Lagoon. Venice Lagoon south has the lowest screening risk levels, Venice Lagoon central/north has the

  13. Biomarker responsiveness in different tissues of caged Ruditapes philippinarum and its use within an integrated sediment quality assessment

    Ramos-Gomez, Julia, E-mail: julia.ramosgomez@uca.es [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Coz, Alberto; Viguri, Javier R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. los Castros, s/n 39005 Santander (Spain); Luque, Angel [Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, The Canary Islands (Spain); Martin-Diaz, M. Laura [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnologia Marinas (CACYTMAR), Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T. Angel [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Biomarkers comprising activities of biotransformation enzymes (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase -EROD-, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase -DBF-, glutathione S-transferase -GST), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase -GR- and glutathione peroxidase -GPX), lipid peroxidation -LPO- and DNA strand breaks were analyzed in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum caged at Cadiz Bay, Santander Bay and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port (Spain). Sediments were characterized. Digestive gland was the most sensitive tissue to sediment contamination. In Cadiz Bay, changes in LPO regarding day 0 were related with metals. In LPGC Port, DBF, EROD, and GST activity responses suggested the presence of undetermined contaminants which might have led to DNA damage. In Santander Bay, PAHs were related with EROD activity, organic and metal contamination was found to be associated with GR and GST activities and DNA damage presented significant (p < 0.05) induction. R. philippinarum was sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. Biomarkers allowed chemical exposure and sediment quality assessment. - Highlights: > Ruditapes philippinarum is sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. > Digestive gland biomarkers showed the best correlations with sediment contaminants. > Presence of potentially toxic chemicals not analyzed in this research was unmasked. > Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of toxic xenobiotic and possible sources. > Inner area of Santander Bay presented the highest sediment toxicity. - Integration of Ruditapes philippinarum biomarker results and sediment chemistry distinguished xenobiotic exposure and sediment toxicity in coastal areas of Spain.

  14. Biomarker responsiveness in different tissues of caged Ruditapes philippinarum and its use within an integrated sediment quality assessment

    Ramos-Gomez, Julia; Coz, Alberto; Viguri, Javier R.; Luque, Angel; Martin-Diaz, M. Laura; DelValls, T. Angel

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers comprising activities of biotransformation enzymes (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase -EROD-, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase -DBF-, glutathione S-transferase -GST), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase -GR- and glutathione peroxidase -GPX), lipid peroxidation -LPO- and DNA strand breaks were analyzed in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum caged at Cadiz Bay, Santander Bay and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port (Spain). Sediments were characterized. Digestive gland was the most sensitive tissue to sediment contamination. In Cadiz Bay, changes in LPO regarding day 0 were related with metals. In LPGC Port, DBF, EROD, and GST activity responses suggested the presence of undetermined contaminants which might have led to DNA damage. In Santander Bay, PAHs were related with EROD activity, organic and metal contamination was found to be associated with GR and GST activities and DNA damage presented significant (p < 0.05) induction. R. philippinarum was sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. Biomarkers allowed chemical exposure and sediment quality assessment. - Highlights: → Ruditapes philippinarum is sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. → Digestive gland biomarkers showed the best correlations with sediment contaminants. → Presence of potentially toxic chemicals not analyzed in this research was unmasked. → Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of toxic xenobiotic and possible sources. → Inner area of Santander Bay presented the highest sediment toxicity. - Integration of Ruditapes philippinarum biomarker results and sediment chemistry distinguished xenobiotic exposure and sediment toxicity in coastal areas of Spain.

  15. Assessment of sediment quality based on toxic equivalent benzo[a]Pyrene concentration

    King, T.L.; Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as an indicator and its thresholds for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments. The indicator, based on toxicity and carcinogenic effects, was selected to assess the marine environment and changes in marine environmental quality (MEQ) in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. It was shown that the bioavailability of B[a]P and other PAHs is greatly affected by the quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter and organic carbon content. Two coal coke facilities were constructed on the shore of Sydney Harbour in the 19th century. For many years, the coke-ovens discharged toxic liquid effluent through the Tar Ponds into the harbour, contaminating the ground and surface water with arsenic, lead and other toxins. It also led to the accumulation of PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls. A recent assessment of PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour has focused on the exposure of organisms to contaminants as well as the biological effects on the organisms. All samples collected from the South Arm of Sydney Harbour exceeded the upper threshold of established regulatory guidelines. Samples from the Northwest Arm were within regulatory limits, suggesting that industrial and municipal sources were the primary sources of pollution. PAH concentrations were used to identify sediments that exceed effects thresholds based on MEQ guidelines. The results were compared to actual observations of biological effects. Toxic equivalency factors were established for B[a]P and other PAHs in order to estimate cumulative exposure levels. The concentrations can be compared to regulatory sediment quality guidelines established in Canada and the United States for the protection of marine life. 34 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Scranton 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Preliminary basic data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Ferguson, R.B.; Tones, P.L.

    1978-11-01

    Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 980 sites for a nominal density of one site per 18 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 1251 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included.

  17. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Brinkmann, Markus, E-mail: markus.brinkmann@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstr. 122, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zennegg, Markus [Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, 1 Tiansheng Road Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Particle-bound DLCs were readily bioavailable during re-suspension of sediments. • DLC uptake and effects in fish were proportional to the concentration in sediments. • Responses of biomarkers reflected the contamination levels of different sediments. • Cyp1a mRNA expression and EROD activity in livers of fish responded immediately. • Histopathological lesions were strong indicators of potential long-term effects. - Abstract: Sediments can act as long-term sinks for environmental pollutants. Within the past decades, dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted significant attention in the scientific community. To investigate the time- and concentration-dependent uptake of DLCs and PAHs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their associated toxicological effects, we conducted exposure experiments using suspensions of three field-collected sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe, which were chosen to represent different contamination levels. Five serial dilutions of contaminated sediments were tested; these originated from the Prossen and Zollelbe sampling sites (both in the river Elbe, Germany) and from Ehrenbreitstein (Rhine, Germany), with lower levels of contamination. Fish were exposed to suspensions of these dilutions under semi-static conditions for 90 days. Analysis of muscle tissue by high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and of bile liquid by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that particle-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were readily bioavailable from re-suspended sediments. Uptake of these contaminants and the associated toxicological effects in fish were largely proportional to their sediment concentrations. The changes in the investigated biomarkers closely reflected the different sediment contamination levels: cytochrome P450 1A m

  18. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven; Kammann, Ulrike; Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut; Zennegg, Markus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Particle-bound DLCs were readily bioavailable during re-suspension of sediments. • DLC uptake and effects in fish were proportional to the concentration in sediments. • Responses of biomarkers reflected the contamination levels of different sediments. • Cyp1a mRNA expression and EROD activity in livers of fish responded immediately. • Histopathological lesions were strong indicators of potential long-term effects. - Abstract: Sediments can act as long-term sinks for environmental pollutants. Within the past decades, dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted significant attention in the scientific community. To investigate the time- and concentration-dependent uptake of DLCs and PAHs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their associated toxicological effects, we conducted exposure experiments using suspensions of three field-collected sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe, which were chosen to represent different contamination levels. Five serial dilutions of contaminated sediments were tested; these originated from the Prossen and Zollelbe sampling sites (both in the river Elbe, Germany) and from Ehrenbreitstein (Rhine, Germany), with lower levels of contamination. Fish were exposed to suspensions of these dilutions under semi-static conditions for 90 days. Analysis of muscle tissue by high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and of bile liquid by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that particle-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were readily bioavailable from re-suspended sediments. Uptake of these contaminants and the associated toxicological effects in fish were largely proportional to their sediment concentrations. The changes in the investigated biomarkers closely reflected the different sediment contamination levels: cytochrome P450 1A m

  19. The impacts of indoor Amang processing to the quality of water and locally sediments

    Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari; Wong, Siew Kim

    2007-01-01

    The impact of amang industry to the environment and community health has long been studied since the industry uses a large amount of water as well the accumulation of TENORM. A study was carried out to measure the water quality as well as the contents of radioactive substances and selected heavy metals in the water and sediments in the vicinity of an amang processing plant in Kampar, Perak, which is using a close water system. The sampling locations selected are; the natural pond, closed to the plant which supply the water for the processing (L1), a recycling concrete pond outside the plant (L2) and an affluent discharge point inside the plant (L3). The techniques of analysis used included in-situ measurement and laboratory analysis of water quality, direct counting of radioactivity ( 238 U and 232 Th) and chemical extraction for atomic absorption spectroscopy of heavy metals (zinc, lead, copper). Chemical extraction was carried out using potassium nitrate, sodium hydroxide, disodium ethylene-diamine tetra-acetic acid (Na 2 EDTA) and concentrated nitric acid solutions. the results show that the water quality indices for the natural pond are much better than at the effluent discharge point or the recycling concrete pond. The average 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were the highest in sediment samples at L3 (1110.5 ± 7.3 Bq/ Kg and 1966.6 ± 4.7 Bq/ kg respectively). For the water samples, the radioactivity was highest in the water sample collected at concrete pond (L2), which is 35.42 ± 1.63 Bq/ L ( 238 U) and 36.16 ± 1.02 Bq/ L ( 232 Th). The average value of extracted Pb (194.13 μg/ g) and Cu (9.71 μg/ g) was highest in the sediment from L3, while for Zn in sediment taken from L1 (38.78 μg/ g). In general, the water quality indices of L1 are better than L2 and L3. The closed water recycling system currently practiced by the amang processing plant has successfully contained the contamination to the environment caused by amang processing activities. (author)

  20. Information Management For Tactical Reconnaissance

    White, James P.

    1984-12-01

    The expected battlefield tactics of the 1980's and 1990's will be fluid and dynamic. If tactical reconnaissance is to meet this challenge, it must explore all ways of accelerating the flow of information through the reconnaissance cycle, from the moment a tasking request is received to the time the mission results are delivered to the requestor. In addition to near real-time dissemination of reconnaissance information, the mission planning phase needs to be more responsive to the rapidly changing battlefield scenario. By introducing Artificial Intelligence (AI) via an expert system to the mission planning phase, repetitive and computational tasks can be more readily performed by the ground-based mission planning system, thereby permitting the aircrew to devote more of their time to target study. Transporting the flight plan, plus other mission data, to the aircraft is simple with the Fairchild Data Transfer Equipment (DTE). Aircrews are relieved of the tedious, error-prone, and time-consuming task of manually keying-in avionics initialization data. Post-flight retrieval of mission data via the DTE will permit follow-on aircrews, just starting their mission planning phase, to capitalize on current threat data collected by the returning aircrew. Maintenance data retrieved from the recently flown mission will speed-up the aircraft turn-around by providing near-real time fault detection/isolation. As future avionics systems demand more information, a need for a computer-controlled, smart data base or expert system on-board the aircraft will emerge.

  1. Environmental geochemistry and sediment quality in Lake Pontchartrain: database development and review

    Manheim, Frank T.; Flowers, George C.; McIntire, Andrew G.; Marot, Marcie; Holmes, Charles

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on preliminary results of a project to develop a comprehensive data base of chemical and environmental information on sediments from Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and surrounding water bodies. The goal is to evaluate all data for reliability and comparability, and to make it widely accessible and useful to all users. Methods for processing heterogeneous, historical data follow previous methods employed in the Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay area. Data from 11 different data sets, encompassing about 900 total samples, have been entered to date. Questionable or anomalous data were noted in a minority of cases. Problems tend to follow distinct patterns and are relatively easy to identify. Hence, comparability of data has not proven to be the major obstacle to synthesis efforts that was anticipated in earlier years (NRC, 1989). Quality-controlled data sets show that the bulk of sediment samples in the more central parts of Lake Pontchartrain have values within normal background for heavy metals like Cu, Pb, and Zn. The same or lower concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, representing influx from the Mississippi River. Mean concentrations for Cu, Pb, and Zn were 17, 21, and 74 µg/g (total dissolution analyses), respectively. However, values as high as 267 µg/g Pb and comparable increases for other metal and organic contaminants are found in sediments within 2 km of the coastal strip of New Orleans. Additional sampling in such areas and in other inland coastal waterways is needed, since such levels are above the threshold for potential toxic effects on benthic organisms, according to effects-based screening criteria. The most contaminated sites, Bayou Trepagnier and Bayou Bonfouca, involve industrial areas where waste discharge has now been controlled or remediated, but where sediments may retain large concentrations of contaminants, e.g. tenths of a percent of Pb, Cr, and Zn or more for Bayou Trepagnier.

  2. Classification of sediments by means of Self-Organizing Maps and sediment quality guidelines in sites of the southern Spanish coastline

    O. VESES

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to classify 112 marine and estuarine sites of the southern Spanish coastline (about 918 km long according to similar sediment characteristics by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM and sediment quality guidelines from a dataset consisted of 16 physical and chemical parameters including sediment granulometry, trace and major elements, total N and P and organic carbon content. The use of ANNs such as SOM made possible the classification of the sampling sites according to their similar chemical characteristics. Visual correlations between geochemical parameters were extracted due to the powerful visual characteristics (component planes of the SOM revealing that ANNs are an excellent tool to be incorporated in sediment quality assessments. Besides, almost 20% of the sites were classified as medium-high or high priority sites in order to take future remediation actions due to their high mean Effects Range-Median Quotient (m-ERMQ value. Priority sites included the estuaries of the major rivers (Tinto, Odiel, Palmones, etc. and several locations along the eastern coastline.

  3. Compilation, quality control, analysis, and summary of discrete suspended-sediment and ancillary data in the United States, 1901-2010

    Lee, Casey J.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced and natural changes to the transport of sediment and sediment-associated constituents can degrade aquatic ecosystems and limit human uses of streams and rivers. The lack of a dedicated, easily accessible, quality-controlled database of sediment and ancillary data has made it difficult to identify sediment-related water-quality impairments and has limited understanding of how human actions affect suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. The purpose of this report is to describe the creation of a quality-controlled U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment database, provide guidance for its use, and summarize characteristics of suspended-sediment data through 2010. The database is provided as an online application at http://cida.usgs.gov/sediment to allow users to view, filter, and retrieve available suspended-sediment and ancillary data. A data recovery, filtration, and quality-control process was performed to expand the availability, representativeness, and utility of existing suspended-sediment data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States before January 1, 2011. Information on streamflow condition, sediment grain size, and upstream landscape condition were matched to sediment data and sediment-sampling sites to place data in context with factors that may influence sediment transport. Suspended-sediment and selected ancillary data are presented from across the United States with respect to time, streamflow, and landscape condition. Examples of potential uses of this database for identifying sediment-related impairments, assessing trends, and designing new data collection activities are provided. This report and database can support local and national-level decision making, project planning, and data mining activities related to the transport of suspended-sediment and sediment-associated constituents.

  4. Preparation of an estuarine sediment quality control material for the determination of trace metals

    Hatje Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Control Materials (QCM have being used routinely in daily laboratory work as a tool to fill the gap between need and availability of Certified Reference Materials (CRM. The QCM are a low-cost alternative to CRMs, and they are in high demand, especially, for the implementation of quality control systems in laboratories of several areas. This paper describes the preparation of a QCM for the determination of trace metals in estuarine sediments and the results of an interlaboratory exercise. Homogeneity and stability studies were performed and analysis of variance was carried out with the results. No statistical significant differences were observed in the concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn between- or within bottle results. Neither the storage nor temperature affected the results. Therefore, the QCM produced is considered homogeneous and stable and can be used for statistical control charts, evaluation of reproducibility and interlaboratory exercises.

  5. Environmental impact of the Midia Port - Black Sea (Romania, on the coastal sediment quality

    Catianis Irina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the upstream anthropogenic sources and port-related activities. The in-vestigated area covered a wide range of anthropogenic im-pacts (e.g., industrial wastes, storm water runoff, acciden-tal oil spills, intentional discharges and shipping activities. The quality of water and Sediments was assessed us-ing Standard methods, as physical-chemical parameters, chemistry and biology (microbiology, ecotoxicology aim-ing to figure the level of pollution and the effect of port-related activities. Seawater quality results agreed generally with environmental Standards. Though, in some samples the concentrations of sulphates (mg/1 and heavy metals (μg/1, as B, As and Se exceeded the recommended lim-its, without posing a serious environmental concern. Most of the surface sediment samples contain critical levels of hydrocarbons (C>12, (mg/kg, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ng/g and polychlorobiphenyls (ng/g. For some heavy metals (mg/kg, exchangeable concentrations were found to be very close or above the regulations. The signifi-cance of this study is incontestable taking into account the lack of previous relevant historical data of this area. In this sense, it was possible to indicate, in general, good environmental conditions, despite the industrial and concentrated local port-related activities in the investigated area.

  6. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality trends reflect the relation between water quality and human activities, chronicling changes in concentrations of environmental contaminants, introduction of new contaminants, and successful efforts in environmental pollution remediation. Historical data available for analyzing trends often have severe limitations, from questionable accuracy to unknown sampling and analytic methodologies. Where data are unavailable or have such limitations, water-quality trends sometimes can be reconstructed using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs.

  7. Characterization of the quality of water, bed sediment, and fish in Mittry Lake, Arizona, 2014–15

    Hermosillo, Edyth; Coes, Alissa L.

    2017-03-01

    Water, bed-sediment, and fish sampling was conducted in Mittry Lake, Arizona, in 2014–15 to establish current water-quality conditions of the lake. The parameters of temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. Water samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved pesticides, bacteria, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Bed-sediment and fish samples were analyzed for trace elements, halogenated compounds, total mercury, and methylmercury.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels in drinking water were exceeded for sulfate, chloride, and manganese in the water samples. Trace-element concentrations were relatively similar between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Concentrations for nutrients in all water samples were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s water-quality standards for aquatic and wildlife uses, and all bacteria levels were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s recommended recreational water-quality criteria. Three out of 81 pesticides were detected in the water samples.Trace-element concentrations in bed sediment were relatively consistent between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc concentrations, however, decreased from the inlet to outlet locations. Concentrations for lead, nickel, and zinc in some bed-sediment samples exceeded consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect concentrations. Eleven out of 61 halogenated compounds were detected in bed sediment at the inlet location, whereas three were detected at the middle location, and five were detected at the outlet location. No methylmercury was detected in bed sediment. Total mercury was detected in bed sediment at concentrations below the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect

  8. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de, E-mail: pge_13@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (ProAmb/UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental; Filho, Carlos A.C.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Ramos, Maria E.A.F.; Dutra, Pedro H.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: cacf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  9. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de; Silva, Nivaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  10. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  11. Data quality objectives summary report for the 107-N Basin recirculation building liquid/sediment

    Nossardi, O.A.; Miller, M.S.; Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The scope of the 107-N Basin Recirculation Facility Liquid/Sediment Data Quality Objectives (DQO) exclusively involves the determination of sampling and analytical requirements during the deactivation period. The sampling requirements are primarily directed at sample characterization for comparison to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) endpoint acceptance criteria in preparation for turnover of the facilities (listed below) to D and D organization. If determined to be waste, the sample characterization is also used for comparison with the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the receiving facilities for selection of the appropriate disposition. Additionally, the data generated from the characterization will be used to support the selection of available disposition options. The primary media within the scope of this DQO includes the following: Accumulated liquids and sediment contained in tanks, vessels, pump wells, sumps, associated piping, and valve pit floors; and Limited solid debris (anticipated to be discovered). Although the title of this report refers only to the 107-N Basin Recirculation Building, this DQO encompasses the following four 100-N Buildings/areas: 1310-N valve pit area inside the Radioactive Chemical Waste Treatment Pump House (silo); 1314-N Waste Pump (Overflow) Tank at the Liquid Waste Disposal Station; 105-N Lift Station pump well and valve pit areas inside the 105-N Reactor Building; and 107-N Basin Recirculation Building

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Red Creek quartzite special study area, Vernal NTMS Quadrangle, Utah/Colorado, including concentrations of forty-six additional elements

    Goff, S.; George, W.E.; Apel, C.T.; Hansel, J.M.; Fuka, M.A.; Bunker, M.E.; Hanks, D.

    1981-04-01

    Totals of 22 water and 140 sediment samples were collected from 148 locations in the study area. The study area, in the north-central portion of the Vernal NTMS quadrangle, is covered by four 7-1/2' topographic maps: Dutch John, Goslin Mountain, and Clav Basin, Utah; and Willow Creek Butte, Utah/Colorado. Additional HSSR data are available for the entire Vernal quadrangle (Purson, 1980). All field and analytical data are presented in Appendix I. Figure 1 is an index and sample location map that can be used in conjunction with the 1:250,000-scale topographic map of the Vernal quadrangle (USGS, 1954). Standarized field, analytical, and data base management procedures were followed in all phases of the study. These procedures are described briefly in Appendix II-A and in reports by Sharp (1977), Hues et al (1977), Sharp and Aamodt (1978), Cheadle (1977), and Kosiewicz (1979). The data presented in Appendix I are available on magnetic tape from GJOIS Project, Union Carbide Corporation (UCC-ND), Computer Applications Department, 4500 North Building, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. Because this is simply a data release, intended to make the data available to the DOE and the public as quickly as possible, no discussion of the geology of the region, uranium occurrences, or data evaluation is included

  13. Military Transformation: Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    Chizek, Judy G

    2003-01-01

    .... As the military services attempt to increase the agility and versatility of their weapon systems, they also see a need to increase the capabilities of military intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR...

  14. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  15. Impact of sediment organic matter quality on the fate and effects of fluoranthene in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis

    Selck, Henriette; Granberg, Maria E; Forbes, Valery E.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily adsorb to organic matter. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the quality of sedimentary organic matter for the uptake, biotransformation and toxicity of the PAH, fluoranthene (Flu......), in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis. Brittle stars were exposed to a base sediment covered by a 2 cm Flu-spiked top layer (30 mug Flu/g dry wt. sed.), enriched to the same total organic carbon content with either refractory or labile organic matter. The labile carbon source was concentrated green...... to equilibrium partitioning between organism lipid content and organic content of the sediment. Biotransformation of Flu by brittle stars was very limited and unaffected by organic matter quality. A. filiformis contributed to the downward transport of Flu from the surface sediment to the burrow lining...

  16. Ambient water and sediment quality of Galveston Bay: Present status and historical trends. Volume 1. Final report

    Ward, G.H.; Armstrong, N.E.

    1992-08-01

    For many years, data relating to the quality of water and sediment have been collected in the Galveston Bay system by a variety of organizations and individuals. The purpose of the project was to compile these data, and to perform a quantitative assessment of water and sediment quality of Galveston Bay and its evolution over time. The study focused on the following categories of parameters: temperature, salinity and related parameters, suspended sediments and turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients as measured by nitrogen, phosphorous and organic carbon, organics as measured by oil and grease, volatile solids and biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, coliforms, metals (total and dissolved), and trace organics, including pesticides, herbicides, PAH's, PCB's, and priority pollutants.

  17. Climate change and the impact of increased rainfall variability on sediment transport and catchment scale water quality

    Hancock, G. R.; Willgoose, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been recognition that changing climate will affect rainfall and storm patterns with research directed to examine how the global hydrological cycle will respond to climate change. This study investigates the effect of different rainfall patterns on erosion and resultant water quality for a well studied tropical monsoonal catchment that is undisturbed by Europeans in the Northern Territory, Australia. Water quality has a large affect on a range of aquatic flora and fauna and a significant change in sediment could have impacts on the aquatic ecosystems. There have been several studies of the effect of climate change on rainfall patterns in the study area with projections indicating a significant increase in storm activity. Therefore it is important that the impact of this variability be assessed in terms of catchment hydrology, sediment transport and water quality. Here a numerical model of erosion and hydrology (CAESAR) is used to assess several different rainfall scenarios over a 1000 year modelled period. The results show that that increased rainfall amount and intensity increases sediment transport rates but predicted water quality was variable and non-linear but within the range of measured field data for the catchment and region. Therefore an assessment of sediment transport and water quality is a significant and complex issue that requires further understandings of the role of biophysical feedbacks such as vegetation as well as the role of humans in managing landscapes (i.e. controlled and uncontrolled fire). The study provides a robust methodology for assessing the impact of enhanced climate variability on sediment transport and water quality.

  18. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring(SEA Ring)

    The objective of the verification is to test the efficacy and ability of the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants in the sediment, at the sediment-water interface, and WC to organisms that live in those respective environments.

  19. Sediment transport, light and algal growth in the Markermeer : a two-dimensional water quality model for a shallow lake

    Duin, van E.H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data

  20. Scour hole ('wielen') sediments as historical archive of floods, vegetation, and air and water quality in lowlands

    Cremer, Holger; van Hoof, Thomas; Bunnik, Frans; Donders, Timme

    2010-01-01

    The sediment record from a maximum 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the embanked Meuse River in the Netherlands was studied for past changes in flooding frequency, water quality, and landscape change using a combined geochemical, geobiological and historical approach. The results

  1. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  2. Characterization of quality of sediments from Paranaguá Bay (Brazil) by combined in vitro bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Rizzi, Juliane; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Fernandes, Denise; Contreras, Javier; Froehner, Sandro; Porte, Cinta

    2017-07-01

    The present study characterizes the quality of sediments from the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (South Brazil). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in sediment samples together with a series of different in vitro bioassays. The fish hepatoma cell line (PLHC-1) was used to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds and CYP1A- and oxidative stress-inducing agents in sediment extracts. Ovarian microsomal fractions from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were used to detect the presence of endocrine disrupters that interfered with the synthesis of estrogens (ovarian CYP19). Despite the relatively low levels of pollutants and no evidence of negative effects based on guideline levels, sediments collected close to harbors were enriched with CYP1A-inducing agents and they showed higher cytotoxicity. In contrast, sediments from internal areas inhibited CYP19 activity, which suggests the presence of endocrine disrupters at these sites. Overall, the selected bioassays and the chemistry data led to the identification of potentially impacted areas along the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex that would require further action to improve their environmental quality. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1811-1819. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Nawrot Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  4. Chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Saline River basin, Kansas

    Jordan, Paul Robert; Jones, B.F.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    calcium bicarbonate type when the specific conductance is less than about 1,000 micromhos per centimeter, but it is of the sodium chloride type when the specific conductance is more than about 1,500 micromhos per centimeter. The water is off the calcium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium chloride type when the conductance is between 1,000 and 1,500 micromhos per centimeter. Most of the increase in mineralization of the water is caused by inflow of highly mineralized ground water. The ground-water inflow was estimated to be 22 percent of the total streamflow at Tescott in 1948 and 60 percent in 1952. Mineralization increases and water quality deteriorates progressively downstream along nearly the entire Saline River, especially in the part of the area directly underlain by the Dakota Sandstone between the vicinities of Fairport and Wilson: sodium and chloride are the principal constituents of water contributed by the Dakota. The total percentage of the salt in the Saline River that comes from oil-field brines is considered to be small. The water in the upper Saline River is of good quality for domestic use except that it is hard; the water in the lower Saline River is of poor quality for domestic use because most of the time it is highly mineralized, is hard, and contains high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. In the upper reaches of the river, the water is of good quality for irrigation. In the lower reaches, if the water were impounded in a reservoir, it would be of good quality for irrigation during years of high flow and of very poor quality during years of low flow. The water in the lower reaches is of poor quality for industrial use because it is highly mineralized most of the tinge. Relations of suspended-sediment discharge to water discharge were used with the long-term streamflow duration curves to compute the long-term aver age suspended-sediment discharges and concentrations at five indications. Sediment discharge is closely related to runoff. S

  5. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Nawrot Nicole; Wojciechowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS) is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature c...

  6. Catch and Release: A dense, longitudinal array of water quality sondes reveals spatial and temporal complexities in suspended sediment flux

    Guilinger, J. J.; Crosby, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive suspended sediment in streams is one of the most common causes for industrial, ecological and recreational stream impairment in the US. Identifying the primary geomorphic or anthropogenic sources of sediment is a key step in the effective mitigation of impairment. This study seeks to identify sources of suspended sediment in an agriculturally impaired watershed, Marsh Creek, in southeast Idaho. We employ thirteen multi-parameter water quality sensors to simultaneously measure stage, turbidity, temperature and conductivity every 15 minutes over a full calendar year. Examined at both the event and annual scale, these data enable mass balance calculations for mainstem and tributary contributions. Revealed in this monitoring is an approximately eight-fold longitudinal increase in sediment flux over 74 km that is largely augmented by eroding mainstem banks in reaches with higher stream power in the lower 30 km, with less than 20% contributed from tributaries. Independent data confirming the bank source were acquired through cost-effective sediment fingerprinting using 15N and C:N signatures from potential soil endmembers. Additionally, Google Street View-type longitudinal imagery of banks was collected via a kayak survey to confirm the spatial extent and magnitude of bank erosion along Marsh Creek. These data converge on bank erosion as the primary source of fine sediment. Sediment load at various hierarchical temporal and spatial scales is impacted by in-stream storage and remobilization, especially over shorter timescales ranging from daily to seasonal periods. Once averaged over the annual scale, local, temporary in-channel storage is overcome and these data reveal source reaches that can be prioritized for restoration and mitigation projects.

  7. Larval development ratio test with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa as a new bioassay to assess marine sediment quality.

    Buttino, Isabella; Vitiello, Valentina; Macchia, Simona; Scuderi, Alice; Pellegrini, David

    2018-03-01

    The copepod Acartia tonsa was used as a model species to assess marine sediment quality. Acute and chronic bioassays, such as larval development ratio (LDR) and different end-points were evaluated. As a pelagic species, A. tonsa is mainly exposed to water-soluble toxicants and bioassays are commonly performed in seawater. However, an interaction among A. tonsa eggs and the first larval stages with marine sediments might occur in shallow water environments. Here we tested two different LDR protocols by incubating A. tonsa eggs in elutriates and sediments coming from two areas located in Tuscany Region (Central Italy): Livorno harbour and Viareggio coast. The end-points analyzed were larval mortality (LM) and development inhibition (DI) expressed as the percentage of copepods that completed the metamorphosis from nauplius to copepodite. Aims of this study were: i) to verify the suitability of A. tonsa copepod for the bioassay with sediment and ii) to compare the sensitivity of A. tonsa exposed to different matrices, such as water and sediment. A preliminary acute test was also performed. Acute tests showed the highest toxicity of Livorno's samples (two out of three) compared to Viareggio samples, for which no effect was observed. On the contrary, LDR tests with sediments and elutriates revealed some toxic effects also for Viareggio's samples. Results were discussed with regards to the chemical characterization of the samples. Our results indicated that different end-points were affected in A. tonsa, depending on the matrices to which the copepods were exposed and on the test used. Bioassays with elutriates and sediments are suggested and LDR test could help decision-makers to identify a more appropriate management of dredging materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  9. Current approaches to geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Canadian Shield

    Cameron, E.M.; Hornbrook, E.H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Wide-interval geochemical reconnaissance is currently being carried out over large areas of the Canadian Shield by the Geological Survey of Canada. This work is in support of the federal-provincial Uranium Reconnaissance Program. The paper reviews the methodology employed for this reconnaissance to outline areas of enhanced potential for uranium and other mineral commodities. The generally low relief of the Shield virtually restricts wide-interval reconnaissance to the mobile elements that can travel some distance in solution. The high mobility of uranium, particularly in waters of neutral pH, makes it one of the most suitable types of mineralization for detection. For much of the Shield the most appropriate sampling media are lake sediments and lake waters. Centre-lake sediments are homogeneous, and are readily and economically collected utilizing helicopter support. They provide a good response for uranium and a variety of other indicator elements. Waters collected at the same sample sites are a useful supplement in the search for uranium mineralization, particularly in carbonate terrain. However, because of the very low content of uranium in many Shield waters, they present as yet unresolved problems of analysis and storage. The influence of organic material, iron and manganese on the uranium content of lake sediments are examined. Their scavenging influence has been found to be significant only at their lower concentration levels, particularly for organic matter and iron. For the majority of centre-lake samples the effect is negligible. The choice of sample interval is related to total survey costs, to speed of coverage, and to ability to detect uranium and other types of mineralization. For current G.S.C. programs a sample density of one per five square mile appears optimal. The results are presented as l:250,000 symbol maps that are prepared largely by computer, and as 1:1,000,000 contoured compilation maps. (author)

  10. Data quality objectives summary report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, sediments that have accumulated on basin surfaces will be vacuumed, collected in the North Cask Pit of the basin complex, and eventually removed. The environmental assessment for the deactivation of the N Reactor Facilities describes two potential disposition paths for the 105-N Basin sediment: transfer in slurry form to a double-shell tank if determined to be a transuranic waste, or disposal in solid form as a low-level waste. Interim storage of the sediments may be required if a transfer to the Tank Waste Remediation System cannot meet scheduled milestones. Selection of a particular alternative depends on the final characterization of the accumulated sediment, regulatory requirements, cost/benefit analyses, and 105-N Stabilization Project schedule requirements. The 105-N Basin Sediment Process is being conducted in two phases. The scope of the first phase includes identification of the sampling requirements, and the specific analyses required to support evaluation of the sediment disposition options. The objectives of the first phase of the 105-N Basin Sediment DQO Process include the following: identify the relevant acceptance criteria for each of the disposition options; and develop a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) sufficiently through to allow evaluation of sediment analysis results against each set of acceptance criteria

  11. Modeling Benthic Sediment Processes to Predict Water Quality and Ecology in Narragansett Bay

    The benthic sediment acts as a huge reservoir of particulate and dissolved material (within interstitial water) which can contribute to loading of contaminants and nutrients to the water column. A benthic sediment model is presented in this report to predict spatial and temporal ...

  12. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of coastal sediments affected by mussel farming, the effects of the polychaete, Hediste diversicolor was evaluated experimentally. In a series of field- and laboratory experiments we tested hypotheses about the effects of polychaetes on sediment oxygen consumption, nutrient fluxes and sulphide pools under...... different polychaete densities and sedimentation regimes. The experimental results support the idea that polychaetes can mitigate negative effects on the benthic environment beneath mussel farms. H. diversicolor oxidized the sediment and generally enhanced the oxygen consumption, and thus the decomposition...

  13. Field manual for stream water and sediment reconnaissance

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1977-11-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides technical direction and public relations information for field sampling teams. The program is being conducted to evaluate domestic uranium resources and to identify favorable areas for commercial exploration. The NURE program is expected to increase the activity of commercial exploration for uranium in the United States

  14. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened.

  15. Assessment of the Water and Sediment Quality of Tropical Forest Streams in Upper Reaches of the Baleh River, Sarawak, Malaysia, Subjected to Logging Activities

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of logging activities on water and sediment quality of Sarawak forest streams is still scarce despite Sarawak being the largest exporter of timber in Malaysia. This study was aimed at determining the water and sediment quality of forest streams in Sarawak and the potential impact of logging activities. In situ parameters were measured, and water and sediment samples were collected at six stations before rain. Additionally, water quality was investigated at three stations after rain. The results showed that canopy removal resulted in large temperature variation and sedimentation in the forest streams. Lower suspended solids were found at stations with inactive logging (<2 mg/L compared to active logging (10–16 mg/L activities. The highest concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water and sediment was 4.4 mg/L, 77.6 μg/L, 0.17%, and 0.01%, respectively. Besides, significantly negative correlation of sediment nitrogen and water total ammonia nitrogen indicated the loss of nitrogen from sediment to water. Water quality of the streams deteriorated after rain, in particular, suspended solids which increased from 8.3 mg/L to 104.1 mg/L. This study reveals that logging activities have an impact on the water quality of Sarawak forest streams particularly in rainfall events.

  16. Geological reconnaissance and chronologic studies. Technical report No. 33

    Davis, J.

    1983-03-01

    There are several possible scenarios by which a radioactive waste storage facility in the unsaturated zone could be compromised; among them erosion, water table rise, or downward percolation of water. In order to assess these risks, the geologic and climatic events of the past few million years can be used to project the future of the unsaturated deposits. Geologic reconnaissance on and around the NTS was undertaken to identify specific evidence of depositional, erosional, and hydrologic events, as well as to develop an understanding of the timing of these events. Several kinds of evidence were noted and studied: layers or volcanic ash in the basin-fill sediments were discovered and dated at 11 to 5 m.y. old, showing the modern valleys and ranges are at least 11 m.y. old. Exposure of these ash layers by erosion has taken 5 m.y., implying that additional millions of years must pass before modern closed basins on the NTS are eroded. Detailed study of young sediments in Las Vegas Valley suggest that water tables stood at 926 m as recently as 14,000 y ago. To the northeast or the NTS, sediments in basin bottoms also reflect high water tables until about 7000 y ago, but sediments on the NTS proper do not show this effect during the last 700,000 y. The observed relation between erosion due to downwearing or mountain ranges and infilling of valleys suggests that these processes continue, only the uppermost parts of present alluvial fans will be eroded

  17. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  18. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  19. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  20. Quality-Assurance Plan for the Analysis of Fluvial Sediment by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory

    Shreve, Elizabeth A; Downs, Aimee C

    2005-01-01

    This report describes laboratory procedures used by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory for the processing and analysis of fluvial sediment samples for concentration of sand and finer material...

  1. The combined use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments.

    Schnell, Sabine; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Lacorte, Silvia; Porte, Cinta

    2013-12-15

    Sediment contamination poses a potential risk for both ecosystems and human health. Risk assessment is troublesome as sediments contain complex mixtures of toxicants, and traditional chemical analyses can neither provide information about potential hazards to organisms nor identify and measure all present contaminants. This work combines the use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments. The application of multiple endpoints (cytotoxicity, generation of oxidative stress, presence of CYP1A inducing agents, micronucleus formation and estrogenicity) revealed that the organic extracts of those sediments affected by industrial activities or collected near harbours and untreated urban discharges showed significant cytotoxicity, micronuclei and CYP1A induction. The study highlights the usefulness of the applied bioassays to identify those sediments that could pose risk to aquatic organisms and that require further action to improve their environmental quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A mathematical model of reservoir sediment quality prediction based on land-use and erosion processes in watershed

    Junakova, N.; Balintova, M.; Junak, J.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model for determining of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in eroded soil particles with emphasis on prediction of bottom sediment quality in reservoirs. The adsorbed nutrient concentrations are calculated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) extended by the determination of the average soil nutrient concentration in top soils. The average annual vegetation and management factor is divided into five periods of the cropping cycle. For selected plants, the average plant nutrient uptake divided into five cropping periods is also proposed. The average nutrient concentrations in eroded soil particles in adsorbed form are modified by sediment enrichment ratio to obtain the total nutrient content in transported soil particles. The model was designed for the conditions of north-eastern Slovakia. The study was carried out in the agricultural basin of the small water reservoir Klusov.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Silting and The Quality of Bottom Sediments in A Small Water Reservoir

    Bąk Łukasz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the degree of silting and pollution of bottom sediments in a small water reservoir Lubianka situated in Starachowice, Świętokrzyskie Province, with selected heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg. Catchment basin of the reservoir is forested in 92%. Other parts are covered by estates of detached houses, barren lands and green areas. Bathymetric measurements and analyses of trace elements in bottom sediments were made in 2012. After 28 years of exploitation, reservoir's basin accumulated 43 thousand cubic metres of sediments i.e. 4.7% of its initial volume. Mean annual silting rate was 0.17%. Due to the content of copper and chromium, bottom sediments were classified to the II category (sediments of average pollution according to geochemical standards. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in all analysed samples were below geochemical background. In a sample collected at the inlet to the reservoir, the TEL index for chromium was exceeded by 25.6%. In other samples the threshold values of the TEL and PEL indices were not exceeded.

  4. Field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in Spanish ports

    Martin-Diaz, M.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: laura.martin@uca.es; Blasco, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Departamento Ciencias Ambientales y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Two marine invertebrates, the crab Carcinus maenas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four Spanish ports Cadiz (SW Spain), Huelva (SW Spain), Bilbao (NE Spain) and Pasajes (NE Spain). In an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (MTLPs), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In parallel, physical and chemical characterization of the different sediments was performed and biological responses related to the contaminants. Significant induction of MTLPs was observed when organisms were exposed to metal contaminated sediments (port of Huelva), and EROD and GPX activities after exposure to sediments containing organic compounds (port of Bilbao and Pasajes). No significant interspecies differences were observed in biomarker responses except for the GST and GR. - A battery of biomarkers shows exposure to metals and organic compounds.

  5. Field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in Spanish ports

    Martin-Diaz, M.L.; Blasco, J.; Sales, D.; DelValls, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two marine invertebrates, the crab Carcinus maenas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four Spanish ports Cadiz (SW Spain), Huelva (SW Spain), Bilbao (NE Spain) and Pasajes (NE Spain). In an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (MTLPs), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In parallel, physical and chemical characterization of the different sediments was performed and biological responses related to the contaminants. Significant induction of MTLPs was observed when organisms were exposed to metal contaminated sediments (port of Huelva), and EROD and GPX activities after exposure to sediments containing organic compounds (port of Bilbao and Pasajes). No significant interspecies differences were observed in biomarker responses except for the GST and GR. - A battery of biomarkers shows exposure to metals and organic compounds

  6. The use of Ampelisca abdita growth rate as an indicator of sediment quality

    Weston, D.P.; Thompson, B.

    1995-01-01

    Acute lethal bioassays with amphipod crustaceans are routinely used to assess toxicity of bulk sediments. A study within the San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) is in progress to develop a chronic bioassay with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita, measuring both survivorship and growth rates. This approach is attractive because depression of growth rate is likely to be a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than acute lethality, and natural populations of A. abdita exist throughout the Bay. Spiked sediment bioassays, using cadmium and crude oil, were used to demonstrate the relative sensitivity of the standard 10-day lethal test vs. the 30-day growth test. Sediments were also collected from 9 sites throughout the Bay, ranging from areas adjacent to municipal wastewater discharges to areas distant from known point source inputs. These samples were then split, and used for side-by-side comparison of acute (lethal) and chronic (growth) toxicity tests. Survivorship exceeded 90% in all tests, including those sediments collected nearest the wastewater outfalls. Growth rates were contrasted among the various treatments to examine the utility of this end point in discriminating the outfall sites. Data on the spatial distribution, abundance, and size-frequency distribution of native populations was examined within the context of using growth rate as an indicator of toxic effects in natural populations as well

  7. Impact of sediments resuspension on metal solubilization and water quality during recurrent reservoir sluicing management

    Frémion, Franck; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Bordas, François, E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lenain, Jean-François [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Jugé, Philippe [CETU – ELMIS Ingénieries, Université François Rabelais, , 60 Rue du Plat d' Étain, 37000 Tours (France); Kestens, Tim [EDF – DPIH, Unité de Production Centre, 19 bis avenue de la Révolution, BP 406, 87012 Limoges Cedex (France); Mourier, Brice [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    In dam contexts, sluicing operations can be performed to reestablish sediments continuity, as proposed by the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as to preserve the reservoirs' water storage capacity. Such management permits the rapid release of high quantities of reservoir sediments through the opening of dam bottom valves. This work aims to study the impact of such operation on the evolution of environmental physicochemical conditions notably changes in dissolved metallic elements concentrations (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) through field and laboratory investigations. Results were interpreted in terms of concentrations and fluxes, and compared with data collected on an annual basis regarding both suspended matter and metallic elements. The release of high quantities of sediments (4,500 tons dry weight in 24 h), with concentrations representing up to 300 times the inter-annual mean suspended sediments discharge, significantly modified water parameters, notably solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, pH and redox conditions. Despite the fact that they are mainly trapped in stable phases, a clear increase of the solubilized metals content was measured, representing up to 60 times the maximum values of current exploitation. This solubilization is related to desorption phenomena from sediments through changes in chemical equilibriums as highlighted by laboratory characterizations and experiments. These chemical modifications are mainly attributed to S/L ratio variations. Indeed, the low S/L ratios (≤ 1.3 g·L{sup −1}) measured in situ are typically the ones for which metals solubilization is the highest, as shown by laboratory experiments. Additional thermodynamic modeling highlighted that the decrease in pH measured during the operation favors the release of the free forms of metallic elements (Al and Cu), and decreases the OM complexation influence. These changes, either in term of physical conditions or speciation, increasing metals long term

  8. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  9. Water and bottom sediments quality of brackish water shrimp farms in Kaliganj Upazila, Satkhira, Bangladesh

    Mohammed Aktaruzzaman, Mohammed Shakhaoat Hossain, Abu Naieum Muhammad Fakhruddin, Mohammed Jamal Uddin, Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture plays a central part in the fisheries sector of Bangladesh that leads to a significant change in the structure and composition of frozen food export sector. An investigation was carried out to determine physiochemical parameters, nutrients content, bacterial contamination and metal content in shrimp “Gher” (Farms water and sediments. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed in situ by portable meters. Ammonia, phosphate, bacterial counts, and metals contents were analyzed by Nesslerization, colorimetric and standard microbiological methods and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery (AAS, respectively. Except Dissolve oxygen and temperature all other physiochemical parameters were unsuitable for shrimp culture. The concentration of ammonia was 0.384 to 1.5 mg L-1 and the concentration of phosphate ranged from 0.02 to 0.818 mg L-1. In bacteriological analysis, highest levels of coliform were found in the tested samples and total colifom count reached up to 2.04x103 cfu mL-1. Among the tested metals, Cr was highest in water and sediment samples. Concentration of Cr ranged from 0.150 to 0.807 mg L-1 and 1.957 to 3.436 mg kg-1 in water and sediment samples, respectively. A significant difference was observed for the concentration of metals in sediment and water samples. The high concentration of nutrients and metals in shrimp “Gher” water and sediment as well as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the “Gher” and river water indicated unhygienic environment and the sources of contamination of shrimp “Gher”.

  10. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  11. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  12. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  13. Comparative performances of eggs and embryos of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) in toxicity bioassays used for assessment of marine sediment quality.

    Khosrovyan, A; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Riba, I; Serrano, F

    2013-05-15

    The potential toxicity of sediments from various ports was assessed by means of two different liquid-phase toxicity bioassays (acute and chronic) with embryos and eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Performances of embryos and eggs of P. lividus in these bioassays were compared for their interchangeable applicability in integrated sediment quality assessment. The obtained endpoints (percentages of normally developed plutei and fertilized eggs) were linked to physical and chemical properties of sediments and demonstrated dependence on sediment contamination. The endpoints in the two bioassays were strongly correlated and generally exhibited similar tendency throughout the samples. Therein, embryos demonstrated higher sensitivity to elutriate exposure, compared to eggs. It was concluded that these tests could be used interchangeably for testing toxicity of marine sediments. Preferential use of any of the bioassays can be determined by the discriminatory capacity of the test or vulnerability consideration of the test subject to the surrounding conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric deposition, water-quality, and sediment data for selected lakes in Mount Rainer, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington, 2008-10

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effect from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to high-elevation lakes, the U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the National Park Service to develop a "critical load" of nitrogen for sediment diatoms. A critical load is defined as the level of a given pollutant (in this case, nitrogen) at which detrimental effects to a target endpoint (sediment diatoms) result. Because sediment diatoms are considered one of the "first responders" to ecosystem changes from nitrogen, they are a sensitive indicator for nitrogen deposition changes in natural areas. This report presents atmospheric deposition, water quality, sediment geochronology, and sediment diatom data collected from July 2008 through August 2010 in support of this effort.

  15. Applications of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy to geochemical reconnaissance for uranium exploration

    Cagle, G.W.; Butz, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of large numbers of natural groundwater and stream sediment samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy has been applied to a geochemical reconnaissance program as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Approximately 25 elements have been determined in over 60,000 samples by ICP analysis. These data are combined with additional measurements obtained by atomic absorption, colorimetry, neutron activation, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results are presented and interpreted in terms of the uranium favorability of areas in Texas where this survey has been completed

  16. Reconnaissance geochemical exploration of plutons of syenite and shonkinite, southern Asir, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Overstreet, W.C.; Assegaff, A.B.; Hussain, M.A.; Naqvi, M.I.; Selner, G.I.; Matzko, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Reconnaissance geochemical exploration for rare metals in plutons of syenite and shonkinite disclosed generally less than 20 ppm Nb in rocks, wadi sediments, and concentrates. The sparsity of Nb is accompanied by low values for La, Sn, W, Y, and Zr and relatively high but insignificant values for Be and Mo. Base and precious metals are either below their respective limits of determination in the various sample media or are present at background levels commensurate with average crustal abundances in felsic rocks. Pegmatite dikes associated with the syenite plutons are rare and lack vermiculite. The present investigation disclosed no possible ore deposits in the plutons covered by the field work.

  17. Water-quality conditions and suspended-sediment transport in the Wilson and Trask Rivers, northwestern Oregon, water years 2012–14

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Bragg, Heather M.; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-07-28

    In October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey began investigating and monitoring water-quality conditions and suspended-sediment transport in the Wilson and Trask Rivers, northwestern Oregon. Water temperature, specific conductance, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen were measured every 15–30 minutes in both streams using real-time instream water-quality monitors. In conjunction with the monitoring effort, suspended-sediment samples were collected and analyzed to model the amount of suspended sediment being transported by each river. Over the course of the 3-year study, which ended in September 2014, nearly 600,000 tons (t) of suspended-sediment material entered Tillamook Bay from these two tributaries. 

  18. Sediment quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A.

    Lacey, E.M.; King, J.W.; Quinn, J.G.; Mecray, E.L.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2 > 0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ???PAHs and ???PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bioavailable. These predictions were supported by studies of biota in the Burlington Harbor watershed. There

  19. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2015 through September 2016) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Turner, Matthew A.

    2018-03-30

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in selected streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2015 through September 2016. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2016.This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2015 through September 2016. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Samples for analysis of turbidity were collected at 13 sites, whereas samples for analysis of dissolved organic carbon were collected at 10 sites. In addition, samples for analysis of nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at two sites. Daily values of mean suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for three sites. Seasonal daily values of turbidity were determined for five sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained (less than 0.063 millimeter) fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin are provided for the period of record.

  20. Water Quality, Sediment Characteristics and Benthic Status of the Razim-Sinoie Lagoon System, Romania

    Catianis, Irina; Secrieru, Dan; Pojar, Iulian; Grosu, Dumitru; Scrieciu, Albert; Pavel, Ana Bianca; Vasiliu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Razim Lake is the biggest of Romania's freshwater lakes and along with other basins as Golovita, Zmeica and Sinoie constitutes a system of great ecological significance, playing also an essential role in the supply of water for irrigation, fishery exploitation, farming, flood prevention, recreational navigation and water tourism. Due to their importance, the environmental conditions in the Razim - Sinoie coastal lakes have attracted an increased public attention in contemporary society. To assess the levels, dissemination and potential sources of contamination in the above-mentioned lagoon system, random sampling was used to collect water and sediment samples from every lake and several analytical techniques were performed to investigate their environmental characteristics. The results obtained from this study indicated that, in water, concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters are, mostly, in agreement with correlated environmental standards. Slight variations and/or occasional exceeding of the maximum admissible limits were generally limited to small areas showing levels that would not warrant special concern. In sediments, the mean concentrations of some specific trace metals were below the levels of potential effect. Benthic samples revealed 31 taxa belonging to 16 zoo-benthal subdivisions. The results of this study showed good ecological status despite local several natural and anthropogenic stressors as fishery exploitation, farming, recreational navigation and water tourism.

  1. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  2. Reconnaissance study of uranium and fluorine contents of stream and lake waters, West Greenland

    Steenfelt, A.; Dam, E.

    1982-01-01

    The present study forms part of a current investigation on the applicability of geochemical methods in mineral exploration in Greenland. The sampling programme of 1981 comprised three parts: (1) A helicopter supported, low density, regional sampling (1 sample/30 km 2 ) of stream water and stream sediment in the area covered by map sheet 66 V.2, south-east of Soendre Stroemfjord. A total of 207 water samples was obtained. (2) Detailed sampling within a 20 km 2 area of lake and stream water (71 samples) from a camp at 66deg49'N, 25deg37'W, 25 km south-west of Soendre Stroemfjord. (3) Reconnaissance sampling, by boat, along the southern part of the west coast of Greenland. The aim of this reconnaissance was to obtain information on the character of the drainage systems and on the availability of sample media (water, stream sediment, aquatic moss) for geochemical exploration. A total of 195 water samples were collected. In addition, rust zones and areas of known mineralisation along the coast were sampled. (author)

  3. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  4. Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes

  5. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  6. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  7. Longitudinal variation in suspended sediment and turbidity of two undisturbed streams in northwestern California in relation to the monitoring of water quality above and below a land disturbance

    Steve G. Markman

    1990-01-01

    Abstract - In-stream water quality regulations of California state that silvicultural disturbances must not increase turbidity levels more than 20 percent above naturally occurring background levels. These regulations fail to take into account the natural variation of turbidity and suspended sediment concentration along a short stretch of an undisturbed stream. At...

  8. Impacts of urbanization on surface sediment quality: evidence from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminations in the Grand Canal of China.

    Hong, Youwei; Yu, Shen; Yu, Guangbin; Liu, Yi; Li, Guilin; Wang, Min

    2012-06-01

    Organic pollutants, especially synthetic organic compounds, can indicate paces of anthropogenic activities. Effects of urbanization on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in surface sediment were conducted in urban sections of the Grand Canal, China, consisting of a four-level urbanization gradient. The four-level urbanization gradients include three countryside towns, two small-size cities, three medium-size cities, and a large-size city. Diagnostic ratio analysis and factor analysis-multiple linear regression model were used for source apportionment of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of USA and Canada were employed to assess ecological risks of PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Canal. Ranges of PAH and PCB concentrations in surface sediments were 0.66-22 mg/kg and 0.5-93 μg/kg, respectively. Coal-related sources were primary PAH sources and followed by vehicular emission. Total concentration, composition, and source apportionment of PAHs exhibited urbanization gradient effects. Total PCB concentrations increased with the urbanization gradient, while total PAHs concentration in surface sediments presented an inverted U Kuznets curve with the urbanization gradient. Elevated concentrations of both PAHs and PCBs ranged at effect range low levels or interim SQG, assessed by USA and Canadian SQGs. PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Grand Canal showed urbanization gradient effects and low ecological risks.

  9. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  10. Sperm quality assessment via separation and sedimentation in a microfluidic device.

    Chen, Chang-Yu; Chiang, Tsun-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Jong, De-Shien; Tsai, Vincent F-S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Wo, Andrew M

    2013-09-07

    A major reason for infertility is due to male factors, including the quality of spermatozoa, which is a primary factor and often difficult to assess, particularly the total sperm concentration and its motile percentage. This work presents a simple microfluidic device to assess sperm quality by quantifying both total and motile sperm counts. The key design feature of the microfluidic device is two channels separated by a permeative phase-guide structure, where one channel is filled with raw semen and the other with pure buffer. The semen sample was allowed to reach equilibrium in both chambers, whereas non-motile sperms remained in the original channel, and roughly half of the motile sperms would swim across the phase-guide barrier into the buffer channel. Sperms in each channel agglomerated into pellets after centrifugation, with the corresponding area representing total and motile sperm concentrations. Total sperm concentration up to 10(8) sperms per ml and motile percentage in the range of 10-70% were tested, encompassing the cutoff value of 40% stated by World Health Organization standards. Results from patient samples show compact and robust pellets after centrifugation. Comparison of total sperm concentration between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber reveal they agree within 5% and show strong correlation, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.97. Motile sperm count between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber agrees within 5%, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.84. Comparison of results from the Makler Chamber, sperm quality analyzer, and the microfluidic device revealed that results from the microfluidic device agree well with the Makler chamber. The sperm microfluidic chip analyzes both total and motile sperm concentrations in one spin, is accurate and easy to use, and should enable sperm quality analysis with ease.

  11. Dose rate calculations for a reconnaissance vehicle

    Grindrod, L.; Mackey, J.; Salmon, M.; Smith, C.; Wall, S.

    2005-01-01

    A Chemical Nuclear Reconnaissance System (CNRS) has been developed by the British Ministry of Defence to make chemical and radiation measurements on contaminated terrain using appropriate sensors and recording equipment installed in a land rover. A research programme is under way to develop and validate a predictive capability to calculate the build-up of contamination on the vehicle, radiation detector performance and dose rates to the occupants of the vehicle. This paper describes the geometric model of the vehicle and the methodology used for calculations of detector response. Calculated dose rates obtained using the MCBEND Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code in adjoint mode are presented. These address the transient response of the detectors as the vehicle passes through a contaminated area. Calculated dose rates were found to agree with the measured data to be within the experimental uncertainties, thus giving confidence in the shielding model of the vehicle and its application to other scenarios. (authors)

  12. Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars CRISM Data Analysis

    Frink, K.; Hayden, D.; Lecompte, D.

    2009-05-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars CRISM (CRISM) carried aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), is the first visible-infrared spectrometer to fly on a NASA Mars mission. CRISM scientists are using the instrument to look for the residue of minerals that form in the presence of water: the 'fingerprints' left by evaporated hot springs, thermal vents, lakes or ponds. With unprecedented clarity, CRISM is mapping regions on the Martian surface at scales as small as 60 feet (about 18 meters) across, when the spacecraft is 186 miles (300 kilometers) above the planet. CRISM is reading 544 'colors' in reflected sunlight to detect certain minerals on the surface, including signature traces of past water. CRISM alone will generate more than 10 terabytes of data, enough to fill more than 15,000 compact discs. Given that quantity of data being returned by MRO-CRISM, this project partners with Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) scientists of the CRISM team to assist in the data analysis process. The CRISM operations team has prototyped and will provide the necessary software analysis tools. In addition, the CRISM operations team will provide reduced data volume representations of the data as PNG files, accessible via a web interface without recourse to specialized user tools. The web interface allows me to recommend repeating certain of the CRISM observations as survey results indicate, and to enter notes on the features present in the images. After analysis of a small percentage of CRISM observations, APL scientists concluded that their efforts would be greatly facilitated by adding a preliminary survey to evaluate the overall characteristics and quality of the CRISM data. The first-look should increase the efficiency and speed of their data analysis efforts. This project provides first-look assessments of the data quality while noting features of interest likely to need further study or additional CRISM observations. The

  13. Controlling the autonomy of a reconnaissance robot

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Dufourd, Delphine; Filliat, David

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we present our research on the control of a mobile robot for indoor reconnaissance missions. Based on previous work concerning our robot control architecture HARPIC, we have developed a man machine interface and software components that allow a human operator to control a robot at different levels of autonomy. This work aims at studying how a robot could be helpful in indoor reconnaissance and surveillance missions in hostile environment. In such missions, since a soldier faces many threats and must protect himself while looking around and holding his weapon, he cannot devote his attention to the teleoperation of the robot. Moreover, robots are not yet able to conduct complex missions in a fully autonomous mode. Thus, in a pragmatic way, we have built a software that allows dynamic swapping between control modes (manual, safeguarded and behavior-based) while automatically performing map building and localization of the robot. It also includes surveillance functions like movement detection and is designed for multirobot extensions. We first describe the design of our agent-based robot control architecture and discuss the various ways to control and interact with a robot. The main modules and functionalities implementing those ideas in our architecture are detailed. More precisely, we show how we combine manual controls, obstacle avoidance, wall and corridor following, way point and planned travelling. Some experiments on a Pioneer robot equipped with various sensors are presented. Finally, we suggest some promising directions for the development of robots and user interfaces for hostile environment and discuss our planned future improvements.

  14. Uranium resource evaluation project quality assurance evaluation

    Grimes, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted over an eight-month period from February 4 through October 1, 1980. During this time, field sampling was suspended for an indefinite time period while the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program underwent restructuring. In addition, the Uranium Resource Evaluation (URE) Project archives are being restructured. Since it is difficult to evaluate quality assurance needs of a program that is undergoing drastic change and because sections of the evaluation were well along before these changes were announced, this evaluation reflects the situation as it was during February 1980. The following quality assurance related programs are continuing to date: (1) periodic checks of field sampling procedures by the Supervising Field Geologist and the Director of Field Operations; (2) verification of field form information and laboratory analytical data verification for all geochemical surveys; (3) URE Project laboratory quality control program (all elements routinely analyzed); and (4) Ames interlaboratory quality control program (uranium only). UCC-ND was given the responsibility of conducting a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) survey in the Central United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, and Wisconsin). During 1979 and 1980, 13 detailed surveys were conducted by the URE Project in the Central and Western United States to characterize the hydrogeochemistry, stream sediment geochemistry, and/or radiometric patterns of known or potential uranium occurrences. Beginning in 1980, the HSSR surveys were modified to the Regional Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment (RHSS) surveys

  15. Longevity and effectiveness of aluminum addition to reduce sediment phosphorus release and restore lake water quality

    Huser, Brian J; Egemose, Sara; Harper, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    114 lakes treated with aluminum (Al) salts to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading were analyzed to identify factors driving longevity of post-treatment water quality improvements. Lakes varied greatly in morphology, applied Al dose, and other factors that may have affected overall treatment...... (OI, a morphological index), and watershed to lake area ratio (related to hydraulic residence time, WA:LA) were the most important variables determining treatment longevity. Multiple linear regression showed that Al dose, WA:LA, and OI explained 47, 32 and 3% respectively of the variation in treatment...

  16. Sensor Control And Film Annotation For Long Range, Standoff Reconnaissance

    Schmidt, Thomas G.; Peters, Owen L.; Post, Lawrence H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper describes a Reconnaissance Data Annotation System that incorporates off-the-shelf technology and system designs providing a high degree of adaptability and interoperability to satisfy future reconnaissance data requirements. The history of data annotation for reconnaissance is reviewed in order to provide the base from which future developments can be assessed and technical risks minimized. The system described will accommodate new developments in recording head assemblies and the incorporation of advanced cameras of both the film and electro-optical type. Use of microprocessor control and digital bus inter-face form the central design philosophy. For long range, high altitude, standoff missions, the Data Annotation System computes the projected latitude and longitude of central target position from aircraft position and attitude. This complements the use of longer ranges and high altitudes for reconnaissance missions.

  17. Radioactive reconnaissance in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium

    Fortuna, D.; Dimitrijevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented methods of radioactive reconnaissance and taking of samples in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium during the armed aggression of NATO to Yugoslavia (author)

  18. Multiple Autonomous Vehicles for Minefield Reconnaissance and Mapping

    1997-12-01

    NPS-ME-97-008 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ItC A D- 19980421 131 =C QUALTY Ui Ji.CTEJ) THESIS MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES FOR...MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES FOR MINEFIELD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS RECONNAISSANCE AND MAPPING N0001497WX30039 6. AUTHOR(S) Jack A. Starr 7. PERFORMING... AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES FOR MINEFIELD RECONNAISSANCE AND MAPPING Jack A. Starr Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., Oregon State University, 1991 Submitted in

  19. Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity.

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj; Ostovar, Afshin; Asadgol, Zahra; Abuee, Ehsan; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal area of Asaluyeh harbor were collected during autumn and spring 2015. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were measured to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risks. The average concentrations (and relative standard deviation (RSD)) of AVS in the industrial sediments were 12.32 μmol/g (36.91) and 6.34 μmol/g (80.05) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 0.44 μmol/g (123.50) and 0.31 μmol/g (160.0) in autumn and spring, respectively. The average concentrations of SEM (and RSD) in the industrial sediments were 15.02 μmol/g (14.38) and 12.34 μmol/g (20.65) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 1.10 μmol/g (43.03) and 1.06 μmol/g (55.59) in autumn and spring, respectively. Zn was the predominant component (34.25-86.24 %) of SEM, while the corresponding value for Cd, much more toxic ingredient, was less than 1 %. Some of the coastal sediments in the harbor of Asaluyeh (20 and 47 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had expected adverse biological effects based on the suggested criterion by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), while most stations (80 and 53 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had uncertain adverse effects.

  20. The Challenge To Tactical Reconnaissance: Timeliness Through Technology

    Stromfors, Richard D.

    1984-12-01

    As you have no doubt gathered from Mr. Henkel's introduction, I have spent over 20 years of my Air Force career involved in the reconnaissance mission either as a tactical reconnaissance pilot, as a tactical reconnaissance inspector, as a writer and speaker on that subject while attending the Air Force Professional Military Education Schools, and currently as the Air Force's operational manager for reconnaissance aircraft. In all of those positions, I've been challenged many times over with what appeared, at first, to be insurmountable problems that upon closer examination weren't irresolvable after all. All of these problems pale, however, when viewed side-by-side with the one challenge that has faced me since I began my military career and, in fact, faces all of us as I talk with you today. That one challenge is the problem of timeliness. Better put: "Getting information to our customers firstest with the mostest." Together we must develop better platforms and sensors to cure this age-old "Achilles heel" in the reconnaissance cycle. Despite all of our best intentions, despite all of the emerging technologies that will be available, and despite all of the dollars that we've thrown at research and development, we in the reconnaissance business still haven't done a good job in this area. We must do better.

  1. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  2. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient.

    Corsi, Steven R; Klaper, Rebecca D; Weber, Daniel N; Bannerman, Roger T

    2011-10-15

    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and

  3. Hydraulic, water-quality, and temperature performance of three types of permeable pavement under high sediment loading conditions

    Selbig, William R.; Buer, Nicolas

    2018-05-11

    Three permeable pavement surfaces - asphalt (PA), concrete (PC), and interlocking pavers (PIP) - were evaluated side-by-side to measure changes to the infiltrative capacity and water quality of stormwater runoff originating from a conventional asphalt parking lot in Madison, Wisconsin. During the 24-month monitoring period (2014-16), all three permeable pavements resulted in statistically significant reductions in the cumulative load of solids (total suspended solids and suspended sediment), total phosphorus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Enterococci. Most of the removal occurred through capture and retention in the void spaces of each permeable surface and aggregate base. The largest reduction in total suspended solids was for PC at 80 percent, followed by PIP and PA at 69 and 65 percent, respectively. Reductions (generally less than 50 percent) in total phosphorus also were observed, which might have been tempered by increases in the dissolved fraction observed in PIP and PA. Conversely, PC results indicated a slight reduction in dissolved phosphorus but failed to meet statistical significance. E. coli and Enterococci were reduced by about 80 percent for PC, almost twice the amount observed for PIP and PA.Results for the PIP and PC surfaces initially indicated higher pollutant load reduction than results for the PA surface. The efficiency of PIP and PC surfaces capturing sediment, however, led to a decline in infiltration rates that resulted in more runoff flowing over, not through, the permeable surface. This result led to a decline in treatment until the permeable surface was partially restored through maintenance practices, to which PIP responded more dramatically than PC or PA. Conversely, the PA surface was capable of infiltrating most of the influent runoff volume during the monitoring period and, thus, continued to provide some level of treatment. The combined effect of underdrain and overflow drainage resulted in similar pollutant treatment for all

  4. The 22 March 2014 Oso Landslide, Snohomish County, Washington: Findings of the GEER Reconnaissance Investigation

    Wartman, J.; Keaton, J. R.; Scott, A.; Benoit, J.; delaChapelle, J.; Gilbert, R.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    We report the findings of the NSF-supported Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) investigation of the Oso Landslide. Our findings are principally based on data collected during a four-day team reconnaissance across the entire landslide area, but also draw upon other data sources including lidar surveys, high-resolution imagery, geologic mapping, precipitation data, and seismic records. The Oso Landslide claimed 43 lives, making it the deadliest landslide disaster in U.S. history. The landslide occurred within a thick sequence of glacial sediments that were deposited into the North Fork Stillaguamish River valley during the last glacial advance. Geomorphic evidence suggests that the valley in the vicinity of Oso Landslide has experienced multiple large landslides over at least the past 6,000 years. Intense three-week rainfall that immediately preceded the event very probably played an important role in triggering the landslide; however, many other factors likely contributed to destabilization of the landslide mass. These include: (i) alteration of the local groundwater recharge and hydrogeological regime due to previous landsliding and, possibly, land use practices, (ii) weakening and alteration of the landslide mass due to previous landsliding and other natural geologic processes, and (iii) changes in stress distribution resulting from removal and deposition of material from earlier landsliding. During our field reconnaissance we identified six distinctive landslide zones and several subzones that are characterized by different geomorphic expression resulting from deformation styles, geologic materials, vegetation, and sequence of deposition. Based on the reconnaissance observations and other available data, we hypothesize that the landslide occurred in two major stages. The first stage of movement is interpreted to be a remobilization of the 2006 slide mass and headward extension that included part or all of the forested slope of an ancient landslide

  5. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  6. Computer analysis to the geochemical interpretation of soil and stream sediment data in an area of Southern Uruguay

    Spangenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In southern Uruguay there are several known occurrences of base metal sulphide mineralization within an area of Precambrian volcanic sedimentary rocks. Regional geochemical stream sediment reconnaissance surveys revealed new polymetallic anomalies in the same stratigraphic zone. Geochemical interpretation of multi-element data from a soil and stream sediment survey carried out in one of these anomalous areas is presented.

  7. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the

  8. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  9. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke

    2012-06-01

    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  10. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  11. Geophysical techniques for reconnaissance investigations of soils and surficial deposits in mountainous terrain

    Olson, C.G.; Doolittle, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques were assessed for their capabilities in reconnaissance studies of soil characteristics: depth to the water table and depth to bedrock beneath surficial deposits in mountainous terrain. Ground-penetrating radar had the best near-surface resolution in the upper 2 m of the profile and provided continuous interpretable imagery of soil profiles and bedrock surfaces. Where thick colluvium blankets side slopes, the GPR could not consistently define the bedrock interface. In areas with clayey or shaley sediments, the GPR is also more limited in defining depth and is less reliable. Seismic refraction proved useful in determining the elevation of the water table and depth to bedrock, regardless of thickness of overlying material, but could not distinguish soil-profile characteristics.-from Authors

  12. Data on Streamflow and Quality of Water and Bottom Sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium were either above geochemical background concentrations or were approaching or exceeding ecological criteria in the lower Humboldt River system. Data were collected from May 1998 to September 2000 to further characterize streamflow and surface-water and bottom-sediment quality in the lower Humboldt River, selected agricultural drains, Upper Humboldt Lake, and Lower Humboldt Drain (ephemeral outflow from Humboldt Sink). During this study, flow in the lower Humboldt River was either at or above average. Flows in Army and Toulon Drains generally were higher than reported in previous investigations. An unnamed agricultural drain contributed a small amount to the flow measured in Army Drain. In general, measured concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium were higher in water from agricultural drains than in Humboldt River water during this study. Mercury concentrations in water samples collected during the study period typically were below the laboratory reporting level. However, low-level mercury analyses showed that samples collected in August 1999 from Army Drain had higher mercury concentrations than those collected from the river or Toulon Drain or the Lower Humboldt Drain. Ecological criteria and effect concentrations for sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, and molybdenum were exceeded in some water samples collected as part of this study. Although water samples from the agricultural drains typically contained higher concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, and uranium, greater instantaneous loads of these constituents were carried in the river near Lovelock than in agricultural drains during periods of high flow or non-irrigation. During this study, the high flows in the lower Humboldt River

  13. Geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Palmyrides region of central Syria

    Jubeli, Y.M.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the application of multielement reconnaissance rock chemistry, coupled with ground scintillation γ-ray measurements, to the investigation of the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the rocks of the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. The region is underlain by 10 km of sediments that accumulated in an interplatform depression during the Mesozoic and Caenozoic. Uranium and associated elements were syngenetically incorporated into the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Palaeogene sediments - especially phosphorites, which are well represented in the region. The oxidizing environment of the region has facilitated the subsequent geochemical redistribution of uranium. In the investigation more than 400 lithogeochemical samples collected from an area of approximately 9000 km 2 were analysed for over 30 elements. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the areal distribution of uranium, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped with the use of computer graphics. Anomalies of U are accompanied by concentrations of As, Se, V, Mo, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and P in various combinations. The highest U concentrations are found in the Upper Cretaceous, which contains a high proportion of phosphatic rocks; younger sediments contain progressively less U. Uranium anomalies close to faults, which have provided conduits for wider U migration, are superimposed on this pattern. Lithogeochemical methods thus define geochemical dispersion patterns with good contrast and delineate areas for further investigation. (author)

  14. Study on the shipboard radar reconnaissance equipment azimuth benchmark method

    Liu, Zhenxing; Jiang, Ning; Ma, Qian; Liu, Songtao; Wang, Longtao

    2015-10-01

    The future naval battle will take place in a complex electromagnetic environment. Therefore, seizing the electromagnetic superiority has become the major actions of the navy. Radar reconnaissance equipment is an important part of the system to obtain and master battlefield electromagnetic radiation source information. Azimuth measurement function is one of the main function radar reconnaissance equipments. Whether the accuracy of direction finding meets the requirements, determines the vessels successful or not active jamming, passive jamming, guided missile attack and other combat missions, having a direct bearing on the vessels combat capabilities . How to test the performance of radar reconnaissance equipment, while affecting the task as little as possible is a problem. This paper, based on radar signal simulator and GPS positioning equipment, researches and experiments on one new method, which povides the azimuth benchmark required by the direction-finding precision test anytime anywhere, for the ships at jetty to test radar reconnaissance equipment performance in direction-finding. It provides a powerful means for the naval radar reconnaissance equipments daily maintenance and repair work[1].

  15. Statistical Analysis Of Reconnaissance Geochemical Data From ...

    , Co, Mo, Hg, Sb, Tl, Sc, Cr, Ni, La, W, V, U, Th, Bi, Sr and Ga in 56 stream sediment samples collected from Orle drainage system were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. The univariate methods used include ...

  16. Features of distribution and quality of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the Great Peter Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The nature and distribution of organic carbon in marine waters depends on: 1) biological productivity and revenue of the autochthonous organic matter to the bottom; 2) sediment grain-size composition and conditions of dumping, which in turn depends of hydrothermic regime, topography, speed River mist and received major erosion products; 3) living conditions of the benthos (the quantity consumed of OM, gas regime of habitats, physiological capacity of heterotrophs). Autochthonous OM of phytoplankton plays a dominant role in the processes of formation of humus in aquatic conditions. Bottom sediments at different distance from the shoreline to depths from 0.5 up to 480 m of the Sea of Japan, which are formed in various conditions of facies, were selected as the objects of study. There is no clear relationships to the amount of organic matter in bottom sediments on the characteristics of the distribution and nature of living matter in the oceans and seas. This is because the process of sedimentation and fossilization of organic matter on the seabed and the ocean floor depends on many factors (currents, depth). Humus of studied bottom sediments in composition can be attributed mainly to the humic type. Nonhydrolyzing rest is 70-90%. This is characteristic of bottom sediments formed in facial types of small bays, internal coastal shelf bights and the underwater slope. At a fraction of the carbon of humic acids in organic matter, ranging from 4 to 80% of the amount of humic and fulvic acids. Fulvic acids content is much less. This is due to more favourable conservation situation of humic acids in precipitation with high content of organic matter, whereas fulvic acids in aquatic environments are more labile and almost not dumped. Despite the fact humic acids are not the most stable component (s), however, with increased content of humic acids, the mobility of organic matter and removing it from the bottom sediments are reduced. Internal shelf facies of the Great Peter Bay

  17. [Phosphorus characteristics and the impact to water quality across interface of overlying water and sediment of Xiazhuhu wetland in Northern Zhejiang Province, China].

    Shen, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Huang-Chao; Wang, Zhao-De; Lin, Yuan; Li, Shuai; Xie, Guan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Healthy wetland system is regarded as an effective way for biological remediation of non-point source pollutants. A case field investigation on phosphorus (P) status of overlying water and sediment was carried out for Xiazhuhu wetland located in Northern Zhejiang Province, China. A static wetland microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the characteristics and mechanisms related to P exchanging, P forms changing, and water quality impact across the interface of water and sediment. Field investigation showed that total P (TP) concentrations of sediments were found from 0.187 mg x g(-1) to 0.591 mg x g(-1), and TP in overlying water reached from 0.022 mg x L(-1) to 0.718 mg x L(-1) where the seasonal concentration variations of TP, dissolved P (DP), and particulate P (PP) were commonly found in order as winter > summer > spring > fall. Fed by synthetic solution containing P levels of 0.0 - 10.5 mg x L(-1), a 35-day-lasting microcosm study showed that P retention by sediments could be divided into three basic phases in order, i.e., buffer reaction, rapid adsorption, and slow adsorption. Under a typical stress concentration of 1.0 mg x L(-1) in overlying water, the increment of P tanks in different forms was found as NH4 Cl-P (0.0%), Fe-P/Mn-P (around 20%), NaOH-TP (around 66%, mainly as the form of Al-P), Ca-P (1.9%), and Res-P (11.3%), on the condition of Xiazhuhu wetland under low water season. Application of Al to wetland would increase the capacity of sediment P retention in Xiazhuhu wetland.

  18. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous water-quality and suspended-sediment transport monitoring in the San Francisco Bay, California, water years 2011–13

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Weidich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors water quality and suspended-sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay area is home to millions of people, and the bay teems with both resident and migratory wildlife, plants, and fish. Fresh water mixes with salt water in the bay, which is subject both to riverine and marine (tides, waves, influx of salt water) influences. To understand this environment, the USGS, along with its partners, has been monitoring the bay’s waters continuously since 1988. Several water-quality variables are of particular importance to State and Federal resource managers and are monitored at key locations throughout the bay. Salinity, which indicates the relative mixing of fresh and ocean waters in the bay, is derived from specific conductance measurements. Water temperature, along with salinity, affects the density of water, which causes gravity driven circulation patterns and stratification in the water column. Turbidity is measured using light-scattering from suspended solids in water, and is used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). Suspended sediment often carries adsorbed contaminants; attenuates sunlight in the water column; deposits on tidal marsh and intertidal mudflats, which can help sustain these habitats as sea level rises; and deposits in ports and shipping channels, which can necessitate dredging. Dissolved oxygen, which is essential to a healthy ecosystem, is a fundamental indicator of water quality, and its concentration is affected by water temperature, salinity, ecosystem metabolism, tidal currents, and wind. Tidal currents in the bay reverse four times a day, and wind direction and intensity typically change on a daily cycle: consequently, salinity, water temperature, suspendedsediment concentration, and dissolvedoxygen concentration vary spatially and temporally throughout the bay, and continuous measurements are needed to observe these changes. The purpose of this fact sheet

  20. Numerical simulation and optimal design of Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-Optical Reconnaissance

    Chu, Qiuhui; Shen, Yijie; Yuan, Meng; Gong, Mali

    2017-12-01

    Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-Optical Reconnaissance (SPIDER) is a cutting-edge electro-optical imaging technology to realize miniaturization and complanation of imaging systems. In this paper, the principle of SPIDER has been numerically demonstrated based on the partially coherent light theory, and a novel concept of adjustable baseline pairing SPIDER system has further been proposed. Based on the results of simulation, it is verified that the imaging quality could be effectively improved by adjusting the Nyquist sampling density, optimizing the baseline pairing method and increasing the spectral channel of demultiplexer. Therefore, an adjustable baseline pairing algorithm is established for further enhancing the image quality, and the optimal design procedure in SPIDER for arbitrary targets is also summarized. The SPIDER system with adjustable baseline pairing method can broaden its application and reduce cost under the same imaging quality.

  1. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  2. A manual to identify sources of fluvial sediment

    Gellis, Allen C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sediment is an important pollutant of concern that can degrade and alter aquatic habitat. A sediment budget is an accounting of the sources, storage, and export of sediment over a defined spatial and temporal scale. This manual focuses on field approaches to estimate a sediment budget. We also highlight the sediment fingerprinting approach to attribute sediment to different watershed sources. Determining the sources and sinks of sediment is important in developing strategies to reduce sediment loads to water bodies impaired by sediment. Therefore, this manual can be used when developing a sediment TMDL requiring identification of sediment sources.The manual takes the user through the seven necessary steps to construct a sediment budget:Decision-making for watershed scale and time period of interestFamiliarization with the watershed by conducting a literature review, compiling background information and maps relevant to study questions, conducting a reconnaissance of the watershedDeveloping partnerships with landowners and jurisdictionsCharacterization of watershed geomorphic settingDevelopment of a sediment budget designData collectionInterpretation and construction of the sediment budgetGenerating products (maps, reports, and presentations) to communicate findings.Sediment budget construction begins with examining the question(s) being asked and whether a sediment budget is necessary to answer these question(s). If undertaking a sediment budget analysis is a viable option, the next step is to define the spatial scale of the watershed and the time scale needed to answer the question(s). Of course, we understand that monetary constraints play a big role in any decision.Early in the sediment budget development process, we suggest getting to know your watershed by conducting a reconnaissance and meeting with local stakeholders. The reconnaissance aids in understanding the geomorphic setting of the watershed and potential sources of sediment. Identifying the potential

  3. Variations in selected water quality variables and metal concentrations in the sediment of the lower Olifants and Selati rivers, South Africa

    T. Seymore

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the water and sediment quality of the lower Olifants River and lower Selati River was carried out. Metal concentrations (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in the water and sediment, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the water were determined over a two-year period (April 1990 - February 1992. The water quality of the lower Selati River, which flows through the Phalaborwa area, was found to be influenced by the mining and industrial activities in the area. It was also the case with the lower Olifants River after the Selati-Olifants confluence, although the concentrations of most variables did decrease from the western side of the Kruger National Park to the eastern side due to dilution of the water by tributaries of the Olifants River. Variables of special concern were sodium, fluoride. chloride, sulphate, potassium, the total dissolved salts and the metal concentrations (except strontium. The water quality of the Selati River in the study area is a great cause of concern and a further degradation thereof cannot be afforded.

  4. Integrative assessment of coastal pollution: Development and evaluation of sediment quality criteria from chemical contamination and ecotoxicological data

    Bellas, Juan; Nieto, Óscar; Beiras, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Elutriate embryo-larval bioassays with sea-urchins ( Paracentrotus lividus) were conducted concurrently with chemical analyses of sediments and biota as part of an integrative assessment of pollution in highly productive coastal regions. High metal contents and organic compounds in sediments and mussels were found in localised areas from the inner part of the estuaries indicating a clear anthropogenic influence. In particular, average maximum concentrations of 2803 mg Cu/kg dw, 776 mg Pb/kg dw, 2.5 mg Hg/kg dw and 5803 μg ∑ 7PAHs/kg dw were measured in sediments from the most polluted sites. Significant correlations were observed between sediment chemistry and toxicity bioassays. Moreover, the Mantel test revealed a significant correlation ( rM=0.80; pbioassays identified polluted sites and quantified the level of toxicity, providing a cost-effective tool to complement the routine chemical monitoring currently conducted in European coastal waters with ecologically relevant information. This is in line with the recent European legislation that advocates the use of biological tools with the ultimate aim of protecting marine resources from anthropogenic substances that will affect their sensitive early life stages.

  5. Influence of sediment quality on the responses of benthic invertebrates after treatment with the fungicide triphenyltin acetate

    Haas, de E.M.; Roessink, I.; Verbree, B.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of pollution, benthic communities in floodplain lake ecosystems are likely to be exposed to a diverse assortment of sediment-bound historical toxicants and nutrients as well as pulses of newly discharged or deposited toxicants. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the effects

  6. Congener-specific model for polychlorinated biphenyl effect on otter (Lutra lutra) and associated sediment quality criteria

    Traas, T.P.; Luttik, R.; Klepper, O.; Beurskens, J.E.M.; Smit, M.D.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, van A.G.M.; Aldenberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model for risk assessment was built for simultaneous, congener-specific PCB bioaccumulation from sediment to fish to otters (Lutra lutra). Toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) were used to sum individual congeners in otters to a toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) relative to

  7. Using on-farm sedimentation ponds to improve microbial quality of irrigation water in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    water without disturbing sediments reduced helminth eggs in irrigation water by about 70%. Helminth eggs reduced from about 5 to less than 1 egg per litre in three days in both dry and wet seasons while thermotolerant coliforms took six days in the dry season to reduce from about 8 to 4 log units per...

  8. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 2A. SAMOS (REDACTED)

    1973-10-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING... Disneyland aspe, ts of some RCA actiVities, results of system testa conducted late in March seemed to have Cully justilied the Reconnaissance Laboratory

  9. Advanced Pattern Recognition Techniques (Techniques avancees de reconnaissance de forme)

    1998-09-01

    alarmes dans la d6tection des mines terrestres et des munitions explosives non explos6es. Les m~thodes classiques de reconnaissance de forme...the XVIII. Congress of the International Society for [19] DIN EN 60825-1(IEC 825-1) VDE 0837, Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Sicherheit von Laser

  10. Assessment of sediment quality in the Mediterranean Sea-Boughrara lagoon exchange areas (southeastern Tunisia): GIS approach-based chemometric methods.

    Kharroubi, Adel; Gargouri, Dorra; Baati, Houda; Azri, Chafai

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) in surface sediments from 66 sites in both northern and eastern Mediterranean Sea-Boughrara lagoon exchange areas (southeastern Tunisia) were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to the urbanization and economic development of nearby several coastal regions of the Gulf of Gabès. Multiple approaches were applied for the sediment quality assessment. These approaches were based on GIS coupled with chemometric methods (enrichment factors, geoaccumulation index, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis). Enrichment factors and principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of metals. The first group corresponded to Fe and Mn derived from natural sources, and the second group contained Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu originated from man-made sources. For these latter metals, cluster analysis showed two distinct distributions in the selected areas. They were attributed to temporal and spatial variations of contaminant sources input. The geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) values explained that only Cd, Pb, and Cu can be considered as moderate to extreme pollutants in the studied sediments.

  11. The application of a weight of evidence approach to compare the quality of coastal sediments affected by acute (Prestige 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Riba, Inmaculada; Sarasquete, Carmen; Valls, T. Angel del

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate sediment quality in different areas affected by oil spills, a weight of evidence approach was employed by including a complete set of parameters as part of four lines of evidence: sediment contamination, biological effects (including biomarkers) and bioaccumulation under laboratory conditions, toxicity in field conditions and benthic community structure. The methodology was applied to sediments from the Bay of Algeciras (S Spain) chronically impacted by different spills, and the Galician Coast (NW Spain) acutely impacted by an oil spill (Prestige 2002). Results obtained have elucidated the sources and fates of pollutants and the type of risk involved for the ecosystem. Factorial analysis revealed that the main factors were those containing toxicity, chemistry and benthic community variables indicating degradation in Algeciras. It has been demonstrated that the impact associated with chronic event of contamination by oil spills are significantly more dangerous and polluted than those related to acute effects. - Chronic inputs due to the continuous entrance of contaminants result in much more harm to coastal ecosystems than major but precise environmental impacts

  12. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of cadmium in water and sediment in Longjiang River, China: Implication on water quality management after pollution accident.

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Yao, Ling-Ai; Ma, Qian-Li; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Wang, Li; Fang, Qiao-Li; Xu, Zhen-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    In early January 2012, the Longjiang River was subjected to a serious cadmium (Cd) pollution accident, which led to negatively environmental and social impacts. A series of measures of emergency treatment were subsequently taken to reduce water Cd level. However, little information was available about the change of Cd level in environmental matrices and long-term effect of this pollution accident to aquatic ecosystem. Thus, this study investigated the distribution of Cd in water and sediment of this river for two years since pollution accident, as well as assessed its ecological risk to aquatic ecosystem of Longjiang River. The results showed that it was efficient for taking emergency treatment measures to decrease water Cd concentration to below the threshold value of national drinking water quality standard of China. There was high risk (HQ > 1) to aquatic ecosystem in some of reaches between February and July 2012, but low or no risk (HQ polluted reaches increased after pollution accident and emergency treatments in 2012, but decreased in 2013. During flood period, the sediment containing high concentration of Cd in Longjiang River was migrated to downstream Liujiang River. Cd content in sediment was reduced to background level after two years of the pollution accident occurrence. The study provides basic information about Cd levels in different media after pollution accident, which is helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency treatments and the variation of ecological risk, as well as in conducting water management and conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sediment quality assessment in a coastal lagoon (Ravenna, NE Italy) based on SEM-AVS and sequential extraction procedure.

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Guerra, Roberta; Covelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Elena; Dinelli, Enrico

    2018-09-01

    Sediments from the Pialassa Piomboni coastal lagoon (NE Italy) were studied to assess the degree of contamination and ecological risk related to trace metals by combining a geochemical characterization of bulk sediments with the assessment of the bioavailable forms of trace metals. With this purpose, sediment contamination (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was assessed by Enrichment Factors (EFs), and potential bioavailability by the Simultaneously Extracted Metals and Acid Volatile Sulfides (SEM-AVS) approach (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and by Sequential Extraction Procedure (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). On average, Cr and Ni exhibited no contamination (EF ≤1.5), and a predominance in the residual fraction of the sediment, indicating natural origin for these metals. Cu, Pb and Zn displayed a local contamination, which resulted in a higher proportion of Cu bound to the reducible and oxidizable fractions (~30% and ~40% as median, respectively), and Pb mostly associated with the reducible phase (~60% as median). Hence, Cu and Pb could be mobilized when environmental conditions become reducing or oxidizing. Zn resulted mainly partitioned into the reducible and residual fractions (~50% as median, in both fractions). The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) indicated that approximately 30% of samples had >10% of total Zn weakly bound to the sediment, suggesting a medium risk of exposure for aquatic organisms. RAC results were consistent with the ∑SEM-AVS findings, pointing to possible adverse effects for aquatic biota in ~30% of samples, with Zn mostly accounting for the total metal bioavailability. Hg showed a moderate to very severe enrichment, indicating that a substantial amount of this metal derives from anthropogenic sources and may pose adverse effects on the aquatic biota of the Pialassa Piomboni lagoon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconnaissance dating: a new radiocarbon method applied to assessing the temporal distribution of Southern Ocean deep-sea corals

    Burke, Andrea; Robinson, Laura F.; McNichol, Ann P.; Jenkins, William J.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Gerlach, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a rapid 'reconnaissance' method of preparing graphite for 14C/12C analysis. Carbonate (~15 mg) is combusted using an elemental analyzer and the resulting CO2 is converted to graphite using a sealed tube zinc reduction method. Over 85% (n=45 replicates on twenty-one individual corals) of reconnaissance ages measured on corals ranging in age from 500 to 33,000 radiocarbon years (Ryr) are within two standard deviations of ages generated using standard hydrolysis methods on the same corals, and all reconnaissance ages are within 300 Ryr of the standard hydrolysis ages. Replicate measurements on three individual aragonitic corals yielded ages of 1076±35 Ryr (standard deviation; n=5), 10,739±47 Ryr (n=8), and 40,146±3500 Ryr (n=9). No systematic biases were found using different cleaning methods or variable sample sizes. Analysis of 13C/12C was made concurrently with the 14C/12C measurement to correct for natural fractionation and for fractionation during sample processing and analysis. This technique provides a new, rapid method for making accurate, percent-level 14C/12C analyses that may be used to establish the rates and chronology of earth system processes where survey-type modes of age estimation are desirable. For example, applications may include creation of sediment core-top maps, preliminary age models for sediment cores, and growth rate studies of marine organisms such as corals or mollusks. We applied the reconnaissance method to more than 100 solitary deep-sea corals collected in the Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean to investigate their temporal and spatial distribution. The corals used in this study are part of a larger sample set, and the subset that was dated was chosen based on species as opposed to preservation state, so as to exclude obvious temporal biases. Similar to studies in other regions, the distribution of deep-sea corals is not constant through time across the Drake Passage. Most of the corals from the Burdwood Bank

  15. Quantity of dates trumps quality of dates for dense Bayesian radiocarbon sediment chronologies - Gas ion source 14C dating instructed by simultaneous Bayesian accumulation rate modeling

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Firesinger, D.; Roberts, M. L.; Burton, J. R.; Khan, N.; Moyer, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) sediment core chronologies benefit from a high density of dates, even when precision of individual dates is sacrificed. This is demonstrated by a combined approach of rapid 14C analysis of CO2 gas generated from carbonates and organic material coupled with Bayesian statistical modeling. Analysis of 14C is facilitated by the gas ion source on the Continuous Flow Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CFAMS) system at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility. This instrument is capable of producing a 14C determination of +/- 100 14C y precision every 4-5 minutes, with limited sample handling (dissolution of carbonates and/or combustion of organic carbon in evacuated containers). Rapid analysis allows over-preparation of samples to include replicates at each depth and/or comparison of different sample types at particular depths in a sediment or peat core. Analysis priority is given to depths that have the least chronologic precision as determined by Bayesian modeling of the chronology of calibrated ages. Use of such a statistical approach to determine the order in which samples are run ensures that the chronology constantly improves so long as material is available for the analysis of chronologic weak points. Ultimately, accuracy of the chronology is determined by the material that is actually being dated, and our combined approach allows testing of different constituents of the organic carbon pool and the carbonate minerals within a core. We will present preliminary results from a deep-sea sediment core abundant in deep-sea foraminifera as well as coastal wetland peat cores to demonstrate statistical improvements in sediment- and peat-core chronologies obtained by increasing the quantity and decreasing the quality of individual dates.

  16. Water and sediment quality assessment in the Colastiné-Corralito stream system (Santa Fe, Argentina): impact of industry and agriculture on aquatic ecosystems.

    Regaldo, Luciana; Gutierrez, María F; Reno, Ulises; Fernández, Viviana; Gervasio, Susana; Repetti, María R; Gagneten, Ana M

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on the evaluation of metal (chromium, copper, and lead), arsenic, and pesticide (atrazine and endosulfan) contamination in freshwater streams of one of the most important agricultural and industrial areas of central-eastern Argentina, which has not been reported earlier. The environmental fate of inorganic microcontaminants and pesticides was assessed. Samples were collected monthly for a year. Pesticide concentrations were measured in water; metal and arsenic concentrations were measured in water and sediments, and physicochemical variables were analyzed. In most cases, metals and arsenic in water exceeded the established guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota: 98 and 56.25% of the samples showed higher levels of Cr and Pb, while 81.25 and 85% of the samples presented higher values for Cu and As, respectively. Cr, Pb, Cu, and As exceeded 181.5 times, 41.6 times, 57.5 times, and 12.9 times, respectively, the guideline level values. In sediment samples, permitted levels were also surpassed by 40% for Pb, 15% for As, 4% for Cu, and 2% for Cr. Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediment samples were highly polluted by Cr and Cu and very seriously polluted by Pb, which indicates progressive deterioration of the sediment quality. Atrazine never exceeded them, but 27% of the 48 water samples contained total endosulfan that surpassed the guidelines. The findings of this study suggest risk to the freshwater biota over prolong periods and possible risk to humans if such type of contaminated water is employed for recreation or human use. Improper disposal of industrial effluents and agricultural runoffs need to be controlled, and proper treatment should be done before disposal to avoid further deterioration of the aquifers of this area.

  17. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada 1994-95

    Thodal, Carl E.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    A study was begun in 1994 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage from the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or on fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of the Walker River for other beneficial uses. Samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected during June-August 1994 (during a drought year) from sites upstream from and on the Walker River Indian Reservation for analyses of trace elements. Other analyses included physical characteristics, major dissolved constituents, selected species of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, and selected pesticides in bottom sediment. Water samples were collected again from four sites on the Reservation in August 1995 (during a wetterthan- average year) to provide data for comparing extreme climatic conditions. Water samples collected from the Walker River Indian Reservation in 1994 equaled or exceeded the Nevada water-quality standard or level of concern for at least one of the following: water temperature, pH, dissolved solids, unionized ammonia, phosphate, arsenic, boron, chromium, lead, and molybdenum; in 1995, only a single sample from one site exceeded a Nevada water-quality standard for molybdenum. Levels of concern for trace elements in bottom sediment collected in 1994 were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, iron, manganese, and zinc. Concentrations of organochiorine pesticide residues in bottom sediment were below analytical reporting limits. Levels of concern for trace-elements in samples of biota were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, boron, copper, and mercury. Results of toxicity testing indicate that only water samples from Walker Lake caused a toxic response in test bacteria. Arsenic and boron concentrations in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue exceeded levels of concern throughout the Walker River Basin, but most commonly in the lower Walker River Basin. Mercury also was elevated

  18. ANALISIS KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN BERDASARKAN KOMUNITAS MEIOBENTOS DAN KUALITAS SEDIMEN DI PANTAI DAN AREA PERTAMBAKAN, PESISIR SRIWULAN KABUPATEN DEMAK (The Quality Analysis of Aquatic Environment based on Meiobentos Community and Sediment Quality

    Muhandis Sidqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Tujuan studi ini meliputi (1 menentukan kualitas lingkungan daerah pesisir dan tambak ikan, kualitas sedimen, dan komunitas meiobentos, (2 menemukan hubungan antara kualitas sedimen dan meiobentos, dan (3 menentukan tingkat produktivitas peikampungan tambak ikan berdasarkan jarak, tingkat polusi dan destruksi. Parameter kualitas air dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif-komparatif, sedangkan parameter sedimen dianalisis menggunakan PCA (Principal Component Analisys untuk menentukan distribusi spasial pada setiap stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Komunitas meiobentos diperiksa dengan menggunakan CA (Factorial Correspondence Analysis untuk mendeteksi tingkat distribusi spasial yang juga berdasarkan stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan korelasi dan regresi untuk memahami pengaruh parameter bebas terhadap produktivitas tambak ikan. Kemudian tes statistik non parametric dari Kruskall Wallis digunakan untuk membedakan produktivitas pada 3 desa berdasarkan jarak terhadap sumber pencemaran dan tingkat destruksi tambak ikan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa nilai parameter kualitas air (muddy, TSS NH3, NO2, beyond threshold level, negative redox potential (Eh sediment value/reduction zone, and IMLP adalah moderat. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi air di daerah penelitian tidak stabil. Penelitian juga menunjukkan nilai indeks diversitas yang rendah, dominasi organisme meiobentos tertentu, dan konformitas antar komunitas bentos. Hasil tes statistik Kruskall Wallis menunjukkan adanya signifikansi antara produktivitas tambak ikan dengan factor jarak dan tingkat destruksi diantara 3 desa dalam daerah penelitian yaitu Bedono, Sriwulan. Purwosari yaitu dengan nilai produktivitas 0.65,0.56, 0.41 ton/hektar/tahun.   ABSTRACT The objective of this study area to determine the environmental quality of coastal area and fish ponds which are on water quality, sediment quality, and Meiobentos

  19. The use of amino acid indices for assessing organic matter quality and microbial abundance in deep-sea Antarctic sediments of IODP Expedition 318

    Carr, Stephanie A; Mills, Christopher T.; Mandernack, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    The Adélie Basin, located offshore of the Wilkes Land margin, experiences unusually high sedimentation rates (~ 2 cm yr− 1) for the Antarctic coast. This study sought to compare depthwise changes in organic matter (OM) quantity and quality with changes in microbial biomass with depth at this high-deposition site and an offshore continental margin site. Sediments from both sites were collected during the International Ocean Drilling (IODP) Program Expedition 318. Viable microbial biomass was estimated from concentrations of bacterial-derived phospholipid fatty acids, while OM quality was assessed using four different amino acid degradation proxies. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) measured from the continental margin suggest an oligotrophic environment, with THAA concentrations representing only 2% of total organic carbon with relative proportions of non-protein amino acids β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid as high as 40%. In contrast, THAA concentrations from the near-shore Adélie Basin represent 40%–60% of total organic carbon. Concentrations of β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid were often below the detection limit and suggest that the OM of the basin as labile. DI values in surface sediments at the Adélie and margin sites were measured to be + 0.78 and − 0.76, reflecting labile and more recalcitrant OM, respectively. Greater DI values in deeper and more anoxic portions of both cores correlated positively with increased relative concentrations of phenylalanine plus tyrosine and may represent a change of redox conditions, rather than OM quality. This suggests that DI values calculated along chemical profiles should be interpreted with caution. THAA concentrations, the percentage of organic carbon (CAA%) and total nitrogen (NAA%) represented by amino acids at both sites demonstrated a significant positive correlation with bacterial abundance estimates. These data suggest that the selective degradation of amino acids, as

  20. Sediment Quality of the SW Coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: A Comprehensive Assessment Based on the Analysis of Heavy Metals

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the Bohai Sea is one of the most important fishing grounds in China. Yet, surrounded by one of the biggest economic rims of China, its ecological functions have been declining rapidly in recent two decades under the heavy anthropogenic impacts. The Laizhou Bay is the smallest one of the three main bays in the Bohai Sea. Owing to the rich brine deposits, chemical industries using brine as raw materials are booming in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, the scale of which ranks as the largest one in China. In order to monitor and assess the environmental quality, surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn in 2012, and analyzed for heavy metals. Several widely adopted methods were used in the overall assessment of heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risks in these sediments, and the data were analyzed to infer the main sources of the pollutants. The results showed that the remarkably high concentrations of heavy metals were almost all recorded in a small number of riverine sites. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were the main environmental threat according to the sediment quality guidelines. The marine area was generally in good condition with no or low risk from the studied metals and adverse effects on biota could hardly occur. Natural sources dominated the concentrations and distributions of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine area. Our results indicated that heavy metal pollution was not a main cause of the ecological degradation of the Laizhou Bay at present. PMID:25816338

  1. Sediment quality of the SW coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: a comprehensive assessment based on the analysis of heavy metals.

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the Bohai Sea is one of the most important fishing grounds in China. Yet, surrounded by one of the biggest economic rims of China, its ecological functions have been declining rapidly in recent two decades under the heavy anthropogenic impacts. The Laizhou Bay is the smallest one of the three main bays in the Bohai Sea. Owing to the rich brine deposits, chemical industries using brine as raw materials are booming in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, the scale of which ranks as the largest one in China. In order to monitor and assess the environmental quality, surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn in 2012, and analyzed for heavy metals. Several widely adopted methods were used in the overall assessment of heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risks in these sediments, and the data were analyzed to infer the main sources of the pollutants. The results showed that the remarkably high concentrations of heavy metals were almost all recorded in a small number of riverine sites. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were the main environmental threat according to the sediment quality guidelines. The marine area was generally in good condition with no or low risk from the studied metals and adverse effects on biota could hardly occur. Natural sources dominated the concentrations and distributions of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine area. Our results indicated that heavy metal pollution was not a main cause of the ecological degradation of the Laizhou Bay at present.

  2. Sediment quality of the SW coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: a comprehensive assessment based on the analysis of heavy metals.

    Xuelu Gao

    Full Text Available Historically, the Bohai Sea is one of the most important fishing grounds in China. Yet, surrounded by one of the biggest economic rims of China, its ecological functions have been declining rapidly in recent two decades under the heavy anthropogenic impacts. The Laizhou Bay is the smallest one of the three main bays in the Bohai Sea. Owing to the rich brine deposits, chemical industries using brine as raw materials are booming in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, the scale of which ranks as the largest one in China. In order to monitor and assess the environmental quality, surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn in 2012, and analyzed for heavy metals. Several widely adopted methods were used in the overall assessment of heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risks in these sediments, and the data were analyzed to infer the main sources of the pollutants. The results showed that the remarkably high concentrations of heavy metals were almost all recorded in a small number of riverine sites. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were the main environmental threat according to the sediment quality guidelines. The marine area was generally in good condition with no or low risk from the studied metals and adverse effects on biota could hardly occur. Natural sources dominated the concentrations and distributions of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine area. Our results indicated that heavy metal pollution was not a main cause of the ecological degradation of the Laizhou Bay at present.

  3. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

  4. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland; sources, characteristics, analysis and limitations of nutrient and suspended-sediment data, 1975-90

    Hainly, R.A.; Loper, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes analyses of available information on nutrients and suspended sediment collected in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin during water years 1975-90. Most of the analyses were applied to data collected during water years 1980-89. The report describes the spatial and temporal availability of nutrient and suspended-sediment data and presents a preliminary concept of the spatial and temporal patterns of concentrations and loads within the basin. Where data were available, total and dissolved forms of nitrogen and phosphorus species from precipitation, surface water, ground water, and springwater, and bottom material from streams and reservoirs were evaluated. Suspended-sediment data from streams also were evaluated. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) database was selected as the primary database for the analyses. Precipitation-quality data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and bottom-material-quality data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) were used to supplement the water-quality data from NWIS. Concentrations of nutrients were available from 3 precipitation sites established for longterm monitoring purposes, 883 wells (854 synoptic areal survey sites and 29 project and research sites), 23 springs (17 synoptic areal survey sites and 6 project and research sites), and 894 bottom-material sites (840 synoptic areal survey sites and 54 project and research sites). Concentrations of nutrients and (or) suspended sediment were available from 128 streams (36 long-term monitoring sites, 51 synoptic areal survey sites, and 41 project and research sites). Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in streams varied temporally and spatially and were related to land use, agricultural practices, and streamflow. A general north-to-south pattern of increasing median nitrate concentrations, from 2 to 5 mg/L, was detected in samples collected in study unit streams. In streams that drain

  7. Reconnaissance invariante d'objets 3-D et correlation SONG

    Roy, Sebastien

    Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels. La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee. Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace. Nos resultats numeriques montrent un taux de classement atteignant 98% sur une banque d'images composee de 5 vehicules militaires. La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales (SONG) traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images. Nous presentons

  8. Advancement in Watershed Modelling Using Dynamic Lateral and Longitudinal Sediment (Dis)connectivity Prediction

    Mahoney, D. T.; al Aamery, N. M. H.; Fox, J.

    2017-12-01

    The authors find that sediment (dis)connectivity has seldom taken precedence within watershed models, and the present study advances this modeling framework and applies the modeling within a bedrock-controlled system. Sediment (dis)connectivity, defined as the detachment and transport of sediment from source to sink between geomorphic zones, is a major control on sediment transport. Given the availability of high resolution geospatial data, coupling sediment connectivity concepts within sediment prediction models offers an approach to simulate sediment sources and pathways within a watershed's sediment cascade. Bedrock controlled catchments are potentially unique due to the presence of rock outcrops causing longitudinal impedance to sediment transport pathways in turn impacting the longitudinal distribution of the energy gradient responsible for conveying sediment. Therefore, the authors were motivated by the need to formulate a sediment transport model that couples sediment (dis)connectivity knowledge to predict sediment flux for bedrock controlled catchments. A watershed-scale sediment transport model was formulated that incorporates sediment (dis)connectivity knowledge collected via field reconnaissance and predicts sediment flux through coupling with the Partheniades equation and sediment continuity model. Sediment (dis)connectivity was formulated by coupling probabilistic upland lateral connectivity prediction with instream longitudinal connectivity assessments via discretization of fluid and sediment pathways. Flux predictions from the upland lateral connectivity model served as an input to the instream longitudinal connectivity model. Disconnectivity in the instream model was simulated via the discretization of stream reaches due to barriers such as bedrock outcroppings and man-made check dams. The model was tested for a bedrock controlled catchment in Kentucky, USA for which extensive historic water and sediment flux data was available. Predicted sediment

  9. Continuous water-quality and suspended-sediment transport monitoring in the San Francisco Bay, California, water years 2014–15

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.; Livsey, Daniel N.

    2018-03-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors water quality and suspended-sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay (bay) as part of a multi-agency effort to address management, water supply, and ecological concerns. The San Francisco Bay area is home to millions of people, and the bay teems both with resident and with migratory wildlife, plants, and fish. Freshwater mixes with salt water in the bay, which is subject both to riverine influences (floods, droughts, managed reservoir releases and freshwater diversions) and to marine influences (tides, waves, effects of salt water). To understand this environment, the USGS, along with its partners (see “Acknowledgements”), has been monitoring the bay’s waters continuously since 1988. Several water-quality variables are of particular importance to State and Federal resource managers and are monitored at key locations throughout the bay (fig. 1). Salinity, which indicates the relative mixing of fresh and ocean waters in the bay, is derived from specific conductance measurements. Water temperature, along with salinity, affects the density of water, which controls gravity-driven circulation patterns and stratification in the water column. Turbidity, a measure of light scattered from suspended particles in the water, is used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). Suspended sediment affects the bay in multiple ways: attenuation of sunlight in the water column, affecting phytoplankton growth; deposition on tidal marsh and intertidal mudflats, which can help sustain these habitats as sea level rises; deposition in ports and shipping channels, which can necessitate dredging; and often, adsorption of contaminants, affecting their distribution and concentrations in the environment. Dissolved oxygen concentration, essential to a healthy ecosystem and a fundamental indicator of water quality, is affected by water temperature, salinity, ecosystem metabolism, tidal currents, and wind. Tidal currents in the bay

  10. Light armoured reconnaissance vehicle system S-LOV-CBRN

    Tomek, M.; Kare, J.; Cuda, P.; Fisera, O.; Res, B

    2014-01-01

    Light armoured reconnaissance vehicle system S-LOV-CBRN is intended mainly for CBRN reconnaissance and CBRN monitoring of areas of interest. The vehicle is designed to fulfil the missions according to military CBRN scenarios and to support effectively the first responders' teams during their response to the extent CBRN incident.The vehicle is equipped with a chemical (C) and a biological (B) detection system, as well as with a radiation and nuclear (RN) detection system consisting of the control unit with an internal dosimetric probe and of two external ones which are mounted on the right and left side of the vehicle. In this abstract the vehicle system S-LOV-CBRN is shortly described. (authors)

  11. Measuring and Tracking Skills in the Army Reconnaissance Course

    2018-01-01

    aggregation and trend analysis over time. The ARC-FT also supports course management activities by allowing students and instructors to sign...iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank all of the Army Reconnaissance Course Leadership and instructors for supporting this research and...the consummate support and guidance of Brigade, Battalion, and course leadership ; an internal instructor training program; the setting of conditions

  12. Scalable Sensor Management for Automated Fusion and Tactical Reconnaissance

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Partridge, Darin C.; Haws, Jonathan R.; Jensen, Mark D.; Johnson, Troy R.; Petersen, Brad D.; Sullivan, Stephanie W.

    2013-01-01

    The capabilities of tactical intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) payloads are expanding from single sensor imagers to integrated systems-of-systems architectures. Increasingly, these systems-of-systems include multiple sensing modalities that can act as force multipliers for the intelligence analyst. Currently, the separate sensing modalities operate largely independent of one another, providing a selection of operating modes but not an integrated intelligence product. We des...

  13. A geological reconnaissance study of the Lac du Bonnet batholith

    Tammemagi, H.Y.; Kerford, P.S.; Requeima, J.C.; Temple, C.A.

    1980-02-01

    A geological reconnaissance survey was carried out of the Lac du Bonnet batholith, southeastern Manitoba, as part of the concept verification phase of the nuclear fuel waste disposal program for Canada. This report summarizes available geological information, presents the results of field mapping and discusses the geochemical analyses of rock samples. The geological and structural aspects of the batholith are described as well as its regional setting and possible genesis. (auth)

  14. Geologic Reconnaissance and Lithologic Identification by Remote Sensing

    remote sensing in geologic reconnaissance for purposes of tunnel site selection was studied further and a test case was undertaken to evaluate this geological application. Airborne multispectral scanning (MSS) data were obtained in May, 1972, over a region between Spearfish and Rapid City, South Dakota. With major effort directed toward the analysis of these data, the following geologic features were discriminated: (1) exposed rock areas, (2) five separate rock groups, (3) large-scale structures. This discrimination was accomplished by ratioing multispectral channels.

  15. Coastal surface sediment quality assessment in Leizhou Peninsula (South China Sea) based on SEM-AVS analysis.

    Li, Feng; Lin, Jin-qin; Liang, Yan-yan; Gan, Hua-yang; Zeng, Xiang-yun; Duan, Zhi-peng; Liang, Kai; Liu, Xing; Huo, Zhen-hai; Wu, Chang-hua

    2014-07-15

    Surface sediments from the coastal area of the Leizhou Peninsula in the South China Sea were collected and analyzed and the potential ecological risks in the area were assessed based on acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) model. The AVS levels are between 0.109 and 55.6 μmol g(-1), with the average at 4.45 μmol g(-1). The high AVS-concentration zones include the aquaculture areas of Liusha Bay and the densely populated areas of Zhanjiang Bay. The simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) range from 0.026 μmol g(-1) to 8.61 μmol g(-1), with the average at 0.843 μmol g(-1). Most of high SEM-concentration stations were located in ports or aquaculture zones. Most of the coastal surface sediments of the Leizhou Peninsula (90%) had no adverse biological effects according to the criterion proposed by USEPA (2005); while adverse effects were uncertain in some stations (8%); even in 2 stations (2%) adverse biological effects may be expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  17. Environmental evaluation near to a fuel vendor inside of the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: water quality, sediments and biota

    Rada, M.; Losada, F.

    2000-01-01

    A base line study was conducted reference in the coastal area near a Estacion de Servicio Nautica, located in Parque Nacional Morrrocoy, Venezuela, this is the second part of the investigation. Results from a physical and chemical characterization of the water and sediments of four sites located around the service station are presented. The physical and chemical factors measured in water included: temperature, salinity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen, pH, total suspended solids, transparency, oil and grease, total residual petroleum hydrocarbon, vanadium and lead, total coliform bacteria, and the presence of coliform bacteria. The factors measured in sediments included: granulometry, organic material, total carbonates, vanadium, lead, oil and grease, and total hydrocarbons. In addition, the amount of vanadium and lead in sample tissue from three species which are abundant and widely distributed in each site was measured in order to evaluate the potential of these species as bio-indicators. The water in the area where this study was conducted is shallow, warm, and thermally homogeneous, with high salinity and normal pH and dissolved oxygen. The supersaturation with oxygen in certain hours in sites adjacent to abundant underwater vegetation. The water is moderately turbid with a tendency towards less dissolved oxygen with increased depth. The estimated values of NMP/100 ml of the coliform fecal organisms is within legal limits even though the total number of water coliforms measured in Site 2 was ten times higher than in Site 1. This increase is associated with the proximity of Site 2 to an outflow of pre-treated sewage. The values of TRPH in the water collected from each site were low and very close to the detection limit (0.8 mg/l). Vanadium was not found, while lead was detected in 11 of the 12 samples. One sample had a concentration of three times the maximum baseline compared to the values measured for Site 1

  18. A preliminary assessment of the spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment in the Ohio River basin, United States, using water quality data from the NASQAN programme in a source tracing procedure

    Zhang, Y.-S.; Collins, A.L.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to fingerprint sediment provenance. In the United States, routine water quality samples are collected as part of the US Geological Survey's revised National Stream Quality Accounting Network programme. Accordingly, the geochemistry data generated from these samples over a 10-year period (1996-2006) were used as the basis for a fingerprinting exercise to assess the key tributary sub-catchment spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment transported by the Ohio River. Uncertainty associated with the spatial source estimates was quantified using a Monte Carlo approach in conjunction with mass balance modelling. Relative frequency weighted means were used as an alternative way of summarizing the spatial source contributions, thereby avoiding the need to use confidence limits. The results should be interpreted in the context of the routine, but infrequent nature, of the suspended sediment samples used to assemble geochemistry as a basis for the sourcing exercise. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates how routine monitoring samples can be used to provide some preliminary information on sediment provenance in large drainage basins. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011-Collection methods, analyses methods, quality assurance, and data

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Smith, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a study to identify the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in water and bottom-sediment samples collected during 2010–11 at sites in seven areas of concern (AOCs) throughout the Great Lakes. Study sites include tributaries to the Great Lakes in AOCs located near Duluth, Minn.; Green Bay, Wis.; Roches­ter, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.; and Ashtabula, Ohio. This report documents the collection meth­ods, analyses methods, quality-assurance data and analyses, and provides the data for this study. Water and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., for a broad suite of CECs. During this study, 135 environmental and 23 field dupli­cate samples of surface water and wastewater effluent, 10 field blank water samples, and 11 field spike water samples were collected and analyzed. Sixty-one of the 69 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 4433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 11.2 micrograms per liter. Twenty-eight of the 48 pharmaceuticals (research method 8244) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0029 to 22.0 micro­grams per liter. Ten of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols analyzed (research method 4434) were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 10,000 nanograms per liter. During this study, 75 environmental, 13 field duplicate samples, and 9 field spike samples of bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for a wide variety of CECs. Forty-seven of the 57 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 5433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.921 to 25,800 nanograms per gram. Seventeen of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols (research method 6434) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 8,921 nanograms per gram. Twelve of

  20. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida

    Kimrey, J.O.; Fayard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Drainage wells of the first type are further categorized as either Floridan aquifer drainage wells or Biscayne aquifer drainage wells. Floridan aquifer drainage wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Biscayne aquifer drainage wells are used locally to dispose of stormwater runoff and other surplus water in southeast Florida, where large numbers of these wells have been permitted in Dade and Broward Counties. The majority of these wells are used to dispose of water from swimming pools or to dispose of heated water from air-conditioning units. The use of Biscayne aquifer drainage wells may have minimal effect on aquifer potability so long as injection of runoff and industrial wates is restricted to zones where chloride concentrations exceed 1,500 milligrams per liter. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mines and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed

  1. Multielement geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Palmyrides region of central Syria

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Hale, M.

    1988-01-01

    Multielement reconnaissance geochemistry coupled with ground scintillation gamma ray measurements has been used to investigate the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. Over 500 geochemical samples of outcropping rock, wadi and playa sediments, overburden and groundwaters were taken over an area of approximately 9000 sq km. Most samples were analyzed for 25 major and trace elements by nebulization ICPAES; for As, Sb, Bi and Se by hydride generation and ICPAES; and for U, Th and La and other REE by neutron activation analysis. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The areal distributions of U, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped using computer graphics. Results of the factor analysis indicate that the primary lithogeochemical dispersion patterns of uranium and associated elements are controlled by a combination of structural, lithological and environmental factors. Uranium and associated elements have subsequently been leached out of the phosphorite and other U enriched clayey limestones and carbonate rocks into the hydro- geologic regime. Redistribution of these elements is taking place along fracture zones and major faults. A degree of urnaium accumulation in a Neogene aquifer of the Ad-Daww basin is evident

  2. Mineral oil content in sediments and soils: comparability, traceability and a certified reference material for quality assurance

    Becker, Roland; Buge, Hans-Gerhard; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The performance of twelve laboratories with previously established proficiency in the determination of the mineral oil content in a fresh water sediment is described. The summation parameter total petrol hydrocarbon (TPH) is defined according to ISO 16703:2004 with regard to the sample preparation to be applied, the flame ionisation detection (FID) and the boiling range of C{sub 10}-C{sub 40} to be integrated. Comprehensive tests of homogeneity and stability have been carried out on the candidate material using appropriate models. The outcome of the study served as the basis for the certification of the candidate reference material as ERM-CC015a. The certified mass fraction is 1,820{+-}130mgkg{sup -1}and traceability was established by using an appropriate calibration standard certified for the mass fraction of C{sub 10}-C{sub 40}. The interlaboratory scatter of measurement results in this exercise can largely be explained by the variability of the individual calibrations based on this common calibration standard. (orig.)

  3. Full waveform inversion for mechanized tunneling reconnaissance

    Lamert, Andre; Musayev, Khayal; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang; Hackl, Klaus; Baitsch, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In mechanized tunnel drilling processes, exploration of soil structure and properties ahead of the tunnel boring machine can greatly help to lower costs and improve safety conditions during drilling. We present numerical full waveform inversion approaches in time and frequency domain of synthetic acoustic data to detect different small scale structures representing potential obstacles in front of the tunnel boring machine. With the use of sensitivity kernels based on the adjoint wave field in time domain and in frequency domain it is possible to derive satisfactory models with a manageable amount of computational load. Convergence to a suitable model is assured by the use of iterative model improvements and gradually increasing frequencies. Results of both, time and frequency approach, will be compared for different obstacle and source/receiver setups. They show that the image quality strongly depends on the used receiver and source positions and increases significantly with the use of transmission waves due to the installed receivers and sources at the surface and/or in bore holes. Transmission waves lead to clearly identified structure and position of the obstacles and give satisfactory guesses for the wave speed. Setups using only reflected waves result in blurred objects and ambiguous position of distant objects and allow to distinguish heterogeneities with higher or lower wave speed, respectively.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley study unit, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas: analysis of selected nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data

    Anderholm, S.K.; Radell, M.J.; Richey, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a summary of data compiled from sources throughout the Rio Grande Valley study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Information presented includes the sources and types of water-quality data available, the utility of water-quality data for statistical analysis, and a description of recent water-quality conditions and trends and their relation to natural and human factors. Water-quality data are limited to concentrations of selected nutrient species in surface water and ground water, concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended solids in surface water, and pesticides in surface water, ground water, and biota.The Rio Grande Valley study unit includes about 45,900 square miles in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas upstream from the streamflow-monitoring station Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. The area also includes the San Luis Closed Basin and the surface-water closed basins east of the Continental Divide and north of the United States-Mexico international border. The Rio Grande drains about 29,300 square miles in these States; the remainder of the study unit area is in closed basins. Concentrations of all nutrients found in surface-water samples collected from the Rio Grande, with the exception of phosphorus, generally remained nearly constant from the northernmost station in the study unit to Rio Grande near Isleta, where concentrations were larger by an order of magnitude. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads increased downstream between Lobatos, Colorado, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Nutrient concentrations remained elevated with slight variations until downstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir, where nutrient concentrations were lower. Nutrient concentrations then increased downstream from the reservoir, as evidenced by elevated concentrations at Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas.Suspended-sediment concentrations were similar at stations upstream from Otowi Bridge near San Ildefonso, New Mexico. The concentration and

  5. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Albermarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; a summary of selected trace element, nutrient, and pesticide data for bed sediments, 1969-90

    Skrobialowski, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial distributions of metals and trace elements, nutrients, and pesticides and polychiorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in bed sediment were characterized using data collected from 1969 through 1990 and stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval (WATSTORE) system and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval (STORET) system databases. Bed-sediment data from WATSTORE and STORET were combined to form a single database of 1,049 records representing 301 sites. Data were examined for concentrations of 16 metals and trace elements, 4 nutrients, 10 pesticides, and PCB's. Maximum bed-sediment concentrations were evaluated relative to sediment-quality guidelines developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. Sites were not selected randomly; therefore, results should not be interpreted as representing average conditions. Many sites were located in or around lakes and reservoirs, urban areas, and areas where special investigations were conducted. Lakes and reservoirs function as effective sediment traps, and elevated concentrations of some constituents occurred at these sites. High concentrations of many metals and trace elements also occurred near urban areas where streams receive runoff or inputs from industrial, residential, and municipal activities. Elevated nutrient concentrations occurred near lakes, reservoirs, and the mouths of major rivers. The highest concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, iron. mercury, nickel, and selenium occurred in the Roanoke River Basin and may be a result of geologic formations or accumulations of bed sediment in lakes and reservoirs. The highest concentrations of cadmium, lead, and thallium were detected in the Chowan River Basin; copper and zinc were reported highest in the Neuse River Basin. Total phosphorus and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen

  7. Experiences Supporting the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: the Devops Model

    Licht, A.; Estes, N. M.; Bowman-Cisnesros, E.; Hanger, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for instrument targeting, product processing, and archiving [1]. The LROC SOC maintains over 1,000,000 observations with over 300 TB of released data. Processing challenges compound with the acquisition of over 400 Gbits of observations daily creating the need for a robust, efficient, and reliable suite of specialized software. Development Environment: The LROC SOC's software development methodology has evolved over time. Today, the development team operates in close cooperation with the systems administration team in a model known in the IT industry as DevOps. The DevOps model enables a highly productive development environment that facilitates accomplishment of key goals within tight schedules[2]. The LROC SOC DevOps model incorporates industry best practices including prototyping, continuous integration, unit testing, code coverage analysis, version control, and utilizing existing open source software. Scientists and researchers at LROC often prototype algorithms and scripts in a high-level language such as MATLAB or IDL. After the prototype is functionally complete the solution is implemented as production ready software by the developers. Following this process ensures that all controls and requirements set by the LROC SOC DevOps team are met. The LROC SOC also strives to enhance the efficiency of the operations staff by way of weekly presentations and informal mentoring. Many small scripting tasks are assigned to the cognizant operations personnel (end users), allowing for the DevOps team to focus on more complex and mission critical tasks. In addition to leveraging open source software the LROC SOC has also contributed to the open source community by releasing Lunaserv [3]. Findings: The DevOps software model very efficiently provides smooth software releases and maintains team momentum. Scientists prototyping their work has proven to be very efficient

  8. Main factors controlling the sedimentation of high-quality shale in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Fm, Upper Yangtze region

    Yuman Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the shale of Upper Ordovician Wufeng Fm–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm was taken as an example to reveal the distribution patterns and the main sedimentation controlling factors of high-quality shale in the Upper Yangtze region. This study was made from the aspects of plate movement, fluctuation of sea level, palaeo-productivity, deposition rate and paleogeographic environment, based on the field outcrop sections and drilling data of the southern Sichuan Basin, together with geochemical element testing and biostratigraphical analysis results. The following findings were obtained. First, the collision and joint of Yangtze Plate and its periphery plates and the intra-plate deformation were gentle in the early stage, strong in the late stage, gentle in northwest and strong in southeast, so the sedimentation center in the Upper Yangtze region migrated to the northwest and the closure of sea area in the southern Sichuan Basin changed from weak in early stages to strong in late stages. Second, at the turning period from Ordovician to Silurian, sea levels presented the cycle change of deep–shallow–deep–shallow. Due to the combination of high sea levels and a stable ocean basin in early stages, an extensive anoxic tectonic sedimentary space favorable for organic matters preservation was formed in the sea floor. Third, due to the effect of tectonic movements and sea closure, palaeo-productivity of sea areas in the southern Sichuan Basin presented a trend of being high in the early stage and low in the late stage, and the deposition rate was also low in the early stage and high in the late stage. And fourth, extensive deposition and distribution of shale rich in organic matters and silica was mainly controlled by a stable sea basin with a low subsidence rate, a relatively high sea level, semi-closed waters and low deposition rates. To sum up, the high-quality shale in the Upper Yangtze region is characterized by multiphase

  9. Use of reconnaissance level information for environmental assessment

    Foster, R.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Strand, J.A.; Warner, M.L.

    1979-11-01

    Reconnaissance level information (RLI) sufficient for comparing the environmental and socio-economic features of candidate sites for nuclear power stations and for guiding plant design, baseline surveys, and operational practices is usually available from published reports, public records, and knowledgeable individuals. Environmental concerns of special importance for site evaluation include: aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, land and water use, socio-economics, and institutional constraints. A scheme is suggested for using RLI to assign classifications to candidate sites based on the potential level of concern associated with the different environmental features

  10. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Gillmore, G.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concent...

  11. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  12. River sediment (S-37)--a new analytical quality control material ensuring comparability of chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis during an international environmental study in China.

    Gawlik, B M; Martens, D; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A; Muntau, H

    2000-06-01

    A sediment reference material (S-37) was prepared as analytical quality control material to be used within an international project on polychlorinated hydrocarbon analysis in two Chinese rivers. The raw material was sampled during a cruise on Yangtse River and transported afterwards to the JRC Ispra for further processing. The material was treated according to the general principles applicable for candidate reference material production. After a thorough homogeneity study of the bulk the material was bottled. A total of 1,080 bottles each containing 50 g of dry sediment powder was obtained. Final homogeneity and stability testing proved the material to be fit for the purpose. Isotope dilution GC/MS was used to establish target values for pentachlorobenzene (1.17 +/- 0.08 ng/g), hexachlorobenzene (3.60 +/- 0.17 ng/g), octachlorostyrene (0.19 +/- 0.01 ng/g), pentachloroanisole (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/g), alpha-HCH (0.70 +/- 0.05 ng/g), beta-HCH (1.38 +/- 0.18 ng/g), gamma-HCH (0.83 +/- 038 ng/g), 2,4'-DDT (0.36 +/- 0.04 ng/g), 2,4'-DDE (0.29 +/- 0.02 ng/g), 2,4'-DDD (0.49 +/- 0.02), 4,4'-DDT (3.42 +/- 0.47 ng/g), 4,4'-DDD (1.29 +/- 0.17 ng/g), PCB 28 (0.11 +/- 0.01 ng/g), PCB 52 (0.09 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 101 (0.07 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 138 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g) and PCB 153 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g). Furthermore, indicative values for major and minor constituents as well as for polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and -furanes were measured.

  13. Sediment Transport

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  14. Assessing land use, sedimentation, and water quality stressors as predictors of coral reef condition in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Fore, L; Smith, A; Bradley, P

    2018-03-13

    Coral reef condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was assessed at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone. Total three-dimensional coral cover, reef rugosity, and coral diversity had significant negative coefficients for LDI index, as did densities of dominant species Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Montastraea cavernosa, Orbicella faveolata, and Porites porites. However, overall stony coral colony density was not significantly correlated with stressors. Positive relationships between reef rugosity and ST, between coral diversity and ST, and between coral diversity and WQ were unexpected because these stressors are generally thought to negatively influence coral growth and health. Sponge density was greater with higher disturbance indicators (ST and WQ), consistent with reports of greater resistance by sponges to degraded water quality compared to stony corals. The highest FoRAM (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) indices indicating good water quality were found offshore from the main island and outside the harbor. Negative associations between stony coral metrics and LDI index have been reported elsewhere in the Caribbean and highlight LDI index potential as a spatial tool to characterize land-based anthropogenic stressor gradients relevant to coral reefs. Fewer relationships were found with an integrated stressor index but with similar trends in response direction.

  15. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  16. The advanced linked extended reconnaissance and targeting technology demonstration project

    Cruickshank, James; de Villers, Yves; Maheux, Jean; Edwards, Mark; Gains, David; Rea, Terry; Banbury, Simon; Gauthier, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing key operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. We discuss concepts for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as beyond line-of-sight systems such as a mini-UAV and unattended ground sensors. The authors address technical issues associated with the use of fully digital IR and day video cameras and discuss video-rate image processing developed to assist the operator to recognize poorly visible targets. Automatic target detection and recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images have been investigated to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The machine generated information display requirements are presented with the human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment, with a view to establishing user trust in the automation. The paper concludes with a summary of achievements to date and steps to project completion.

  17. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1236 water samples from the Nebesna Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Harrison Bay quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 328 water samples from the Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  20. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Meade River quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 515 water samples from the Meade River Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  1. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Iditarod Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1410 water samples from the Iditarod Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  2. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Charley River Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1322 water samples from the Charley River Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  3. Trinity River Bottom Sediment Reconnaissance Study. Phase I. Plan of Work. Appendices,

    1976-11-30

    Reservoir at mid-lake n818.01 C Cedar Creek Reservoir at Kings Creek Arm at SH 0818.02 CS 274 south of Kemp Trinity River at SH 34 southwest of Rosser...I 1-3 Centrifuge, cont’d. 1. Timer, brake, adjustable speed 2. Top speed = 3200 RPM Shaka 1. 1/3 hp electric motor, Dayton Electric Manufacturing Co

  4. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for St. Michael Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 159 water samples from the St. Michael Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ruby Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 693 water samples from the Ruby Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  6. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beaver Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 642 water samples from the Beaver Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were done by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1380 water samples from the Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  8. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment in streams, 1996-98

    Kroening, Sharon E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stream water-quality data from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit (Study Unit) from 1995 through 1998 was used to describe the distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment; and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on reported concentrations, loads, and yields. During the study period, streamflows generally were near to greater than average. Agricultural land cover, particularly on tile-drained soils, had the most substantial influence on nutrients, chlorophyll a, and suspended sediment in the Study Unit. The greatest concentrations and yields of total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved nitrite nitrogen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment were measured in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils. Total nitrogen yields also were about 6 times greater in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils than in a stream representing agricultural land cover on naturally welldrained soils.

  9. Quality and mutagenicity of water and sediment of the streams impacted by the former uranium mine area Olší–Drahonín (Czech Republic)

    Hudcová, H.; Badurová, J.; Rozkošný, M.; Sova, J.; Funková, R.; Svobodová, J.

    2013-01-01

    The water quality research performed in the years 2003–2010 demonstrated an impact of the mine water pumped from the closed Olší uranium mine and discharged from the mine water treatment plant (MWTP) and groundwater from springs in the area on the water quality of the Hadůvka stream. The water ecosystems of the lower part of the Hadůvka stream are impacted mainly by water originated from the springs located in the stream valley and drained syenit subsoil, naturally rich in uranium. Those inflows caused a very high concentration of uranium measured in the water of the stream, which exceeds the given limit value. No negative impact on the water ecosystems of the receiving Bobrůvka River was found. This reduction of impact is caused by five times higher average daily flow rate of the Bobrůvka River in comparison with the Hadůvka stream, which results in a sufficient dilution of pollution from the Hadůvka. - Highlights: ► No significant impact of former uranium mining in the Olší mine area on the water ecosystems. ► The water ecosystems impacted mainly by natural sources of uranium. ► The occurrence of mutagenic compounds in the surface water was found using Ames fluctuated test. ► The mutagenicity was repeatedly detected in sediments. ► None of the samples showed cytotoxic effects in tests with S. typhimurium or P. phosphoreum organisms.

  10. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum

  11. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  12. The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting Technology Demonstration project

    Edwards, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing many operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces. Using the surveillance system of the Coyote reconnaissance vehicle as an experimental platform, the ALERT TD project aims to significantly enhance situational awareness by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. The project is exploiting important advances made in computer processing capability, displays technology, digital communications, and sensor technology since the design of the original surveillance system. As the major research area within the project, concepts are discussed for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as from beyond line-of-sight systems such as mini-UAVs and unattended ground sensors. Video-rate image processing has been developed to assist the operator to detect poorly visible targets. As a second major area of research, automatic target cueing capabilities have been added to the system. These include scene change detection, automatic target detection and aided target recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The merits of incorporating scene change detection algorithms are also discussed. In the area of multi-sensor data fusion, up to Joint Defence Labs level 2 has been demonstrated. The human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment are presented, drawing upon multiple user group sessions with military surveillance system operators. The paper concludes with Lessons Learned from the project. The ALERT system has been used in a number of C4ISR

  13. A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Murchie, S.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Seelos, F.P.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wray, J.J.; Swayze, G.; Clark, R.N.; Des Marais, D.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral images covering the 0.4-3.9 ??m wavelength range, coordinated with higher-spatial resolution HiRISE and Context Imager images. MRO's new high-resolution measurements, combined with earlier data from Thermal Emission Spectrometer; Thermal Emission Imaging System; and Observatoire pour la Min??ralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activiti?? on Mars Express, indicate that aqueous minerals are both diverse and widespread on the Martian surface. The aqueous minerals occur in 9-10 classes of deposits characterized by distinct mineral assemblages, morphologies, and geologic settings. Phyllosilicates occur in several settings: in compositionally layered blankets hundreds of meters thick, superposed on eroded Noachian terrains; in lower layers of intracrater depositional fans; in layers with potential chlorides in sediments on intercrater plains; and as thousands of deep exposures in craters and escarpments. Carbonate-bearing rocks form a thin unit surrounding the Isidis basin. Hydrated silica occurs with hydrated sulfates in thin stratified deposits surrounding Valles Marineris. Hydrated sulfates also occur together with crystalline ferric minerals in thick, layered deposits in Terra Meridiani and in Valles Marineris and together with kaolinite in deposits that partially infill some highland craters. In this paper we describe each of the classes of deposits, review hypotheses for their origins, identify new questions posed by existing measurements, and consider their implications for ancient habitable environments. On the basis of current data, two to five classes of Noachian-aged deposits containing phyllosilicates and carbonates may have formed in aqueous environments with pH and water activities suitable for life. Copyright 2009 by the American

  14. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  15. Exploring the free energy surfaces of clusters using reconnaissance metadynamics

    Tribello, Gareth A.; Cuny, Jérôme; Eshet, Hagai; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-09-01

    A new approach is proposed for exploring the low-energy structures of small to medium-sized aggregates of atoms and molecules. This approach uses the recently proposed reconnaissance metadynamics method [G. A. Tribello, M. Ceriotti, and M. Parrinello. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17509 (2010), 10.1073/pnas.1011511107] in tandem with collective variables that describe the average structure of the coordination sphere around the atoms/molecules. We demonstrate this method on both Lennard-Jones and water clusters and show how it is able to quickly find the global minimum in the potential energy surface, while exploring the finite temperature free energy surface.

  16. Engineering a Successful Mission: Lessons from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Everett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Schedule pressure is common in the commercial world, where late delivery of a product means delayed income and loss of profit. 12 Research spacecraft developed by NASA, on the other hand, tend to be driven by the high cost of launch vehicles and the public scrutiny of failure-- the primary driver is ensuring proper operation in space for a system that cannot be retrieved for repair. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) development faced both schedule pressure and high visibility. The team had to balance the strong push to meet a launch date against the need to ensure that this first mission for Exploration succeeded. This paper will provide an overview of the mission from concept through its first year of operation and explore some of the challenges the systems engineering team faced taking a mission from preliminary design review to pre-ship review in 3 years.

  17. Entomological reconnaissance of Syncrude Lease No. 17 and its environs

    Porter, W.B.; Lousier, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974, a three week field reconnaissance study of terrestrial insects occurring on Syncrude Lease No. 17 and its environs, in the Athabasca Tar Sands of Northern Alberta, was carried out. Various sampling methods were employed in disturbed and undisturbed stands of different boreal forest tree types and in an area cleared of trees for mining purposes. The results obtained suggest that further study of certain insects may give an early indication of possible environmental damage. These insects are a dung beetle, Aphodius sp. (Scarabaeidae : Coleoptera), two species of March flies (Bibionidae : Diptera) and several species of ground beetles (Carabidae : Coleoptera). A future sampling plan can be based on the quantitative (soil sampling) data.

  18. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  19. Rationale and concept for a lunar pit reconnaissance probe

    Dorrington, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    Speculation on near-term scientific reasons for the exploration of lunar pits is offered alongside comments on possible longer-term human exploitation. It is proposed that in order to determine whether or not one or more of the pits offer access the large subsurface voids e.g. a non-collapsed lava tube, a preliminary reconnaissance mission solely focused on obtaining lateral images (and/or LiDAR maps) is needed. Possible concept options for such a preliminary reconnaissance mission are discussed. It is suggested that one of the best possible strategies is to employ a micro-sized probe (∼0.3m) that would hop from a nearby main landing spacecraft to the selected pit. After the surface position of the main lander is determined accurately, the probe would perform a ballistic hop, or hover-traverse, a distance of ∼3 km over the lunar surface using existing propulsive and guidance technology capability. Once hovering above the pit, the probe or a separate tethered imaging unit would then be lowered into the pit to acquire the necessary subsurface void topology data. This data would then be transmitted back to Earth, directly, via the lander, or via a store-and-forward orbiting relay. Preliminary estimates indicate that a probe of ∼14 kg (dry mass) is viable using a conventional hydrazine monopropellant system with a propellant mass fraction of less than ∼0.2 (20%) including margins, suggesting a piggyback architecture would be feasible.

  20. Location of Buried Mineshafts and Adits Using Reconnaissance Geophysical Methods

    Culshaw, Martin; Donnelly, Laurance; McCann, David

    Britain has a long history of mining activity, which stretches back some 3000 years to the excavation of flint in East Anglia. The legacy of this long period of activity is the presence of many buried mineshafts and adits, whose location is often unknown precisely and in many cases not even recorded in historical mining records. As has been shown by Donnelly et al (2003) the discovery of a mineshaft in an area of housing development can have a profound effect on property values in its vicinity. Hence, urgent action must be taken to establish at the site investigation stage of a development to determine whether any mineshafts are present at the site so that remedial action can be taken before construction commences. A study of historical information and the drilling may well enable the developer to locate any suspected mineshafts and adits on his site. However, the use of geophysical reconnaissance methods across the whole site may well provide sufficient information to simplify the drilling programme and reduce its cost to a minimum. In this paper a number of rapid reconnaissance geophysical methods are described and evaluated in terms of their success in the location of buried mineshafts and adits. It has shown that a combination of ground conductivity and magnetic surveys provides a most effective approach on open sites in greenfield and brownfield areas. Ground penetrating radar and micro-gravity surveys have proved to be a valuable approach in urban areas where the use of many geophysical methods is prevented by the presence of various types of cultural noise. On a regional scale the infrared thermography method is being increasingly used but care must be taken to overcome certain environmental difficulties. The practical use of all these geophysical methods in the field is illustrated by a number of appropriate case histories.

  1. Digital Video Imagery and Wireless Communications for Land-Based Reconnaissance Missions

    Munroe, James

    1999-01-01

    .... This thesis explores, analyzes, and performs a proof-of-concept implementation for a real-time digital video reconnaissance system from forward locations to the rear using wireless communication...

  2. Qualitative Description and Quantitative Optimization of Tactical Reconnaissance Agents System Organization

    Xiong Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of qualitative description and quantitative optimization for tactical reconnaissance agents system organization is considered with objective of higher teamwork efficiency and more reasonable task balancing strategies. By analyzing tactical reconnaissance system and its environment, task-(role-entity agent mapping mechanism and agents in system organization, the system framework is qualitatively described. By transforming the system into an interaction task request-service mechanism queuing system, a Markov chain of system state transition is obtained, since its state transition process in interaction is Markov process and accords with real tactical reconnaissance behaviors. By solving the state transition equations, the inherent relationship of tactical reconnaissance agents is found and the optimized system configuration is obtained. The established simulation demonstration system proves that the proposed approach and model are feasible and effective.

  3. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn

  4. The Lens of Power: Aerial Reconnaissance and Diplomacy in the Airpower Century

    2013-01-01

    comments at Burrows , By Any Means Necessary, 321. These comments are echoed by Larry Tart at Burrows , By Any Means Necessary, xvi. 1143 As if to make this...For example: William Burrows , Paul Lashmar, L. Parker Temple, Chris Pocock, Gregory Pedlow, and Donald Welzenbach. Their works are covered more...reconnaissance. For example, Larry Tart and Robert Keefe’s 2001 The Price of Vigilance was written to raise awareness about reconnaissance crews who never

  5. Avaliação da qualidade de sedimentos - est