WorldWideScience

Sample records for sector distribution chains

  1. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Methods Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Results A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Conclusions Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for

  2. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patouillard, Edith; Hanson, Kara G; Goodman, Catherine A

    2010-02-11

    In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only) and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for Malaria, which aims to increase consumer access to artemisinin

  3. Understanding private sector antimalarial distribution chains: a cross-sectional mixed methods study in six malaria-endemic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Palafox

    .The structure and characteristics of antimalarial distribution chains vary across countries; therefore, understanding the wholesalers that comprise them should inform efforts aiming to improve access to quality treatment through the private sector.

  4. Understanding private sector antimalarial distribution chains: a cross-sectional mixed methods study in six malaria-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O'Connell, Kathryn A; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    and characteristics of antimalarial distribution chains vary across countries; therefore, understanding the wholesalers that comprise them should inform efforts aiming to improve access to quality treatment through the private sector.

  5. Re-Distribution of Value Chain Activities Following Acquisition in the Brewery Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Hobdari, Bersant

    . Over time, some subsidiaries gained new value chain mandates or they substantially increased their scale in terms of production capacities or the markets in which they operated. From the practical point of view, this implies managers of the acquiring firm must pay close attention to the form and extent......In this paper, we investigate post-acquisition integration of acquired firms and subsequent developments in new subsidiary strategic responsibilities in value-chain activities. Using comparative case study methodology, we illustrate the forms, degrees and evolution of strategic responsibilities...

  6. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Supply Chain Innovation-prospects for Supply Chain Managment in the Irish Grocery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Joan; O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management is one of the most significant strategic challenges currently facing the Irish grocery sector. The UK grocery market with its emphasis on composite deliveries via regional distribution centres is extremely sophisticated; the Irish grocery sector, however, is in the embryonic stage of implementing central distribution. The potential to develop innovative supply chain systems is mediated by both national logistic-related variables and company characteristics. In additio...

  7. Value Chain Model for Steel Manufacturing Sector: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    S G Acharyulu; K Venkata Subbaiah; K Narayana Rao

    2018-01-01

    Michael E Porter developed a value chain model for manufacturing sector with five primary activities and four supporting activities. The value chain model developed by Porter is extended to a steel manufacturing sector due to expansions of steel plants has become a continual process for their growth and survival. In this paper a value chain model for steel manufacturing sector is developed considering five primary activities and six support activities.

  8. RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT THROUGH CENTRALIZED DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Dujak

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the trends in the design of distribution systems in retail supply chain management. Through goals, design decisions and costs of distribution system or distribution network, the paper points to the complexity and importance of this area of supply chain management. The goal of paper is to present modern trends in the distribution system, as well as specify the advantages and disadvantages of the leading distribution systems, with a special emphasis on the central distribution...

  9. Marine renewable energy sector early-stage supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Marine renewable energy is an emergent sector in Canada. Although supply chain studies have been performed on the United Kingdom and the United States markets, no study has been conducted yet in Canada. The aim of this study was therefore to perform a supply chain analysis in Canada to assess the maturity, strengths, and weaknesses of the sector and determine where the opportunities lie. The study emphasises that the sector is still at the prototype stage in Canada and that the industry must learn to improve its technology and begin to take on large scale projects. Canada has several strengths in the marine renewable energy sector, mainly in terms of resources and facilities, but there are also weaknesses pertaining to technology development and experience. The study concluded that the development of the sector must be centered on a solid vision; in the near term, technological innovation is needed to reach pre-commercialization while in the long term, the sector should aim for commercial application.

  10. Knitting distributed cluster-state ladders with spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronke, R.; D' Amico, I. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Spiller, T. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, E C Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Recently there has been much study on the application of spin chains to quantum state transfer and communication. Here we discuss the utilization of spin chains (set up for perfect quantum state transfer) for the knitting of distributed cluster-state structures, between spin qubits repeatedly injected and extracted at the ends of the chain. The cluster states emerge from the natural evolution of the system across different excitation number sectors. We discuss the decohering effects of errors in the injection and extraction process as well as the effects of fabrication and random errors.

  11. Knitting distributed cluster-state ladders with spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronke, R.; D'Amico, I.; Spiller, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been much study on the application of spin chains to quantum state transfer and communication. Here we discuss the utilization of spin chains (set up for perfect quantum state transfer) for the knitting of distributed cluster-state structures, between spin qubits repeatedly injected and extracted at the ends of the chain. The cluster states emerge from the natural evolution of the system across different excitation number sectors. We discuss the decohering effects of errors in the injection and extraction process as well as the effects of fabrication and random errors.

  12. ANTITRUST ISSUES IN THE LARGE-SCALE FOOD DISTRIBUTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Adriano Raffaelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the slow modernization of the Italian large-scale food distribution sector, of the fragmentation at national level, of the significant roles of the cooperatives at local level and of the alliances between food retail chains, the ICA during the recent years has developed a strong interest in this sector.After having analyzed the peculiarities of the Italian large-scale food distribution sector, this article shows the recent approach taken by the ICA toward the main antitrust issues in this sector.In the analysis of such issues, mainly the contractual relations between the GDO retailers and their suppliers, the introduction of Article 62 of Law no. 27 dated 24th March 2012 is crucial, because, by facilitating and encouraging complaints by the interested parties, it should allow the developing of normal competitive dynamics within the food distribution sector, where companies should be free to enter the market using the tools at their disposal, without undue restrictions.

  13. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  14. THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR CHAIN DISASTER THEORY AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Management approaches are of paramount importance in the built environment. Efficient management approaches ensure timely project completions and consequently lead to economic growth. However, there are also challenges within the construction industry that could lead to disastrous effects and to significant death tolls. In this article, the Construction Sector Chain Disaster Theory (CSCDT is presented. This theory mirrors the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone. In light of CSCDT, a limited number of past accidents within the global construction industry will be investigated with respect to the building blocks of the theory and in view of inadequate management practices that have made positive contributions to triggering disasters. The identified shortcomings will enable a more comprehensive approach to management in favor of disaster minimization in the construction sector.

  15. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  16. Organising Environmental Supply Chain Management. Experience from a Sector with Frequent Product Shifts and Complex Product Chains: The Case of the Danish Textile Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyses the shaping of environmental supply chain management practice in the Danish textile sector. It is based on a qualitative study involving eight companies and their interaction with suppliers....

  17. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  18. Measuring supply chain performance in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords : PMS,agri-food, supply chain, efficiency, flexibility, responsiveness, food quality

    The main objective of this research is to contribute to the development of a Performance Measurement System (PMS) foragri-food supply chains that involves the entire chain (i.e. all

  19. Optimization of the distribution chain in dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    HAZUKOVÁ, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to analyse the distribution chain in the range of dairy products and to optimise logistic provisions of the distribution chain from the viewpoint of logistic services and logistic costs.

  20. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  1. Supply chain performance within agri-food sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Daniela Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By setting the goals of this scientific paper has been outlined the research methodology. Thus were developed conclusion, and by using the methods, procedures, techniques, rules and tools and know-how has been demonstrated the central hypothesis: 'Inside the agri-food supply chain is created value through operations and logistics activities.' The value created leads to competitive advantages in order to identify companies within market, gaining loyal consumers. The article presents the components of agri-food supply chain, the main Key Performance Indicators measuring its performance, the difference between a traditional supply chain and sustainable supply chain by analyzing the waste management component. In order to get professional expertise referring to Key Performance Indicators a quantitative research has been organized. In closing the article present the development strategies of agri-food supply chain.

  2. Delivering Sustainability Through Supply Chain Distribution Network Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ravet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Companies could gain (cost, service, green/sustainable competitive advantage through the supply chain network. The goal of this article is to study how to deliver sustainability through the supply chain distribution network redesign.Design/methodology/approach - A literature review is conducted to examine research relating to sustainable supply chain strategies and supply chain distribution network redesign.Findings - A study of the supply chain literature reveals the importance to rethink the supply chain distribution network design and to treat sustainability as integral to operations.

  3. Distributed Multimedia Technologies and Value Chain Structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarup, Søren

    2001-01-01

    to an altered knowledge-formation on markets and demand-situations, as well as on suppliers' provisions and optimised value chain structuring. These socio-economic impacts have been analysed from an economic theoretical perspective, where a communication model has been introduced emphasising knowledge...... for product presentations and alterations. Present impacts and future implications from applied DMM-technologies have been analysed within the realm of the Danish textile and clothing industry. Businesses within this industry have specialised and become dependent on extensive levels of communication with both...... national and international contractors. DMM-technologies have become widely applied within production-processes and impact the international distribution of labour. In addition, the case shows that there are evident potentials in impacting the businesses and their decision taking. Potentials relate...

  4. Challenges of information technology and supply chain management in logistic sector: with an overview of Quehenberger logistics in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Temjanovski, Riste

    2014-01-01

    Abstract— The Logistics and freight transport industries are ones of the most dynamic and important sectors of each economy. Logistics provides a vital “backbone” function in supporting macroeconomic processes and the operation of markets, critical infrastructures and distribution to both business and consumers, which extended much more with process of globalization. Every contemporary logistic company is conducted by the quality and precious with IT technologies in supply chain manage...

  5. Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommendations to address the problems include: Implementing a supply chain planning and design process; improving inventory management and warehousing practices; implementing more effective and reliable distribution and transportation processes; as well as improving supply chain coordination and overall ...

  6. The Indonesian seafood sector; a value chain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, van A.P.; Beukers, R.; Pijl, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian region is a major supplier of fish products to the EU market. Over the past five years in par-ticular, the aquaculture sector in some Asian countries has become an important producer as well as ex-porter of whitefish and shrimps. Within the Asian region, CBI is currently studying the

  7. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  8. Bayesian posterior distributions without Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Greenland, Sander; Hamra, Ghassan; Richardson, David B

    2012-03-01

    Bayesian posterior parameter distributions are often simulated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. However, MCMC methods are not always necessary and do not help the uninitiated understand Bayesian inference. As a bridge to understanding Bayesian inference, the authors illustrate a transparent rejection sampling method. In example 1, they illustrate rejection sampling using 36 cases and 198 controls from a case-control study (1976-1983) assessing the relation between residential exposure to magnetic fields and the development of childhood cancer. Results from rejection sampling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% posterior interval (PI): 0.57, 5.00) were similar to MCMC results (OR = 1.69, 95% PI: 0.58, 4.95) and approximations from data-augmentation priors (OR = 1.74, 95% PI: 0.60, 5.06). In example 2, the authors apply rejection sampling to a cohort study of 315 human immunodeficiency virus seroconverters (1984-1998) to assess the relation between viral load after infection and 5-year incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, adjusting for (continuous) age at seroconversion and race. In this more complex example, rejection sampling required a notably longer run time than MCMC sampling but remained feasible and again yielded similar results. The transparency of the proposed approach comes at a price of being less broadly applicable than MCMC.

  9. Investigating an effective supply chain for a refinery in a regulated petroleum sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adendorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, refined petroleum products are manufactured by six refineries in South Africa. The supply of refined petroleum products is supplemented by imports of refined petroleum products. These refined petroleum products are transported by pipeline, rail, road, sea and a combination thereof to depots across the country. These products are then distributed directly to commercial customers through points of resale in the form of retail service stations. The challenge is that the storage facilities and distribution networks in South Africa are currently utilised to its full capacity. There is a need to expand current storage infrastructure or to erect new storage facilities to facilitate imports. Durban Port that currently handles 70% of the country’s crude oil and 40% of refined products is also utilised to its full capacity. The investigated problem pertains to the limited storage and transport capacity available for the distribution of petroleum products in the country. The interview protocol, which was based on the literature reviewed, was used for compiling the primary data for the case study. Selected findings revealed that the respondents perceived that storage capacity is the most significant constraint militating against adequate supply by the supply chain. The findings also indicated that the respondents were of the opinion that transport rates and routes (cost of logistics are the greatest contributor to the prices of products. As a result, there appears to be a major scope for improvement in terms of the usage of pipelines and rails for the movement of petroleum products. Keywords: Petroleum products, storage facilities, supply chain, transportation, South African energy sector. Disciplines: civil engineering, architecture, business studies, energy studies

  10. Charge distribution in an two-chain dual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkowski, K.; Kotanski, A.

    1983-01-01

    Charge distributions in the multiple production processes are analysed using the dual chain model. A parametrisation of charge distributions for single dual chains based on the νp and anti vp data is proposed. The rapidity charge distributions are then calculated for pp and anti pp collisions and compared with the previous calculations based on the recursive cascade model of single chains. The results differ at the SPS collider energies and in the energy dependence of the net forward charge supplying the useful tests of the dual chain model. (orig.)

  11. A Distributed Ledger for Supply Chain Physical Distribution Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyan Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains (SC span many geographies, modes and industries and involve several phases where data flows in both directions from suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, to customers. This data flow is necessary to support critical business decisions that may impact product cost and market share. Current SC information systems are unable to provide validated, pseudo real-time shipment tracking during the distribution phase. This information is available from a single source, often the carrier, and is shared with other stakeholders on an as-needed basis. This paper introduces an independent, crowd-validated, online shipment tracking framework that complements current enterprise-based SC management solutions. The proposed framework consists of a set of private distributed ledgers and a single blockchain public ledger. Each private ledger allows the private sharing of custody events among the trading partners in a given shipment. Privacy is necessary, for example, when trading high-end products or chemical and pharmaceutical products. The second type of ledger is a blockchain public ledger. It consists of the hash code of each private event in addition to monitoring events. The latter provide an independently validated immutable record of the pseudo real-time geolocation status of the shipment from a large number of sources using commuters-sourcing.

  12. Demand management in Multi-Stage Distribution Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, T.; Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss demand management problems in a multi-stage distribution chain.We focus on distribution chains where demand processes have high variability due to a few large customer orders.We give a possible explanation, and suggest two simple procedures that help to smooth demand.It is

  13. The New Supply Chain: Implications to the Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Sector in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the growth of the new retail formats such as hypermarkets, departmental stores and supermarkets and its implications to the fruits and vegetables sector in Malaysia in particular to the small producers. The structural differences between the new supply chain and conventional marketing are compared. Some measures of concentration are provided to indicate the degree of competition in the retail sector. Within less than a decade, the new super retailers were able to capture...

  14. PARTICULARITIES AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION CHAIN FOR FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The total quality principles implementation contributes to the improving in meeting the consumer needs, essential reduction of costs and increasing sales. The total quality is a concept that assures the total satisfaction of clients on the entire distribution chain, including all the actors in this chain. The aquaculture and fisheries are very diverse sectors which use different breeding and fishing technologies and provide a wide variety of specific products. This induces a real complexity of the supply and distribution chain for fish and fishery products, including the links from the production point (fishery or farm to the final consumer. The components of the distribution chain differ with the geographic areas, type of farms, transportation, information on the fishery market and management systems. Implementing the total food quality system for fishery products involves the quality specification in all marketing stages for all products, along the entire distribution chain. The present work was focused on identifying the distribution chain for fish and fishery products with the identification of the specificity of this type of chain form farm to end consumer, which is the first step in the implementation of total quality concept in aquaculture, with all the benefits that come with it.

  15. Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available centres End-users $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Retail outlets What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Logistics What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Supply chain... Create a platform where consultants can donate ?services? What will it take: Time for legwork, humility, sacrificing your agenda Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors CSIR 4th Biennial Conference...

  16. The exact solution of the Ising quantum chain with alternating single and sector defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Degang; Li Bozang; Li Yun

    1992-10-01

    The Ising quantum chain with alternating single and sector defects is solved exactly by using the technique of Lieb, Schultz and Mattis. The energy spectrum of this model is shown to have a tower structure if and only if these defects constitute a commensurate configuration. This means that conformal invariance is preserved under these circumstances. (author). 13 refs

  17. Coordination in the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector : a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlicher, L.P.J.; Slikker, M.; van Houtum, G.J.J.A.N.; Pombo, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a research agenda which identifies three research directions for the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector. The first research direction focusses on coordination of spare parts with criticality differences and related allocations of potential cost savings

  18. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  19. Growing ethanol sector drives corn supply chain shift for the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Schmitt, J.; Brauman, K. A.; Smith, T. M.; Suh, K.

    2017-12-01

    The US is the largest producer in the world, 89% of corn production uses in domestic demands in 2012. Carbon emission and irrigated water usage in the corn farming stage are hot-spot in the meat production sectors, comprise 37% of all US corn demand. The annual capacity of the ethanol sector increases from 6.5 billion gallons to 15.3 billion gallons for the last decade. The growth of corn demand in ethanol sector makes corn supply chain shift. Most of the ethanol plants located in the Mid-west where is the top 12 corn producing states. Therefore animal feeds take more supply from the other states. The purpose of this study is to estimate environmental impacts and water scarcity associated embedded corn by the temporal and spatial corn supply chain model based on a cost minimization. We use publicly available county-level data on corn production, feed demands, aggregative carbon emission and irrigated water usage in farming state, and a water depletion index as a metric for determining water scarcity. The water stressed counties produce 23.3% of US total corn production in 2012, and the irrigated corn is 14.2%. We simulated the corn supply chain using linear programming and developed the web-based visualization tools called FoodS3 (Food Systems Supply-chain Sustainability tool, http://foods3.org).

  20. Contribution of components of Green Supply Chain Execution-Supply Loops in Green Supply Chain Performance measurement-A Pilot Empirical Study of the Indian Automobile Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Asif Gandhi

    2017-01-01

    This paper is one of the several extensions of the research works done by [5]. Green Supply Chain Practices have been known to have an impact on Green Supply Chain Performance [5].This paper tests empirically through a pilot study of the Indian Automobile Manufacturing Sector, the contribution of the three variables constituting the construct Green Supply Chain Execution-Supply Loops in Green Supply Chain Performance measurement. Also the paper establishes the reliability of the questionnaire...

  1. Reorganization of the power distribution sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossani, Rafiq

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the central issues for electricity-sector reform in India, as they grew out of the reform process that began in 1991, and within the context of the sector's organization, regulatory structure, and other institutional characteristics. The paper argues that India's current reform policies will not be sufficient to achieve reliable, efficient power because distribution reform has not been done. Undertaking distribution reform is a difficult path to tread because of the absence of global consensus on best practices and conflicting forces, both economic and political. The paper analyzes alternative institutional structures for reform in the distribution sector. The findings include that the objectives of coverage and efficiency may conflict, that economically efficient reorganization may be politically unachievable and that the small, municipally owned firm may be the best compromise. Since many Indian states are economically and politically diverse from each other, and include both large served and unserved areas, there is scope to vary the organizational structure depending on the state's situation. This paper provides a means to do so. The agenda for policymakers is to identify the situation in their respective states and choose a reorganization path that is the best compromise

  2. Probability distributions for Markov chain based quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan; Liu, Chaobin; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the probability distributions of the quantum walks induced from Markov chains by Szegedy (2004). The first part of this paper is devoted to the quantum walks induced from finite state Markov chains. It is shown that the probability distribution on the states of the underlying Markov chain is always convergent in the Cesaro sense. In particular, we deduce that the limiting distribution is uniform if the transition matrix is symmetric. In the case of a non-symmetric Markov chain, we exemplify that the limiting distribution of the quantum walk is not necessarily identical with the stationary distribution of the underlying irreducible Markov chain. The Szegedy scheme can be extended to infinite state Markov chains (random walks). In the second part, we formulate the quantum walk induced from a lazy random walk on the line. We then obtain the weak limit of the quantum walk. It is noted that the current quantum walk appears to spread faster than its counterpart-quantum walk on the line driven by the Grover coin discussed in literature. The paper closes with an outlook on possible future directions.

  3. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  4. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  5. Distribution of auroral surges in the evening sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.R.; Rostoker, G.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past dacades a large statistical data base has been gathered consisting of both ground-based magnetometer and all-sky camera records from which researchers have inferred the distribution of substorm expansive phase events across the nighttime sector. Almost without exception, the activity distribution has been based on single station data acquired over periods of years. However, to truly establish the occurrence frequency of substorm expansive phase events, it is necessary to view the entire nighttime sector instantaneously in the light of evidence which shows that more than one expansive phase disturbance can be in progress across the broad expanse of the evening sector. In this paper, the authors study the distribution of regions of localized auroral luminosity in the poleward portion of the evening sectorauroral oval using images in the ultraviolet portion of the auroral spectrum acquired by the Viking satellite over 9 months in 1986. They find that auroral surge activity peaks in the hour before local magnetic midnight, with the probability of detecting a surge steadily decreasing to 10% of the probability of finding a surge in the hour prior to midnight as one moves westward towards 1,900 MLT. They show that their conclusion is not dependent on the threshold chosen for surge identification over a reasonable portion of the intensity range covered by the Viking imager. They further show that for the interval of several months near sunspot minimum in 1986 there is better than a 90% chance that no surge will be detected in a 1-hour range of magnetic local time if one were to sample that segment of the auroral oval at any arbitrary time

  6. Global production chains in the fast fashion sector, transports and logistics: the case of the Spanish retailer Inditex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Escalona Orcao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent geographical analyses of global production networks in different economic sectors demonstrate that little attention has been paid to the logistical and transport systems through which networks are fully integrated. This paper on Inditex, a leading firm in the fast fashion sector, addresses this lack of attention and analyses how transport and logistics fit into the production network and provide the firm with one of its most notable competitive advantages. We describe the network of shops and manufacturing, present the principles of the logistical model, and provide details of the procedures applied for the functional and geographical integration of the chain of production of Zara, the best known of the company’s 11 brands. The analysis highlights the growing use of air transport in supplying chains of high-fashion-content products manufactured in distant countries and in the distribution of garments to distant markets. The conclusion of the paper is that logistics and transport strategies must be considered because the geographical configuration of global fashion networks increasingly depends on how rapidly the major fashion retailers are able to meet the needs of time-sensitive customers and the appropriate organisational and logistical strategies they adopt for that purpose.

  7. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  8. Macroergonomic study of food sector company distribution centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Acosta, Gabriel; Lange Morales, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study focussed on the work system design to be used by a Colombian food sector company for distributing products. It considered the concept of participative ergonomics, where people from the commercial, logistics, operation, occupational health areas worked in conjunction with the industrial designers, ergonomists who methodologically led the project. As a whole, the project was conceived as having five phases: outline, diagnosis, modelling the process, scalability, instrumentation. The results of the project translate into procedures for selecting, projecting a new distribution centre, the operational process model, a description of ergonomic systems that will enable specific work stations to be designed, the procedure for adapting existing warehouses. Strategically, this work helped optimise the company's processes and ensure that knowledge would be transferred within it. In turn, it became a primary prevention strategy in the field of health, aimed at reducing occupational risks, improving the quality of life at work.

  9. Costing the supply chain for delivery of ACT and RDTs in the public sector in Benin and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Johnson, Brittany; Smith, Lisa; Doumbia, Seydou; de Savigny, Don; Anupindi, Ravi; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-02-05

    Studies have shown that supply chain costs are a significant proportion of total programme costs. Nevertheless, the costs of delivering specific products are poorly understood and ballpark estimates are often used to inadequately plan for the budgetary implications of supply chain expenses. The purpose of this research was to estimate the country level costs of the public sector supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) from the central to the peripheral levels in Benin and Kenya. A micro-costing approach was used and primary data on the various cost components of the supply chain was collected at the central, intermediate, and facility levels between September and November 2013. Information sources included central warehouse databases, health facility records, transport schedules, and expenditure reports. Data from document reviews and semi-structured interviews were used to identify cost inputs and estimate actual costs. Sampling was purposive to isolate key variables of interest. Survey guides were developed and administered electronically. Data were extracted into Microsoft Excel, and the supply chain cost per unit of ACT and RDT distributed by function and level of system was calculated. In Benin, supply chain costs added USD 0.2011 to the initial acquisition cost of ACT and USD 0.3375 to RDTs (normalized to USD 1). In Kenya, they added USD 0.2443 to the acquisition cost of ACT and USD 0.1895 to RDTs (normalized to USD 1). Total supply chain costs accounted for more than 30% of the initial acquisition cost of the products in some cases and these costs were highly sensitive to product volumes. The major cost drivers were found to be labour, transport, and utilities with health facilities carrying the majority of the cost per unit of product. Accurate cost estimates are needed to ensure adequate resources are available for supply chain activities. Product volumes should be considered when costing supply chain

  10. Mesoscale simulation of semiflexible chains. I. Endpoint distribution and chain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Robert D.

    2013-06-01

    The endpoint distribution and dynamics of semiflexible fibers are studied by numerical simulation. A brief overview is given over the analytical theory of flexible and semiflexible polymers. In particular, a closed expression is given for the relaxation spectrum of wormlike chains, which determines polymer diffusion and rheology. Next a simulation model for wormlike chains with full hydrodynamic interaction is described, and relations for the bending and torsion modulus are given. Two methods are introduced to include torsion stiffness into the model. The model is validated by simulating single chains in a heat bath, and comparing the endpoint distribution of the chains with established Monte Carlo results. It is concluded that torsion stiffness leads to a slightly shorter effective persistence length for a given bending stiffness. To further validate the simulation model, polymer diffusion is studied for fixed persistence length and varying polymer length N. The diffusion constant shows crossover from Rouse (D ∝ N-1) to reptation behaviour (D ∝ N-2). The terminal relaxation time obtained from the monomer displacement is consistent with the theory of wormlike chains. The probability for chain crossing has also been studied. This probability is so low that it does not influence the present results.

  11. Consistent energy barrier distributions in magnetic particle chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, O.; Ruta, S.; Chantrell, R.W.; Barker, J.; Friedman, G.; Hovorka, O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate long-time thermal activation behaviour in magnetic particle chains of variable length. Chains are modelled as Stoner–Wohlfarth particles coupled by dipolar interactions. Thermal activation is described as a hopping process over a multidimensional energy landscape using the discrete orientation model limit of the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert dynamics. The underlying master equation is solved by diagonalising the associated transition matrix, which allows the evaluation of distributions of time scales of intrinsic thermal activation modes and their energy representation. It is shown that as a result of the interaction dependence of these distributions, increasing the particle chain length can lead to acceleration or deceleration of the overall relaxation process depending on the initialisation procedure.

  12. The Distribution of Benefits for Players in Agricultural Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanming; LI; Huibo; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Players of the agricultural industrial chain pursue their own profit maximization,which can lead to conflicts of interest and affect the stability of the industrial chain. Therefore,fair and reasonable profit allocation mechanism is the key to guaranteeing the development and strengthening the strategic alliance relationship between participate members. Shapley model is an effective method to solve the profit distribution in cooperative relations. But it does not consider the three factors: risks faced by players during the operation of the agricultural industrial chain,technology innovation ability,and the degree of participating in the cooperation. So,correction factors are introduced to modify the Shapley value model,in order to make the distribution of benefits more equitable and reasonable,and effectively guide practice.

  13. Supply Chain Synchronization: Improving Distribution Velocity to the Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Figures ix List of Tables x I. Introduction 1 II. Literature Review 4...DISTRIBUTION VELOCITY TO THE THEATRE I. Introduction “When you do battle, even if you are winning, if you continue for a long time it will...jointvision/jvpub2.htm Accessed 9 March 2009. Lambert, Douglas M. Supply Chain Mangement : Processes, Partnerships, Performance. Jacksonville: The

  14. The Challenges of Supply Chain in the Gold Mining Sector of Obuasi Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kwaku Agyei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining industry represents an important source of socio-economic development in most economies. Ghana has had its fair share of the benefits the mining sector brings by way of direct revenue generation and job creation. In spite of this significant contribution from gold mining, the sector appears to be facing various forms of challenges. This study aims at assessing the supply chain challenges facing the gold mining operations in Obuasi and its environs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods with case study strategy was used in the study. Primary data was collected from field survey through questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation. The data was analysed using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The major supply chain challenges found to be facing the mining sector in Obuasi include supply of low quality products, unreliable or variable lead times, non-availability of local firms of international standard, fluctuation in Gold prices on the international market, high transportation cost and violence and sporadic attack from the communities. It is recommended that the mining firms should involve their key and strategic suppliers in product designs and development of specifications. Also, improving upon information sharing and building trust and transparency and developing the capacities of their key suppliers to improve the performances of the entire supply chain could also deal with delays and quality related supplies. Finally the Ministry of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency and other institutions should collaborate with the mining firms to deal with issues of environmental pollution and matters of perceived inadequate compensation to community members whose farm lands get destroyed by the mining activities to address any unhealthy conflicts between the mining firms and the communities.

  15. Quantitative risk stratification in Markov chains with limiting conditional distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David C; Pollett, Philip K; Weinstein, Milton C

    2009-01-01

    Many clinical decisions require patient risk stratification. The authors introduce the concept of limiting conditional distributions, which describe the equilibrium proportion of surviving patients occupying each disease state in a Markov chain with death. Such distributions can quantitatively describe risk stratification. The authors first establish conditions for the existence of a positive limiting conditional distribution in a general Markov chain and describe a framework for risk stratification using the limiting conditional distribution. They then apply their framework to a clinical example of a treatment indicated for high-risk patients, first to infer the risk of patients selected for treatment in clinical trials and then to predict the outcomes of expanding treatment to other populations of risk. For the general chain, a positive limiting conditional distribution exists only if patients in the earliest state have the lowest combined risk of progression or death. The authors show that in their general framework, outcomes and population risk are interchangeable. For the clinical example, they estimate that previous clinical trials have selected the upper quintile of patient risk for this treatment, but they also show that expanded treatment would weakly dominate this degree of targeted treatment, and universal treatment may be cost-effective. Limiting conditional distributions exist in most Markov models of progressive diseases and are well suited to represent risk stratification quantitatively. This framework can characterize patient risk in clinical trials and predict outcomes for other populations of risk.

  16. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  17. Assistive technologies along supply chains in health care and in the social services sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Peter; Hauer, Katharina; Schloffer, Evelyn; Leyrer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in Austria and Slovenia are currently facing challenges due to scarce resources and demographic change which can be seen especially along the supply chains. The main objective of this paper is to present an option to improve the use of assistive technologies. An extensive literature research for the theoretic part as well as a qualitative survey for the empiric part focusing on short-term care were carried out. Results show that there is a lack of information and training on assistive technologies. As a consequence, their full potential cannot be exploited. Therefore a guideline for nursing consultations was developed. To conclude, both the literature research and the qualitative survey show that assistive technologies have high potentials to improve the supply chains in the health care and social services sector, but there is a lot of information and training on them needed.

  18. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated

  19. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  20. Review of events in the electricity distribution sector in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasley, Henry

    1993-01-01

    The Chief Executive of Southern Electric plc, one of the thirteen recently privatised Regional Electricity Companies, reviews the performance of the United Kingdom electricity distribution sector for 1992, and considers the effects of competition in the Electricity Supply Industry. Three areas of progress are discussed. These include benefits to shareholders (in terms of profits) and to customers, who enjoyed lower prices, better service and more choice. A review of transmission prices was undertaken by the Director General and led to regulations on the effective operation of the pool, improved service standards and power generation competition. Finally, the Coal Review had ramifications for the industry by broadening the debate on competitively priced energy generation and the electricity market since privatization. (UK)

  1. The New Supply Chain: Implications to the Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Sector in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the growth of the new retail formats such as hypermarkets, departmental stores and supermarkets and its implications to the fruits and vegetables sector in Malaysia in particular to the small producers. The structural differences between the new supply chain and conventional marketing are compared. Some measures of concentration are provided to indicate the degree of competition in the retail sector. Within less than a decade, the new super retailers were able to capture a significant market share of the local fruits and vegetables at the expense of the small time local retailers. Their procurement system which emphasizes on consistent supply and rigid quality standards indirectly cuts off the small farmers from the supply chain. New type of intermediaries, packing houses emerge replacing the traditional middlemen role usually performed by small time wholesalers or traders at the farm level. To integrate the small farmers into the new supply entails a reformation programme that enhances productivity, product quality and institutional restructuring towards cooperative movement.

  2. Validation of cold chain during distribution of parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aims to demonstrate the suitability of the process used to condition the extemporaneous mixtures of parenteral nutrition for distribution, considering the objective of preserving the cold chain during transport until it reaches the patient, necessary to ensure stability, effectiveness and safety of these mixtures. Method: concurrent validation, design and implementation of a protocol for evaluating the process of packaging and distribution of MNPE developed by a pharmaceutical laboratory. Running tests, according to predefined acceptance criteria. It is performed twice, in summer and on routes that require longer transfer time. Evaluation of conservation of temperature by monitoring the internal temperature values of each type of packaging, recorded by data loggers calibrated equipment. Results: the different tests meet the established criteria. The collected data ensure the maintenance of the cold chain for longer than the transfer time to the most distant points. Conclusions: this study establishes the suitability of the processes to maintaining the cold chain for transfer from the laboratory to the patient pharmacist. Whereas the breaking of cold chain can cause changes of compatibility and stability of parenteral nutrition and failures nutritional support, this study contributes to patient safety, one of the relevant dimensions of quality of care the health.

  3. The computation of stationary distributions of Markov chains through perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery J. Hunter

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithmic procedure for the determination of the stationary distribution of a finite, m-state, irreducible Markov chain, that does not require the use of methods for solving systems of linear equations, is presented. The technique is based upon a succession of m, rank one, perturbations of the trivial doubly stochastic matrix whose known steady state vector is updated at each stage to yield the required stationary probability vector.

  4. Developing a monitor for the characterisation of supply chain collaboration and the measurement of its effectiveness in the Dutch social housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, R.; Koolwijk, J.S.J.; Van der Kuij, R.S.; Van Oel, C.J.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    In the Dutch building sector, and in the social housing sector in particular, supply chain collaboration between housing associations and their supply chain have been quite popular since last five years or so. Many associations and their supply chain partners have tested, and in many cases continued

  5. The Distribution of Gender and Public Sector Pay Premia: Evidence from the Egyptian Organised Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Said

    2003-01-01

    Using earnings functions estimates on a survey of Egyptian establishments conducted in 1990, standard decomposition techniques of wage differentials show that both males and females have an earnings disadvantage in the public enterprise and government sectors after correcting for a range of personal and job characteristics. Gender based pay discrimination is small in the public sector. In contrast, it is quite high by international comparisons in the private sector and mainly takes place by p...

  6. Relationship Quality and Innovation Capacity of Chains: The Case of the Traditional Food Sector in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gellynck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore how the perceived relationship quality is related to the innovation capacity in chains of the traditional food sector. Based on suggestions from theory and previous studies, empirical evidence is drawn from a survey of 90 traditional food chains including 270 chain partners from three European countries in four traditional food product categories. Heterogeneity across these chains is first examined based on cluster analysis that identifies three distinct clusters interpreted as reflecting three levels of intensity in innovation capacity: high, medium, and low. Next, we define measures of the chain relationship quality through characteristics such as trust, conflict and reputation. Results suggest that various aspects of chain relationship quality and relationship directions are differently important for the innovation capacity levels in traditional food chains. In particular the perception of the relationship quality between the food manufacturer and its supplier (and vice versa is explored to be important. The better this relationship is perceived by one chain partner, the higher is the innovation capacity of the whole chain. Thus, our results strengthen the emerging conclusion that firms benefit from participating in networks but depend on its partner’s choices and perceptions. In future research, it should be explored how different national and cultural environments facilitate or hamper the innovation capacity in traditional food chains. It is also suggested to extend the complexity of the investigated system and to apply our novel approach to other food sectors, than the traditional food sector, in order to improve its generalizability.

  7. Green supply chain management and environmental performance of firms in the bioenergy sector in Brazil: An exploratory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanelli, Nelson Oliveira; Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. In this context, the importance of green supply chain management (GSCM) increases because it can contribute to improving firms’ environmental performance (EP). However, little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production in Brazil). Thus, the objective of this work is to present the results of a survey conducted on 80 micro-, small-, and medium-sized firms that are suppliers in the Brazilian bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). These results indicate that GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature because it addresses the relationship between GSCM and EP in an understudied sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). - Highlights: • To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. • Little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector. • This research is based on an exploratory survey. • GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector

  8. Sector-specific human capital and the distribution of earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Smith

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates assignment frictions and sector-specific training into the Roy model of occupational choice. Assignment frictions represent the extent of the market whereas differences in sector-specific training reflect worker specialization. This framework thus captures Adam Smith's idea that the extent of the market determines the division of labor. The paper demonstrates the way in which the relationship between assignment frictions and specialization affects the level and composi...

  9. Route Optimization for the Distribution Network of a Confectionary Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl İnanlı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the distribution network of a well-known perishable food manufacturer and its franchises in Turkey. As the countrywide number of stores is increasing fast, the company is facing problems due to its central distribution of products from a single factory. The objective is to decrease the cost of transportation while maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. Hence, the focus is on the vehicle routing problem (VRP of this large franchise chain within each city. The problem is defined as a rich VRP with heterogeneous fleet, site-dependent and compartmentalized vehicles, and soft/hard time windows. This NP-hard problem is modelled and tried with real data on a commercial solver. A basic heuristic procedure which can be used easily by the decision makers is also employed for obtaining quick and high-quality solutions for large instances.

  10. Physical distributions of radon decay chain activities in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of short-lived radon decay chain activities in air - in time, space and on aerosols - determines their exposure potential and measurement thereof. The radioactive decay constants and flow variables in a flow system combine, yielding activity concentration distributions and ratios of concentrations characteristic of the flow scheme, its source(s) and sink(s). The clock of 'internal' decay constants allows the unraveling of characteristics of the flow scheme from activity concentration measurements of individual members of a decay chain. Basic flow string calculations are shown. These can be assembled to define or simulate concentrations in a single- or multiple-compartment flow network. Response calculations to single- and multiple-step, or continuous changes in sources and sinks yield time-, spatial- and attachment-distributions. For the short-lived 222 Rn and 212 Pb decay chains the decay constants of the shorter-lived progeny in relation to the parent impose air activity ratios on successive chain members. Ratio limits had been used in the past to improve older grab-sampling- or integral gross-alpha measurement procedures for assessing exposure level. Assessment of individual concentrations, ratios and their distributions enables unravelling of dynamic flow systems, with restriction from the range of the parameters of flow and decay. An activity measuring instrument by itself represents a flow system with a response time distribution. Instrument response correction during continuous or quasi-continuous sampling and continuous spectrometric measurement allows far more accurate time-resolved measurement evaluation of continuously varying air concentrations, than previously attainable. Strong diurnal or even shorter (≤ 1 hr) changes probably are the norm in indoor and outdoor air activity concentrations. A mere average response evaluation, as used in steady state instrument calibration, and using less efficient instruments, is usually inadequate

  11. Global Value Chain Indicators: Application to the Italian Sectors - Gli indicatori della global value chain: un’applicazione ai settori italiani

    OpenAIRE

    Ricotta, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the extent of international fragmentation of production in Italian manufacturing industries for the years 1985, 1995 and 2000 is assessed with different indicators. The objective is to determine where fragmentation is most prevalent and to provide a description of the key characteristics of those sectors. The paper first presents a survey of global value chain indicators and how these have been used in the economic literature. The second part supplies empirical evidence on the g...

  12. Dutch business opportunities in the Russian agrifood sector; Animal protein sector and Moscow Metropolitan fresh food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Berkum, van S.

    2012-01-01

    This report studies the Russian animal protein sector and the Moscow Metropolitan Food Security. It aims at identifying the opportunities for Dutch business to do businesses through exports or via local investments. Public available government policies, papers and interviews with stakeholders are

  13. Factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management practices: Evidence from the Brazilian electro-electronic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on the factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management (SCM practices develops four hypotheses based on a literature review, and tests them using survey data of Brazilian electro-electronic firms. The results reveal the big picture of the SCM practices in the sector and suggest that contextual factors such as size, position and bargaining power affect the adoption of SCM practices, which are also more customer oriented. Sector characteristics are very important in analysing SCM practices. Contrary to the findings of literature, the relationship between competitive priorities and SCM practices was not supported statistically.

  14. Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamolise Mokheseng

    Received 8 September 2015. Accepted 4 ... the hospital; as well as poor inventory management and poor overall communication. ..... This ensure the smooth running of supply chain operations. ...... Supply chain logistics management (4th ed.).

  15. Modeling and Optimization of Inventory-Distribution Routing Problem for Agriculture Products Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Wu, Yaohua

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of inventory-distribution routing problem for two-echelon agriculture products distribution network are established, which are based on two management modes, franchise chain and regular chain, one-to-many, interval periodic order, demand depending on inventory, deteriorating treatment cost of agriculture products, start-up costs of vehicles and so forth. Then, a heuristic adaptive genetic algorithm is presented for the model of franchise chain. For the regular chain model,...

  16. Curing a meagre health care system by lean methods--translating 'chains of care' in the Swedish health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Björn; Lindberg, Kajsa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss what happens when work embedded in a 'meagre' organizational context is changed by lean production-related methods. The article is based on studies of seven lean production-inspired projects in the Swedish health care sector, a sector already poor due to organizational slack. The projects were directed to develop 'health care chains', an organizational concept regarded as a way to rationalize health care organizations as well as to develop them, i.e. increase productivity, quality from a customer perspective and quality of working conditions. The article analyses the projects from an interpretative perspective and discusses how modem management models with ambitions to concurrently rationalize and develop organizations--e.g. lean production and health care chains--are used in a 'meagre' organizational field. As an outcome, a model is presented that explores what is beyond simple imitations and unique translations of ideas when a new concept is implemented in local organizations.

  17. Advanced Value Chain Collaboration in Ghana's Cocoa Sector: An Entry Point for Integrated Landscape Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Howard; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Derkyi, Mercy

    2017-04-15

    Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration "beyond the chain" with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach. The findings detail current chain actors and institutions and show how advanced value chain collaboration has a greater positive impact than conventional value chain collaboration on farmers' social, human and natural capital. The paper concludes that the integrated approach, focus on learning, and stable relationships with small-scale farmers inherent in advanced value chain collaboration makes it both more sustainable and effective at the local level than conventional approaches. However, its scope and the actors' jurisdictional powers and self-organization are too limited to be the sole tool in negotiating land use and trade-offs at the landscape level. To evolve as such would require certification beyond the farm level, partnering with other landscape stakeholders, and brokering by bridging organizations.

  18. Fresh fish distribution chains: An analysis of three Danish and three Australian chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Bremner, Allan

    2001-01-01

    . Traceability is a most important issue in the high value product chains in Australia. No information technology methods, were in evidence. In the Danish chains, nearly all traceability was lost after the collector/auction stage and the only evaluation of quality parameters was by inspection.......Information on traceability was gathered for three domestic Danish fish chains typical of the current trading practices in fresh seafood and for three chains exporting products from Australia to Japan. The same standard questionnaires, coupled with personal interviews, were used in all six chains...

  19. Work Floor Experiences of Supply Chain Partnering in the Dutch Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Venselaar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and research approach The construction industry is known for its waste of money and materials, low innovative capacities, and low productivity (Cox and Thompson, 1997; Vrijhoef, 2011. One reason is that the relationships between client and contractors is often perceived as a problematic one (Tazelaar en Snijder, 2010; Vrijhoef, 2011. Since decades, attention has been paid to supply chain partnering (SCP in the construction industry, as a promising strategy to decrease waste of time and money and increase quality and address the problematic relationships (Boukendour and Hughus, 2014; Bygballe et al., 2010; Eriksson, 2015; Hong et al., 2012; Vrijhoef, 2011. Despite the attention, it is hard to exactly pinpoint the concept of SCP. Many definitions, synonyms and related concepts circulate and it seems that SCP has increasingly become a buzz-word that represents ‘good practices’ in the construction sector. Nevertheless, applying SCP may involve ‘hard’ factors, such as early involvement of the contractor in the project, open book accounting, re-allocation of risks, and working with preferred partners. SCP may also involve ‘soft’ factors, such as increasing mutual trust between partners, increasing competences of conflict resolution or trying to establish more effective communication between partners. Some scholars argue that SCP should be considered as an emergent practice which can take on many different shapes (e.g. Bresnen, 2009; Hartmann and Bresnen, 2011; Marshall and Bresnen, 2013a; Marshall and Bresnen, 2013b. This study focuses on SCP as an emergent strategy. An emergent strategy, contrary to a deliberated strategy, is a strategy that arises in ongoing daily complex responsive processes between individuals. While a deliberated strategy looks forward and prescribes what people should do, an emergent strategy looks back and describes what people already do. Studies that dig deeper in those work floor practices and truly

  20. Hitching Healthcare to the Chain: An Introduction to Blockchain Technology in the Healthcare Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Engelhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Health services must balance patient care with information privacy, access, and completeness. The massive scale of the healthcare industry also amplifies the importance of cost control. The promise of blockchain technology in health services, combined with application layers built atop it, is to be a mechanism that provides utmost privacy while ensuring that appropriate users can easily add to and access a permanent record of information. Blockchains, also called distributed ledgers, enable a combination of cost reduction and increased accessibility to information by connecting stakeholders directly without requirements for third-party brokers, potentially giving better results at lower costs. New ventures are looking to apply blockchain technology to solve real-world problems, including efforts to track public health, centralize research data, monitor and fulfill prescriptions, lower administrative overheads, and organize patient data from an increasing number of inputs. Here, concrete examples of the application of blockchain technology in the health sector are described, touching on near-term promise and challenges.

  1. Improvement in supply chain management for oil and gas sector using drag reduction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.A.; Chughtai, A.; Shafeeq, A.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management is an integrative philosophy about managing the flow of distribution channels from supplier to the consumer. PARCO, an oil and gas company in Pakistan has three existing pipelines. Out of three, two pipelines are running parallel from Karachi to Mehmood kot. One pipeline is of crude oil and meeting the demand of PARCO refinery while second pipeline is of High Speed Diesel (HSD) and third pipeline is of (HSD and Kerosene) running from Mehmood Kot to Machhike (Sheikhupura). PARCO supply petroleum products from Shikarpur, Mehmood Kot, Faisalabad and Machhike to oil marketing companies (OMCs) as per their share, standard and demand. The purpose of these pipelines is to meet the country demand for petroleum products at various locations all over Pakistan. In the peak season when OMCs have high demand and receipt of product from PARCO pipelines are less, there is a need to enhance the flow rate of oil inside the PARCO pipelines to fulfill the demand of OMCs. This could be done economically by the application of drag reduction theory. So by injecting drag reducer, dragging of the oil inside the pipeline could appreciably be reduced thereby improving the pumping of oil. (author)

  2. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service. Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province.

  3. Observing new product impacts on sectors value chains : The case of a French electronic SME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marche, B.; Boly, V.; Ortt, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    As a new technology impacts both the company itself and its ecosystem, the aim of this study is to visualize the influence of SME's new products on its supply chain. We adopted a case study approach to explore how products can affect the structure of a supply chain. Using data about the

  4. Potential and Pitfalls of Frugal Innovation in the Water Sector: Insights from Tanzania to Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hyvärinen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is perhaps the most intertwined, and basic, resource on our planet. Nevertheless, billions face water-related challenges, varying from lack of water and sanitation services to hindrances on livelihoods and socio-economic activities. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs recognize the broad role that water has for development, and also call for the private sector to participate in solving these numerous development challenges. This study looks into the potential of frugal innovations as a means for the private sector to engage in water-related development challenges. Our findings, based on a case study and literature review, indicate that frugal innovations have potential in this front due to their focus on affordable, no-frills solutions. However, we also recognize pitfalls related to frugal innovations in the water sector. Although the innovations would, in principle, be sustainable, deficiencies related to scale and institutional structures may emerge. These deficiencies are linked to the importance of water in a variety of processes, both natural and manmade, as well as to the complexity of global production-consumption value chains. Increasing the innovations’ sustainability impact requires broader acknowledgement of the underlying value chains and their diverse links with water. A holistic view on water can mitigate water-related business risks while increasing wellbeing on an individual level.

  5. Technical change and efficiency measures. The post-privatisation in the gas distribution sector in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we use a stochastic frontier approach to analyse the technical change in the post-privatisation period in the gas distribution sector in Argentina. We found that there is both a catching up effect and a shift in the frontier, which shows that the sector as a whole improved its efficiency in the reviewed period. Moreover, this phenomenon holds not only for the average but also for every firm in the sample

  6. Cost efficiency in the Swiss gas distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo; Kuenzle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the cost structure of gas distribution utilities in Switzerland. Three stochastic frontier models are applied to a panel of 26 companies operating from 1996 to 2000. Efficiency is assumed to be constant over time. The analysis highlights the importance of output characteristics such as customer density and network size. The results suggest that the utilities could slightly reduce their operating costs by improving efficiency. There is no evidence of significant unexploited scale economies. However, our analysis indicates that the estimates of scale economies could be sensitive to the assumptions regarding the variation of output with output characteristics

  7. Supply chain partnership within housing renovation : Approaches and expectations in the Dutch housing association sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruis, V.H.; Roders, M.J.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain partnerships within housing refurbishment have not been given much specific attention which may be found surprising because the refurbishment market is becoming of increasing importance compared to new construction and has specific characteristics that require adapted approaches to

  8. Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne Abera

    2017-01-01

    Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern

  9. Supply chain partnerships within housing renovation- approaches and expectations in the Dutch housing association sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ad Straub; Martin Roders; Vincent Gruis

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain partnerships within housing refurbishment have not been given much specific attention which may be found surprising because the refurbishment market is becoming of increasing importance compared to new construction and has specific characteristics that require adapted approaches to

  10. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals

  11. Distributed Generation potential of the U.S. commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale (100 kW - 5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems in developed countries over the next two decades. In the U.S., private and public expectations for this technology are heavily influenced by forecasts published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), most notably the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). EIA's forecasts are typically made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. Annual penetration is forecast by estimating the payback period for each technology, for each of a limited number of representative building types, for each of nine regions. This process results in an AEO2004 forecast deployment of about a total 3 GW of DG electrical generating capacity by 2025, which is only 0.25% of total forecast U.S. capacity. Analyses conducted using both the AEO2003 and AEO2004 versions of NEMS changes the baseline costs and performance characteristics of DG to reflect a world without U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) research into several thermal DG technologies, which is then compared to a case with enhanced technology representative of the successful achievement of DOE research goals. The net difference in 2025 DG penetration is dramatic using the AEO2003 version of NEMS, but much smaller in the AEO2004 version. The significance and validity of these contradictory results are discussed, and possibilities for improving estimates of commercial U.S. DG potential are explored

  12. Data concealing of supply chain transactions using the Distributed Trust Backbone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.J.; Tan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Secure and accurate transactions are vital to any large-scale business system in order to guarantee the reliability of the system to stakeholders in both the public and private sectors. In supply chain systems, however, a variety of information security shortcomings is currently occurring in several

  13. European pork chains : diversity and quality challenges in consumer-oriented production and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Petersen, B.; Wognum, P.M.; Brinkmann, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this book the results are presented of a comprehensive inventory of pork chains that has been conducted through expert interviews and in-depth case studies. The main focus of the book is on how well diverse and fragmented supply in the European pork sector matches differentiating demands for pork

  14. The Application Research of Modern Intelligent Cold Chain Distribution System Based on Internet of Things Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dehui; Gao, Shan

    This paper implemented an intelligent cold chain distribution system based on the technology of Internet of things, and took the protoplasmic beer logistics transport system as example. It realized the remote real-time monitoring material status, recorded the distribution information, dynamically adjusted the distribution tasks and other functions. At the same time, the system combined the Internet of things technology with weighted filtering algorithm, realized the real-time query of condition curve, emergency alarming, distribution data retrieval, intelligent distribution task arrangement, etc. According to the actual test, it can realize the optimization of inventory structure, and improve the efficiency of cold chain distribution.

  15. Green supply chain management strategies - experiences from the Danish textile sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This paper focuses on Danish textile industry experiences with setting environmental requirements throughout the supply chain. Based on a qualitative study, three models were formulated for the development of environmental competency in the product chain. The models centre on the environmental...... to their potential contribution to a long-term environmental effort, including how the models contribute to the spread of environmental competency etc. to other textile companies, as well as how certain model aspects ensure/hinder stabilisation of the product chain, including the interaction between social, economic......, legal, and environmental variables, among others. This last theme is central as it says much about the durability of the models and the inherent risk factors with regard to the organisations involved. The first section of this article will outline the background and status of environmental efforts...

  16. Consumer demand and quality assurance: segmentation basis and implications for chain governance in the pork sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunert, K.G.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wever, M.; Scholderer, J.; Veflen Olsen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this may have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demands for different pork products. We then present an

  17. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  18. Work Floor Experiences of Supply Chain Partnering in the Dutch Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Venselaar, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and research approach The construction industry is known for its waste of money and materials, low innovative capacities, and low productivity (Cox and Thompson, 1997; Vrijhoef, 2011). One reason is that the relationships between client and contractors is often perceived as a problematic one (Tazelaar en Snijder, 2010; Vrijhoef, 2011). Since decades, attention has been paid to supply chain partnering (SCP) in the construction industry, as a promising strategy to decrease wast...

  19. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Mor; Sarbjit Singh; Arvind Bhardwaj; Lakhwinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in...

  20. Modeling and Optimization of Inventory-Distribution Routing Problem for Agriculture Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of inventory-distribution routing problem for two-echelon agriculture products distribution network are established, which are based on two management modes, franchise chain and regular chain, one-to-many, interval periodic order, demand depending on inventory, deteriorating treatment cost of agriculture products, start-up costs of vehicles and so forth. Then, a heuristic adaptive genetic algorithm is presented for the model of franchise chain. For the regular chain model, a two-layer genetic algorithm based on oddment modification is proposed, in which the upper layer is to determine the distribution period and quantity and the lower layer is to seek the optimal order cycle, quantity, distribution routes, and the rational oddment modification number for the distributor. By simulation experiments, the validity of the algorithms is demonstrated, and the two management modes are compared.

  1. Supply chain challenges in the South African automotive sector: do location, size and age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Juliana Naude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry makes an important contribution to the South African economy. However, there are deficiencies within the local automotive component manufacturers’ (ACMs supplier base and therefore automotive assemblers, or original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, have to import many of their parts requirements. These deficiencies are caused by ACMs’ lack of technology, global supply capability, cost competitiveness and their geographic location (ACMs are scattered across the country. A study was conducted to explore the supply chain challenges South African ACMs face and whether the location, size and age of participating ACMs have a bearing on whether they face the same challenges. The results revealed that the most significant supply chain challenges in South Africa were in the customer relationship category. From the hypotheses testing, the conclusion could be drawn that, in general, participating ACMs face common supply chain challenges, irrespective of their location, age and size.This article contributes to the published research on the topic and the findings reveal that business opportunities in the automotive industry exist for entrepreneurs aspiring to enter into the automotive component industry.

  2. Internalizing the external costs of biogas supply chains in the Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Kraxner, F.

    2017-01-01

    In Italy biogas support schemes are being revised to include subsidies for the production of biomethane. Energy policies should foster environmentally optimal solutions, especially because social acceptance issues often arise in the case of biogas. In this paper we use the external cost methodology to quantify the environmental impact of airborne emissions associated with biogas-based energy vectors and their corresponding fossil substitutes These are evaluated at supply chain level and incorporated in a spatially explicit optimization model. The method is applied to northern Italy to compare the potential impact of alternative policy options. It is found that, while the external costs of biogas-based pathways are always lower than corresponding fossil fuel based pathways, the differences are generally so small that policies based on internalization of external costs alone would not lead to further development of biogas-based technologies. For all utilization pathways, consideration of local externalities leads to a less favourable evaluation of biogas-based technologies, which results in external costs even higher than the substituted fossil fuel if biogas is allocated to local heating. - Highlights: • A MILP model has been developed to optimize the economic and environmental performance of the biogas supply chain. • The external costs methodology has been included in the optimization process. • The emissions of the most relevant pollutants generated along the supply chain have been included in the assessment. • Different biogas utilization pathways have been considered.

  3. Distribution and Supply Chain Management: Educating the Army Officer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solseth, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    ... and distribution management environment. It analyzes how officers should attain these skills using the three pillars of leader development in Department of the Army Pamphlet 600-3, "Commissioned Officer Development and Career Management...

  4. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  5. Trade brokerage property of industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi; Xu, Xiaoyu; Guan, Jun; Dong, Xianlei

    2017-08-01

    ICIO data have proven itself to be a reliable source for the analysis of economic globalization, with which sectors all over the world could be constructed into a sophisticated GVC, bringing the advantages of simultaneous study on international and domestic economies in detail as a holistic network. This paper uses OECD-WTO TiVA data to set up GIVCN-TiVA networks as the general analytical framework, depicting the transferring process of intermediate goods among sectors of various countries/regions. Secondly, the conception of brokerage roles in SNA has been adopted to redefine sector’s function while linkage exists between its upstream providers and downstream consumers, referred to as “Trade Brokerage Property”, as well as to quantify the ratio of each types of the roles. Thirdly, a set of simulations have been defined to testify the contribution that different TBPs incur to the robustness of global economic system. Finally, analyses on TBPs and NTBPs have been carried out in the levels of industry and country/region, respectively.

  6. A COMPARISON OF GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG INDUSTRIES SECTORS IN CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    This paper aims to examine the differences of Green supply chain management (GSCM) implementation among chemical, automobile and machinery industries in China based on a questionnaire survey designed by Industrial Ecology at two industrial parks in Shenyang city. Exploratory factor analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The main result was that the GSCM practices of the three industries are still at a beginning stage. The level of GSCM practices of automobile industry (promoted by international market competition) was higher than those of chemical and machinery industry (promoted by domestic laws and policies).

  7. Time Evolving Fission Chain Theory and Fast Neutron and Gamma-Ray Counting Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Nakae, L. F.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.; Verbeke, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we solve a simple theoretical model of time evolving fission chains due to Feynman that generalizes and asymptotically approaches the point model theory. The point model theory has been used to analyze thermal neutron counting data. This extension of the theory underlies fast counting data for both neutrons and gamma rays from metal systems. Fast neutron and gamma-ray counting is now possible using liquid scintillator arrays with nanosecond time resolution. For individual fission chains, the differential equations describing three correlated probability distributions are solved: the time-dependent internal neutron population, accumulation of fissions in time, and accumulation of leaked neutrons in time. Explicit analytic formulas are given for correlated moments of the time evolving chain populations. The equations for random time gate fast neutron and gamma-ray counting distributions, due to randomly initiated chains, are presented. Correlated moment equations are given for both random time gate and triggered time gate counting. There are explicit formulas for all correlated moments are given up to triple order, for all combinations of correlated fast neutrons and gamma rays. The nonlinear differential equations for probabilities for time dependent fission chain populations have a remarkably simple Monte Carlo realization. A Monte Carlo code was developed for this theory and is shown to statistically realize the solutions to the fission chain theory probability distributions. Combined with random initiation of chains and detection of external quanta, the Monte Carlo code generates time tagged data for neutron and gamma-ray counting and from these data the counting distributions.

  8. A Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Decision Mechanism in the Electronic Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a closed-loop supply chain for electronic products, the manufacturer’s priority is to enhance the residual value of the collected end-of-use product and decide whether to outsource this business to a retailer, a third-party service, or retain it exclusively. In this paper, we constructed three models to study the decision mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain, with different players selected to collect the used product. By comparing the three models, we characterized the conditions under which the manufacturer will benefit most, and we then aimed to determine the best choice for the manufacturer. Our findings show that, when the retailer and the third-party service provider provide equal performance in collecting the used product, the manufacturer will give priority to the third-party service provider if they choose to outsource this business. If the reverse flows managed by the retailer result in a higher payoff for the manufacturer, then the manufacturer will choose to outsource this business to the retailer who will also benefit.

  9. Geometric distribution of CuO chains in YBa2Cu3O6+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matic, V.M.; Lazarov, N.Dj.

    2006-01-01

    Statistics of CuO chains in basal planes of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x high-T c superconductor has been studied in terms of two dimensional asymmetric next-to-nearest-neighbor Ising (ASYNNNI) model, with accentuation on distribution of CuO chains per different chain lengths. It has been shown that the fraction p(l) of CuO chains containing l oxygen ions (i.e., having the length equal to l), satisfies so-called ''law of geometric distribution''p(l)=ω(1-ω) l-1 , where the quantity ω is equal to the inverse of average chain length l av in the system, for given values of oxygen content x and temperature T. In the case of ortho-II (OII) structural phase, the geometric chain probability distribution is shown to hold separately for each of two different sublattices of oxygen sites, commonly known as α 1 and α 2 , with respectively defined l av α 1 (x,T) and l av α 2 (x,T). The theoretically derived result of the chain probability distribution p(l) is shown to be in a remarkable agreement with the results obtained out of extensive Monte Carlo calculations that were made within region of stability of orthorhombic structural phases in (x,T) space. The relevance of chain length distribution for accurate count of the number of transferred electronic holes to superconducting CuO 2 layers has been pointed out and expression for hole concentration has been derived. The concept of critical chain length for charge transfer mechanism was briefly discussed

  10. Towards a Carbon-Neutral Energy Sector: Opportunities and Challenges of Coordinated Bioenergy Supply Chains-A PSE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Puigjaner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electricity generation sector needs to reduce its environmental impact and dependence on fossil fuel, mainly from coal. Biomass is one of the most promising future options to produce electricity, given its potential contribution to climate change mitigation. Even though biomass is an old source of energy, it is not yet a well-established commodity. The use of biomass in large centralised systems requires the establishment of delivery channels to provide the desired feedstock with the necessary attributes, at the right time and place. In terms of time to deployment and cost of the solution, co-combustion/co-gasification of biomass and coal are presented as transition and short-medium term alternatives towards a carbon-neutral energy sector. Hence, there is a need to assess an effective introduction of co-combustion/co-gasification projects in the current electricity production share. The purpose of this work is to review recent steps in Process Systems Engineering towards bringing into reality individualised and ad-hoc solutions, by building a common but adjustable design platform to tailored approaches of biomass-based supply chains. Current solutions and the latest developments are presented and future needs under study are also identified.

  11. The hydrogen value chain: applying the automotive role model of the hydrogen economy in the aerospace sector to increase performance and reduce costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Acosta-Iborra, Beatriz; Harskamp, Frederik; Moretto, Pietro; Malkow, Thomas; Honselaar, Michel; Steen, Marc; Hovland, Scott; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Schautz, Max; Wittig, Manfred; Soucek, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen will assume a key role in Europe's effort to adopt its energy dependent society to satisfy its needs without releasing vast amounts of greenhouse gases. The paradigm shift is so paramount that one speaks of the "Hydrogen Economy", as the energy in this new and ecological type of economy is to be distributed by hydrogen. However, H2 is not a primary energy source but rather an energy carrier, a means of storing, transporting and distributing energy, which has to be generated by other means. Various H2 storage methods are possible; however industries' favourite is the storage of gaseous hydrogen in high pressure tanks. The biggest promoter of this storage methodology is the automotive industry, which is currently preparing for the generation change from the fossil fuel internal combustion engines to hydrogen based fuel cells. The current roadmaps foresee a market roll-out by 2015, when the hydrogen supply infrastructure is expected to have reached a critical mass. The hydrogen economy is about to take off as being demonstrated by various national mobility strategies, which foresee several millions of electric cars driving on the road in 2020. Fuel cell cars are only one type of "electric car", battery electric as well as hybrid cars - all featuring electric drive trains - are the others. Which type of technology is chosen for a specific application depends primarily on the involved energy storage and power requirements. These considerations are very similar to the ones in the aerospace sector, which had introduced the fuel cell already in the 1960s. The automotive sector followed only recently, but has succeeded in moving forward the technology to a level, where the aerospace sector is starting considering to spin-in terrestrial hydrogen technologies into its technology portfolio. Target areas are again high power/high energy applications like aviation, manned spaceflight and exploration missions, as well as future generation high power telecommunication

  12. Impacts on investments, and transmission/distribution loss through power sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses original panel data from 86 countries between 1985 and 2006. Econometric methods were used to identify the effects of different policy devices of power sector reforms on performance indicators (installed capacity per capita, transmission and distribution loss) in the countries analyzed. The research findings suggest that reform variables such as the entry of independent power producers (IPPs), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of regulatory agencies, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market are the driving forces of increasing generation capacity, as well as reducing transmission and distribution loss in the respective regions. In this study, we can assume that, firstly, different electric industry's reform policies/measures have different impacts on geographically and economically diverse countries. Secondly, a country's state of economic development has a different impact on policy effects of reforms. Thirdly, coexistent with independent regulatory agencies, reform policy becomes more powerful in realizing sector performances.

  13. The gender pay gap in the Australian private sector: Is selection relevant across the wage distribution?

    OpenAIRE

    Chzhen, Yekaterina; Mumford, Karen A.; Nicodemo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    We use quantile regression and counterfactual decomposition methods to explore gender gaps across the earning distribution for full-time employees in the Australian private sector. Significant evidence of a self selection effect for women into full-time employment (or of components of self selection related to observable or unobservable characteristics) is, interestingly, not found to be relevant in the Australian context. Substantial gender earnings gaps (and glass ceilings) are established,...

  14. . Psychological Pricing in Modern Retailing: The Case of Wine Sector in Hard-Discounter Chains of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Perovic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to show if is possible to find a modern retail chain in one of the world largest economies that uses exclusively psychological pricing, as a dominant competitive advantage, in order to predominantly direct consumer behavior. Pricing, as a source of competitive advantage is the least explained in marketing literature, therefore it is important to contribute and show how psychological pricing is a source of competitive advantage. It could be an evidence to support the firm belief which exists among many retailers that greater than expected demand occurs at psychological price points. We shall analyze different retail chains belonging to so call hard-discounters in Russian Federation using method of observation and choose one sector in order to check the hypothesis. Hard-discounters are chosen since they use pricing strategies as the most important element of marketing program, much more important than products, promotion or sales channels, while Russia has been chosen as the largest growing wine market in the world.

  15. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  16. Simulation model of multi-compartment distribution in the catering supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.R.; Weert, van A.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient distribution system of high performance is needed to anticipate market developments in the catering supply chain (CSC) in the Netherlands. A simulation model was developed to analyse a multi-compartment distribution system which should satisfy customer demands for shorter lead times,

  17. Chain length distribution and kinetic characteristics of an enzymatically produced polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Non-processive enzymatic polymerization leads to a distribution of polymer chain lengths. A polymerization model was developed to investigate the relation between the extent of this distribution on one hand, and the polymerization start conditions and reaction kinetics on the other hand. The model

  18. Hitching Healthcare to the Chain: An Introduction to Blockchain Technology in the Healthcare Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    Health services must balance patient care with information privacy, access, and completeness. The massive scale of the healthcare industry also amplifies the importance of cost control. The promise of blockchain technology in health services, combined with application layers built atop it, is to be a mechanism that provides utmost privacy while ensuring that appropriate users can easily add to and access a permanent record of information. Blockchains, also called distributed ledgers, enable a...

  19. CONDOS-II, Radiation Dose from Consumer Product Distribution Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    and unshielded; cylindrical surface, unshielded; uniform, semi-infinite volume, shielded and unshielded; uniform, infinite slab, shielded and unshielded; uniform, non-absorbing cylindrical volume, unshielded; and uniform, non-absorbing spherical volume, unshielded; and uniform, self-absorbing cylindrical volume, shielded and unshielded. External doses from immersion in contaminated air are calculated using the organ- and nuclide-specific dose rate conversion factors, user supplied exposure conditions, and an infinite to finite air volume correction formula. External doses are calculated using the appropriate inhalation or ingestion, 50 year, organ- and nuclide- specific dose conversion factors and user supplied exposure conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimensioning limits: the number of nuclide decay chains to 25, the number of sources in an exposure event to 25, and the number of absorbing materials between the source and dose point to 4 (excluding air)

  20. Distributions of chain ends and junction points in ordered block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, A.M.; Johnson, R.D.; Russell, T.P.; Smith, S.D.; Satija, S.K.; Majkrzak, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Chain configurations in ordered symmetric poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers were examined by neutron reflectively. In a thin-film geometry the copolymers organize into lamellar microdomains oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The copolymers organize into lamellar microdomains oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The copolymers were synthesized with small fractions of deuterated segments at either the chain ends or centers. This selective labeling permitted characterization of the spatial distribution of chain ends and junction points normal to the plane of the film. From the reflectivity analysis, the junction points are found to be confined to the PS/PMMA interfacial regions. The chain ends, however, are well distributed through their respective domains, exhibiting only a weak maximum in concentration at the center of the domains

  1. Cold chain management in meat storage, distribution and retail: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasijević, I.; Lakićević, B.; Petrović, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Meat is a perishable product with a short shelf life and therefore short selling times. Therefore, cold chain management in meat supply is of utmost importance for the maintenance of quality and safety of meat/meat products. Raw meat/meat products are likely to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and/or spoilage bacteria, and should be kept at temperatures that do not result in a risk to health. The cold chain should not be interrupted at all times along the meat distribution chain. The complexity of global meat supply chain, with frequently long distribution chains associated with transportation of the product within one country, from one to another country and from one to another continent, makes the solutions for the chilling and freezing regimes, as well as monitoring of time-temperature profiles, very important for the overall success in delivery of product which will be accepted by consumer for its freshness and safety levels. From recently, there are several available options for control and management of the cold chain, such as chilled and frozen storage combinations, superchilling, ionizing radiation, biopreservation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), active packaging, wireless sensors, supported with the software-based cold chain database (CCD).

  2. Distribution Free Approach for Coordination of a Supply Chain with Consumer Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinsong; Xu, Yuanji

    Consumer return is considered in a coordination of a supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer. A distribution free approach is employed to deal with a centralized decision model and a decentralized model which are constructed under the situation with only knowing the demand function's mean and variance, respectively. A markdown money contract is designed to coordinate the supply chain, and it is also proved that the contract can make the supply chain perfectly coordinated. Several numerical examples are given at the end of this paper.

  3. Application of Cold Chain Logistics Safety Reliability in Fresh Food Distribution Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Yifeng; Xie Ruhe

    2013-01-01

    In view of the nature of fresh food’s continuous decrease of safety during distribution process, this study applied safety reliability of food cold chain logistics to establish fresh food distribution routing optimization model with time windows, and solved the model using MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) with case analysis. Studies have shown that the mentioned model and algorithm can better solve the problem of fresh food distribution routing optimization with time windows.

  4. Service Supply Chains Performance Improvement Method: The Case of Supplier Selection in the Metallurgical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gastón Cedillo-Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El servicio es ahora un componente clave del crecimiento económico de las naciones modernas. Bajo un ambiente de competencia dinámica global, el incremento en las capacidades de servicio de las cadenas de suministro se ha vuelto vital. Para las empresas operando en mercados emergentes, el continuo incremento en los requerimientos de los clientes, ha resultado en desafiantes procesos de mejora continua en el servicio. En éste contexto, el artículo presenta un método desarrollado desde la perspectiva de la medición del desempeño de los proveedores de servicio en cadenas de suministro, el cual además contó para su implementación, con una herramienta informática de fácil utilización. Método: Con base en un caso de estudio del sector metalúrgico en México, la principal contribución de este artículo es el exponer un método para la evaluación de proveedores de servicio, el cual fue desarrollado desde un enfoque de mejora continua. Es un método hibrido que liga la aplicación de herramientas estratégicas, con el análisis de decisiones multicriterio para la mejora del desempeño de cadenas de suministro del servicio. Resultados: Desde una perspectiva de cadena de suministro, este enfoque aplicado es de ayuda tanto para académicos, como para profesionales quienes se enfrentan a la compleja tarea de evaluar proveedores de servicio en cadenas de suministro que operan en mercados emergentes. Discusión o Conclusión: El método propuesto aporta visibilidad y transparencia sobre el desempeño de los proveedores de servicio a todos los miembros de la cadena de suministro. Se trata de información preventiva acerca del desempeño de los proveedores, lo cual ayuda a reducir los costos de remplazar a aquellos con bajo desempeño. Comparado con otros enfoques, la principal ventaja del método propuesto es la integración de los enfoques cuantitativo y cualitativo para la medición del servicio con el propósito de mejora

  5. Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...

  6. Dynamic analysis of natural gas distribution sector in Bahia: case study of the Gas State Company entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    For the Natural Gas Distribution Sector in Bahia, some preliminary scenarios and theoretical concerns are presented under the perspectives of the Gas State Company entry. These scenarios are derived from the going institutional changes and physical expansion of the Sector with the increasing natural gas usage. The study has the objective of anticipating, for the State Government and its partners in the Company, the strategies and relevant problems for a successful entrance into this Sector. (author)

  7. Strategies for probing nonminimal dark sectors at colliders: The interplay between cuts and kinematic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the strategies and prospects for distinguishing between traditional dark-matter models and models with nonminimal dark sectors—including models of Dynamical Dark Matter—at hadron colliders. For concreteness, we focus on events with two hadronic jets and large missing transverse energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As we discuss, simple "bump-hunting" searches are not sufficient; probing nonminimal dark sectors typically requires an analysis of the actual shapes of the distributions of relevant kinematic variables. We therefore begin by identifying those kinematic variables whose distributions are particularly suited to this task. However, as we demonstrate, this then leads to a number of additional subtleties, since cuts imposed on the data for the purpose of background reduction can at the same time have the unintended consequence of distorting these distributions in unexpected ways, thereby obscuring signals of new physics. We therefore proceed to study the correlations between several of the most popular relevant kinematic variables currently on the market, and investigate how imposing cuts on one or more of these variables can impact the distributions of others. Finally, we combine our results in order to assess the prospects for distinguishing nonminimal dark sectors in this channel at the upgraded LHC.

  8. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  9. Getting reforms done in inhospitable institutional environments: untying a Gordian Knot in India's power distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankha, Sunil; Misal, Annasahed B.; Fuller, Boyd W.

    2010-01-01

    When grand institutional reforms based on idealized models are stalled by the poor institutional environments and difficult politics which often surround large infrastructure systems in developing countries, partial reforms whose design and implementation take into account the different interests of the key stakeholders can provide valuable and immediate benefits while moving these systems from low- towards higher-level equilibria. Strategically negotiated, experimentally partial and purposefully hybrid, these reforms are based on careful stakeholder analysis and strategic coalition building that avoid rigid positions based on idealized models. Our findings are based on a study of power sector reforms in India, where we performed a micro-level and in-depth analysis of a partial and innovative experiment which has allowed private sector participation in electricity distribution within a hostile institutional environment.

  10. Liberalisation of the electricity sector and development of distributed generation: Germany, United Kingdom and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    Historically, electricity systems have been made up of small local networks gradually becoming incorporated to benefit from the diversity of demand and the economies of scale in electricity generation that are possible with large interconnected systems. Today, this logic would seem to have certain limits, now that the benefits related to the size of production units appear to have been exhausted and in view of the growing difficulties in developing new transmission infrastructures. At the same time, there have been considerable improvements in the technical and economic performance of modular generating techniques, which are now enjoying significant development under the effect of electricity sector liberalization and policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the present paper is to analyse the effect of electricity sector liberalization on the development of distributed generation, and more specifically to examine the conditions in which these new electricity generating technologies can be diffused in a liberalized framework. The paper looks first at how competition has affected the electricity market. This analysis is followed by an examination of the problems of integrating distributed generation into electricity systems. In the third part of the paper, three brief case studies highlight the principal differences between Germany, the United Kingdom and France in the field of distributed generation. This brief analysis reveals that the institutional framework in which distributed generation must operate and the price signals given to electricity sector actors play as big a part as traditional incentives, certificates, bidding systems or guaranteed feed-in tariffs in driving the deployment process. (author)

  11. Distribution of controlled substances in the U.S. supply chain: where does the compass point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2012-09-01

    Recent administrative actions taken by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in Florida have prompted an articulate and detailed discussion of the pharmaceutical supply chain for controlled substances. Current practices in commercial distribution systems may have a partial nexus to the proliferation of opioid prescription drug abuse in Florida. No single factor or entity is responsible for this abuse proliferation, and there is no intent to harm consumers; however, distribution practices are adding risk to public health. This commentary extends a discussion on supply chain practices that seem misaligned in the promotion of legitimate business objectives and advancing public health.

  12. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  13. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  14. Inference of R 0 and Transmission Heterogeneity from the Size Distribution of Stuttering Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Seth; Lloyd-Smith, James O.

    2013-01-01

    For many infectious disease processes such as emerging zoonoses and vaccine-preventable diseases, and infections occur as self-limited stuttering transmission chains. A mechanistic understanding of transmission is essential for characterizing the risk of emerging diseases and monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics. Thus methods for inferring and the degree of heterogeneity in transmission from stuttering chain data have important applications in disease surveillance and management. Previous researchers have used chain size distributions to infer , but estimation of the degree of individual-level variation in infectiousness (as quantified by the dispersion parameter, ) has typically required contact tracing data. Utilizing branching process theory along with a negative binomial offspring distribution, we demonstrate how maximum likelihood estimation can be applied to chain size data to infer both and the dispersion parameter that characterizes heterogeneity. While the maximum likelihood value for is a simple function of the average chain size, the associated confidence intervals are dependent on the inferred degree of transmission heterogeneity. As demonstrated for monkeypox data from the Democratic Republic of Congo, this impacts when a statistically significant change in is detectable. In addition, by allowing for superspreading events, inference of shifts the threshold above which a transmission chain should be considered anomalously large for a given value of (thus reducing the probability of false alarms about pathogen adaptation). Our analysis of monkeypox also clarifies the various ways that imperfect observation can impact inference of transmission parameters, and highlights the need to quantitatively evaluate whether observation is likely to significantly bias results. PMID:23658504

  15. Accelerating the Integration of Distributed Water Solutions: A Conceptual Financing Model from the Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Kimberly J.; Ajami, Newsha K.; Wyss, Noemi

    2017-11-01

    Modern challenges require new approaches to urban water management. One solution in the portfolio of potential strategies is the integration of distributed water infrastructure, practices, and technologies into existing systems. However, many practical barriers have prevented the widespread adoption of these systems in the US. The objective of this paper is to address these challenges by developing a conceptual model encompassing regulatory, financial, and governance components that can be used to incorporate new distributed water solutions into our current network. To construct the model, case studies of successfully implemented distributed electricity systems, specifically energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, were examined to determine how these solutions have become prominent in recent years and what lessons can be applied to the water sector in a similar pursuit. The proposed model includes four action-oriented elements: catalyzing change, establishing funding sources, using resource pathways, and creating innovative governance structures. As illustrated in the model, the water sector should use suite of coordinated policies to promote change, engage end users through fiscal incentives, and encourage research, development and dissemination of new technologies over time.

  16. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  17. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  18. Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore,looking a......As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore......, on average, 30-40 per cent of the region's population, the authors discuss the issues involved, drawing on the experiences of other countries whether there are any apparent 'preconditions' for success. Second, the role renewable energy can play in this process and the extent to which lessons from other parts...... of the world might be transferable to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is assessed. The paper concludes by investigating the prospects for distributed generation in power sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that though lessons from other parts of the world will be helpful, they cannot be all...

  19. Stationary distribution and ergodicity of a stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingyi; Liu, Meng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three-species stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps is proposed and analyzed. Sharp sufficient criteria for the existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution are established. The effects of Lévy jumps on the existence of the stationary distribution are revealed: in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution appear, while in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution disappear. Some numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate the theoretical results.

  20. EFFECT OF COST INCREMENT DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF JIT SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Bidiawati J.R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration in supply chain (SC optimisation. This is due to emphasis placed on cost reduction in order to optimise profit. Some researchers use cost as one of their performance measures and others propose ways of accurately calculating cost. As product moves across SC, the product cost also increases. This paper studied the effect of cost increment distribution patterns on the performance of a JIT Supply Chain. In particular, it is necessary to know if inventory allocation across SC needs to be modified to accommodate different cost increment distribution patterns. It was found that funnel is still the best card distribution pattern for JIT-SC regardless the cost increment distribution patterns used.

  1. Coordinating Supply Chain Distribution in the Presence of Production Disruption Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanguo Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the impacts of unexpected events, production processes of supply chain system may be forced to interrupt in a certain period, which may decrease the supply capacity of manufacturer to its retailers. This paper discusses methods to distribute the limited stock in case the production disruptions occur. To ascertain a reasonable replenish sequence and quantity after the production disruption, a production disruption-oriented supply chain distribution model is offered, which can be used to minimize the negative impact of production disruption to supply chain system. And then a constraint satisfaction optimization method is established to resolve the model. Finally, validity of the model is verified with an actual application in an air-conditioner factory in China.

  2. Distributed optimization using ant colony optimization in a concrete delivery supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, J.M.; Silva, C.A.; Costa Sousa, da J.M.; Surico, M.; Kaymak, U.

    2006-01-01

    The timely production and distribution of rapidly perishable goods such as ready-mixed concrete is a complex combinatorial optimization problem in the context of supply chain management. The problem involves several tightly interrelated scheduling and routing problems that have to be solved

  3. Comparison of Environment Impact between Conventional and Cold Chain Management System in Paprika Distribution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidelweijs A Putri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasir Langu village in Cisarua, West Java, is the largest central production area of paprika in Indonesia. On average, for every 200 kilograms of paprika produced, there is rejection amounting to 3 kilograms. This resulted in money loss for wholesalers and wastes. In one year, this amount can be approximately 11.7 million Indonesian rupiahs. Recently, paprika wholesalers in Pasir Langu village recently are developing cold chain management system to maintain quality of paprika so that number of rejection can be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare environmental impacts between conventional and cold chain management system in paprika distribution process using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology and propose Photovoltaic (PV system in paprika distribution process. The result implies that the cold chain system produces more CO2 emission compared to conventional system. However, due to the promotion of PV system, the emission would be reduced. For future research, it is necessary to reduce CO2 emission from transportation process since this process is biggest contributor of CO2 emission at whole distribution process. Keywords: LCA, environmentally friendly distribution, paprika,cold chain, PV system

  4. Demonstrating the Effect of Supply Chain Disruptions through an Online Beer Distribution Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sourish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a classroom tool to teach the impact of supply chain disruptions and mitigation strategies based on information sharing and collaboration. The tool is an adaptation of the Beer Distribution Game, is easy to play, and can be hosted online or on local servers. The game considers several scenarios based on the location of the…

  5. The overlapping distribution method to compute chemical potentials of chain molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, G.C.A.M.; Frenkel, D.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical potential of continuously deformable chain molecules can be estimated by measuring the average Rosenbluth weight associated with the virtual insertion of a molecule. We show how to generalize the overlapping-distribution method of Bennett to histograms of Rosenbluth weights. In this way

  6. A literature analysis of Walmart’s supply chain excellence in term of integration, distribution and operations

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad, Stevan

    2017-01-01

    This literature-based qualitative case study examines the world’s leading retailing company Walmart to investigate whether Walmart possesses supply chain excellence in terms of integration, distribution and operations and yet saves costs. Supply Chain Management efficiency is essential for most businesses and crucial to customer satisfaction and company success. The literature studied involves retail industry supply chain activities and certain retail supply chain transformation elements ...

  7. The low cost of quality improvements in the electricity distribution sector of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corton, Maria Luisa; Zimmermann, Aneliese; Phillips, Michelle Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of introducing output-based incentives in the price-cap regulatory regime of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector. We focus on the trade-off between operating costs and quality improvement, hypothesizing a positive relationship. Operating costs include maintenance and repair expenses. The regulator sets limits for service continuity and non-technical energy losses in each regulatory period. Service continuity refers to the average length of interruptions in electricity distribution. Non-technical losses refer to losses due to factors specific to the distribution segment. Quality incentives include peer-pressure and penalties/rewards for compliance with minimum quality standards. We model operating costs using a GMM framework to acknowledge endogeneity of variables. The model is dynamic given the inclusion of regulatory lags to recognize past cost behavior. Findings reveal a small trade-off between costs and quality. We conclude that quality improvements are not costly relative to the potential savings from complying with quality standards. We also find that the impact on operating costs is larger when energy losses increase compared to the cost effect due to increases in duration of outages. These findings suggest areas of attention in managerial decision making, and serve as valuable information to the regulator in tailoring quality incentives for this sector. - Highlights: • The article focuses on the impact of quality improvements on operating costs. • We find a very small tradeoff between quality improvements and operating costs. • We find the impact of a large share of electricity losses on costs larger compared to the impact of longer outages. • The results serve the regulator to adjust incentives for quality improvement. • The results serve the regulator in tailoring regulatory values for electricity losses and outages.

  8. Cold-Chain Logistics: A Study of the Department of the Defense OCONUS Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Distribution Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Daniel; Tecmire, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    .... Currently, no DoD pre-pandemic vaccine distribution plan exists. This project identifies the essential infrastructure assets needed to develop a cold-chain distribution network for vaccine in a military application...

  9. Co-operation and economic relationship as determinants for competitiveness in the food sector: the Spanish wheat to bread chain

    OpenAIRE

    de Magistris, Tiziana; Gracia, Azucena

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to investigate the impact of co-operation amongst stakeholders of the food chain on enterprise competitiveness. The analysis focuses on the Spanish wheat to bread chain. A theoretical model is developed which covers the main components that define competitiveness (profitability, turnover, market share, customer loyalty and product quality), quality supply chain relationship (trust, commitment and satisfaction) and the main factors explaining supply chain relation...

  10. Inference of R(0 and transmission heterogeneity from the size distribution of stuttering chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blumberg

    Full Text Available For many infectious disease processes such as emerging zoonoses and vaccine-preventable diseases, [Formula: see text] and infections occur as self-limited stuttering transmission chains. A mechanistic understanding of transmission is essential for characterizing the risk of emerging diseases and monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics. Thus methods for inferring [Formula: see text] and the degree of heterogeneity in transmission from stuttering chain data have important applications in disease surveillance and management. Previous researchers have used chain size distributions to infer [Formula: see text], but estimation of the degree of individual-level variation in infectiousness (as quantified by the dispersion parameter, [Formula: see text] has typically required contact tracing data. Utilizing branching process theory along with a negative binomial offspring distribution, we demonstrate how maximum likelihood estimation can be applied to chain size data to infer both [Formula: see text] and the dispersion parameter that characterizes heterogeneity. While the maximum likelihood value for [Formula: see text] is a simple function of the average chain size, the associated confidence intervals are dependent on the inferred degree of transmission heterogeneity. As demonstrated for monkeypox data from the Democratic Republic of Congo, this impacts when a statistically significant change in [Formula: see text] is detectable. In addition, by allowing for superspreading events, inference of [Formula: see text] shifts the threshold above which a transmission chain should be considered anomalously large for a given value of [Formula: see text] (thus reducing the probability of false alarms about pathogen adaptation. Our analysis of monkeypox also clarifies the various ways that imperfect observation can impact inference of transmission parameters, and highlights the need to quantitatively evaluate whether observation is likely to significantly bias results.

  11. Characterization of amylose nanoparticles prepared via nanoprecipitation: Influence of chain length distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yang, Jingde; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-08-15

    The influence of chain length distribution of amylose on size and structure of the amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through nanoprecipitation was investigated. Amylose with different chain length distributions was obtained by β-amylase treating amylose paste for different times and measured by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). ANPs prepared via precipitation were characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the β-amylase treatments led to decrease in chain length of amylose, and it was the most important factor affecting size of ANPs. When hydrolysis degree of amylose was 52.8%, mean size of ANPs decreased from 206.4 nm to 102.7 nm. All the ANPs displayed a V-type crystalline structure and the effect of amylose chain length on crystallinity of the precipitated ANPs was negligible in the investigated range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating the ratios of the stationary distribution values for Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitavskiy, Boris; Cannings, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When the mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling of an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution. Rather little is known about the stationary distribution. In fact, the only quantitative facts established so far tell us that the stationary distributions of Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms concentrate on uniform populations (i.e., those populations consisting of a repeated copy of the same individual). At the same time, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information about the expected time it takes for the algorithm to reach a certain solution, assessment of the biases due to recombination and selection, and is of importance in population genetics to assess what is called a "genetic load" (see the introduction for more details). In the recent joint works of the first author, some bounds have been established on the rates at which the stationary distribution concentrates on the uniform populations. The primary tool used in these papers is the "quotient construction" method. It turns out that the quotient construction method can be exploited to derive much more informative bounds on ratios of the stationary distribution values of various subsets of the state space. In fact, some of the bounds obtained in the current work are expressed in terms of the parameters involved in all the three main stages of an evolutionary algorithm: namely, selection, recombination, and mutation.

  13. Distribution strategy of energy supply chain based on corporate social responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiaona

    2018-02-01

    From corporate social responsibilities influence on the consumer`s preferences, applying the basic Idea of game theory, the study on tactics of profit distribution of the one-period game between manufacturer and vendor in energy supply chain,then the repetitive game results of the two partners are discussed. The results show that alliance pricing is the unique nash equilibrium of the one-period game between manufacturer and vendor,and the expect profit of both manufacturer and vendor will increase after cooperation in the range of agreed value of the profit distribution factor. It`s optimal for manufacturer and vendor to insist on alliance pricing for their long-term benefits in energy supply chain.

  14. FORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS WITH THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE GLOBAL RETAIL CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kudyrko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze the features of formation and functioning of multi-marketing distribution systems involving global retail chains and identify the causes of conflicts between participants in the global supply chain and suggest possible ways to displace them. The article represents the author’s definition of the term “global retail chain”. The role and responsibilities of international retailers in the formation of marketing structures on international markets are discovered. The algorithm of the relationship between the participants in the traditional vertical marketing system with the definition of international components is determined. The conflict causes between the participants within the distribution channel are identified.

  15. Optimal Distributed Controller Synthesis for Chain Structures: Applications to Vehicle Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Khorsand, Omid; Alam, Assad; Gattami, Ather

    2012-01-01

    We consider optimal distributed controller synthesis for an interconnected system subject to communication constraints, in linear quadratic settings. Motivated by the problem of finite heavy duty vehicle platooning, we study systems composed of interconnected subsystems over a chain graph. By decomposing the system into orthogonal modes, the cost function can be separated into individual components. Thereby, derivation of the optimal controllers in state-space follows immediately. The optimal...

  16. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  17. Phenotyping polyclonal kappa and lambda light chain molecular mass distributions in patient serum using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, David R; Dasari, Surendra; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Fontan, Adrian; Willrich, Maria A V; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane F; Snyder, Melissa R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-11-07

    We previously described a microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS method for identifying monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and then tracking them over time using their accurate molecular mass. Here we demonstrate how the same methodology can be used to identify and characterize polyclonal immunoglobulins in serum. We establish that two molecular mass distributions observed by microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS are from polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains using a combination of theoretical molecular masses from gene sequence data and the analysis of commercially available purified polyclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda from normal human serum. A linear regression comparison of kappa/lambda ratios for 74 serum samples (25 hypergammaglobulinemia, 24 hypogammaglobulinemia, 25 normal) determined by microflowLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and immunonephelometry had a slope of 1.37 and a correlation coefficient of 0.639. In addition to providing kappa/lambda ratios, the same microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis can determine the molecular mass for oligoclonal light chains observed above the polyclonal background in patient samples. In 2 patients with immune disorders and hypergammaglobulinemia, we observed a skewed polyclonal molecular mass distribution which translated into biased kappa/lambda ratios. Mass spectrometry provides a rapid and simple way to combine the polyclonal kappa/lambda light chain abundance ratios with the identification of dominant monoclonal as well as oligoclonal light chain immunoglobulins. We anticipate that this approach to evaluating immunoglobulin light chains will lead to improved understanding of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and antibody responses.

  18. Uncertainty assessment of integrated distributed hydrological models using GLUE with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasone, Roberta-Serena; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2008-01-01

    uncertainty estimation (GLUE) procedure based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is applied in order to improve the performance of the methodology in estimating parameters and posterior output distributions. The description of the spatial variations of the hydrological processes is accounted for by defining......In recent years, there has been an increase in the application of distributed, physically-based and integrated hydrological models. Many questions regarding how to properly calibrate and validate distributed models and assess the uncertainty of the estimated parameters and the spatially......-site validation must complement the usual time validation. In this study, we develop, through an application, a comprehensive framework for multi-criteria calibration and uncertainty assessment of distributed physically-based, integrated hydrological models. A revised version of the generalized likelihood...

  19. Industrialization and Global Value Chain Participation: An Examination of Constraints Faced by the Private Sector in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Basnett, Yurendra; Pandey, Posh Raj

    2014-01-01

    The world’s trade landscape is being shaped by global value chains, which present new opportunities as well as challenges to developing countries. While large developing countries are leveraging the benefits of global value chains, smaller economies have been less successful. In this paper we examine the constraints faced by Nepal, a land-locked least developed country, in participating in global value chains. We find that weak and ineffective industrial policy has led to de-industrialization...

  20. Distributed generation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions : a case study for residential sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, P.S. [Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Mallela, V.S. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Sciences Shaikpet, Hyderabad (India); Allan, M.; Zhou, C. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a case study undertaken in Oman involving the use of a proposed hybrid diesel-photovoltaic distributed power system to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. A model of the hybrid power system comprising a photovoltaic module, a diesel generator, and essential auxiliary devices was presented. Solar energy was selected for the Distributed Generation Technology (DGT) because Oman has an abundance of direct solar radiation. A typical house located in a remote area was considered to determine the potential greenhouse gas reduction and the economic feasibility when it is powered by the proposed hybrid system, the diesel system alone, and the main interconnected grid. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electricity Renewables (HOMER) software was used for energy simulation, economic analysis, and the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results of the simulation indicated that the proposed hybrid system would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 38 percent relative to the stand-alone diesel system and by 2.67 percent compared to the main grid. The hybrid system has lower operating costs and a lower per-unit energy cost than the diesel system, but the per-unit energy cost estimated for the main interconnected system is better. The latter system is less favourable for GHG emissions. Extending the hybrid system to the entire residential sector has the potential to substantially reduce GHG emissions. The proposed hybrid system is also a cost effective choice for remote locations. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Using the cost distribution report in estimating private sector payments: what adjustments should researchers make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gary; Grippen, Glen; Parris, Y C; Mitchell, Mary

    2003-06-01

    To reapportion Veterans Health Administration (VA) annual expenditures into benefit categories for comparison with estimated payments by private sector providers. Total expenditures for six VA medical centers for federal fiscal year 1999 were reapportioned by benefit category using the cost distribution report (CDR). Health benefit categories were based on those of health care insurers. Cost reapportionment was based on CDR data and reviews of source accounting and payroll documents. Actual expenditures for many benefits can be accurately identified and reapportioned using CDR data, but other expenditures were not identifiable in the CDR and required inspection of source documents. Inpatient expenditures amounting to $75,110,094 US dollars and outpatient expenditures amounting to $73,594,284 US dollars were reapportioned into other benefit categories, primarily professional fees. Expenditures for some VA benefits could not be identified because of differences in accounting and clinical practice between the VA and the community. Revisions to bring the CDR more in line with private sector payment categories would improve effectiveness for internal VA analyses and external expenditure comparisons. CDR revisions would require changes in recording some clinical workload (eg, rehabilitation and extended care) and classifying residential and domiciliary programs separate from inpatient care. Benefits that were not assigned expenditures for comparison with payments represent a potential liability if the VA were to purchase health care services in the marketplace. Variation among hospitals on expenditures not clearly identified in the CDR was significant and raises questions about the effectiveness of capitated budget methodologies using either the CDR or the decision support system.

  2. A distribution planning model for natural gas supply chain: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedi, Maryam; Zanjirani Farahani, Reza; Husseini, Mohammad Moattar; Esmaeilian, Gholam Reza

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a real-world case study of a natural gas supply chain is investigated. By using concepts related to natural gas industry and the relations among the components of transmission and distribution network, a six-level supply chain has been introduced and presented schematically. The defined supply chain is a single-objective, multi-period, and single-product problem that is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming model, which can easily be linearized. The objective of this model is to minimize direct or indirect distribution costs. There are six groups of constraints including capacity, input and output balancing, demand satisfaction, network flow continuity, and relative constraints to the required binary variables. The solution algorithm of the problem is hierarchical; in each step, one section of the problem is solved using an exact method; the outputs of this section are passed to the next relative section as inputs. Finally, it is shown that the problem has been solved in a reasonable time and desirable results are attained. The use of proposed model and its solution approach have been studied in two gas trunk lines, to present the priority of its cost saving

  3. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  4. The evaluation of supply chain performance in the Oil Products Distribution Company, using information technology indicators and fuzzy TOPSIS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryosh Mohamadi Janaki

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT plays an essential role on development of effective supply chain planning and it can improve the supply chain performance, either directly or indirectly. As a national industry, the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution Company involves a large number of organizations within its supply chain. Therefore, this descriptive-survey uses information sharing indicators, fuzzy TOPSIS technique based on managers and expert opinions to evaluate and to rank some oil products distribution companies. Data are analyzed and the results show that Oil Products Distribution Company of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari received the highest rank and Farsan maintained the lowest rank compared with other regional companies.

  5. Supply chain management using fp-growth algorithm for medicine distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahana, A.; Maylawati, D. S.; Irfan, M.; Effendy, H.

    2018-03-01

    Distribution of drugs evenly in accordance with the needs of Public Health Center (Puskesmas) become one of the responsibilities by the Health Office in Indonesia. This study aims to provide recommendations for distribution of drugs from the Department of Health according to the needs of each Puskesmas. Because often the distribution of drugs is not in accordance with the needs of medicines stock of each Puskesmas. This causes the possibility of drug stock void in Puskesmas in need, while there is excess stock of drugs in Puskesmas that do not need. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is applied as a controlling drug stock at Puskesmas in order to avoid drug vacuum or excess drug that eventually unused. In addition, the Frequent Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) algorithm that generates frequent item sets is used to provide drug distribution recommendations by looking at the highest frequency of drug occurrences and frequent drug frequencies. Based on testing black box system conducted in Health Office Purwakarta regency of Indonesia which oversees 20 Puskesmas with 100 data of drug distribution transactions, it can be concluded that system functionality is running well and SCM successfully implemented to arrange distribution process of medicine well. Furthermore FP-Growth algorithm was able to provide recommendations for distribution of drugs with a high success rate. This is evidenced by the test results with various combinations of input parameters, FP-Growth is able to produce the right frequent item sets.

  6. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization for production-distribution planning in supply chain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pourrousta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain includes different components of order, production and distribution and it plays an important role on reducing the cost of manufacturing system. In this paper, an integrated supply chain in a form of multi-objective decision-making problem is presented. The proposed model of this paper considers different parameters with uncertainty using trapezoid numbers. We first implement a ranking method to covert the fuzzy model into a crisp one and using multi-objective particle swarm optimization, we solve the resulted model. The results are compared with the performance of NSGA-II for some randomly generated problems and the preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of the paper performs better than the alternative method.

  7. Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques applied to parton distribution functions determination: Proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedo, Yémalin Gabin; Mangin-Brinet, Mariane

    2017-07-01

    We present a new procedure to determine parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The aim of this paper is to show that we can replace the standard χ2 minimization by procedures grounded on statistical methods, and on Bayesian inference in particular, thus offering additional insight into the rich field of PDFs determination. After a basic introduction to these techniques, we introduce the algorithm we have chosen to implement—namely Hybrid (or Hamiltonian) Monte Carlo. This algorithm, initially developed for Lattice QCD, turns out to be very interesting when applied to PDFs determination by global analyses; we show that it allows us to circumvent the difficulties due to the high dimensionality of the problem, in particular concerning the acceptance. A first feasibility study is performed and presented, which indicates that Markov chain Monte Carlo can successfully be applied to the extraction of PDFs and of their uncertainties.

  8. An Investigation of the impact of interest rates and interest rate volatility on Australian financial sector stock return distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faff, R.; Kremmer, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the existing literature by analysing the dual impact of changes in the interest rate and interest rate volatility on the distribution of Australian financial sector stock returns. In addition, a multivariate GARCH-M model is used to analyse the impact of deregulation on the

  9. Modelling and validation of robust partial thawing of frozen convenience foods during distribution in the cold chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Zammit, Gine Ørnholt

    2011-01-01

    with small blocks of a frozen model food (23 pct. Tylose® gel) and quipped with temperature loggers were distributed by trucks operating in the cold chain. In addition, controlled storage and temperature abuse experiments were conducted. To predict the product temperature–time relationship we developed a new...... frozen even after two days or more of distribution at +5oC, and that the temperatures inside the product and in the middle of the box were quite stable against the normal oscillations of the ambient temperature in the cold chain. The product temperature was also robust against temperature abuse......In collaboration with two commercial distributors we have tested a new concept for distribution, where convenience products for the food service industry are prepared, frozen and packed in cardboard boxes, but distributed in the chill chain at +5°C instead of in the frost chain. This will lead...

  10. Implementing US GDP in Chained Prices for Cross-country GDP Growth and Sectoral Comparisons: Application to Selected ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumagan, Jesus C.

    2008-01-01

    GDP in constant prices of ASEAN countries suffers from substitution bias by ignoring relative price changes and makes GDP growth and shares dependent on the base year. These analytical deficiencies led the US since the mid-1990s to convert GDP from constant to chained prices. Thus, cross-country comparisons in constant prices are analytically shaky even with the same base year. Therefore, this paper implements US GDP in chained prices in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand to allev...

  11. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Variations in upper ocean water hydrography, planktonic production, pelagic-benthic coupling and sediment carbon cycling are all influenced by sea ice and temperature changes. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators have been re-occupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a "Distributed Biological Observatory" (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a

  12. The behavior of Metropolis-coupled Markov chains when sampling rugged phylogenetic distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy M; Thomson, Robert C

    2018-02-15

    Bayesian phylogenetic inference involves sampling from posterior distributions of trees, which sometimes exhibit local optima, or peaks, separated by regions of low posterior density. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are the most widely used numerical method for generating samples from these posterior distributions, but they are susceptible to entrapment on individual optima in rugged distributions when they are unable to easily cross through or jump across regions of low posterior density. Ruggedness of posterior distributions can result from a variety of factors, including unmodeled variation in evolutionary processes and unrecognized variation in the true topology across sites or genes. Ruggedness can also become exaggerated when constraints are placed on topologies that require the presence or absence of particular bipartitions (often referred to as positive or negative constraints, respectively). These types of constraints are frequently employed when conducting tests of topological hypotheses (Bergsten et al. 2013; Brown and Thomson 2017). Negative constraints can lead to particularly rugged distributions when the data strongly support a forbidden clade, because monophyly of the clade can be disrupted by inserting outgroup taxa in many different ways. However, topological moves between the alternative disruptions are very difficult, because they require swaps between the inserted outgroup taxa while the data constrain taxa from the forbidden clade to remain close together on the tree. While this precise form of ruggedness is particular to negative constraints, trees with high posterior density can be separated by similarly complicated topological rearrangements, even in the absence of constraints.

  13. The importance of business relations in the fish supply chain and export market distribution channels: the case of the Eritrean fish industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegai Habtom, Mesfin

    2006-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de visserij-sector in Eritrea. De belangrijkste vraagstukken die op dit moment in deze industrie spelen hebben betrekking op het functioneren van de supply chain en het export marketing channel. Zie: Samenvatting

  14. The importance of business relations in the fish supply chain and export market distribution channels : the case of the Eritrean fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegai Habtom, Mesfin

    2006-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de visserij-sector in Eritrea. De belangrijkste vraagstukken die op dit moment in deze industrie spelen hebben betrekking op het functioneren van de supply chain en het export marketing channel. Zie: Samenvatting

  15. The Class of (p,q-spherical Distributions with an Extension of the Sector and Circle Number Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Dieter Richter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the probabilities of arbitrary random events with respect to a given multivariate probability distribution, specific techniques are of great interest. An important two-dimensional high risk limit law is the Gauss-exponential distribution whose probabilities can be dealt with based on the Gauss–Laplace law. The latter will be considered here as an element of the newly-introduced family of ( p , q -spherical distributions. Based on a suitably-defined non-Euclidean arc-length measure on ( p , q -circles, we prove geometric and stochastic representations of these distributions and correspondingly distributed random vectors, respectively. These representations allow dealing with the new probability measures similarly to with elliptically-contoured distributions and more general homogeneous star-shaped ones. This is demonstrated by the generalization of the Box–Muller simulation method. In passing, we prove an extension of the sector and circle number functions.

  16. The distribution of liquid fuels: a vision of the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alejandro

    2001-01-01

    The paper shows a vision of the private sector of distributors wholesalers about the market of fuels in the country, the regulated market, like they have seen the regulation process and that perspectives have toward the future

  17. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It

  18. Supply chain relationships, supplier support programs and stimulating on-farm investment: evidence from the Armenian dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Gorton, M.; Urutyan, V.; White, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of supply chain relationships, the provision of supplier support measures and the role that support measures play in stimulating investment by suppliers in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on survey

  19. Change agents and sustainable supply chain collaboration : A longitudinal study in the Dutch pig farming sector from a sensemaking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Angela; Cramer, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Academic research on sustainability issues in supply chain collaboration has recently begun to focus more on a network-oriented view. Both horizontal and vertical relationships are being explored, which has led to recognition of the significance of the active participation of change agents in this

  20. Distributions of carbon pricing on extraction, combustion and consumption of fossil fuels in the global supply-chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Jonas; Peters, Glen

    2018-01-01

    Pricing carbon is one of the most important tools to reduce emissions and mitigate climate change. Already, about 40 nations have implemented explicit or implicit carbon prices, and a carbon price was explicitly stated as a mitigation strategy by many nations in their emission pledges submitted to the Paris Agreement. The coverage of carbon prices varies significantly between nations though, often only covering a subset of sectors in the economy. We investigate the propagation of carbon prices along the global supply-chain when the carbon price is applied at the point where carbon is removed from the ground (extraction), is combusted (production), or where goods and services are consumed (consumption). We consider both the regional and sectoral effects, and compare the carbon price income and costs relative to economic output. We find that implementation using different accounting systems makes a significant difference to revenues and increased expenditure, and that domestic and global trade plays a significant role in spreading the carbon price between sectors and countries. A few single sectors experience the largest relative price increases (especially electricity and transport), but most of the carbon price is ultimately paid by households for goods and services due to the large expenditure and indirect supply chain impacts. We finally show that a global carbon price will generate a larger share of revenue relative to GDP in non-OECD nations than OECD nations, independent on the point of implementation.

  1. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  2. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  3. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  4. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector. A Review of Federal and State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Elizabeth [Energy Innovation Partners, Seoul (South Korea); Kozak, Tracy G. [Energy Innovation Partners, Seoul (South Korea); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Steinberg, D. C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Alaysis, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-04-23

    This report provides an overview of the regulatory frameworks governing natural gas supply chain infrastructure siting, construction, operation, and maintenance. Information was drawn from a number of sources, including published analyses, government reports, in addition to relevant statutes, court decisions and regulatory language, as needed. The scope includes all onshore facilities that contribute to methane emissions from the natural gas sector, focusing on three areas of state and federal regulations: (1) natural gas pipeline infrastructure siting and transportation service (including gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines), (2) natural gas pipeline safety, and (3) air emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. In addition, the report identifies the incentives under current regulatory frameworks to invest in measures to reduce leakage, as well as the barriers facing investment in infrastructure improvement to reduce leakage. Policy recommendations regarding how federal or state authorities could regulate methane emissions are not provided; rather, existing frameworks are identified and some of the options for modifying existing regulations or adopting new regulations to reduce methane leakage are discussed.

  5. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  6. A supply chain model to improve the beef quality distribution using investment analysis: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupita, Alessandra; Rangkuti, Sabrina Heriza; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Hisjam, Muh.

    2017-11-01

    There are significant differences related to the quality and price of the beef commodity in traditional market and modern market in Indonesia. Those are caused by very different treatments of the commodity. The different treatments are in the slaughter lines, the transportation from the abattoir to the outlet, the display system, and the control system. If the problem is not solved by the Government, the gap will result a great loss of the consumer regarding to the quality and sustainability of traditional traders business because of the declining interest in purchasing beef in the traditional markets. This article aims to improve the quality of beef in traditional markets. This study proposed A Supply Chain Model that involves the schemes of investment and government incentive for improving the distribution system. The supply chain model is can be formulated using the Mix Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and solved using the IBM®ILOG®CPLEX software. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs for improving the quality and sustainability business of traditional beef merchants. By using the models, The Government can make a decision to consider incentives for improving the condition.

  7. Psychological Pricing in Modern Retailing: The Case of Wine Sector in Hard-Discounter Chains of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Perovic

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to show if is possible to find a modern retail chain in one of the world largest economies that uses exclusively psychological pricing, as a dominant competitive advantage, in order to predominantly direct consumer behavior. Pricing, as a source of competitive advantage is the least explained in marketing literature, therefore it is important to contribute and show how psychological pricing is a source of competitive advantage. It could be an evidence to support...

  8. Logistics outsourcing in the UK forecourt convenience retail sector : the supply chain role of third party service providers

    OpenAIRE

    Bolumole, Yemisi

    2001-01-01

    Outsourcing, where an organisation charges an external provider with the performance of an activity, has attracted growing interest in recent years as organisations have considered whether it is in their best interest to perform activities in-house or externally. Academic attention has also focused on the notion of supply chain management through effective Logistics management in organisations, as increased emphasis has been placed on the importance of seamiess supply ...

  9. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  10. Model Development of Cold Chains for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Distribution: A Case Study in Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisnawa, I. N. G. S.; Santosa, I. D. M. C.; Sunu, I. P. W.; Wirajati, IGAB

    2018-01-01

    In developing countries such as Indonesia, as much as 40% of total vegetables and fruits production becomes waste because of lack refrigeration. This condition also contributes a food crisis problem besides other factor such as, climate change and number of population. Cold chain system that will be modelled in this study is for vegetables and fruits and refrigeration system as the main devices. In future, this system will play an important role for the food crisis solution where fresh food can be distributed very well with significant low waste. The fresh food also can be kept with good quality and hygienist (bacteria contaminated). Cold Chain model will be designed using refrigeration components including, pre cooling chiller, cold room, and truck refrigeration. This study will be conducted by survey and observation di around Bali Province focus on vegetables and fruits production center. Interviews and questionnaire will be also done to get some information about the conventional distribution obstacles and problem. Distribution mapping will be developed and created. The data base of the storage characteristic of the fruits and vegetable also collected through experiment and secondary data. Depend on the mapping and data base can be developed a cold chain model that has the best performance application. The model will be can directly apply in Bali to get eligible cold chain in Bali. The cold chain model will be compared with the conventional distribution system using ALCC/LCC method and also others factor and will be weighted to get better results.

  11. The effect of governance mechanisms on food safety in the supply chain: Evidence from the Lebanese dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Gumataw K; Chalak, Ali; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2017-07-01

    Food safety is a key public health issue worldwide. This study aims to characterise existing governance mechanisms - governance structures (GSs) and food safety management systems (FSMSs) - and analyse the alignment thereof in detecting food safety hazards, based on empirical evidence from Lebanon. Firm-to-firm and public baseline are the dominant FSMSs applied in a large-scale, while chain-wide FSMSs are observed only in a small-scale. Most transactions involving farmers are relational and market-based in contrast to (large-scale) processors, which opt for hierarchical GSs. Large-scale processors use a combination of FSMSs and GSs to minimise food safety hazards albeit potential increase in coordination costs; this is an important feature of modern food supply chains. The econometric analysis reveals contract period, on-farm inspection and experience having significant effects in minimising food safety hazards. However, the potential to implement farm-level FSMS is influenced by formality of the contract, herd size, trading partner choice, and experience. Public baseline FSMSs appear effective in controlling food safety hazards; however, this may not be viable due to the scarcity of public resources. We suggest public policies to focus on long-lasting governance mechanisms by introducing incentive schemes and farm-level FSMSs by providing loans and education to farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Microbiological assessment along the fish production chain of the Norwegian pelagic fisheries sector--Results from a spot sampling programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Roiha, Irja Sunde; Levsen, Arne; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2015-10-01

    Microbes play an important role in the degradation of fish products, thus better knowledge of the microbiological conditions throughout the fish production chain may help to optimise product quality and resource utilisation. This paper presents the results of a ten-year spot sampling programme (2005-2014) of the commercially most important pelagic fish species harvested in Norway. Fish-, surface-, and storage water samples were collected from fishing vessels and processing factories. Totally 1,181 samples were assessed with respect to microbiological quality, hygiene and food safety. We introduce a quality and safety assessment scheme for fresh pelagic fish recommending limits for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), thermos tolerant coliforms, enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes. According to the scheme, in 25 of 41 samplings, sub-optimal conditions were found with respect to quality, whereas in 21 and 9 samplings, samples were not in compliance concerning hygiene and food safety, respectively. The present study has revealed that the quality of pelagic fish can be optimised by improving the hygiene conditions at some critical points at an early phase of the production chain. Thus, the proposed assessment scheme may provide a useful tool for the industry to optimise quality and maintain consumer safety of pelagic fishery products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Error-resistant distributed quantum computation in a trapped ion chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braungardt, Sibylle; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    We consider experimentally feasible chains of trapped ions with pseudospin 1/2 and find models that can potentially be used to implement error-resistant quantum computation. Similar in spirit to classical neural networks, the error resistance of the system is achieved by encoding the qubits distributed over the whole system. We therefore call our system a quantum neural network and present a quantum neural network model of quantum computation. Qubits are encoded in a few quasi degenerated low-energy levels of the whole system, separated by a large gap from the excited states and large energy barriers between themselves. We investigate protocols for implementing a universal set of quantum logic gates in the system by adiabatic passage of a few low-lying energy levels of the whole system. Naturally appearing and potentially dangerous distributed noise in the system leaves the fidelity of the computation virtually unchanged, if it is not too strong. The computation is also naturally resilient to local perturbations of the spins

  14. COORDINATED LOCATION, DISTRIBUTION AND INVENTORY DECISIONS IN SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Reza Nasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents an integrated multi-objective distribution model for use in simultaneous strategic and operational food supply chain (SC planning. The proposed method is adopted to allow use of a performance measurement system that includes conflicting objectives such as distribution costs, customer service level (safety stock holding, resource utilisation, and the total delivery time, with reference to multiple warehouse capacities and uncertain forecast demands. To deal with these objectives and enable the decision makers (DMs to evaluate a greater number of alternative solutions, three different approaches are implemented in the proposed solution procedure. A detailed case study derived from food industrial data is used to illustrate the preference of the proposed approach. The proposed method yields an efficient solution and an overall degree of DMs’ satisfaction with the determined objective values.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ’n geïntegreerde multidoelwit distribusiemodel vir strategiese beplanning van ’n voedseltoevoerketting. Om met die model doelmatig te werk, moet ’n versameling van randvoorwaardes hanteer word om die saamgestelde optimiseringsdoelwit te bereik teen ’n agtergrond van uiteenlopende sienings.

  15. Economical data on the value chain of the photovoltaic sector, and quantitative study of the economic impact of innovation. Assessment of the innovation impacts. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Nicolas; Baggioni, Vincent; Durand, Yvonnick; Gaspard, Albane; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Marchal, David; Morlot, Rodolphe; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Varet, Anne; Ravel, Frederic; Equer, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    This synthesis reports a comprehensive study (October 2012) for ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, which presents an assessment of the potential impact of innovations in the field of photovoltaic components and systems. After a review of the photovoltaic industry and market in France and in the world, the production cost structure of a photovoltaic system is presented (module, assembly, installation). The impacts of innovations are then considered at the various stages of the chain value, from the material level (silicon, CdTe) to the installation level (ground based systems, roof installed, residential, etc.). Innovation impacts on the system production costs, on the electric power generation cost and on each market and sector (materials, wafers, cells, modules, systems, installation), are assessed. The potential impacts on job creations are also estimated. Assessment methodologies are systematically detailed

  16. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  17. Facility Location Modeling in Multi-Echelon Distribution System: A Case Study of Indonesian Liquefied Petroleum Gas Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Masudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents model of Indonesian LPG supply chain by opening new facilities (new echelon taking into account the current facilities. The objective is to investigate the relation between distribution costs such as transportation, inventory cost and facility location in Indonesian multi-echelon LPG supply chain. Fixed-charged capacitated facility location problem is used to determine the optimal solution of the proposed model. In the sensitivity analysis, it is reported that the trade-offs between facility locations and distribution costs are exist. Results report that as the number of facility increases, total transportation and inventory cost also increase.

  18. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic......The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions...

  19. Power Flow Calculation for Weakly Meshed Distribution Networks with Multiple DGs Based on Generalized Chain-table Storage Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Based on generalized chain-table storage structure (GCTSS), a novel power flow method is proposed, which can be used to solve the power flow of weakly meshed distribution networks with multiple distributed generators (DGs). GCTSS is designed based on chain-table technology and its target is to de......Based on generalized chain-table storage structure (GCTSS), a novel power flow method is proposed, which can be used to solve the power flow of weakly meshed distribution networks with multiple distributed generators (DGs). GCTSS is designed based on chain-table technology and its target...... is to describe the topology of radial distribution networks with a clear logic and a small memory size. The strategies of compensating the equivalent currents of break-point branches and the reactive power outputs of PV-type DGs are presented on the basis of superposition theorem. Their formulations...... are simplified to be the final multi-variable linear functions. Furthermore, an accelerating factor is applied to the outer-layer reactive power compensation for improving the convergence procedure. Finally, the proposed power flow method is performed in program language VC++ 6.0, and numerical tests have been...

  20. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  1. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  2. Submission to the Ontario Energy Board regarding the review of further efficiencies in the electricity distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silano, B.E.; Boodhoo, D.; Shelton, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the views of the Ontario Division of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) on the Ontario Energy Board's consideration to promote further efficiencies in the power distribution sector. CUPE claims that efficiencies aimed at lowering costs through amalgamations often lead to increased costs, degradation in services and decreased reliability of power distribution. CUPE also argues that the main concerns of Ontario ratepayers is reliability and the threat of increased prices. CUPE recommends that the Ontario Energy Board hold open consultations with ratepayers, who are in fact shareholders in their local utilities. This report reviewed the current regulatory regime known as Performance Based Regulation and its effect on local distribution utilities. It also reviewed the impacts of mergers, amalgamations, acquisitions and divestitures (MAAD), with particular reference to rates, privatization of utility services, service degradation and job losses

  3. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Richard; Fink, Günther; Miller, John M; Earle, Duncan; Steketee, Richard W

    2013-03-18

    Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia's cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value US$ per ITN to Zambia's NMCP. The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial.

  4. The pea SAD short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase: quinone reduction, tissue distribution, and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke

    2011-04-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level.

  5. [Levels and distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in seafood from Dalian, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun-Chao; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Ya-Wei; Meng, Mei; Chen, Ru; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2014-05-01

    Seafood samples were collected from Dalian, China to study the accumulation and distribution characteristics of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) by GC/ECNI-LRMS. Sum of SCCPs (dry weight) were in the range of 77-8 250 ng.g-1, with the lowest value in Scapharca subcrenata and highest concentration in Neptunea cumingi. The concentrations of sum of SCCPs (dry weight) in fish, shrimp/crab and shellfish were in the ranges of 100-3 510, 394-5 440, and 77-8 250 ng.g-1 , respectively. Overall, the C10 and C11 homologues were the most predominant carbon groups of SCCPs in seafood from this area,and a relatively higher proportion of C12-13 was observed in seafood with higher concentrations of sum of SCCPs . With regard to chlorine content, Cl1,, CI8 and CI6 were the major groups. Significant correlations were found among concentrations of different SCCP homologues (except C1, vs. Cl10 ) , which indicated that they might share the same sources and/or have similar accumulation, migration and transformation processes.

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF GBM HEPARAN-SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN CORE PROTEIN AND SIDE-CHAINS IN HUMAN GLOMERULAR-DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBORN, J; VANDENHEUVEL, LPWJ; BAKKER, MAH; VEERKAMP, JH; ASSMANN, KJM; WEENING, JJ; BERDEN, JHM

    Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing either the core protein or the heparan sulfate (HS) side chain of human GBM heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), we investigated their glomerular distribution on cryostat sections of human kidney tissues. The study involved 95 biopsies comprising twelve

  7. Supplier managed inventory in the OEM supply chain : the impact of relationship types on total costs and cost distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyen, van P.L.M.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Ooijen, van H.P.G.; Vandaele, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of four variants of supplier managed inventory on total costs and cost distribution in a capital goods supply chain consisting of a parts supplier who delivers parts to an original equipment manufacturer’s assembly plant. The four supplier managed inventory variants differ

  8. Choreographing Cyber-Physical Distributed Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Heussen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Energy Systems are facing a significant change in the way their management and control is conceived. With the introduction of distributed and renewable energy based resources, a shift to a more distributed operation paradigm is emerging, overturning the conventional top-down design and operation...... principles. This shift creates a demand for distributed control systems (DCS) to facilitate a more adaptive and efficient operation of power networks. One key challenge here is to ensure the required reliability of distributed control systems. Whereas proven strategies exist for reliable control...... for coordination of physical actions, with increasing distribution of such control, the reliability and degradation properties in response to communications issues become more important. We build on the notion of Quality Choreographies, a formal model for the development of failure-aware distributed systems...

  9. Small distributed generation versus centralised supply: a social cost-benefit analysis in the residential and service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring the social benefits of small CHP distributed generation (DG) in the residential and service sectors. We do this by comparing the social costs of decentralised and centralised supplies, simulating 'ideal' situations in which any source of allocative inefficiencies is eliminated. This comparison focuses on assessing internal and external costs. The internal costs are calculated by simulating the optimal prices of the electricity and gas inputs. The external costs are estimated by using and elaborating the results of the dissemination process of the ExternE project, one of the most recent and accurate methodologies in this field. The analysis takes into account the main sources of uncertainty about the parameter values, including uncertainty about external cost estimations. Despite these sources of uncertainty, the paper concludes that centralised supply is still preferable to small DG. In fact, the overall range of DG social competitiveness is restricted, even considering further remarkable improvements in DG electrical efficiency and investment costs. The results are particularly unfavourable for the residential sector, whereas, in the service sector, the performance of DG technologies is slightly better

  10. Fallout cesium-137 and mineral-element distribution in food chains of granitic-outcrop ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.; Duke, K.M.; Waide, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fallout 137 Cs movement is described for arthropod food chains on Panola and Arabia mountains, granite monadnocks in the Georgia Piedmont region. Food chains on mountain slopes had significant 137 Cs in herbivore and predator trophic levels. Food bases were identified from observation and from cesium to potassium ratios in vegetation and arthropods. Lichens are major accumulators of fallout 137 Cs but do not appear to be important food sources for arthropods. Cesium-137 concentrations decrease in the food chains; these decreases resemble those reported for other terrestrial arthropod chains. Aspects of 137 Cs movement and nutrient-element dynamics in granitic-outcrop ecosystems are discussed

  11. The power of hard-sphere models: explaining side-chain dihedral angle distributions of Thr and Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua; O'Hern, Corey S; Regan, Lynne

    2012-05-16

    The energy functions used to predict protein structures typically include both molecular-mechanics and knowledge-based terms. In contrast, our approach is to develop robust physics- and geometry-based methods. Here, we investigate to what extent simple hard-sphere models can be used to predict side-chain conformations. The distributions of the side-chain dihedral angle χ(1) of Val and Thr in proteins of known structure show distinctive features: Val side chains predominantly adopt χ(1) = 180°, whereas Thr side chains typically adopt χ(1) = 60° and 300° (i.e., χ(1) = ±60° or g- and g(+) configurations). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences, including interresidue steric clashes and hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, we show that the observed side-chain dihedral angle distributions for both Val and Thr can be explained using only local steric interactions in a dipeptide mimetic. Our results emphasize the power of simple physical approaches and their importance for future advances in protein engineering and design. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Determination of Production and Distribution Policy in Push-Pull Production Chain with Supply Hub as the Junction Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, A. T.; Wangsaputra, R.

    2018-03-01

    The development of technology causes the needs of products and services become increasingly complex, diverse, and fluctuating. This causes the level of inter-company dependencies within a production chains increased. To be able to compete, efficiency improvements need to be done collaboratively in the production chain network. One of the efforts to increase efficiency is to harmonize production and distribution activities in the production chain network. This paper describes the harmonization of production and distribution activities by applying the use of push-pull system and supply hub in the production chain between two companies. The research methodology begins with conducting empirical and literature studies, formulating research questions, developing mathematical models, conducting trials and analyses, and taking conclusions. The relationship between the two companies is described in the MINLP mathematical model with the total cost of production chain as the objective function. Decisions generated by the mathematical models are the size of production lot, size of delivery lot, number of kanban, frequency of delivery, and the number of understock and overstock lot.

  13. Small-scale Farmer Access to International Agri-Food Chains : a BOP-Based Reflection on the Need for Socially Embedded Innovation in the Coffee and Flower Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danse, M.G.; Vellema, S.

    2007-01-01

    Internationalisation of agro-food chains offers agricultural sectors in developing economies prospects in profitable and competitive international markets. Market access strategies often seem to assume poverty alleviation as one of the outcomes. This paper aims to be more precise about the required

  14. Quasi-stationary distributions for reducible absorbing Markov chains in discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Pollett, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    We consider discrete-time Markov chains with one coffin state and a finite set $S$ of transient states, and are interested in the limiting behaviour of such a chain as time $n \\to \\infty,$ conditional on survival up to $n$. It is known that, when $S$ is irreducible, the limiting conditional

  15. Divorce comes at a price: An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooij, Michiel de, E-mail: m.denooij@seo.n [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price.

  16. Divorce comes at a price. An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nooij, Michiel; Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price. (author)

  17. Divorce comes at a price. An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nooij, Michiel; Baarsma, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price. (author)

  18. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  19. Daily news and daily bread: Precarious employment in the newspaper distribution sector in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuikem C. Nnaeme

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The outsourcing of newspaper distribution seems to be one of the sources of precarious employment for newspaper distribution contractors and their employees. Research Purpose: In an attempt to contribute to the debate on outsourcing, this paper explored the effects of outsourcing newspaper distribution on the labour market experiences of newspaper distribution contractors and their employees in Durban. Motivation for the study: The labour market experiences of workers in precarious employment, especially those in the lower echelon of newspaper distribution, are rarely known. Research Design, approach and method: The study is a qualitative research which sought to explore the experiences of newspaper distributors in Durban. In identifying the respondents non-probability sampling was used to identify information-rich respondents for interview sections. Also, the research used participant observation to deepen data from interviews. Main Findings: The research finds that the respondents were exposed to precarious employment conditions irrespective of whether they were contracted or not, seemingly because of outsourcing of newspaper distribution in Durban. Practical/Managerial Implications: The practical implication suggests that Basic Employment Act is not guiding how the respondents are being treated. Contribution/Value-Add: The paper specifically highlights the exploitation of newspaper distributors on the streets, as they are denied any form of employment benefits or employment security despite executing their job within severe working conditions.

  20. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A. Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  1. Optimizing decentralized production-distribution planning problem in a multi-period supply chain network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourifar, Raheleh; Mahdavi, Iraj; Mahdavi-Amiri, Nezam; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-09-01

    Decentralized supply chain management is found to be significantly relevant in today's competitive markets. Production and distribution planning is posed as an important optimization problem in supply chain networks. Here, we propose a multi-period decentralized supply chain network model with uncertainty. The imprecision related to uncertain parameters like demand and price of the final product is appropriated with stochastic and fuzzy numbers. We provide mathematical formulation of the problem as a bi-level mixed integer linear programming model. Due to problem's convolution, a structure to solve is developed that incorporates a novel heuristic algorithm based on Kth-best algorithm, fuzzy approach and chance constraint approach. Ultimately, a numerical example is constructed and worked through to demonstrate applicability of the optimization model. A sensitivity analysis is also made.

  2. Air Distribution Systems and Cross-Infection Risk in the Hospital Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2012-01-01

    . A large amount of air is supplied to the room to ensure dilution of airborne infection. The paper discusses both the macroenvironment and the microenvironment. The macroenvironment is the conditions created by the air distribution system, and the microenvironment is the conditions created by the local...... flow around persons in combination with the surrounding conditions. Analyses of the flow in the room (macroenvironment) show a number of parameters that play an important role in minimising of airborne cross-infection. The air flow rate to the room must be high, and the air distribution pattern can......We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in our indoor environment by supplying fresh air to the room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles as e.g. mixing ventilation, downward ventilation, displacement ventilation, etc...

  3. Salp distribution and size composition in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Siegel, V.; Litvinov, F.; Loeb, V.; Watkins, J.

    2004-06-01

    Salp abundance and length frequency were measured during the large-scale CCAMLR 2000 Survey conducted in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean in the 1999/2000 season. Results from regional surveys around Elephant Island in 1994/95 and 1996/97 seasons also were examined. During the CCAMLR 2000 Survey, salp abundance was higher in the Antarctic Peninsula and South Sandwich Island areas than in the central Scotia Sea. The probable reason for this pattern is a negative relationship with phytoplankton abundance; the central Scotia Sea having greater phytoplankton concentrations than required for optimal salp filter-feeding performance. Cluster analysis of salp size composition resulted in three cluster groups for each of the three surveys. Clusters comprising large salps occurred in warmer waters in all three surveys. The size composition of the salp populations suggests that the timing of intense asexual reproductive budding was earlier in warmer waters. As surface water temperatures generally decrease from north to south, and increase from spring to summer, the general spatio-temporal pattern of asexual reproduction by budding is likely to proceed from north to south as the summer season progresses.

  4. The Integration of Production-Distribution on Newspapers Supply Chain for Cost Minimization using Analytic Models: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana Aqidawati, Era; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Hisjam, Muh.

    2018-03-01

    Newspapers are products with special characteristics which are perishable, have a shorter range of time between the production and distribution, zero inventory, and decreasing sales value along with increasing in time. Generally, the problem of production and distribution in the paper supply chain is the integration of production planning and distribution to minimize the total cost. The approach used in this article to solve the problem is using an analytical model. In this article, several parameters and constraints have been considered in the calculation of the total cost of the integration of production and distribution of newspapers during the determined time horizon. This model can be used by production and marketing managers as decision support in determining the optimal quantity of production and distribution in order to obtain minimum cost so that company's competitiveness level can be increased.

  5. An improved power flow method based on extended chain-table storage structure for distribution network with PV nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Su, Chi

    2014-01-01

    with a reduced memory size. The voltage error of each PV node is adjusted by a reactive power adjusting strategy. The adjusting strategy is based on a multi-variable linear function with an accelerating factor. Finally, this new improved power flow method is realized by the software system developed in VC......Based on an extended chain-table storage structure, an improved power flow method is presented, which can be applied to a distribution network with multi PV nodes. The extended chain-table storage structure is designed on the basis of address-pointer technology describing the radial topology...... and the corresponding case study has been done. The experimental data and the further analysis have proved that this method can calculate the power flow of a distribution network with multi PV nodes precisely and fast. © 2014 IEEE....

  6. A location-inventory model for distribution centers in a three-level supply chain under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bozorgi-Amiri; M. Saeed Jabalameli; Sara Gharegozloo Hamedani

    2013-01-01

    We study a location-inventory problem in a three level supply chain network under uncertainty, which leads to risk. The (r,Q) inventory control policy is applied for this problem. Besides, uncertainty exists in different parameters such as procurement, transportation costs, supply, demand and the capacity of different facilities (due to disaster, man-made events and etc). We present a robust optimization model, which concurrently specifies: locations of distribution centers to be opened, inve...

  7. Heterogeneity of demand responses in modelling the distributional consequences of tradable carbon permits in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Noland, Robert B.; Graham, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Personal road transport sector is one of the largest and fastest growing sources of CO 2 emissions. This paper investigates a tradable permit policy for mitigating carbon emissions from personal road transport and discusses various issues of permit allocation. As tradable permits will effectively raise the price of fuel, the policy has important distributional implications. The distribution of burden depends on permit allocation strategies and on the consumer response to an increase in price. The behavioural response may vary among different segments of the population depending on their travel needs, which in turn are contingent upon their income, location of residence and other factors. Consumer Expenditure Survey micro dataset from 1997 to 2002 has been used to econometrically model the possible variation of price elasticity for different socio-economic groups in the USA. Results indicate that the response of gasoline demand to a change in price does depend on income level or location of the household. Distributional impacts of the tradable permit policy are then evaluated using the micro dataset for year 2002. In this regard, different permit allocation schemes are considered in the analysis. Impacts on households owning a vehicle and households with no vehicles have been evaluated as well

  8. Special section on quality management in the energy distribution sector in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorborg, L.

    1996-01-01

    So far, energy distribution companies in the Netherlands have lagged behind regarding total quality management (TQM), but this is gradually changing. Is TQM a fad, or does permanent attention to the customers and their needs indeed make companies stronger. And do companies evidently earn more money as a result of TQM? In four brief articles various aspects of quality management are dealt with in this special section. Quality manuals and protocols prove to be less fearsome than expected. Companies involved in quality management appear to make higher profits. And it should be possible to obtain a good return on investment within a short period of time. 1 fig., 3 ills

  9. Distribution of pollutants in the Russian sector of the Black Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos'yan, R.D.; Yesin, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    For the latest 30-40 years the Black Sea pollution by various pollutants is observed. It is the result of economical activity intensification on the shore and of slow growth of cleaning system capacity. In the coastal zone concentration of pollutants depends on the pollutant amount brought from the source and the process of their distribution and transport to the open sea. Within the Krasnodar region towns of Novorossiisk, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Sochi and the ports of Novorossiisk and Tuapse are the main sources of pollutants

  10. The good, the bad and the ugly: The privatization of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Bruno; Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Figuiera, Luiz Augusto

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of five electricity distribution companies in the Northeast of Brazil using technical and financial indexes. Three privatized and two public firms were analyzed between 1997 and 2008. The financial indexes are related to the capacity of the business to generate value for shareholders, while the technical indexes are related to the quality of service provided to customers. We observed the privatized firms had their financial indexes improved after the privatization, increasing the value of the firm for the shareholders. However, there is no evidence that the privatization affected the quality of service provided to consumers.

  11. Midnight latitude-altitude distribution of 630 nm airglow in the Asian sector measured with FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Yamaoka, Masashi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Otsuka, Yuichi; Liu, Huixin; Hsiao, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Alfred B.; Hsu, Rue-Ron

    2010-09-01

    The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) payload on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite carried out the first limb imaging observation of 630 nm airglow for the purpose of studying physical processes in the F region ionosphere. For a total of 14 nights in 2006-2008, ISUAL scanned the midnight latitude-altitude distribution of 630 nm airglow in the Asian sector. On two nights of relatively active conditions (ΣKp = 26, 30+) we found several bright airglow regions, which were highly variable each night in terms of luminosity and location. In relatively quiet conditions (ΣKp = 4-20) near May/June we found two bright regions which were stably located in the midlatitude region of 40°S-10°S (50°S-20°S magnetic latitude (MLAT)) and in the equatorial region of 0°-10°N (10°S-0° MLAT). On one of the quiet nights, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and CHAMP simultaneously measured the plasma density in the same region where ISUAL observed airglow. The plasma density data generally show good agreement, suggesting that plasma enhancements were the primary source of these two bright airglow regions. From detailed comparison with past studies we explain that the airglow in the equatorial region was due to the midnight brightness wave produced in association with the midnight temperature maximum, while that in the midlatitude region was due to the typical plasma distribution usually formed in the midnight sector. The fact that the equatorial airglow was much brighter than the midlatitude airglow and was observed on most nights during the campaign period strongly suggests the importance of further studies on the MTM/MBW phenomenology, which is not well reproduced in the current general circulation model.

  12. Supply Chain Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection has Enhanced its Partnership with Import Trade Sectors by Challenges Remain in Verifying Security Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Stephen L; Fossett, Christine A; Conrad, Christopher; Berbsteub, Amy; Berry, Fredrick; Camarillo, Yecenia; Cook, Frances; David, Katherine; Dye, Wendy; Gibson, Nkenge

    2008-01-01

    .... For example, between March 2005 and November 2007, CBP established requirements for C-TPAT members in nine trade sectors to meet minimum security criteria for their specific trade sector, including...

  13. Entanglement distribution in star network based on spin chain in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Ming; Ma, Lei

    2018-06-01

    After star network of spins was proposed, generating entanglement directly through spin interactions between distant parties became possible. We propose an architecture which involves coupled spin chains based on nitrogen-vacancy centers and nitrogen defect spins to expand star network. The numerical analysis shows that the maximally achievable entanglement Em exponentially decays with the length of spin chains M and spin noise. The entanglement capability of this configuration under the effect of disorder and spin loss is also studied. Moreover, it is shown that with this kind of architecture, star network of spins is feasible in measurement of magnetic-field gradient.

  14. Change Management in public sector: A case study of gas distribution firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shirvani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers different approaches for establishment of change management in governmental agencies. The proposed model of this paper uses Kotter’s 8-step method in an empirical investigation for a gas distribution firm located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The results of this study reveal that the organization was successful to create sense of urgency, form a powerful coalition, create a vision for change, communicate the vision, create short-term wins and build on the change. However, the organization was not successful on removing obstacles and changes in corporate culture. In addition, the sixth step, create short -term wins, receives the highest rate of success while removing the obstacles maintains the minimum rate of success. Finally, the survey demonstrates that gender and educational background do not have any impact on change management but age, job experience as well as job position influences change management, significantly.

  15. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  16. Tailoring Copolymer Properties by Gradual Changes in the Distribution of the Chains Composition Using Semicontinuous Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Jasso-Gastinel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To design the properties of a copolymer using free radical polymerization, a semicontinuous process can be applied to vary the instantaneous copolymer composition along the conversion searching for a specific composition spectrum of copolymer chains, which can be termed as weight composition distribution (WCD of copolymer chains. Here, the styrene-n-butyl acrylate (S/BA system was polymerized by means of a semicontinuous emulsion process, varying the composition of the comonomer feed to obtain forced composition copolymers (FCCs. Five different feeding profiles were used, searching for a scheme to obtain chains rich in S (looking for considerable modulus, and chains rich in BA (looking for large deformation as a technique to achieve synergy in copolymer properties; the mechanostatic and dynamic characterization discloses the correspondence between WCD and the bulk properties. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis enabled the determination of the cumulative copolymer composition characterization, required to estimate the WCD. The static test (stress-strain and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA were performed following normed procedures. This is the first report that shows very diverse mechanostatic performances of copolymers obtained using the same chemical system and global comonomer composition, forming a comprehensive failure envelope, even though the tests were carried out at the same temperature and cross head speed. The principles for synergic performance can be applied to controlled radical copolymerization, designing the composition variation in individual molecules along the conversion.

  17. A multi-objective model for locating distribution centers in a supply chain network considering risk and inventory decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gharegozloo Hamedani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-objective location problem in a three level supply chain network under uncertain environment considering inventory decisions. The proposed model of this paper considers uncertainty for different parameters including procurement, transportation costs, supply, demand and the capacity of various facilities. The proposed model presents a robust optimization model, which specifies locations of distribution centers to be opened, inventory control parameters (r, Q, and allocation of supply chain components, concurrently. The resulted mixed-integer nonlinear programming minimizes the expected total cost of such a supply chain network comprising location, procurement, transportation, holding, ordering, and shortage costs. The model also minimizes the variability of the total cost of relief chain and minimizes the financial risk or the probability of not meeting a certain budget. We use the ε-constraint method, which is a multi-objective technique with implicit trade-off information given, to solve the problem and using a couple of numerical instances, we examine the performance of the proposed approach.

  18. The impact of ownership unbundling on cost efficiency: Empirical evidence from the New Zealand electricity distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Wetzel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Several countries around the world have introduced reforms to the electric power sector. One important element of these reforms is the introduction of an unbundling process, i.e., the separation of the competitive activities of supply and production from the monopole activity of transmission and distribution of electricity. There are several forms of unbundling: functional, legal and ownership. New Zealand, for instance, adopted an ownership unbundling in 1998. As discussed in the literature, ownership unbundling produces benefits and costs. One of the benefits may be an improvement in the level of the productive efficiency of the companies due to the use of the inputs in just one activity and a greater level of transparency for the regulator. This paper analyzes the cost efficiency of 28 electricity distribution companies in New Zealand for the period between 1996 and 2011. Using a stochastic frontier panel data model, a total cost function and a variable cost function are estimated in order to evaluate the impact of ownership unbundling on the level of cost efficiency. The results indicate that ownership separation of electricity generation and retail operations from the distribution network has a positive effect on the cost efficiency of distribution companies in New Zealand. The estimated effect of ownership separation suggests a positive average one-off shift in the level of cost efficiency by 0.242 in the short-run and 0.144 in the long-run. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of ownership unbundling on the level of cost efficiency. • A variable cost frontier function and a total cost frontier function are estimated. • The results suggest a positive one-off shift in the level of cost efficiency

  19. Scale economies and optimal size in the Swiss gas distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaeifar, Mozhgan; Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the cost structure of Swiss gas distribution utilities. Several econometric models are applied to a panel of 26 companies over 1996–2000. Our main objective is to estimate the optimal size and scale economies of the industry and to study their possible variation with respect to network characteristics. The results indicate the presence of unexploited scale economies. However, very large companies in the sample and companies with a disproportionate mixture of output and density present an exception. Furthermore, the estimated optimal size for majority of companies in the sample has shown a value far greater than the actual size, suggesting remarkable efficiency gains by reorganization of the industry. The results also highlight the effect of customer density on optimal size. Networks with higher density or greater complexity have a lower optimal size. - highlights: • Presence of unexploited scale economies for small and medium sized companies. • Scale economies vary considerably with customer density. • Higher density or greater complexity is associated with lower optimal size. • Optimal size varies across the companies through unobserved heterogeneity. • Firms with low density can gain more from expanding firm size

  20. Income and Wealth Distribution in a Neoclassical Two-Sector Heterogeneous-Households Growth Model with Elastic Labor Supply and Consumer Durable Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-sector two-group growth model with elastic labor supply and consumer durable goods. We study dynamics of wealth and income distribution in a competitive economy with capital accumulation as the main engine of economic growth. The model is built on the Uzawa two-sector model. It is also influenced by the neoclassical growth theory and the post-Keynesian theory of growth and distribution. We plot the motion of the economic system and determine the economic equilibrium. We carry out comparative dynamic analysis with regard to the propensity to save and improvements in human capital and technology.

  1. The effect of the chain length distribution of free fatty acids on the mixing properties of stratum corneum model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Masashi; Gooris, Gert S; Bito, Kotatsu; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-07-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a fundamental role in the barrier function of the skin. The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. The main lipid classes in the lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the chain length of FFAs on the thermotropic phase behavior and mixing properties of SC lipids. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman imaging spectroscopy were used to study the mixing properties using either protonated or deuterated FFAs. We selected SC model lipid mixtures containing only a single CER, CHOL and either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs mimicking the FFA SC composition. The single CER consists of a sphingoid base with 18 carbon atoms and an acyl chain with a chain length of 24 carbon atoms. When using lignoceric acid (24 carbon atoms) or a mixture of FFAs, the CER and FFAs participated in mixed crystals, but hydration of the mixtures induced a slight phase separation between CER and FFA. The mixed crystalline structures did not phase separate during storage even up to a time period of 3months. When using palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms), a slight phase separation was observed between FFA and CER. This phase separation was clearly enhanced during hydration and storage. In conclusion, the thermotropic phase behavior and the mixing properties of the SC lipid mixtures were shown to strongly depend on the chain length and chain length distribution of FFAs, while hydration enhanced the phase separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of short block copolymer chains in Binary Blends of Block Copolymers Having Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jongheon; Han, Sunghyun; Kim, Jin Kon

    2014-03-01

    A binary mixture of two block copolymers whose blocks are capable of forming the hydrogen bonding allows one to obtain various microdomains that could not be expected for neat block copolymer. For instance, the binary blend of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (PS-b-PHS) blends where the hydrogen bonding occurred between P2VP and PHS showed hexagonally packed (HEX) cylindrical and body centered cubic (BCC) spherical microdomains. To know the exact location of short block copolymer chains at the interface, we synthesized deuterated polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (dPS-b-PHS) and prepared a binary mixture with PS-b-P2VP. We investigate, via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and neutron reflectivity (NR), the exact location of shorter dPS block chain near the interface of the microdomains.

  3. Improvement in carrier mobility and photovoltaic performance through random distribution of segments of linear and branched side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egbe, Daniel A.M.; Adam, Getachew; Pivrikas, Almantas; Ulbricht, Christoph; Ramil, Alberto M.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (AT). Linz Inst. for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS); Hoppe, Harald [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Inst. of Physics and Inst. of Micro- and Nanotechnologies; Rathgeber, Silke [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    The random distribution of segments of linear octyloxy side chains and of branched 2-ethylhexyloxy side chains, on the backbone of anthracene containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) has resulted in a side chain based statistical copolymer, denoted AnE-PVstat, showing optimized features as compared to the well defined homologues AnE-PVaa, -ab, -ba and -bb, whose constitutional units are incorporated into its backbone. WAXS studies on AnE-P's demonstrate the highest degree of order at the self-assembly state of AnE-PVstat, which is confirmed by its highly structured thin film absorption band. Electric field independent charge carrier mobility ({mu}{sub hole}) for AnE-PVstat was demonstrated by CELIV and OFET measurements, both methods resulting in similar {mu}{sub hole} values of up to 5.43 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Upon comparison, our results show that charge carrier mobility as measured by CELIV technique is predominantly an intrachain process and less an interchain one, which is in line with past photoconductivity results from PPE-PPV based materials. The present side chain distribution favors efficient solar cell active layer phase separation. As a result, a smaller amount of PC{sub 60}BM is needed to achieve relatively high energy conversion efficiencies above 3 %. The efficiency of {eta}{sub AM1.5} {approx} 3.8 % obtained for AnE-PVstat:PC{sub 60}BM blend is presently the state-of-art value for PPV-based materials. (orig.)

  4. Using Scheduled Ordering to Improve the Performance of Distribution Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Gongtao Chen; Srinagesh Gavirneni

    2010-01-01

    We study a supply chain with one supplier and many retailers that face exogenous end-customer demands. The supplier and the retailers all try to minimize their own inventory-related costs. In contrast to the retailers' newsvendor-type ordering behavior (under which retailers may place orders freely in every period), we propose two scheduled ordering policies: the scheduled balanced ordering policy (SBOP) and the scheduled synchronized ordering policy (SSOP). Under both the SBOP and SSOP, reta...

  5. Reduced metabolites of nitroaromatics are distributed in the environment via the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Numrah; Cheema, Kausar J; Powell, Glen; Bennett, Mark; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Qadri, Rashad; Yang, Yaodong; Azam, Muhammad; Rossiter, John T

    2018-05-15

    Increased industrial processes have introduced emerging toxic pollutants into the environment. Phytoremediation is considered to be a very useful, economical and ecofriendly way of controlling these pollutants, however, certain pollutants can potentially travel through the food chain and accumulate at hazardous levels. Four isomers of dinitrotoluenes (DNT) were investigated and observed their potential toxicity towards A. thaliana. Two different aphid species (generalist and specialist) were allowed to feed on plants treated with DNTs and toxicity to aphids determined. Reduced metabolites of DNT (in both plant and aphids) were recovered and quantified through GC-MS analyses. 2,6-DNT was observed to be the toxic of the DNTs tested. Complete metabolism of DNTs to their reduced products was never achieved for higher concentrations. Regioselectivity was observed in the case of 2,4-DNT, with 4A2NT as the dominant isomer. Feeding aphids showed a similar toxicity pattern for DNT isomers as host plants. Metabolites were recovered from the body of aphids, demonstrating the potential transport of metabolites through the food chain. Plants show varied toxicity responses towards the DNT isomers. Aphids fed on A. thaliana plants treated with DNTs were shown to have ANTs present, which reflects the propagation of DNT metabolites through the food chain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs.

  7. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  8. Food losses and waste in the French oilcrops sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fine Frédéric; Lucas Jean-Louis; Chardigny Jean-Michel; Redlingshöfer Barbara; Renard Michel

    2015-01-01

    INRA has initiated a comprehensive approach to food loss and waste for all the plant and animal sectors, from field to distribution. In this study, all comestibles that leave the human food chain and are not recycled into animal feed are considered as losses and waste. The main French oilseed sectors are studied (rapeseed, sunflower and soya, as well as tofu). In order to identify the key sources of loss, all of the various steps in the ...

  9. Exact valence bond entanglement entropy and probability distribution in the XXX spin chain and the potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, J L; Saleur, H

    2008-02-29

    We determine exactly the probability distribution of the number N_(c) of valence bonds connecting a subsystem of length L>1 to the rest of the system in the ground state of the XXX antiferromagnetic spin chain. This provides, in particular, the asymptotic behavior of the valence-bond entanglement entropy S_(VB)=N_(c)ln2=4ln2/pi(2)lnL disproving a recent conjecture that this should be related with the von Neumann entropy, and thus equal to 1/3lnL. Our results generalize to the Q-state Potts model.

  10. Some of the QRL team in UJ22 of the LHC tunnel, where the last sector of the cryogenic distribution line was installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Viviane Li

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic distribution line "the QRL" is a circle built in 8 sectors, each approximately 3 km in length. It will circulate helium in liquid and gas phases, at different temperatures and pressures, to provide the cryogenic conditions for the superconducting magnets in the LHC tunnel.

  11. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhang, Yuan; Miao, Yi; Ma, Ling-Ling; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2013-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.

  12. A location-inventory model for distribution centers in a three-level supply chain under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi-Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a location-inventory problem in a three level supply chain network under uncertainty, which leads to risk. The (r,Q inventory control policy is applied for this problem. Besides, uncertainty exists in different parameters such as procurement, transportation costs, supply, demand and the capacity of different facilities (due to disaster, man-made events and etc. We present a robust optimization model, which concurrently specifies: locations of distribution centers to be opened, inventory control parameters (r,Q, and allocation of supply chain components. The model is formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming in order to minimize the expected total cost of such a supply chain network comprising location, procurement, transportation, holding, ordering, and shortage costs. Moreover, we develop an effective solution approach on the basis of multi-objective particle swarm optimization for solving the proposed model. Eventually, computational results of different examples of the problem and sensitivity analysis are exhibited to show the model and algorithm's feasibility and efficiency.

  13. Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Wallin, Fredrik; Odlare, Monica; Vassileva, Iana; Wester, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. → Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. → Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. → Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. → Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

  14. Feasibility of distributing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the retail sector: evidence from an implementation study in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Fink, Günther; Berg, Katrina; Aber, Flavia; Jordan, Matthew; Maloney, Kathleen; Dickens, William

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits of malaria diagnosis, most presumed malaria episodes are never tested. A primary reason is the absence of diagnostic tests in retail establishments, where many patients seek care. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in drug shops hold promise for guiding appropriate treatment. However, retail providers generally lack awareness of RDTs and training to administer them. Further, unsubsidized RDTs may be unaffordable to patients and unattractive to retailers. This paper reports results from an intervention study testing the feasibility of RDT distribution in Ugandan drug shops. 92 drug shops in 58 villages were offered subsidized RDTs for sale after completing training. Data on RDT purchases, storage, administration and disposal were collected, and samples were sent for quality testing. Household surveys were conducted to capture treatment outcomes. Estimated daily RDT sales varied substantially across shops, from zero to 8.46 RDTs per days. Overall compliance with storage, treatment and disposal guidelines was excellent. All RDTs (100%) collected from shops passed quality testing. The median price charged for RDTs was 1000USH ($0.40), corresponding to a 100% markup, and the same price as blood slides in local health clinics. RDTs affected treatment decisions. RDT-positive patients were 23 percentage points more likely to buy Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) (p = .005) and 33.1 percentage points more likely to buy other antimalarials (ppercentage points more likely to buy ACTs (p = .05) and 31.4 percentage points more likely to buy other antimalarials (p<.001) than those not tested at all. Despite some heterogeneity, shops demonstrated a desire to stock RDTs and use them to guide treatment recommendations. Most shops stored, administered and disposed of RDTs properly and charged mark-ups similar to those charged on common medicines. Results from this study suggest that distributing RDTs through the retail sector is feasible and

  15. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  16. Investigation of the Practices, Legislation, Supply Chain, and Regulation of Opioids for Clinical Pain Management in Southern Africa: A Multi-sectoral, Cross-National, Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisango, Eve; Allsop, Matthew J; Powell, Richard A; Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Luyirika, Emmanuel B K; Kiyange, Fatia; Mukooza, Edward; Ntege, Chris; Garanganga, Eunice; Ginindza-Mdluli, Mavis Ntombifuthi; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Mondlane, Lidia Justino; Harding, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing incidence and prevalence of life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. These conditions are associated with a significant burden of pain linked to high morbidity and disability that is poorly assessed and undertreated. Barriers to effective pain management partly relate to lack of access to opioid analgesia and challenges in their administration. To identify country-specific and broader regional barriers to access, as well as the administration of opioids, and generate recommendations for advancing pain management in Southern Africa. A parallel mixed methods design was used across three countries: Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Three activities were undertaken: 1) a review of regulatory and policy documentation, 2) group interviews, and 3) a self-administered key informant survey. Barriers to accessing opioid analgesics for medical use include overly restrictive controlled medicines' laws; use of stigmatizing language in key documents; inaccurate actual opioid consumption estimation practices; knowledge gaps in the distribution, storage, and prescription of opioids; critical shortage of prescribers; and high out-of-pocket financial expenditures for patients against a backdrop of high levels of poverty. Policies and relevant laws should be updated to ensure that the legislative environment supports opioid access for pain management. Action plans for improving pain treatment for patients suffering from HIV or non-communicable diseases should address barriers at the different levels of the supply chain that involve policymakers, administrators, and service providers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Private Environmental Governance in the Ethiopian Pesticide Supply Chain: Importation, Distribution and Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides are important chemicals that are used to mitigate crop damage or loss and improve productivity. However, pesticides may cause negative environmental and human health effects depending on their specific distribution and use. Securing environmental safety and sustainability of

  18. Supply chain optimization in the newspaper industry: Integrated production allocation, scheduling and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kaia Kristina; Ravlo, Espen Huse

    2014-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the newspaper industry is that the products are virtually worthless at the end of the day; nobody wants to pay for yesterday s news. In addition, strict delivery deadlines and no inventory lead to very short time frames for production and distribution. Consequently production and outbound distribution are intimately linked and should be coordinated in order to achieve the objective of on-time delivery performance at minimum total cost. The increase in on...

  19. Conductance fluctuations and distribution at metal-insulator transition induced by electric field in disordered chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, Khaled

    2000-08-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with δ peak potentials is used to study numerically the influence of a constant electric field on the conductance fluctuations and distribution at the transition. We found that the conductance probability distribution has a system-size independent form with large fluctuations in good agreement with the previous works in 2D and 3D systems. (author)

  20. Disrupted fat distribution and composition due to medium-chain triglycerides in mice with a β-oxidation defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Sturm, Marga; Borsch, Elena; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2011-08-01

    Because of the enhanced recognition of inherited long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders by worldwide newborn screening programs, an increasing number of asymptomatic patients receive medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplements to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and myopathy. MCT supplementation has been recognized as a safe dietary intervention, but long-term observations into later adulthood are still not available. We investigated the consequences of a prolonged MCT diet on abdominal fat distribution and composition and on liver fat. Mice with very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD(-/-)) were supplemented for 1 y with a diet in which MCTs replaced long-chain triglycerides without increasing the total fat content. The dietary effects on abdominal fat accumulation and composition were analyzed by in vivo (1)H- and (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (9.4 Tesla). After 1 y of MCT supplementation, VLCAD(-/-) mice accumulated massive visceral fat and had a dramatic increase in the concentration of serum free fatty acids. Furthermore, we observed a profound shift in body triglyceride composition, ie, concentrations of physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids dramatically decreased. (1)H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis and histologic evaluation of the liver also showed pronounced fat accumulation and marked oxidative stress. Although the MCT-supplemented diet has been reported to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and skeletal myopathy in fatty acid oxidation disorders, our data show that long-term MCT supplementation results in a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Distribution, activity and function of short-chain alkane degrading phylotypes in hydrothermal vent sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. M.; Joye, S. B.; Hoarfrost, A.; Girguis, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Global geochemical analyses suggest that C2-C4 short chain alkanes are a common component of the utilizable carbon pool in deep-sea sediments worldwide and have been found in diverse ecosystems. From a thermodynamic standpoint, the anaerobic microbial oxidation of these aliphatic hydrocarbons is more energetically yielding than the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Therefore, the preferential degradation of these hydrocarbons may compete with AOM for the use of oxidants such as sulfate, or other potential oxidants. Such processes could influence the fate of methane in the deep-sea. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from hydrocarbon seep sediments of the Gulf of Mexico and Guaymas Basin have previously been enriched that anaerobically oxidize short chain alkanes to generate CO2 with the preferential utilization of 12C-enriched alkanes (Kniemeyer et al. 2007). Different temperature regimens along with multiple substrates were tested and a pure culture (deemed BuS5) was isolated from mesophilic enrichments with propane or n-butane as the sole carbon source. Through comparative sequence analysis, strain BuS5 was determined to cluster with the metabolically diverse Desulfosarcina / Desulfococcus cluster, which also contains the SRB found in consortia with anaerobic, methane-oxidizing archaea in seep sediments. Enrichments from a terrestrial, low temperature sulfidic hydrocarbon seep also corroborated that propane degradation occurred with most bacterial phylotypes surveyed belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, particularly Desulfobacteraceae (Savage et al. 2011). To date, no microbes capable of ethane oxidation or anaerobic C2-C4 alkane oxidation at thermophilic temperature have been isolated. The sediment-covered, hydrothermal vent systems found at Middle Valley (Juan de Fuca Ridge, eastern Pacific Ocean) are a prime environment for investigating mesophilic to thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved

  2. The distributed generation in Mexico: Which are the new perspectives associated to the institutional reforms of the electrical sector?; La generacion distribuida en Mexico: Cuales son las nuevas perspectivas asociadas a las reformas institucionales del sector electrico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Menanteau, Philippe [Departamento de Economia y Politica de la Energia, Universidad Pierre Mendes France (France)

    2004-06-15

    Historically, the electrical systems were constituted from local networks of small scale that were added together progressively to benefit from the effects of a more abundant demand and of the economies of scale in generation, that authorize the large interconnected systems. This logic at the moment seems to show certain limits, the factors that influence these technologies can vary greatly from one country to another, but nevertheless it is found in different degrees certain constants such as the search for a greater reliability in the electrical supply, the putting into work prevention policies of climatic change or the reforms of the electrical sector. In this work the influence of these factors was examined insisting particularly on the consequences of the opening of the electrical sector, departing from an analysis of the international experience in a first time and later examining the case of Mexico in the context of the present energy situation and the debate of the energy reform. The distributed generation: a new vector of technological opportunities in the electrical sector, the barriers for the diffusion of the distributed generation: the lessons of the international experience, the institutional problematic of the distributed generation within the effective legal framework of Mexico. [Spanish] Historicamente, los sistemas electricos se constituyeron a partir de redes locales de pequena escala que se fueron agregando progresivamente para beneficiarse de los efectos de una demanda mas abundante y de las economias de escala en generacion que autorizan los grandes sistemas interconectados. Esta logica parece actualmente mostrar ciertos limites, los factores que influyen sobre estas tecnologias pueden variar grandemente de un pais al otro, pero se encuentra, sin embargo, a grados diferentes ciertas constantes tales como la busqueda de una confiabilidad mas grande en el aprovisionamiento electrico, la puesta en obra de politicas de prevencion de cambio

  3. The broken food chain information: cross border issues of risk-based meat inspection in the pig sector in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilke, T.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Oosterkamp, E.B.; Bondt, N.; Lang, J.

    2012-01-01

    European food safety legislation allows for a new type of meat inspection in swine. This ‘risk-based meat inspection without incision’ or ‘supply chain meat inspection’ (SCMI) uses food chain information to derive a veterinary prognosis on the pigs’ health prior to delivery to the slaughterhouse and

  4. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo method for distributions with intractable normalising constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Pettitt, A. N.; Reeves, R.

    2006-01-01

    Maximum likelihood parameter estimation and sampling from Bayesian posterior distributions are problematic when the probability density for the parameter of interest involves an intractable normalising constant which is also a function of that parameter. In this paper, an auxiliary variable metho...

  5. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  6. The value chain of non-wood forest products as a component of development of the forestry sector in a part of South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The value chain represents a detailed outline of the process that a product or service passes from raw materials, production and distribution to the consumer. The aim of this article is that within the analyzed companies in the area of the statistical region of South Serbia determined the dynamics of purchasing and marketing of non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and their value. The purpose of this research is to examine the possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs towards sustainable use of NWFPs in a part of the territory of South Serbia. The subjects of the research are: purchased and sold quantities in analyzed companies, as well as the prices of these products in the market. The research was conducted in the territory of the dominant Pcinja, and they included 19 companies engaged in purchasing, processing and sale of NTFPs. The purchase of forest raspberries, wild strawberries and blackberries and herbs is represented within the Pcinja District. The highest average annual growth rates were recorded in the sales of products with added value of dog rose (Rosa canina and cornelian (Cornus mas. Export oriented enterprises in this area are at a low level. The total gross revenue earned by the placement of the selected final NWFPs in the domestic market was about 6,315,710 €. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji, i br. TP 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  7. Conductance fluctuations and distribution in disordered chains in presence of an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, K.

    1995-07-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with disordered δ-peak and finite width potentials under an electric field is used to study the conductance fluctuations and distributions in different phase states. The electric field allows us to obtain the insulating, transition and metallic regimes. In the superlocalized electron states found previously near the Brillouin zone edges of the corresponding periodic system the conductance fluctuations are smaller than those of the insulating regime corresponding to the vanishing field, but the conductance probability distribution has a similar behaviour. Extensive results are compared to the previous works on higher dimensions and quasi-1D mesoscopic systems in each regime and found to be in good agreement. Further discussions are also included. (author). 33 refs, 11 figs

  8. Application of Fuzzy Optimization to Production-Distribution Planning in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A production-distribution model has been developed that not only allocates the limited available resources and equipment to produce the products over the time periods, but also determines the economical distributors for dispatching the products to the distribution centers or retailers. The model minimizes production, inventory holding, backordering, and transportation cost while considering the time value of money. Since uncertainty is an inevitable issue of any real-world production system, then to provide a realistic model, the concept of fuzzy sets has been applied in the proposed mathematical modeling. To illustrate and show the feasibility and validity of the model, a real case analysis, which is pertaining to a mineral water bottling production factory, has been used. The case has been solved using a three-step solution approach developed in this study. The results show the feasibility and validity of the mathematical model, and also the solution procedure.

  9. Torus Destruction and Chaos-Chaos Intermittency in a Commodity Distribution Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, O.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The destruction of two-dimensional tori T2 and the transitions to chaos are studied in a high-dimensional model describing the decision-making behavior of human subjects in a simulated managerial environment (the beer production-distribution model). Two different routes from quasiperiodicity...... to chaos can be distinguished. Intermittency transitions between chaotic and hyperchaotic attractors are characterized, and transients in which the system "pursues the ghost" of a vanished hyperchaotic attractor are studied....

  10. Feasibility of distributing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the retail sector: evidence from an implementation study in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cohen

    medicines. Results from this study suggest that distributing RDTs through the retail sector is feasible and can reduce inappropriate treatment for suspected malaria.

  11. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  12. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry.

  13. Chain end distribution of block copolymer in two-dimensional microphase-separated structure studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ryojun; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2009-10-01

    The chain end distribution of a block copolymer in a two-dimensional microphase-separated structure was studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). In the monolayer of poly(octadecyl methacrylate)-block-poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PODMA-b-PiBMA), the free end of the PiBMA subchain was directly observed by SNOM, and the spatial distributions of the whole block and the chain end are examined and compared with the convolution of the point spread function of the microscope and distribution function of the model structures. It was found that the chain end distribution of the block copolymer confined in two dimensions has a peak near the domain center, being concentrated in the narrower region, as compared with three-dimensional systems.

  14. A mathematical model for optimum single-commodity distribution in the network of chain stores: a case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Cheshmberah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution refers to the steps taken to move and store a product from the suppliers to a customers in the supply chain and is a key driver of the overall profitability of a firm and overall supply chain. In this paper, a problem regarding managing of the move and store of goods are articulated and a mathematical model is presented to solve the model. The objective function is the total costs of distribution network, including transportation, storage rental, general warehousing, goods damages due to the transportation and storage, procurement, packing, and finally loading and unloading costs. The cost components described are defined based on the assumptions for a real distribution network of a chain stores firm. The aim of developing such a model is to find the optimum pattern to move and store goods based on the minimum cost of the distribution network.

  15. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Finnish turkey production chain, enrichment PCR seems to be the optimal detection method here. PMID:19348687

  16. Distributed photovoltaic generation in Brazil: An economic viability analysis of small-scale photovoltaic systems in the residential and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdermann, Claudius; Kissel, Johannes; Beigel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the economic viability of small-scale, grid-connected photovoltaics in the Brazilian residential and commercial sectors after the introduction of the net metering regulation in April 2012. This study uses the discounted cash flow method to calculate the specific investment costs that are necessary for photovoltaic systems to be economically viable for each of the 63 distribution networks in Brazil. We compare these values to the system costs that are estimated in the comprehensive study on photovoltaics that was developed by the Brazilian Association of Electric and Electronic Industries (ABINEE). In our calculation, we utilize the current electricity tariffs, including fees and taxes, which we obtained through telephone interviews and publicly available information. We obtained a second important parameter by simulating PV-systems with the program PV ⁎ Sol at the distribution company headquarters' locations. In our base case scenario that reflects the current situation, in none of the distribution networks photovoltaics is economically viable in either the commercial or residential sectors. We improved the environment for grid-connected photovoltaics in our scenarios by assuming both lower PV-system costs and a lower discount rate to determine the effect on photovoltaics viability. - Highlights: • We calculate the economic viability of photovoltaics in the residential and commercial sectors in Brazil. • The PV ⁎ Sol simulations are carried out at the headquarter locations for the 63 distribution companies. • Currently in none of the distribution networks, photovoltaics is economically viable in either the commercial or residential sectors. • We analyze how the variation of the specific investment costs and of the discount rate affects the economic viability

  17. A multi-objective possibilistic programming approach for locating distribution centers and allocating customers demands in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Yazdian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-objective possibilistic programming model to locate distribution centers (DCs and allocate customers' demands in a supply chain network design (SCND problem. The SCND problem deals with determining locations of facilities (DCs and/or plants, and also shipment quantities between each two consecutive tier of the supply chain. The primary objective of this study is to consider different risk factors which are involved in both locating DCs and shipping products as an objective function. The risk consists of various components: the risks related to each potential DC location, the risk associated with each arc connecting a plant to a DC and the risk of shipment from a DC to a customer. The proposed method of this paper considers the risk phenomenon in fuzzy forms to handle the uncertainties inherent in these factors. A possibilistic programming approach is proposed to solve the resulted multi-objective problem and a numerical example for three levels of possibility is conducted to analyze the model.

  18. Evaluation of As, Se and Zn in octopus samples in different points of sales of the distribution chain in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marildes Josefina Lemos Neto; Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento; Mariza Landgraf; Vera Akiko Maihara; Silva, P.S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Shellfish such as squid and octopus, class Cephalopoda, has high commercial value in restaurants and for export. As, Se and Zn concentrations were determined in 117 octopus acquired in different points of the distribution chain in 4 coastal cities of Sao Paulo state (Guaruja, Santos, Sao Vicente and Praia Grande)-Brazil. The methodology for elemental determination was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The element concentration in the octopus samples (wet weight) range from: 0.184 to 35.4 mg kg -1 for As, 0.203 to 2.26 mg kg -1 for Se and 4.73 to 37.4 mg kg -1 for Zn. Arsenic and Se levels were above the limit for fish established by Brazilian legislation, while Zn concentrations were in accordance with literature values. (author)

  19. Levels and distribution patterns of short chain chlorinated paraffins in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Lixi; Wang Thanh; Ruan Ting; Liu Qian; Wang Yawei; Jiang Guibin

    2012-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are listed as persistent organic pollutant candidates in the Stockholm Convention and are receiving more and more attentions worldwide. In general, concentrations of contaminants in sewage sludge can give an important indication on their pollution levels at a local/regional basis. In this study, SCCPs were investigated in sewage sludge samples collected from 52 wastewater treatment plants in China. Concentrations of total SCCPs (ΣSCCPs) in sludge were in the range of 0.80–52.7 μg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 10.7 μg/g dw. Most of SCCPs in the sludge samples showed a similar congener distribution patterns, and C 11 and Cl 7,8 were identified as the dominant carbon and chlorine congener groups. Significant linear relationships were found among different SCCP congener groups (r 2 ≥ 0.9). High concentrations of SCCPs in sewage sludge imply that SCCPs are widely present in China. - Highlights: ► Levels and distribution patterns of SCCPs were studied in sewage sludge in China. ► Concentrations of total SCCPs in sludge ranged from 0.8 to 52.7 μg/g dry weight. ► C 11 and Cl 7,8 were identified as the dominant congener groups within SCCPs. ► Significant linear relationships were found among SCCP congener groups (r 2 ≥ 0.9). ► SCCPs are present in household products and can be exposing to human. - High levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China have been found.

  20. Live-cell and super-resolution imaging reveal that the distribution of wall-associated protein A is correlated with the cell chain integrity of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y; Su, Q P; Xue, B; Shao, S; Zhu, Y; Xu, X; Wei, S; Sun, Y

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a primary pathogen responsible for dental caries. It has an outstanding ability to form biofilm, which is vital for virulence. Previous studies have shown that knockout of Wall-associated protein A (WapA) affects cell chain and biofilm formation of S. mutans. As a surface protein, the distribution of WapA remains unknown, but it is important to understand the mechanism underlying the function of WapA. This study applied the fluorescence protein mCherry as a reporter gene to characterize the dynamic distribution of WapA in S. mutans via time-lapse and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The results revealed interesting subcellular distribution patterns of WapA in single, dividing and long chains of S. mutans cells. It appears at the middle of the cell and moves to the poles as the cell grows and divides. In a cell chain, after each round of cell division, such dynamic relocation results in WapA distribution at the previous cell division sites, resulting in a pattern where WapA is located at the boundary of two adjacent cell pairs. This WapA distribution pattern corresponds to the breaking segmentation of wapA deletion cell chains. The dynamic relocation of WapA through the cell cycle increases our understanding of the mechanism of WapA in maintaining cell chain integrity and biofilm formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to clinics in rural areas: A case study of the QwaQwa district

    OpenAIRE

    Mokheseng, Mamolise; Horn, Gideon S.; Klopper, Aileen G.

    2017-01-01

    This article serves as a case study based on research that was performed in the QwaQwa district in the Free State Province where the distribution of ARVs to the regional Manapo hospital, as well as between the hospital and its peripheral clinics, was interrupted and inconsistent due to problems in the supply chain. An unreliable and interrupted ARV supply chain creates the risk of virus reactivation and eventual patient mortality. The objectives of the study were to explore the problems e...

  2. Development Value Chains meet Business Supply Chains : The concept of Global Value Chains unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); S.R. Vellema (Sietze)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractValue chain promotion is considered a key element of private sector development strategies and pro-poor growth. However, (value) chain concepts are rather complex and unclear. This paper unravels the concept of global value chains and studies the diversity of key value chain-related

  3. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective from supported (n BuCp) 2 ZrCl 2 catalyst active centre distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Polymerization chain termination reactions and unsaturation of the polymer backbone end are related. Therefore, in this study, the parameters resulting from the modelling of the active centre distribution of the supported catalyst - silica/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 - were applied to evaluate the active-centre-dependent ethylene homo- and copolymerization rates, as well as the corresponding chain termination rates. This approach, from a microkinetic mechanistic viewpoint, elucidates better the 1-hexene-induced positive comonomer effect and chain transfer phenomenon. The kinetic expressions, developed on the basis of the proposed polymerization mechanisms, illustrate how the active site type-dependent chain transfer phenomenon is influenced by the different apparent termination rate constants and momoner concentrations. The active centre-specific molecular weight M ni (for the above homo- and copolymer), as a function of chain transfer probability, p CTi, varied as follows: log (p C Ti) = log (mwru) - log (Mn i), where mw ru is the molecular weight of the repeat unit. The physical significance of this finding has been explained. The homo- and copolymer backbones showed all the three chain end unsaturations (vinyl, vinylidene, and trans-vinylene). The postulated polymerization mechanisms reveal the underlying polymer chemistry. The results of the present study will contribute to develop in future supported metallocene catalysts that will be useful to synthesize polyethylene precursors having varying chain end unsaturations, which can be eventually used to prepare functional polyethylenes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences.

  4. Probing the Differential Tissue Distribution and Bioaccumulation Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances of Varying Chain-Lengths, Isomeric Structures and Functional Groups in Crucian Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Nost, Therese Haugdahl; Zhou, Zhen; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-04-17

    Understanding the bioaccumulation mechanisms of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) across different chain-lengths, isomers and functional groups represents a monumental scientific challenge with implications for chemical regulation. Here, we investigate how the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of 25 PFASs in crucian carp from two field sites impacted by point sources can provide information about the processes governing uptake, distribution and elimination of PFASs. Median tissue/blood ratios (TBRs) were consistently 90% of the amount of PFASs in the organism. Principal component analyses of TBRs and RBBs showed that the functional group was a relatively more important predictor of internal distribution than chain-length for PFASs. Whole body bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for short-chain PFASs deviated from the positive relationship with hydrophobicity observed for longer-chain homologues. Overall, our results suggest that TBR, RBB, and BAF patterns were most consistent with protein binding mechanisms although partitioning to phospholipids may contribute to the accumulation of long-chain PFASs in specific tissues.

  5. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  6. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], emails: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  7. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia, E-mail: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, E-mail: vparente@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  8. The Pea SAD Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase: Quinone Reduction, Tissue Distribution, and Heterologous Expression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R.; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A.; Strid, Åke

    2011-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:21343423

  9. Levels and distribution patterns of short chain chlorinated paraffins in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Wang, Thanh; Ruan, Ting; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are listed as persistent organic pollutant candidates in the Stockholm Convention and are receiving more and more attentions worldwide. In general, concentrations of contaminants in sewage sludge can give an important indication on their pollution levels at a local/regional basis. In this study, SCCPs were investigated in sewage sludge samples collected from 52 wastewater treatment plants in China. Concentrations of total SCCPs (ΣSCCPs) in sludge were in the range of 0.80-52.7 μg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 10.7 μg/g dw. Most of SCCPs in the sludge samples showed a similar congener distribution patterns, and C(11) and Cl(7,8) were identified as the dominant carbon and chlorine congener groups. Significant linear relationships were found among different SCCP congener groups (r(2) ≥ 0.9). High concentrations of SCCPs in sewage sludge imply that SCCPs are widely present in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical simulation of seasonality in the distribution and fate of pyrene in multimedia aquatic environments with Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyun; Xu, Liang; Sun, Dazhi; Chen, Libo; Zou, Jiying; Zhang, Zhenxing

    2017-08-29

    This case study investigated the distribution and fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments based on laboratory experiments and modeling. Pyrene (Pyr) is a hydrocarbon pollutant with adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, and was thus selected for this case study. The movement of Pyr was primarily influenced by its sorption from water onto sediment, and its desorption from sediment into water. Its elimination was mainly via biodegradation by microorganisms in sediment and by volatilization from water into air. The transport and elimination rates for Pyr were considerably influenced by temperature and moisture. Results of modeling with Markov chains revealed that the elimination of Pyr from water/sediment systems was the most rapid under wet conditions. Under average conditions, a Pyr concentration of 100 μg/L of in water in such a system declined to a negligible level over 250 h. Under wet conditions, this decrease occurred over 120 h. Finally, under dry conditions, it took 550 h to achieve the same degree of elimination.

  11. Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs to clinics in rural areas: A case study of the QwaQwa district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamolise Mokheseng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article serves as a case study based on research that was performed in the QwaQwa district in the Free State Province where the distribution of ARVs to the regional Manapo hospital, as well as between the hospital and its peripheral clinics, was interrupted and inconsistent due to problems in the supply chain. An unreliable and interrupted ARV supply chain creates the risk of virus reactivation and eventual patient mortality. The objectives of the study were to explore the problems experienced with the ARV distribution practices at the Manapo hospital, and to recommend ways in which the distribution of ARVs can be improved so that patients can receive an uninterrupted supply. The nature of the topic researched dictated the use of mainly the quantitative research method. The main problems identified include: Wrong and no uniform practice of ordering stock by the hospital and the clinics; lack of reliable, structured transportation from the depot to the hospital; as well as poor inventory management and poor overall communication. Recommendations to address the problems include: Implementing a supply chain planning and design process; improving inventory management and warehousing practices; implementing more effective and reliable distribution and transportation processes; as well as improving supply chain coordination and overall communication.

  12. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  13. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  14. Towards the Development of Innovative Strategies for Traditional Food Chains in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienn Molnár

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations no longer compete as independent entities, but as chains (Christopher, 1998; Cox, 1999; Lambert, Cooper, 2000. Consequently, chain strategies became more important in creating competitive advantage (Vickery et al., 2003; Gunasekaran et al., 2004. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of chain strategies, many chains active in the agri-business sector still face difficulties in developing common chain strategies and implementing them collaboratively to generate additional mutual gains and savings. Chains lacking a chain strategy and having short-term perspectives face difficulties in envisaging and implementing cooperative solutions to problems they cannot manage alone. Despite this recognition, the actual development of such chain strategies lags behind because of some particular issues which still need to be addressed (e.g. vision, mission, values or action plans. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify and consolidate chain members’ goals, to select a minimum set of key goals and to confront these chain goals with consumer preferences. This way, the paper develops the vision of traditional food chains in the EU, as a first step of strategy development. First, chain members goals are identified and consolidated with the help of approximately 100 stakeholders (suppliers, focal companies, customers from three European countries representing 5 traditional food product categories (cheese, beer, dry ham, dry sausage and white pepper. The most important goals of traditional food chains are to maintain traditionalism, to improve responsiveness, to maintain superior quality and to create chain balance. These chain goals are tested against the perception of 4828 consumers from six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. As a result, the vision of traditional food chains is developed: the European traditional food sector envisions a competitive sector maintaining the traditional

  15. Método para análise de benefícios em cadeias de suprimento: um estudo de caso A method to analyze benefits in supply chain benefits: a case study un the brazilian dairy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cezar Leandro Scramim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um método para realizar análises quantitativas de desempenho de configurações operacionais alternativas, em cadeias de suprimentos empresariais. Este método propõe integrar, em um único framework de análise, os conceitos advindos da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos e de sistemas de custeios gerenciais. O trabalho propõe a operacionalização do método por meio da utilização dos conhecimentos advindos da abordagem conhecida como system dynamics (SD. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso junto a uma Cooperativa de Laticínios do interior do Estado de São Paulo, no qual modelos de simulação foram construídos, baseados na análise prévia dos elementos do sistema. Deste modo, tornou-se possível examinar as relações de causalidade por meio da construção de cenários alternativos e controle sistemático das variáveis pesquisadas. Do exame dos cenários alternativos e do desempenho do sistema frente aos "distúrbios" aos quais as variáveis são submetidas, natureza do processo de simulação, pôde-se ganhar um maior aprendizado sobre o sistema em estudo.This paper proposes an analytical method, based on a framework that integrates the concepts of Supply Chain Management and Cost Management Systems, to study and restructure Brazilian agricultural supply chains. Using systemic reasoning and the system dynamics (SD approach, the proposed method was applied to Brazil's dairy sector to quantitatively analyze the performance of organizational and technical configurations of the sector's economic agents. A network of companies in Brazil's dairy supply chain was defined in terms of an SD model, which indicated that the impact of actions on the agents' production costs can be forecasted before such actions are taken, conferring greater consistency on the study. The network consisted of four representative groups of rural producers and a dairy company. Input data were based on a network

  16. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    The light chain isotype of immunoglobulin-secreting blood cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays allowing direct immunofluorescence staining for cytoplasmic kappa and lambda light chains in centre cells. The study revealed that cultured, polyclonally activated...

  17. Fuzzy bi-criteria decision making approach for supplier selection and distribution network planning in supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Kanika; Govindan, Kannan; Jha, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is to coordinate and integrate material and information within and across organizations. Supplier selection is evaluated as a critical factor for the firms desiring improved and successful supply chain in the process of product realization that starts from the purcha...

  18. Spatial distributions and deposition chronology of short chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments across the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Chen, Ru; Zhao, Zongshan; Wang, Thanh; Gao, Yan; Li, An; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin; Sun, Liguang

    2013-10-15

    As the most complex halogenated contaminants, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are scarcely reported in marine environments. In this work, a total of 117 surficial sediment (0-3 cm) samples and two sediment cores were collected from the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas to systematically study the spatial and temporal trends of SCCPs at a large scale in the Chinese marine environment. Total SCCP concentrations in the surficial sediments were in the range of 14.5-85.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight, d.w.) with an average level of 38.4 ng g(-1) d.w. Spatial distribution showed a decreasing trend with the distance from the coast to the open waters. Compositional pattern analysis suggested that C10 was the most predominant homologue group, followed by C11, C12, and C13 homologue groups. The concentrations of total SCCPs in sediment cores ranged from 11.6 to 94.7 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS1 and from 14.7 to 195.6 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS2, with sharp rise from the early 1950s to present based on (210)Pb dating technique. The historical records in cores correspond well to the production and usage changes of CPs in China. Multivariate regression statistics indicate TOC, latitude and longitude are the major factors influencing surficial SCCP levels in the Chinese East Seas by combining analysis with the data from the East China Sea (R(2) = 0.332, p < 0.01). These findings indicated that the sources of SCCPs were mainly from river outflows via ocean current and partly from atmospheric depositions by East Asian monsoon in the sampling areas.

  19. The distribution of lung cancer across sectors of society in the United Kingdom: a study using national primary care data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyen-Omofoman Barbara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is pressing need to diagnose lung cancer earlier in the United Kingdom (UK and it is likely that research using computerised general practice records will help this process. Linkage of these records to area-level geo-demographic classifications may also facilitate case ascertainment for public health programmes, however, there have as yet been no extensive studies of data validity for such purposes. Methods To first address the need for validation, we assessed the completeness and representativeness of lung cancer data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN national primary care database by comparing incidence and survival between 2000 and 2009 with the UK National Cancer Registry and the National Lung Cancer Audit Database. Secondly, we explored the potential of a geo-demographic social marketing tool to facilitate disease ascertainment by using Experian's Mosaic Public Sector ™ classification, to identify detailed profiles of the sectors of society where lung cancer incidence was highest. Results Overall incidence of lung cancer (41.4/100, 000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 40.6-42.1 and median survival (232 days were similar to other national data; The incidence rate in THIN from 2003-2006 was found to be just over 93% of the national cancer registry rate. Incidence increased considerably with area-level deprivation measured by the Townsend Index and was highest in the North-West of England (65.1/100, 000 person-years. Wider variations in incidence were however identified using Mosaic classifications with the highest incidence in Mosaic Public Sector ™types 'Cared-for pensioners, ' 'Old people in flats' and 'Dignified dependency' (191.7, 174.2 and 117.1 per 100, 000 person-years respectively. Conclusions Routine electronic data in THIN are a valid source of lung cancer information. Mosaic ™ identified greater incidence differentials than standard area-level measures and as such could be used as a tool

  20. Spatial Analysis of the Distribution of Small Businesses in the Eastern Villages of Gilan Province with Emphasis on the Tourism Sector in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hajilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of small businesses in rural areas as a key strategy for sustaining the population and improving the quality of life of villagers has always been a concern for many developed and developing countries. Some rural areas provide their villagers with favorable conditions for the development of businesses in order to enjoy the potential in the field of tourism. Sustainable development in these areas can be achieved with systematic attention and planning. In the present work, the spatial analysis of the distribution of small businesses in the eastern parts of Gilan Province was studied with an emphasis on tourism in mountainous regions. The study population consisted of all villages in the east part of Gilan Province, and the sample included all businesses officially supported by the Omid Entrepreneurship Fund. The research method was a descriptive analytic in which GIS software and the G statistic were used for the analysis of spatial correlation, clustering, hot and cold spots analysis and buffer zones. Finally, the results of the study showed that the spatial distribution of businesses in different economic sectors (agriculture, industry, services and tourism were different between 2011 and 2016 in the way the cluster pattern was formed in agricultural and service activities. A cluster pattern cannot be considered in the tourism and industrial activities, but there is a random (point pattern; in this regard, the results indicate the importance of the factor of distance between the village and the city center in the distribution of tourism businesses. In addition, the highest levels of support for businesses were in the agricultural and services sectors, while the lowest support was in industry and tourism. Finally, the results showed that the distribution of businesses in all activities was much higher in the plains and valleys as compared to the mountainous and hill areas.

  1. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  2. Relative efficiency of the electric power distribution sector in Peru: an application of data envelopment analysis (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifaz, José Luis; Santin, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es analizar empíricamente la eficiencia técnica relativa de las empresas que operaron en el sector de distribución de energía eléctrica en el Perú, en el período 1995-1998. La metodología empleada para estimar la eficiencia técnica se basa en el análisis envolvente de datos (DEA). La DEA construye, mediante técnicas de programación lineal y a partir de las mejores prácticas observadas, la frontera de producción con respecto a la cual se evalúa la eficiencia de cada...

  3. The probability distribution of side-chain conformations in [Leu] and [Met]enkephalin determines the potency and selectivity to mu and delta opiate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Bohr, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The structure of enkephalin, a small neuropeptide with five amino acids, has been simulated on computers using molecular dynamics. Such simulations exhibit a few stable conformations, which also have been identified experimentally. The simulations provide the possibility to perform cluster analysis...... in the space defined by potentially pharmacophoric measures such as dihedral angles, side-chain orientation, etc. By analyzing the statistics of the resulting clusters, the probability distribution of the side-chain conformations may be determined. These probabilities allow us to predict the selectivity...... of [Leu]enkephalin and [Met]enkephalin to the known mu- and delta-type opiate receptors to which they bind as agonists. Other plausible consequences of these probability distributions are discussed in relation to the way in which they may influence the dynamics of the synapse....

  4. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  5. On the distribution of silicic acid as a frontal zone tracer in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prego

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The subantarctic frontal zone surveyed during the April-May 1991 SUZIL cruise in the Crozet-Kerguelen-Amsterdam area shows a strong horizontal (north to south gradient of dissolved silicate, increasing with depth, from 5 to 10 µmolSi kg-1 at 100 m, and 10 to 70 µmolSi kg-1 at 600 m. The northern limit of this frontal zone, which is formed by the confluence of the Subtropical and Subantarctic Fronts, is delimited at the surface by the 2 µmolSi kg-1 silicate isoline. Silicate-salinity diagrams also allow different water regimes to be positioned relative to the frontal zone. This sloping interface is between two water bodies, one to the north with more saline subtropical waters of less concentrated silicate than the southern one, corresponding to subantarctic waters which are less saline and richer in silicate. It is concluded that dissolved silicate can be used as a useful tracer of frontal zone water masses in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, providing a sound complement to other hydrographic data.

  6. Microenvironments and anomalous benthic foraminiferal distribution within the neritic regime of the Dabhol-Vengurla sector (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.

    (15) at 51 m and Miliolid group in station 18 at 25 m depth. The lateral distribution is characterised by a low total species number (TSN) but high total foraminiferal number (TFN) wherein at stations 6, 1, 12 and 26 @iTrochammina inflata@@; @i...

  7. Federative competence conflicts in the natural gas sector distribution; Conflitos de competencias federativas no ambito da distribuicao do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Adriano; Nunes, Alessandro; Nascimento, Juliana; Gois, Luciana; Jardim, Mariana; Moura, Tacio; Campos, Vitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    This essay intends to broach the role played by the federative agents in the natural gas distribution regulation and analyses the conflict arisen from the new script of the article 25, para. 2nd of the Constitution, given by the amendment 5/95. For this, it is necessary to make a brief expose of the different types of non-tributary federative scope distribution and also to talk over about the natural problems from the lack of a clear appraisal of what canalized gas is, defining the state jurisdiction's object. Only then, it is possible to analyse its limits on the canalized gas local services distribution. In this context, it is evident that the role played by the state regulatory agent in promoting a favourable environment to the competition searching for alternatives concerning the problems of the natural monopoly. Equally important, is the study case of Amazonas, in which is enlightened the position of certain agencies and state agents when their constitutional sphere of influence is extrapolated. For the reasons exposed, it is imperative to improve the current forensic model to guarantee a more effective Union participation, at least to assure a minimum level of regulatory uniformization among the federative states. (author)

  8. Distributed power production in Mexico and Argentina: what are the new perspectives linked with the institutional reforms of the electric power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, J.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the power systems are made from the progressive aggregation of small size local networks. Todays, this structure shows its limitations with an apparent exhausting of the gains linked with the size of production units, with the increasing difficulties to develop new transportation infrastructures, and with a fast performance improvement of the modular production technologies under the effect of the deregulation of the electric sector and of the policies of greenhouse gases abatement. Thus, it is not excluded that the distributed power production systems (i.e. gas and diesel engines, micro-turbines, small gas turbines and combined cycles, fuel cells, technologies using renewable energy sources) will play a more and more important role in the power supply, beside big production facilities. The factors influencing the development of these technologies can greatly change from one country to the other but some common established factors remain such as the search for a better reliability of supplies, the implementation of policies against climatic change or the deregulation of the electrical sector. The influence of these different factors are examined in this document which stresses more particularly on the consequences of the liberalization of network industries by using first, an analysis of the international experience, and then by examining the particular cases of Mexico and Argentina. (J.S.)

  9. A study of the distribution, structure and seismic stratigraphy of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments in the Faroe sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olavsdottir, Jana

    Emplacement of the Cenozoic sediments in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin appear to be controlled by decelerating thermal subsidence of the basin, and local uplift of sediment source areas. However, the actual distribution of sediments appears to be controlled by re-activation...... of older, Mesozoic structural elements controlling the sediment path way and restricting the depositional areas. The structural elements being re-activated at different times causing considerable structural complexity. Understanding older, Mesozoic, structural elements control on sedimentation...... is a potential tool understanding deviations from “normal” thermal subsidence and for predicting the prospectivity in syn- and post-rift succession in the Faroe-Shetland Basin. On top of the basalt in the Faroe-Shetland Basin there is deposited up to 3.5 km thick sedimentary package, which led into the basin...

  10. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliala, Andreasta; Hort, Krishna; Trisnantoro, Laksono

    2013-04-01

    As in many countries, the geographic distribution of the health workforce in Indonesia is unequal, with a concentration in urban and more developed areas, and a scarcity in rural and remote areas. There is less information on the distribution of specialist doctors, yet inequalities in their distribution could compromise efforts to achieve universal coverage by 2014. This paper uses data from 2007 and 2008 to describe the geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia, and to examine two key factors that influence the distribution and are targets of current policies: sources of income for specialist doctors, and specialist doctor engagement in private practice. The data demonstrates large differences in the ratio of specialist doctors to population among the provinces of Indonesia, with higher ratios on the provinces of the islands of Java, and much lower ratios on the more remote provinces in eastern Indonesia. Between 65% and 80% of specialist doctors' income derives from private practice in non-state hospitals or private clinics. Despite regulations limiting practice locations to three, most specialists studied in a provincial capital city were working in more than three locations, with some working in up to 7 locations, and spending only a few hours per week in their government hospital practice. Our study demonstrates that the current regulatory policies and financial incentives have not been effective in addressing the maldistribution of specialist doctors in a context of a growing private sector and predominance of doctors' income from private sources. A broader and more integrated policy approach, including more innovative service delivery strategies for rural and remote areas, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A suite for developing and using business games : Supporting supply chain business games in a distributed context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, S.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Managing today's multi-actor systems, such as supply chains, is becoming an increasingly challenging task given developments in the markets, e.g. globalization, and in technology, e.g. the Internet. Today's managers are faced with increasing competition and globalization in an ever increasingly

  12. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  13. Issues and challenges of the development of petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria; Les enjeux et les defis du developpement du secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akretche, Said

    2010-09-15

    The petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria is experiencing profound changes. The economic growth has brought an increase and a diversification of petroleum products consumption. Reforms on the opening of the sector to competition and regulations have allowed progress, especially in the promotion of clean products. Naftal invested in a transformation and modernization process to adapt to the new context and align itself with the worldwide best practices. This plan expects important investments for the promotion of clean products and the development of a ducting transport network to limit the environmental damage. [French] Le secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie connait des mutations profondes. La croissance economique a induit une augmentation et une diversification de la consommation des produits petroliers. Les reformes portant ouverture du secteur a la concurrence et regulation ont permis des avancees notamment dans la promotion des produits propres. Naftal a engage un processus de transformation et modernisation pour s'adapter au nouveau contexte et s'aligner sur les meilleures pratiques mondiales. Ce plan prevoit d'importants investissements pour la promotion des produits propres et la realisation d'un reseau de transport par canalisation pour limiter les atteintes environnementales.

  14. Distribution of conductive minerals as associated with uranium minerals at Dendang Arai sector by induced polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Nikijuluw, N.; Subardjo; Sudarto, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on previous investigation results, a favourable zone of 20-80 meters in wide, 80-240 meters in length and in the direction of East-West to Northwest-Southeast was found. The favourable zone is conductor, associated with sulfide. Induced polarization method has been applied to find vertical and horizontal sulfide distribution. The measurement was conducted in perpendicular to lateral direction of the conductive zone in an interval of 20 meters. Properties measured are apparent resistivity and charge ability. Measurement results indicated the presence of sulfide zone with the position and dip are sub-vertical. Sulfide zones were found on the fault cross-point with the directions being East-West to East South East-West North West by fault is North-South. This anomalies were then represented in 3 (three) dimension tomographic model. (author)

  15. The System Dynamics Model in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network with Three-Way Recovery and the Old-for-New Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the technological developments and rapid changes in demand pattern, diverse varieties of electronic products are entering into the market with reduced lifecycle which leads to the environmental problems. The awareness of electronic products take-back and recovery has been increasing in electronic products supply chains. In this paper, we build a system dynamics model for electronic products closed-loop supply chain distribution network with the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways, namely, electronic products remanufacturing, electronic component reuse and remanufacturing, and electronic raw material recovery. In the simulation study, we investigate the significance of various factors including the old-for-new policy, collection and remanufacturing, their interactions and the type of their impact on bullwhip, and profitability through sensitivity analysis. Our results instruct that the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways can reduce the bullwhip effect in the retailers and the distributors and increases the profitability in the closed-loop supply chain distribution network.

  16. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  17. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Markov chain; state space; stationary transition probability; stationary distribution; irreducibility; aperiodicity; stationarity; M-H algorithm; proposal distribution; acceptance probability; image processing; Gibbs sampler.

  18. Influence of elastic-like relaxation on the size distribution of monatomic Ag chains on the steps of a vicinal Pt surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, V.I.; Dreysse, H.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the statistics of the chains of Ag atoms self-assembled on the steps of a vicinal Pt surface as established experimentally and calculated within a lattice gas model by Gambardella et al. [Phys. Rev. B 73 (2006) 245425]. We suggest that the discrepancy between the theory and experiment may be due to additional interatomic interactions inside the clusters unaccounted for in the model. Our consideration is based on an exactly solvable one-dimensional equilibrium model of self-assembly proposed by us recently. We argue that the model provides an adequate approximate description of the Ag/Pt system and show that the chain length distribution in the model can be fitted to the experimental data with high accuracy

  19. Markov Tail Chains

    OpenAIRE

    janssen, Anja; Segers, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The extremes of a univariate Markov chain with regularly varying stationary marginal distribution and asymptotically linear behavior are known to exhibit a multiplicative random walk structure called the tail chain. In this paper we extend this fact to Markov chains with multivariate regularly varying marginal distributions in Rd. We analyze both the forward and the backward tail process and show that they mutually determine each other through a kind of adjoint relation. In ...

  20. ANÁLISIS SOBRE EL INCUMPLIMIENTO DE LA NORMATIVIDAD VIGENTE FRENTE A LA CADENA DE FRÍO EN LA RED DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LAS PYMES DEL SECTOR CÁRNICO DE BOVINOS EN BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ALEXANDRA CARVAJAL URIBE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research conducted under the Research «Optimizing distribution chain conglomerate SMEs cattle meat industry Bogotá D.C.» which in this document focus only one the findings on the regulatory compliance of some companies in the meat sector SMEs cattle in Bogotá, regarding the management of the cold chain.

  1. The interplay between transient a-helix formation and side chain rotamer distributions in disordered proteins probed by methyl chemical shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2011-01-01

    and retinoid receptors (ACTR). We find that small differences in the methyl carbon chemical shifts due to the ¿-gauche effect may provide information about the side chain rotamer distributions. However, the effects of neighboring residues on the methyl group chemical shifts obscure the direct observation...... of ¿-gauche effect. To overcome this, we reference the chemical shifts to those in a more disordered state resulting in residue specific random coil chemical shifts. The (13)C secondary chemical shifts of the methyl groups of valine, leucine, and isoleucine show sequence specific effects, which allow...

  2. Distribution of medium-chain FA in different lipid classes after administration of specific structured TAG in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Structured TAG (STAG) containing medium-chain FA (MCFA) in the sn-1,3 positions and essential FA in the sn-2 position were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis. In our previous studies we found that part of the MCFA from STAG could be absorbed in the small intestine; however, it was unclear...... how they were absorbed. In order to get a better understanding of the metabolism of STAG to improve future design and application of STAG, in the present study lymph lipids collected after feeding STAG were fractionated into different classes and the FA composition of each lipid class was studied...

  3. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  4. Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain Distributed Generation Through Non-Conventional Fuels and Fuel Cells

    CERN Document Server

    McPhail, Stephen J; Moreno, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of fossils fuels becomes more limited, the negative impact of their consumption becomes an increasingly relevant factor in our choices with regards to primary energy sources. The exponentially increasing demand for energy is reflected in the mass generation of by-products and waste flows which characterize current society’s development and use of fossil sources. The potential for recoverable material and energy in these ever-increasing refuse flows is huge, even after the separation of hazardous constituent elements, allowing safe and sustainable further exploitation of an otherwise 'wasted' resource.  Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores the concept of waste-to-energy through a 5 step process which reflects the stages during the transformation of  refuse flows to a valuable commodity such as clean energy. By providing selected, integrated alternatives to the current centralized, wasteful, fossil-fuel based infrastructure, Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores ho...

  5. Economy, market and chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects

  6. [Healthcare value chain: a model for the Brazilian healthcare system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Malik, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    This article presents a model of the healthcare value chain which consists of a schematic representation of the Brazilian healthcare system. The proposed model is adapted for the Brazilian reality and has the scope and flexibility for use in academic activities and analysis of the healthcare sector in Brazil. It places emphasis on three components: the main activities of the value chain, grouped in vertical and horizontal links; the mission of each link and the main value chain flows. The proposed model consists of six vertical and three horizontal links, amounting to nine. These are: knowledge development; supply of products and technologies; healthcare services; financial intermediation; healthcare financing; healthcare consumption; regulation; distribution of healthcare products; and complementary and support services. Four flows can be used to analyze the value chain: knowledge and innovation; products and services; financial; and information.

  7. Visualizing changes in electron distribution in coupled chains of cytochrome bc(1) by modifying barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieluch, Ewelina; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2010-02-01

    Cytochrome c(1) of Rhodobacter (Rba.) species provides a series of mutants which change barriers for electron transfer through the cofactor chains of cytochrome bc(1) by modifying heme c(1) redox midpoint potential. Analysis of post-flash electron distribution in such systems can provide useful information about the contribution of individual reactions to the overall electron flow. In Rba. capsulatus, the non-functional low-potential forms of cytochrome c(1) which are devoid of the disulfide bond naturally present in this protein revert spontaneously by introducing a second-site suppression (mutation A181T) that brings the potential of heme c(1) back to the functionally high levels, yet maintains it some 100 mV lower from the native value. Here we report that the disulfide and the mutation A181T can coexist in one protein but the mutation exerts a dominant effect on the redox properties of heme c(1) and the potential remains at the same lower value as in the disulfide-free form. This establishes effective means to modify a barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c(1) without breaking disulfide. A comparison of the flash-induced electron transfers in native and mutated cytochrome bc(1) revealed significant differences in the post-flash equilibrium distribution of electrons only when the connection of the chains with the quinone pool was interrupted at the level of either of the catalytic sites by the use of specific inhibitors, antimycin or myxothiazol. In the non-inhibited system no such differences were observed. We explain the results using a kinetic model in which a shift in the equilibrium of one reaction influences the equilibrium of all remaining reactions in the cofactor chains. It follows a rather simple description in which the direction of electron flow through the coupled chains of cytochrome bc(1) exclusively depends on the rates of all reversible partial reactions, including the Q/QH2 exchange rate to/from the catalytic sites

  8. Supply Chain Management In Construction Revealed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction supply chain plays a major role in the construction market competition. Construction supply chain management assists enterprises by helping to improve competitiveness increase profits and have more control over the different factors and variables within the project. This paper discusses the construction supply chain characteristics challenges and problems supply chains encounter and the benefits of an integrated supply chain in the construction sector.

  9. Supply Chain Management In Construction Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2017-01-01

    The construction supply chain plays a major role in the construction market competition. Construction supply chain management assists enterprises by helping to improve competitiveness increase profits and have more control over the different factors and variables within the project. This paper discusses the construction supply chain characteristics challenges and problems supply chains encounter and the benefits of an integrated supply chain in the construction sector.

  10. Implementing a Healthy Food Distribution Program: A Supply Chain Strategy to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Access in Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Kwan, Allison; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Gutierrez, Luis; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2018-05-24

    Increasing access to fresh produce in small retail venues could improve the diet of people in underserved communities. However, small retailers face barriers to stocking fresh produce. In 2014, an innovative distribution program, Community Markets Purchasing Real and Affordable Foods (COMPRA), was launched in Los Angeles with the aim of making it more convenient and profitable for small retailers to stock fresh produce. Our case study describes the key processes and lessons learned in the first 2 years of implementing COMPRA. Considerable investments in staff capacity and infrastructure were needed to launch COMPRA. Early successes included significant week-to-week increases in the volume of produce distributed. Leveraging partnerships, maintaining a flexible operational and funding structure, and broadly addressing store owners' needs contributed to initial gains. We describe key challenges and next steps to scaling the program. Lessons learned from implementing COMPRA could inform other jurisdictions considering supply-side approaches to increase access to healthy food.

  11. An integrated supply chain inventory model with imperfect-quality items, controllable lead time and distribution-free demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hsien-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an integrated vendor-buyer inventory policy for a continuous review model with a random number of defective items and screening process gradually at a fixed screening rate in buyer’s arriving order lot. We assume that shortages are allowed and partially backlogged on the buyer’s side, and that the lead time demand distribution is unknown, except its first two moments. The objective is to apply the minmax distribution free approach to determine the optimal order quantity, reorder point, lead time and the number of lots delivered in one production run simultaneously so that the expected total system cost is minimized. Numerical experiments along with sensitivity analysis were performed to illustrate the effects of parameters on the decision and the total system cost.

  12. Distribution and Outcomes of a Phenotype-Based Approach to Guide COPD Management: Results from the CHAIN Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja G Cosio

    Full Text Available The Spanish guideline for COPD (GesEPOC recommends COPD treatment according to four clinical phenotypes: non-exacerbator phenotype with either chronic bronchitis or emphysema (NE, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS, frequent exacerbator phenotype with emphysema (FEE or frequent exacerbator phenotype with chronic bronchitis (FECB. However, little is known on the distribution and outcomes of the four suggested phenotypes.We aimed to determine the distribution of these COPD phenotypes, and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes.We followed a cohort of well-characterized patients with COPD up to one-year. Baseline characteristics, health status (CAT, BODE index, rate of exacerbations and mortality up to one year of follow-up were compared between the four phenotypes.Overall, 831 stable COPD patients were evaluated. They were distributed as NE, 550 (66.2%; ACOS, 125 (15.0%; FEE, 38 (4.6%; and FECB, 99 (11.9%; additionally 19 (2.3% COPD patients with frequent exacerbations did not fulfill the criteria for neither FEE nor FECB. At baseline, there were significant differences in symptoms, FEV1 and BODE index (all p<0.05. The FECB phenotype had the highest CAT score (17.1±8.2, p<0.05 compared to the other phenotypes. Frequent exacerbator groups (FEE and FECB were receiving more pharmacological treatment at baseline, and also experienced more exacerbations the year after (all p<0.05 with no differences in one-year mortality. Most of NE (93% and half of exacerbators were stable after one year.There is an uneven distribution of COPD phenotypes in stable COPD patients, with significant differences in demographics, patient-centered outcomes and health care resources use.

  13. Distribution in the abundance and biomass of shelled pteropods in surface waters of the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean in mid-summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiha, Fumihiro; Hashida, Gen; Makabe, Ryosuke; Hattori, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    We investigated shelled pteropod abundance and biomass with a 100-μm closing net, and their estimated downward fluxes using a sediment trap installed in a drifter buoy in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean during the austral summer. Over 90% pteropod abundance was distributed in the upper 50 m; 70-100% were immature veligers. Limacina retroversa was dominant in the >0.2 mm individuals north of 60°S, L. helicina dominated south of 62°S, while populations around 60-62°S were mixed. Unidentifiable small Limacina spp. (ssL) were highly abundant in the upper 50 m at 60°S, 63°S, and 64°S on 110°E and 63°S on 115°E, although their estimated particulate organic carbon (POC) biomasses were less than that of Limacina adults. Adult females bearing egg clusters were found in the 0-50 m layer; the veligers likely grew within a short period. The mean downward flux of ssL and veligers at 70 m around 60°S, 110°E was 5.1 ± 1.6 × 103 ind. m-2 d-1 (0.6 ± 0.2 mg C m-2 d-1), which was 3.8% of the integrated ssL and veligers in the upper 70 m, suggesting that at least 4% of the veligers were produced daily in the surface layers. The mid-summer spawned ssL and veligers likely contributed to the subsequent increase in large pteropods in the area.

  14. Two-sector disequilibrium growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.B.L.M. Verbeek (Jos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the effects of (i) profit distribution to either laborers or capital-owners, (ii) sector-specific or efficient rationing schemes, and (iii) government consumption in a two-sector disequilibrium growth model with sluggish real wage rate adjustment (which affects capital

  15. Distribution and congener profiles of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor/outdoor glass window surface films and their film-air partitioning in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of n-alkanes with carbon chain length of 10-13. In this work, paired indoor/outdoor samples of organic films on window glass surfaces from urban buildings in Beijing, China, were collected to measure the concentrations and congener distributions of SCCPs. The total SCCP levels ranged from 337 ng/m(2) to 114 μg/m(2), with total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of 365 μg/m(2)-365 mg/m(2). Overall, the concentrations of SCCPs on the interior films were higher than the concentrations on the exterior films, suggesting an important indoor environmental exposure of SCCPs to the general public. A significant linear relationship was found between the SCCP concentrations and TOC, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.34 (p film-air partitioning model suggests that the indoor gas-phase SCCPs are related to their corresponding window film levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Choice of models and data availability for the efficiency analysis of the Dutch distribution and supply companies in the electricity sector. Background document of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Huggins, M.; Riechmann, C.; Weyman-Jones, T.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the title subject. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to the most appropriate models by means of which the efficiency of the electricity companies in the Netherlands can be analyzed

  17. Calculation of neutron interior source distribution within subcritical fission-chain reacting systems for a prescribed power density generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Leonardo R.C.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are sub-critical systems stabilized by stationary external sources of neutrons. A system is subcritical when the removal by absorption and leakage exceeds the production by fission and tends to shut down. On the other hand, any subcritical system can be stabilized by including time-independent external sources of neutrons. The goal of this work is to determine the intensity of uniform and isotropic sources of neutrons that must be added inside all fuel regions of a subcritical system so that it becomes stabilized, generating a prescribed distribution of electric power. A computer program has been developed in Java language to estimate the intensity of stationary sources of neutrons that must be included in the fuel regions to drive the subcritical system with a fixed power distribution prescribed by the user. The mathematical model used to achieve this goal was the energy multigroup, slab-geometry neutron transport equation in the discrete ordinates (S N ) formulation and the response matrix method was applied to solve the forward and the adjoint S N problems. Numerical results are given to verify the present. (author)

  18. Calculation of neutron interior source distribution within subcritical fission-chain reacting systems for a prescribed power density generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Leonardo R.C.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: lrcmoraes@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: ricardob@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are sub-critical systems stabilized by stationary external sources of neutrons. A system is subcritical when the removal by absorption and leakage exceeds the production by fission and tends to shut down. On the other hand, any subcritical system can be stabilized by including time-independent external sources of neutrons. The goal of this work is to determine the intensity of uniform and isotropic sources of neutrons that must be added inside all fuel regions of a subcritical system so that it becomes stabilized, generating a prescribed distribution of electric power. A computer program has been developed in Java language to estimate the intensity of stationary sources of neutrons that must be included in the fuel regions to drive the subcritical system with a fixed power distribution prescribed by the user. The mathematical model used to achieve this goal was the energy multigroup, slab-geometry neutron transport equation in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation and the response matrix method was applied to solve the forward and the adjoint S{sub N} problems. Numerical results are given to verify the present. (author)

  19. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  20. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  1. Chain-Length Distribution and Hydrogen Isotopic Fraction of n-alkyl Lipids in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants: Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Littlejohn, S.; Hou, J.; Toney, J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that in lacustrine sediments, aquatic plant lipids (e.g., C22-fatty acid) record lake water D/H ratio variation, while long-chain fatty acids (C26-C32, major components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes), record D/H ratios of precipitation (especially in arid regions). However, there are insufficient literature data for the distribution and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of n-alkyl lipids in aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we determined the chain-length distributions and D/H ratios of n-alkyl lipids from 17 aquatic plant species (9 emergent, 4 floating and 4 submerge species) and 13 terrestrial plant species (7 grasses and 6 trees) from Blood Pond, Massachusetts. Our results are consistent with previous studies and provide a solid basis for the paleoclimatic reconstruction using D/H ratios of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers. In addition, systematic hydrogen isotopic analyses on leaf waxes, leaf, stem and soil waters from trees and grasses significantly advance our understanding of our previously observed large D/H ratio difference between tree and grass leaf waxes. Our data indicate that the observed difference is not due to differences in leaf water D/H ratios. In comparison with grasses, trees use greater proportion of D-enriched residual or stored carbohydrates (as opposed to current photosynthetic carbohydrates) for leaf wax biosynthesis, resulting in higher leaf wax D/H ratios. The residual carbohydrates are enriched in deuterium because of the preferential consumption of light-hydrogen substrates during plant metabolism.

  2. Factores explicativos de las diferencias de eficiencia en el sector de la distribución en España: una aproximación paramétrica || Influence of Company Resources in Productive Efficiency: A Parametric Approach in the Distribution Sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jorge Moreno, Justo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se plantea como objetivo el análisis de la influencia que los recursos y capacidades de las empresas del sector de la distribución en España tienen para explicar la eficiencia productiva como medida de desempeño en el período 1997-2006 para un total de 42 sectores de actividad a 4 dígitos CNAE. Asimismo se ha prestado especial atención al sector de actividad y la localización de la empresa como factores de control del entorno. Los principales resultados alcanzados revelan que los recursos disponibles por las empresas del sector de la distribución son explicativos de los mayores niveles de eficiencia productiva en términos de performance alcanzados por estas. En particular, las diferencias de eficiencia se relacionan con mayores niveles de integración vertical, una mayor dotación de recursos materiales en términos de intensidad de capital y humanos medidos a través de una mayor retribución salarial. Finalmente, la localización de la empresa según la comunidad autónoma donde está ubicada es un factor a considerar como explicativo de las diferencias de eficiencia. || The objective of this work is the analysis of the influence that the resources and capabilities of companies in the distribution sector in Spain has to explain productive efficiency as a performance measure (in the period 1997-2006, for a total of 42 sectors of activity a 4-digit NACE. It also pays special attention to the sector and the location of the company as environmental control factors. The main results show that the resources made available by companies in the distribution sector explain the higher levels of production efficiency in terms of performance achieved by them. In particular, differences in efficiency are related to greater levels of vertical integration, greater provision of material resources in terms of intensity, and human capital as measured by higher salaries. Finally, the regional location of the company is a factor while

  3. New model for the regulation of activity and distribution in the Spanish electrical sector; Un nuevo modelo para la regulacion de la actividad de distribucion del sector electrico en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoso y Reino, V.

    1998-12-01

    In the context of the segregation of the product (kWh) and the service of electricity transport and distribution, the establishment of a retributive model for distribution becomes especially relevant, even fundamental within a free market for generators and consumers. The liberalization of distribution is established by means of the greed access of third parties to the network. Electricity distribution in Spain has traditionally be badly remunerated and incomes have not been sufficient to support the segregation of activities. These inequalities should be resolved by means of a retribution model for distribution that reflects the real cost of this activity and which contemplates the specific characteristics of the different zones of the market. (Author)

  4. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  5. Determination of the Regulatory Asset Base of power distribution companies. Background report of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjin, T.; Buitelaar, T.

    2000-02-01

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the subject of 'Price Cap Regulation in the Dutch Electricity Sector'. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to a method to determine the Regulatory Asset Base (RAB)

  6. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  7. Bioaccumulation of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a typical freshwater food web contaminated by e-waste in south china: Bioaccumulation factors, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Tang, Bin; Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Yu; Mai, Bixian

    2017-03-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem. SCCPs were detected in all of the investigated aquatic species at concentrations of 1700-95,000 ng/g lipid weight. The calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) varied from 2.46 to 3.49. The relationship between log BAF and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log K OW ) for benthopelagic omnivorous fish species followed the empirical model of bioconcentration, indicating that bioconcentration plays an important role in accumulation of SCCPs. In contrast, the relationship for the benthic carnivorous fish and invertebrates was not consistent with the empirical model of bioconcentration, implying that the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in these species could be more influenced by other complex factors (e.g., habitat and feeding habit). Preferential distribution in the liver rather than in other tissues (e.g., muscle, gills, skin, and kidneys) was noted for the SCCP congeners with higher log K OW , and bioaccumulation pathway (i.e. water or sediment) can affect the tissue distribution of SCCP congeners. SCCPs underwent trophic dilution in the aquatic food web, and the trophic magnification factor (TMF) values of SCCP congener groups significantly correlated with their corresponding log K OW values (p < 0.0001). The present study results improved our understanding on the environmental behavior and fate of SCCPs in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  9. Reshoring: Opportunities and Limits for Manufacturing in the UK – the case of the Auto Sector

    OpenAIRE

    David Bailey; Lisa De Propris

    2014-01-01

    ?In recent years, ‘offshoring’ and ‘outsourcing’ have transformed fundamentally nationally based auto sectors into global networks of design, production and distribution across the global value chains coordinated by the major automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). As manufacturing activities tended to be shifted to low-labour cost locations in Asia, Africa and Latin America, high-end design, R&D, product development have stayed anchored mostly to high-cost and high knowledge-inte...

  10. The Information Sector: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Marc U.

    In the last 20 years the U.S. economy had changed as a result of the increase in production, processing, and distribution of information goods and services. Three information sectors--the primary sector producing information goods and services, the private bureaucracy, and the public bureaucracy--are part of a six-sector economy. Today,…

  11. Falling chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...

  12. The Use of Supply Chains and Supply Chain Management in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Peter Schmitz

    supply chain management to guide the production of maps. Supply chain management can ... Distribution and logistics. Product flow. Information flow and Money. The Firm. Data from supplier(s) ..... In Global Supply Chains: Developing Skills ...

  13. Quantitative assessment of Azumiobodo hoyamushi distribution in the tunic of soft tunic syndrome-affected ascidian Halocynthia roretzi using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Kyung; Nam, Ki-Woong; Park, Kwan Ha; Yoon, Jong-Man; Park, Kyung-Il

    2014-11-26

    The kinetoplastid parasite, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, is the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome (STS) in ascidians and leads to their mass mortality in Korean waters. This study was conducted to quantify A. hoyamushi density during the development of STS in the tunics of ascidians (Halocynthia roretzi) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The infection intensity of A. hoyamushi, as measured by qPCR, varied depending on the part of the tunic analyzed, as well as the stage of STS development. The highest infection intensity was recorded in the tunics of the siphons. The infection intensity of A. hoyamushi in the siphons was only 2.9 cell/tunic (area, 0.25 cm(2)) or 106.0 cell/gram tunic (GT) in the early phase of STS, but this value increased dramatically to 16,066 cells/tunic (0.25 cm(2)) or 617,004 cell/GT at the time of death. The number of A. hoyamushi parasites increased gradually and their distribution spread from the siphons to the other parts of the tunics. qPCR enabled the quantitation of A. hoyamushi and the results revealed that parasite density increased as STS progressed. In addition, our results suggested that the siphons might function as the portal of entry for A. hoyamushi during infection.

  14. Congener-specific distribution and bioaccumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments and bivalves of the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xindong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Haijun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Ziwei; Chen, Jiping; Chen, Jingwen

    2014-02-15

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a new type of persistent organic pollutants that are of great environmental concern because of their wide distribution. In this study, surface sediments and bivalve samples were collected from the coastal area of the Bohai Sea in China. Total SCCP (ΣSCCP) concentrations in surface sediments and bivalves ranged from 97.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 1756.7 ng g(-1) dw and 476.4-3269.5 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. C10-CPs and C11-CPs were the predominant homologue groups in all sediments and bivalves. Specific congener composition analysis and correspondence analysis indicated that the local SCCP source mainly came from CP-42 and CP-52 products, and riverine input had an important function. The biota-sediment accumulation factors of ΣSCCPs for bivalves ranged from 1.08 to 1.61, and a significant correlation indicated that the SCCP congener with higher chlorination degree was more likely to be accumulated in bivalves. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Zhao Hongyan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Guan Dabo

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s top energy consumer, China is facing a great challenge to solve its energy supply issue. In this paper energy use from all industrial sectors in China’s economy of 2007 was explored by conducting an extended environmental input–output analysis. We compare the energy consumption embodied in the final demand for goods and services from 29 sectors with the energy demand required for the actual production process in each sector. Two different viewpoints for sectoral energy use have been presented: energy use is directly allocated to the producer entity, and energy use is reallocated to sector’s supply chain from consumption perspective. Our results show that considerable amount of energy use is embodied in the supply chain, especially for “Construction” and “Other Service Activities” sectors, which is not detected if energy use is allocated on a production basis. When further dividing embodied energy consumption into direct energy consumption and indirect energy consumption, total indirect energy consumption is much higher than that of total direct energy consumption, accounting for 80.6% of total embodied energy consumption in 2007. Our results provide a more holistic picture on sectoral energy consumption and therefore can help decision-makers make more appropriate policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid IO-LCA model was employed to analyze China’s energy use at sectoral level. ► A case study on China’s sectoral energy consumption is done. ► Construction and service sectors are actually energy intensive from the supply chain perspectives. ► Upstream and downstream ectoral collaboration along the whole supply chain is necessary. ► Energy conservation policies should be based upon a comprehensive analysis on sectoral energy use.

  16. Health Care Provider Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kawczynski , Lukasz; Taisch , Marco

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In every society there is a need for an efficient health care system. This paper aims to propose a value definition and a value chain model within the health care. In order to define value patients and experts were surveyed. The proposed definition offers a complex way of looking at the value within the health care sector. The proposal of the value chain model is anticipated with a value stream mapping activities and experts interviews. Proposed model offers consistent...

  17. The Climate Change and Rwandan Coffee Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Hakorimana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the

  18. [The productive sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Encarna; Fernández, Alberto; Daponte, Antonio; Aguilera, I

    2004-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation). Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  19. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  20. PNGMDR 2013-2015. 2015 report by the 'optimisation of the distribution of wastes among management sectors' work-group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    PNGMDR is the French national plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes. After a discussion of the stakes associated with the optimisation of the different sectors involved in radioactive waste management (production, sorting, processing, packaging, warehousing, storage), this reports proposes a description of wastes for which a sector optimisation study has been performed (graphite wastes, Marcoule bitumen packages, common solid residues, cemented solid wastes in concrete containers from Areva La Hague), describes the various studies optimisation ways and alternate scenarios for these different wastes. It analyses and discusses the progress status of the studies optimisation ways: improvement of the characterisation of graphite and bituminous wastes, studies and works on the storage of low-level-long-lived wastes, studies on the processing of graphite wastes, of bituminous packages and common solid residues. Other issues are evoked: the case of wastes produced by dismantling operations, and a technical-economic approach. Perspectives and future works are discussed for the different considered wastes

  1. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  2. Animal health and price transmission along livestock supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragrande, M; Canali, M

    2017-04-01

    Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. However, empirical studies show that food markets are often imperfect, with anomalies or asymmetries in price transmission and distortions in the distribution of market benefits. This means, for instance, that a price increase at the consumer level may not be transmitted from retailers to processors and producers; yet, on the other hand, price falls may rapidly affect the upstream supply chain. Market concentration and the consequent exertion of market power in key segments of the supply chain can explain price transmission asymmetries and their distributional effects, but other factors may also be involved, such as transaction costs, scale economies, and imperfect information. During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, asymmetric price transmission in the beef supply chain and related meat markets determined distributional effects among sectors. After the spread of the BSE food scare, the fall in demand marginally affected the price paid to retailers, but producers and wholesalers suffered much more, in both price reductions and the time needed to recover to precrisis demand. Price transmission analysis investigates how animal health crises create different economic burdens for various types of stakeholder, and provides useful socioeconomic insights when used with other tools.

  3. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  4. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  5. Regulation of the natural gas distribution sector: a comparison of Brazilian and Colombian industries; Regulacao do setor de distribuicao de gas natural: uma comparacao dos casos brasileiro e colombiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Mariana Peralva; Ferraro, Marcelo Colomer [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Bolivia oil industry nationalization in 2006 and the high price of oil on the international market called the public and government attention to the problems of the natural gas industry regulation in Brazil. Recently, the establishment of a specific law for the natural gas industry had been debated in academic circles and in government institutions. In Brazil, the absence of an integrated energy policy and the absence of a homogeneous regulatory framework interfere with natural gas industry development, especially in distribution. Thus, the objective of the work will be contrast the Colombia distribution natural gas regulatory structure sector to the Brazilian natural gas regulatory framework. The comparison of the Brazilian regulatory framework and the Colombian natural gas regulation shows that the existence of different kinds of concession contracts in distribution is one of the explanations for the different levels of investment in Brazil. The contract with exclusive right to explore the distribution service in geographic territories also contributes to explain the low coverage rate of public distribution companies. Thus, the rapid expansion of the natural gas distribution network in Colombia after the regulatory reforms shows the importance of the establishment of a regulatory structure to push private investment. The Colombian case can be considered a good model for other countries in South America, especially to the natural gas distribution regulation. (author)

  6. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A; Alsberg, Tomas; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2017-09-19

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a "congener group" C n Cl m . Recently, we resolved individual C n Cl m by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying C n Cl m by introducing C n Cl m specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each C n Cl m are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were -0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q-Orbitrap-MS. C n Cl m concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R 2 > 0.90) with each other.

  7. Mathematical algorithm to relate digital maps of distribution of biomass with algorithms of linear programming to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  8. Mathematical algorithm to transform digital biomass distribution maps into linear programming networks in order to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  9. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation. Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  10. The distribution pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae in the peridomiciles of a sector with canine and human visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Dracena, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osias Rangel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The specimen distribution pattern of a species can be used to characterise a population of interest and also provides area-specific guidance for pest management and control. In the municipality of Dracena, in the state of São Paulo, we analysed 5,889 Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens collected from the peridomiciles of 14 houses in a sector where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is transmitted to humans and dogs. The goal was to analyse the dispersion and a theoretical fitting of the species occurrence probability. From January-December 2005, samples were collected once per week using CDC light traps that operated for 12-h periods. Each collection was considered a sub-sample and was evaluated monthly. The standardised Morisita index was used as a measure of dispersion. Adherence tests were performed for the log-series distribution. The number of traps was used to adjust the octave plots. The quantity of Lu. longipalpis in the sector was highly aggregated for each month of the year, adhering to a log-series distribution for 11 of the 12 months analysed. A sex-stratified analysis demonstrated a pattern of aggregated dispersion adjusted for each month of the year. The classes and frequencies of the traps in octaves can be employed as indicators for entomological surveillance and AVL control.

  11. The distribution pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the peridomiciles of a sector with canine and human visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Dracena, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Osias; Sampaio, Susy Mary Perpetuo; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mario de Carvalho; Holcman, Marcia Moreira

    2012-03-01

    The specimen distribution pattern of a species can be used to characterise a population of interest and also provides area-specific guidance for pest management and control. In the municipality of Dracena, in the state of São Paulo, we analysed 5,889 Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens collected from the peridomiciles of 14 houses in a sector where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is transmitted to humans and dogs. The goal was to analyse the dispersion and a theoretical fitting of the species occurrence probability. From January-December 2005, samples were collected once per week using CDC light traps that operated for 12-h periods. Each collection was considered a sub-sample and was evaluated monthly. The standardised Morisita index was used as a measure of dispersion. Adherence tests were performed for the log-series distribution. The number of traps was used to adjust the octave plots. The quantity of Lu. longipalpis in the sector was highly aggregated for each month of the year, adhering to a log-series distribution for 11 of the 12 months analysed. A sex-stratified analysis demonstrated a pattern of aggregated dispersion adjusted for each month of the year. The classes and frequencies of the traps in octaves can be employed as indicators for entomological surveillance and AVL control.

  12. Smart metering - new possibilities for energy distribution in the mass customer sector; Smart Metering - neue Moeglichkeiten fuer den Energievertrieb im Massenkundenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, T. [Simon-Kucher aand Partners GmbH, Wien (Austria); Hoffmann, S.O.; Rentschler, M.D. [Simon-Kucher and Partners Strategy and Marketing Consultants GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    As a result of the liberalisation of gas and electricity metering procedures energy suppliers are more and more turning their attention to innovative and intelligent metering techniques. Smart Metering allows energy suppliers to improve their metering processes while at the same time responding better to their customers' needs. These developments are also opening up new sales opportunities because intelligent meters facilitate the launch of new products in the mass customer sector. There is therefore much in favour of looking at this topic in greater detail.

  13. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  14. TNC-led Auto Industrialisation in Malaysia: An Empirical Value Chain Approach

    OpenAIRE

    小井川, 広志; OIKAWA, Hiroshi, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the development of the Malaysian automobile industry, particularly focusing on the development of Proton, a state-supported automobile company. The development was stimulated by technological and managerial assistance of Mitsubishi Motor Corporation, a Japanese Multinational car assembler. Based on value chain analysis, this study develops an input-output method to examine the value-added distribution between the Malaysian automobile industry and foreign sectors. The resul...

  15. Sustainability assessment of food chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Bastl, M.; Allaoui, H.

    2015-01-01

    Food chain logistics plays an important role in the sustainability performance of the food sector. Therefore, project SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems) started as a collaborative international project, aiming for tools and frameworks for the food sector to make a step change in

  16. Identification of a distinct type IV collagen α chain with restricted kidney distribution and assignment of its gene to the locus of X chromosome-linked Alport syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostikka, S.L.; Hoeyhtyae, M.; Tryggvason, K.; Eddy, R.L.; Byers, M.G.; Shows, T.B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified and extensively characterized a type IV collagen α chain, referred to as α5(IV). Four overlapping cDNA clones isolated contain an open reading frame for 543 amino acid residues of the carboxyl-terminal end of a collagenous domain, a 229-residue carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous domain, and 1201 base pairs coding for a 3' untranslated region. The collagenous Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeat sequence has five imperfections that coincide with those in the corresponding region of the α1(IV) chain. The noncollagenous domain has 12 conserved cysteine residues and 83% and 63% sequence identity with the noncollagenous domains of the α1(IV) and α2(IV) chains, respectively. The α5(IV) chain has less sequence identity with the putative bovine α3(IV) and α4(IV) chains. Antiserum against an α5(IV) synthetic peptide stained a polypeptide chain of about 185 kDa by immunoblot analysis and immunolocalization of the chain in human kidney was almost completely restricted to the glomerulus. The gene was assigned to the Xq22 locus by somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. This may be identical or close to the locus of the X chromosome-linked Alport syndrome that is believed to be a type IV collagen disease

  17. Architectures for Green-Field Supply Chain Integration: Supply Chain Integration Design

    OpenAIRE

    Radanliev, Petar

    2015-01-01

    This paper applied case study research to design architectures for green-field supply chain integration. The integration design is based on a case study of a supply chain integration of 5 companies, operating in different, but supply chain complimenting industry sectors. The case study research is applied to design and validate the architectures in a real world scenario. The supply\\ud chain integration architectures enable the conversion of individual into integrated strategies. The architect...

  18. As relações do projeto de produtos com a cadeia de suprimentos: um estudo de caso no setor de eletrodomésticos The relations between product design and supply chain: a case study in the home appliance sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristina dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é a investigação da cadeia de suprimentos como outra dimensão da engenharia simultânea no projeto de produtos. Com base na revisão da literatura, foram identificadas quatro dimensões de investigação de relacionamento do projeto de produtos com a cadeia de suprimentos: abordagem de processos de negócios, envolvimento de clientes no projeto de produtos, envolvimento dos fornecedores no projeto de produtos e modularização de produtos. Desenvolveu-se um estudo de caso de um elo da cadeia de suprimentos do setor de eletrodomésticos, com o propósito de investigar os relacionamentos da cadeia de suprimentos com o projeto de produtos. Ao final, são analisadas as implicações dos resultados da pesquisa para inserção da cadeia de suprimentos, como outra dimensão da engenharia simultânea, no projeto de produtos.This paper seeks to investigate the supply chain as another dimension of concurrent engineering in product design. Based on the literature review, four dimensions of investigation of relationship between product design and supply chain were identified: the business processes approach, the involvement of clients and suppliers in product design, and the modularization of products. In order to investigate the relations between the supply chain and product design, a case study of a link in the home appliance sector's supply chain was carried out. At the end, the implications of the research results were analyzed with the purpose of including the supply chain as another dimension of concurrent engineering in product design.

  19. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Ed [Uranium and Reactive Metals Centre of Expertise Lead, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Connor, Donna [Technical Capability Manager, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Keighley, Debbie [Head of Profession, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  20. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Ed; Connor, Donna; Keighley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  1. Energy sector reform in India : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruna, M.; Raj, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The government of India cannot afford to fund the total investment needed for restructuring the country's electric power sector. As such, India's Electricity Act of 2003 encouraged private participation to implement the required measures for efficient and optimum use of energy resources available in India and to supply quality power at the best cost to consumers. This paper described the present status of India's power sector with respect to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. India's economy is growing at a faster rate compared to many other developing countries. It is expected that in the next 6 to 7 years additional capacity of 84,000 MW will be needed to meet the projected electricity demand. The Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC) was established in 1986 in order to generate and provide funds for the power sector, which is in the process of reforms in every element of the electricity value chain. India is facing an energy deficit and peak power deficit of 8 per cent and 12.2 per cent, respectively. The inter-regional power transmission capacity is planned to be increased from 16,500 MW to 37,000 MW by 2012. Thermal and nuclear energy are major sources for electricity production in India. As most of these resources are non renewable, they must be efficiently used. Coal will continue to contribute about 60 per cent of power generation in India. It was concluded that a large capacity national power grid is necessary for inter-regional power transfer, and that Transmission Super Highways are needed for the development of a high capacity National Power Grid. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  2. Phylogenetic grouping and distribution of virulence genes in Escherichia coli along the production and supply chain of pork around Hubei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Zou, Geng; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Xiao, Ran; Li, Lu; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Rui

    2017-06-01

    Escherichia coli is an important foodborne zoonotic pathogen. A total of 285 strains of E. coli were isolated from the production and supply chain of pork in Hubei, China and characterized. Their phylogroups (A, B1, B2, and D) and virulence genes of public health importance become more and more diverse along the production and supply chain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Challenge of Reaching Transparency: 'T-readiness' of Enterprises and Sector Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Fritz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  Discussions on the safety and quality of food as well as growing interest in the sustainability of the production, distribution and consumption of food have contributed to the emergence of ‘transparency’ as a critical success factor for the food sector. However, reaching transparency for different stakeholders from different backgrounds and cultural identities is a dynamic process which depends on certain capabilities of enterprises and organizations along the food value chain but also on the realization of a fitting communication scheme within the sector. This discussion asks for the identification and utilization of an indicator that could identify deficiencies and support enterprises and the sector in reaching a level of transparency that could serve specified transparency needs.

  4. Detox fashion supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This first volume on detox fashion discusses various interesting topics including a Toxic-Free Supply Chain for Textiles and Clothing; Environmental Issues in Textiles; Global Regulations, Restrictions & Research; Making the Change: Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Fashion; and Strategies for Detoxing Your Wardrobe. It provides an overview of the chemical-related issues confronting the fashion sector, summarizes global regulations, and discusses how to make the change by changing consumers’ attitude towards adopting sustainable fashion, as well as the best strategies for detoxing our wardrobes.

  5. Distribution of fast myosin heavy chain-based muscle fibres in the gluteus medius of untrained horses: mismatch between antigenic and ATPase determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINNANE, LINDA; SERRANO, A. L.; RIVERO, J. L. L.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of muscle fibres classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms was analysed in muscle biopsies from the gluteus medius of adult untrained horses by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies and standard myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry. Percutaneous needle biopsies were taken at 3 depths (20, 40 and 60 mm) from 4 4-y-old Andalusian stallions. The percentage of ‘pure’ I MHC fibres increased whereas that for pure IIX MHC fibres decreased from the most superficial to the deepest sampling site. Within the fast fibres, types IIA and IIAX MHC-classified fibres were proportionately more abundant in the deepest sampling site than in the superficial region of the muscle. The immunohistochemical and histochemical characterisation of a large number of single fibres (n=1375) was compared and correlated on a fibre-to-fibre basis. The results showed that 40% of the fibres analysed were pure type I (expressing only MHC-I); they showed correct matching between their antigenic and mATPase determinants. In contrast, within the fast fibres, a considerable proportion of fibres were found showing a mismatch between their immunohistochemical and mATPase profiles. The most common mismatched fibre phenotypes comprised fibres displaying coexpression of both fast MHCs when analysed by immunocytochemistry, but showing an mATPase profile similar to typical IIX fibres (moderate mATPase reaction after preincubation at pH 4.4). Considered altogether, the total mismatched fibres represented only 4.2% of the whole fast fibre population in the superficial region of the muscle, but their proportion increased to 15.6% and 38.4% in the middle and deep regions, respectively, of gluteus medius. It is concluded that a considerable number of hybrid fast MHC IIAX fibres are present in the gluteus medius of untrained horses, suggesting that equine type II fibres have probably been misclassified in

  6. Flux through a Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floriani, Elena; Lima, Ricardo; Ourrad, Ouerdia; Spinelli, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flux through a Markov chain of a conserved quantity (mass) is studied. • Mass is supplied by an external source and ends in the absorbing states of the chain. • Meaningful for modeling open systems whose dynamics has a Markov property. • The analytical expression of mass distribution is given for a constant source. • The expression of mass distribution is given for periodic or random sources. - Abstract: In this paper we study the flux through a finite Markov chain of a quantity, that we will call mass, which moves through the states of the chain according to the Markov transition probabilities. Mass is supplied by an external source and accumulates in the absorbing states of the chain. We believe that studying how this conserved quantity evolves through the transient (non-absorbing) states of the chain could be useful for the modelization of open systems whose dynamics has a Markov property.

  7. Perturbed Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We study irreducible time-homogenous Markov chains with finite state space in discrete time. We obtain results on the sensitivity of the stationary distribution and other statistical quantities with respect to perturbations of the transition matrix. We define a new closeness relation between transition matrices, and use graph-theoretic techniques, in contrast with the matrix analysis techniques previously used.

  8. Moving towards Sustainability in Food Chains: Dealing with Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Schiefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability concerns are receiving increasingly attention by society and in turn, the food sector and consumers as the food sector’s final customers. Investments towards improvements in sustainability along the chain are usually not evenly distributed along the chain which affects the balance in the distribution of costs and returns. Transparency is a means for supporting an appropriate link between costs and returns. Various alternatives are being discussed. The chapter utilizes a case study approach for elaborating on the possibilities of regaining costs through price premiums, the communication of sustainability to consumers and the cooperation through horizontal and vertical networking alternatives that could support developments towards sustainability through gains in efficiency and concerted engagements in dealing with sustainability, costs and returns along the chain

  9. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA CADENA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL CONGLOMERADO PYMES DEL SECTOR CÁRNICO DE BOGOTÁ, D.C - GESTIÓN DE ALMACENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGIE KATHERINE CRUZ FONTECHA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the project «Optimization of the supply chain cluster SMEs in the meat sector in Bogotá» focused on Chapter warehouse management, with emphasis on the optimization of the distribution chain, by combining optimization techniques and best business practices that incur the lowest total cost and provide the level of service planned. Below is a conceptual review where different types of storage are identified is presented, specific definitions such as warehouse, distribution center, among others, that in order to have a clear idea of the differences are discussed between each of these.

  10. Análisis comparativo entre las cadenas productivas del sector textil-confecciones de la provincia de Jiangsu-China y el departamento del Atlántico-Colombia Comparative analysis between the chain of textile-apparelin of Jiangsu Province in China and the department of the Atlántico-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Mercado Cervera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo de investigación se presentan los resultados referentes al análisis comparativo de las cadenas productivas del sector textil-confecciones de la provincia de Jiangsu-China y el departamento del Atlántico-Colombia, identificando inicialmente las diferentes variables y categorías asociadas con las cadenas productivas, seguido de un análisis comparativo utilizando modelos de distritos industriales, modelos clúster y redes empresariales, lo que finalmente permitió establecer las diferencias de producción existentes entre las cadenas productivas del sector textil-confecciones del departamento del Atlántico y el de la provincia de Jiangsu en la República China, dos regiones que, aunque disímiles en muchos aspectos, muestran algunos puntos parecidos en materia de desarrollo de textiles y confecciones, particularmente en lo que tiene que ver con infraestructura operativa y formación de recurso humano. La evaluación de estas diferencias permitió establecer estrategias y lineamientos que pueden generar efectos positivos vía el mejoramiento de la competitividad y establecer mejores estrategias para la competencia.In this research paper presents the results concerning the comparative analysis of the textile production chain-garment of Jiangsu Province, China and the Department of Atlántico, Colombia, initially identifying the different variables and categories associated with the production chains followed by a comparative analysis using models of industrial districts, cluster models and enterprise networks, which eventually led to establishing the differences in production between production chains in the textile-clothing sector of the Atlantic Department and Jiangsu Province in the Republic China, two regions that, although dissimilar in many respects, displays some similarities in the development of textiles and garments, particularly as it has to do with operational infrastructure and human resource training. The

  11. EVALUATION OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA WITH DANP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZVERİ, Onur; GÜÇLÜ, Pembe; AYCİN, Ejder

    2018-01-01

    Despite the service industry composes large part of the world economy, the academic studies and applications on supply chain are mainly about production industry. Because of the different structure of services, the service supply chain and also performance criteria-metrics differ from the product supply chain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the supply chain performance metrics for restaurant sector. For this purpose in the first and second part of the paper the service supply chain conc...

  12. Tracing Uganda's global primary organic pineapple value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organic sector is one of the fastest growing sectors globally. ... opportunity for developing countries to export high value products in the global market. ... It is clear from the study that the chain is private- sector-driven, has relatively young ...

  13. Fuelling Economic Growth The Role of Public–Private Sector ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Types of parts manufactured by domestic firms in the automotive sector. 237. 8.8. The first ... Tanzania Engineering and Manufacturing Design Organization. TIRDO. Tanzania ...... Table 2.3 Distribution of firms according to sector of production ...

  14. CHAIN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Second Processing Chain (CHAIN2) consists of a suite of ten programs which together provide a full local analysis of the bulk plasma physics within the JET Tokamak. In discussing these ten computational models this report is intended to fulfil two broad purposes. Firstly it is meant to be used as a reference source for any user of CHAIN2 data, and secondly it provides a basic User Manual sufficient to instruct anyone in running the CHAIN2 suite of codes. In the main report text each module is described in terms of its underlying physics and any associated assumptions or limitations, whilst deliberate emphasis is put on highlighting the physics and mathematics of the calculations required in deriving each individual datatype in the standard module PPF output. In fact each datatype of the CHAIN2 PPF output listed in Appendix D is cross referenced to the point in the main text where its evaluation is discussed. An effort is made not only to give the equation used to derive a particular data profile but also to explicitly define which external data sources are involved in the computational calculation

  15. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective from supported (n BuCp) 2 ZrCl 2 catalyst active centre distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad; Al-Harthi, Mamdouh A.; Anantawaraskul, Siripon; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    /MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 - were applied to evaluate the active-centre-dependent ethylene homo- and copolymerization rates, as well as the corresponding chain termination rates. This approach, from a microkinetic mechanistic viewpoint, elucidates better the 1-hexene

  16. Moving Medicine, Moving Minds: Helping Developing Countries Overcome Barriers to Outsourcing Health Commodity Distribution to Boost Supply Chain Performance and Strengthen Health Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Priya; Barton, Iain; Bianco, Roberto Dal; Hovig, Dana; Sarley, David; Yadav, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Senegal and other developing countries are improving access to health commodities by outsourcing supply chain logistics to private providers. To achieve broader, lasting reform, we must support further adoption of the outsourced model; assist country-led cost-benefit analyses; and help governments build capacity to manage contracts and overcome other barriers.

  17. Distribution of nuclear charge and angular momentum in chains 132-137, 99, and 102 of thermal neutron fission of 235U at various kinetic energies and charge states of the fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.; Braun, H.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    The fission product yields of the members of the decay chains 132 to 137, 99, and 102 in 235 U(n/sub th/,f) were measured at various kinetic energies and ionic charge states of the fragments using the mass separator for unslowed fission products LOHENGRIN. The results are discussed with respect to four aspects: A preferential formation of neutron rich chain members found at high kinetic energy of the fragments is predominantly due to decreasing prompt neutron evaporation. A particularly large effect in chain 132 is attributed to the double shell closure in Sn-132. The persistence of an even-odd pairing effect in the yields throughout the range of kinetic energies studied leads to the conclusion that the high internal excitation energy of the fragments is tied up mainly in the form of collective energy (e.g., deformation energy) rather than single particle excitation. Generally, the yield distribution at constant kinetic energy is invariant with respect to the ionic charge state of the isotopes separated. Deviations from this behavior found in chains 99, 102, 133, and 136 are interpreted as being due to Auger events following a converted transition in the decay of ns-isomers taking place in the vacuum of the separator. A pronounced variation of the independent formation ratio of single isomeric states with the kinetic energy of the fragments is providing direct information on the controversial topic of the change of angular momentum of fission fragments as a function of deformation (scission distance). 34 references

  18. Analysis of the productive chain of Brazilian oil sector in the midst of ethics in the application of productive excess, social and environmental responsibility and ensuring the quality of life; Analise da cadeia produtiva do setor petrolifero brasileiro em meio a etica na aplicacao dos excedentes produtivos, a responsabilidade social e ambiental e a garantia da qualidade de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Liodoro de; Domingos, Sergio Ricardo; Santos, Adilson Francisco dos [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    The present work analyses the petroliferous productive chain, of the well you the rank. It shows the correlation with the ethics, the social responsibility and the guarantee of the quality of life human being. It considers it lives rational application of paid the resources preceding from royalties you the states and cities. With the reorganization of the petroliferous sector, in the second half of the decade of 90, lives specifically, with the edition of the Law n. 9.478/97, the decisions, until then, prevailed will be unilateral orientates of the federal government starts you count on the market, mediating agent of offers and demand. You the edition of the legal order, you the current days, the excellent facts ploughs dealt with transparency, the teams that if instituted the ANP, agency of regulating to character. The sector, with this, must give counterpart you the society, in the direction you reward the same one, will be possible damages or provoked aggressions, exactly that in involuntary way. Ethical The resolution of the conflicts follows an line of respect you the agents: companies, government and consumers. First with programs of professional qualification, the security, of institutional landmark, they stimulate the perfect competition and applies the exploratory balances in the form of royalties. And, the consumers, not less important, intent to ambient questions, demands quality US products. (author)

  19. Supporting innovation in the food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    A major aim for our research is to contribute to the continued innovativeness of the Danish and European food sectors. Innovation is the key to future competitiveness - and a major task for research is to provide the foundations for innovativeness in the food chain....

  20. An economic growth model based on financial credits distribution to the government economy priority sectors of each regency in Indonesia using hierarchical Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmirullah, Septia Devi Prihastuti; Iriawan, Nur; Sipayung, Feronika Rosalinda

    2017-11-01

    The success of regional economic establishment could be measured by economic growth. Since the Act No. 32 of 2004 has been implemented, unbalance economic among the regency in Indonesia is increasing. This condition is contrary different with the government goal to build society welfare through the economic activity development in each region. This research aims to examine economic growth through the distribution of bank credits to each Indonesia's regency. The data analyzed in this research is hierarchically structured data which follow normal distribution in first level. Two modeling approaches are employed in this research, a global-one level Bayesian approach and two-level hierarchical Bayesian approach. The result shows that hierarchical Bayesian has succeeded to demonstrate a better estimation than a global-one level Bayesian. It proves that the different economic growth in each province is significantly influenced by the variations of micro level characteristics in each province. These variations are significantly affected by cities and province characteristics in second level.

  1. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  2. Auto component supply chain: a path to global India

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Shailendra; Palacios Fernández, Miguel; Tafur Segura, José Javier; Jarad, Rajendra; Chitale, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain management works to bring the supplier, the distributor, and the customer into one cohesive process. The Supply Chain Council defined supply chain as ‘Supply Chain: The flow and transformation of raw materials into products from suppliers through production and distribution facilities to the ultimate consumer., and then Sunil Chopra and Meindl, (2001) have define Supply chain management as ‘Supply Chain Management involves the flows between and among stages in a supply chain to m...

  3. La démarche "supply chain management" enjeux et stratégies, cas du commerce électronique et de la grande distribution.

    OpenAIRE

    JAWAB , Fouad; Bouami , Driss

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The economic globalisation forces the companies to progress in an environment characterized by the blooming of the relations of partnership, the emergence of the reticular organizations and the crucial impact of new technologies of information of communication (NTIC). In this context, the supply chain management (SCM) becomes more and more important in the strategies of the firms which inquire of better performances. In fact, the experiments of the firms leading make i...

  4. Le "Supply Chain Management" enjeux et stratégies, cas du commerce électronique et de la grande distribution

    OpenAIRE

    JAWAB, Fouad; BOUAMI, Driss

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. The economic globalisation forces the companies to progress in an environment characterized by the blooming of the relations of partnership, the emergence of the reticular organizations and the crucial impact of new technologies of information of communication (NTIC). In this context, the supply chain management (SCM) becomes more and more important in the strategies of the firms which inquire of better performances. In fact, the experiments of the firms leading make it possible to ...

  5. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...

  6. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  7. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bertazzoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.

  8. Impact of private sector credit on the real sector of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mamman, Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The real sector is a strategic component of an economy because it produces and distributes tangible goods and services required to satisfy aggregate demand in the economy. For this reason, there is the need for adequate credit flow from the banking industry to the real sector, which in the Nigerian case, the credit flow has been grossly inadequate. This study is carried out to examine the impact of credit to private sector (CPS on the real sector of Nigeria with a view to assess the significant contribution of CPS to real sector growth in Nigeria. The study used aggregate time series data from 1986 to 2010, which was drawn from central bank of Nigeria (CBN statistical bulletin and CBN annual report and statement of accounts. The data was analysed using multiple regression and based on the coefficient of determination (R square, the study reveals a 96.1% variation between the CPS and real sector growth in Nigeria. The study cocludes that there is a statistically significant impact of credit to private sector on the real sector of Nigeria. This, suggest that the performance of the real sector is greatly influence by credit to private sector. The study recommends that the federal government of Nigeria through the central bank of Nigeria (CBN should enhance the financing of the real sector as well as improve credit flow to the sector because of its strategic importance in creating and generating growth of the economy.

  9. Water column distribution and carbon isotopic signal of cholesterol, brassicasterol and particulate organic carbon in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-J. Cavagna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of concentrations and δ13C signatures of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC and sterols provides a powerful approach to study ecological and environmental changes in both the modern and ancient ocean. We applied this tool to study the biogeochemical changes in the modern ocean water column during the BONUS-GoodHope survey (February–March 2008 from Cape Basin to the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. Cholesterol and brassicasterol were chosen as ideal biomarkers of the heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon pools, respectively, because of their ubiquitous and relatively refractory nature. We document depth distributions of concentrations (relative to bulk POC and δ13C signatures of cholesterol and brassicasterol combined with CO2 aq. surface concentration variation. While the relationship between CO2 aq. and δ13C of bulk POC and biomarkers have been reported by others for the surface water, our data show that this persists in mesopelagic and deep waters, suggesting that δ13C signatures of certain biomarkers in the water column could be applied as proxies for surface water CO2 aq. We observed a general increase in sterol δ13C signatures with depth, which is likely related to a combination of particle size effects, selective feeding on larger cells by zooplankton, and growth rate related effects. Our data suggest a key role of zooplankton fecal aggregates in carbon export for this part of the Southern Ocean (SO. Additionally, in the southern part of the transect south of the Polar Front (PF, the release of sea-ice algae during the ice demise in the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ is hypothesized to influence the isotopic signature of sterols in the open ocean. Overall, the combined use of δ13C values and concentrations measurements of both bulk organic C and specific sterols throughout the water column offers the promising potential to explore the recent history of plankton and the fate of organic matter in the SO.

  10. Suspended-sediment budget, flow distribution, and lake circulation for the Fox Chain of Lakes in Lake and McHenry Counties, Illinois, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, David L.; Holmes, Robert R.

    2000-01-01

    The Fox Chain of Lakes is a glacial lake system in McHenry and Lake Counties in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. Sedimentation and nutrient overloading have occurred in the lake system since the first dam was built (1907) in McHenry to raise water levels in the lake system. Using data collected from December 1, 1997, to June 1, 1999, suspended-sediment budgets were constructed for the most upstream lake in the system, Grass Lake, and for the lakes downstream from Grass Lake. A total of 64,900 tons of suspended sediment entered Grass Lake during the study, whereas a total of 70,600 tons of suspended sediment exited the lake, indicating a net scour of 5,700 tons of sediment. A total of 44,100 tons of suspended sediment was measured exiting the Fox Chain of Lakes at Johnsburg, whereas 85,600 tons entered the system downstream from Grass Lake. These suspended-sediment loads indicate a net deposition of 41,500 tons downstream from Grass Lake, which represents a trapping efficiency of 48.5 percent. A large amount of recreational boating takes place on the Fox Chain of Lakes during summer months, and suspended-sediment load was observed to rise from 110 tons per day to 339 tons per day during the 1999 Memorial Day weekend (May 26 ?31, 1999). Presumably, this rise was the result of the boating traffic because no other hydrologic event is known to have occurred that might have caused the rise. This study covers a relatively short period and may not represent the long-term processes of the Fox Chain of Lakes system, although the sediment transport was probably higher than an average year. The bed sediments found on the bottom of the lakes are composed of mainly fine particles in the silt-clay range. The Grass Lake sediments were characterized as black peat with an organic content of between 9 and 18 percent, and the median particle size ranged from 0.000811 to 0.0013976 inches. Other bed material samples were collected at streamflow-gaging stations on the

  11. COMPETITION ON THE WHOLESALE MEDICATION DISTRIBUTION MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wholesale distribution of medicines in Romania was in the constant attention of the competition authority. In order to analyze the operation of the distribution system practiced in Romania, but also changes that may occur in this system on short and medium term, the Competition Council conducted a sector inquiry after which they found some malfunctioning mainly chained to distributors access to certain medications. Conducted on a sample of 23 pharmaceutical groups operating on the Romanian market and holding approximately 80% of the pharmaceutical market in Romania in 2009, the sector inquiry aimed at two objectives, namely: Legislation analysis with impact on the wholesale distribution of drugs; Market analysis of drug distribution.Following the findings of the high concentration of markets analyzed, due to significant market shares held by innovative drugs under investigation were analyzed also the penetration of generics in the market and the factors that led to this situation.

  12. Exploring the e-Supply Chain of Information Products

    OpenAIRE

    Raafat George Saadé

    2012-01-01

    Digital information product producers have not taken advantage of the e-supply chain paradigm of today. However, in this information-based sector, a different set of supply chain management challenges exist. Very little research has been done in the supply chain of information products. This study focuses on the process analysis of the supply chain paradigm for digital information products. A framework for digital information products production in e-learning is proposed followed by an exampl...

  13. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  14. Dependence of Tc on the oxygen distribution in the Cu-O chains in the high temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O6+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uimin, G.V.; Gantmakher, V.F.; Neminsky, A.M.; Novomlinsky, L.A.; Shovkun, D.V.; Bruell, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is experimentally confirmed that in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x ceramics with x fixed within the range 0.4-0.5 the temperature of the superconducting transition Tc can be appreciably reduced by quenching a sample from moderate temperatures between 50degC and 200degC. The theory developed for the description of the ensemble of Cu-O-... chain fragments in orthorhombic phase is applied for the explanation of the experimental results, which can be interpreted as follows. In ortho-II phase the oxygen filling factors in oxygen deficient Cu(1) planes alternate from row to row. Alternation decreases with temperature increasing. Redistribution of the oxygen ions between the rows increases the fraction of short Cu-O-... chain fragments which cannot inject holes into CuO 2 planes. This diminishes the hole concentration in the Cu(2) planes and, hence, Tc. Near 150degC the sample undergoes the second order transition into ortho-I phase where rows are equally filled with oxygen. Further increasing of the temperature does not reveal an appreciable reduction of Tc. A comparison of the experiment with the simplest model is performed. (orig.)

  15. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  16. Gamma-irradiation of homodeoxyoligonucleotides 32P-labelled at one end: computer simulation of the chain length distribution of the radioactive fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teoule, R.; Duplaa, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels of the fragments resulting from γ-irradiation of single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides labelled at their 5'- or 3'-end proved a potent tool for analysis of the radiation-induced chain breakage of DNA. Owing to the fact that the oligonucleotide may be ruptured at more than one site, counting of the electrophoresis bands must be corrected and it is necessary to assess the influence of the cleavage position on the band intensities. A complicating factor is the inhomogeneity of the system due to the presence of the four bases A, T, C and G. To circumvent this problem, the homooligodeoxyribonucleotides (dA) 15 , (dC) 15 , (dT) 15 were used as experimental probes. They were γ-irradiated in solution, heated in alkali and resulting fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. A computer simulation of band intensities was compiled based on the general assumption that the chain breakage is homogeneous. Experimental results obtained from the homooligodeoxyribonucleotides labelled at either the 5' or the 3'-end are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations. Abacus giving the gel band intensities (percentage) against the nucleotide positions and the remaining intensity of the original oligonucleotide have been obtained. (author)

  17. The fishing industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling P.

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing supply chain aspects such as distribution planning and optimal use of raw materials are widely used. However, modelling based on a holistic chain view is less studied, and food-related aspects such as quality and shelf life issues enforce additional...... requirements onto the chains. In this paper, we consider the supply chain structure of the Danish fishing industry and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. This is a first step toward innovative supply chain modelling aimed to identify benefits...... for actors along chains in the fishing industry....

  18. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  19. DOS cones along atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin-orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  20. DOS cones along atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears. (paper)

  1. Labour in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita

    2012-01-01

    production contexts that influence work conditions. In doing so, it argues that current debates on the role of labour in global value chains have to go beyond a narrow focus on labour standards and corporate social responsibility compliance and engage with economic, technological and social upgrading......A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global value chains. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This article focuses...... on the global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands that manage dispersed global value chains. It assesses the working conditions for football stitchers engaged in different forms of work organization, factories, stitching centres and home-based settings in Pakistan, India and China...

  2. Analysis of a quantum Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbeau, J.; Gudder, S.

    1990-01-01

    A quantum chain is analogous to a classical stationary Markov chain except that the probability measure is replaced by a complex amplitude measure and the transition probability matrix is replaced by a transition amplitude matrix. After considering the general situation, we study a particular example of a quantum chain whose transition amplitude matrix has the form of a Dirichlet matrix. Such matrices generate a discrete analog of the usual continuum Feynman amplitude. We then compute the probability distribution for these quantum chains

  3. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...

  4. Abstract behaviour modelling and prognosis on the basis of spatially distributed sensor networks with Kohonen cards and Markov chains; Abstrakte Verhaltensmodellierung und -prognose auf der Basis raeumlich verteilter Sensornetze mit Kohonen-Karten und Markov-Ketten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, J.; Keller, H.B.; Mikut, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Informatik

    2000-10-01

    Evironmental processes, e.g. local air quality changes in urban agglomerations, buildings and production halls are dynamic processes with regionally distributed physical variables. They can be monitored by networks of distributed measuring probes. Processes of this type form the basis of complex systems with many degrees of freedom and stochastic effects that are difficult to measure. The contribution presents an introduction to Markov chains, proposes a method of generating Markov chains as a prognostic model, and demonstrates the method using the example of an air quality monitoring process. [German] Fuer die Ueberwachung dynamischer Prozesse, deren physikalische Groessen raeumlich verteilt auftreten, werden oft Netze raeumlich verteilter Sensoren eingesetzt. Umweltprozesse, wie z.B. die oertliche Luftqualitaetsaenderung in Ballungsraeumen, Gebaeuden und Produktionsanlagen, aber auch verschiedene verfahrenstechnische Prozesse sind Vertreter dieser Prozessklasse. Solchen Prozessen hinterliegen komplexe Systeme, die durch eine hohe Anzahl an Freiheitsgraden und durch stochastische schwer messbare Einfluesse gekennzeichnet sind. Ziel dieses Vortrages ist es, - eine kurze Einfuehrung zu Markov-Ketten zu gegeben (Abschnitt 2); - ein datengestuetztes Verfahren vorzuschlagen, das nach einer Schaetzung abstrakter Prozesszustaende mit Hilfe von Kohonen-Karten Markov-Ketten als Prognosemodell generiert (Abschnitt 3), und - dieses Verfahren anhand eines Simulationsbeispiels zur Luftqualitaetsueberwachung zu demonstrieren (Abschnitt 4). (orig.)

  5. A multi-regional structural path analysis of the energy supply chain in China's construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jingke; Shen, Qiping; Xue, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry in China exerts significant environmental impacts and uses considerable resources because of rapid urbanization. This study conducted a structural path analysis (SPA) based on the multi-regional input–output table to quantify environmental impact transmission in the entire supply chain. Results indicated that the direct resource input (the first stage) along with on-site construction (the zeroth stage) consumed the highest amount of energy in the supply chain and accounted for approximately 50% of total energy consumption. Regional analysis showed that energy consumption in the construction industry at the provincial level was self-sufficient. Sectoral analysis demonstrated that the direct inputs from the sectors of “manufacture of non-metallic mineral products” and “smelting and pressing of metals” generated the most important energy flows, whereas the sectors of “production and distribution of electric power and heat power” and “extraction of petroleum and natural gas” significantly but indirectly influenced energy use. Sensitivity analysis exhibited that the system boundary of SPA could be narrowed down into the first two upstream stages that contained nearly 50% of energy flow information or expanded toward the first five upstream stages that represented 80% of total energy consumption. - Highlights: •We designed an optimized algorithm for multi-regional SPA. •We extracted energy-intensive paths throughout the upstream supply chain. •We explored self-sufficiency characteristic for provincial construction industries. •We identified energy-intensive sectors hidden in higher-order supply chain. •We developed an effective strategy for narrowing down the system boundary of SPA.

  6. Electric Power Supply Chain Management Addressing Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Cong, Ronggang

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management played a critical role in the electric power industrial chain optimization. The purpose of this paper was to review a sample of the literature relating to supply chain management and its possible applications in electricity power system, especially in the context of climate...... change. The study compared the difference between electric power supply chain management and traditional supply chain management. Furthermore, some possible research topics are addressed. The aim of this paper was to promote the application of supply chain management in the China electricity sector...

  7. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  8. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  9. Weak universality in inhomogeneous Ising quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, Dragi

    2006-01-01

    The Ising quantum chain with arbitrary coupling distribution {λ i } leading to an anisotropic scaling is considered. The smallest gap of the chain is connected to the surface magnetization by the relation Λ 1 = m s ({λ i })m s ({λ -1 i }). For some aperiodic distribution {λ i }, a weak universality of the critical behaviour is found. (letter to the editor)

  10. Supply Chain Management as a Driving Force for Generating Competitive Advantage for Dairy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Poleshkina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to uncover the reserves to generate competitive advantages for the participants of the market of perishables in the case of the dairy sector due to the formation of effective supply chains, as this category of goods is the most demanding in terms of periods and conditions of transportation and terms of preservation. The research technique is based on the concepts of value chains and supply chain management. In order to optimize the distribution of functions between the participants of the dairy chain a process-based approach has been applied. The research has revealed the main reasons for high aggregate costs and the places of their formation at each stage of the dairy supply chain. The article proposes the mechanisms to address three main problems arising from the process of building relations between the participants of the dairy supply chain in Russia. These problems are associated with a disproportionate margin distribution between the participants of the chain, with non-compliance of the quality of raw milk with the requirements for the production of specific types of dairy products, and with distrust of the supply chain participants, which increases transaction costs and forces to create reserve supplies which reduce the competitiveness of the whole dairy supply chain in general. In order to improve the competitiveness of all participants in the dairy chain, the article presents several mechanisms for solving these problems. The first is margin distribution based on the costs incurred by each participant of the dairy chain. The second is the use of a mathematical model to determine the assortment of goods of a dairy enterprise on the basis of the incoming volume and quality of raw milk according to the seasonal factor and the demand for dairy products. The third is the feasibility of refusal from the formation of reserve supplies by all participants of the dairy chain, which will not only minimize aggregate costs, but also

  11. Regeneration and general Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kalashnikov

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergodicity, continuity, finite approximations and rare visits of general Markov chains are investigated. The obtained results permit further quantitative analysis of characteristics, such as, rates of convergence, continuity (measured as a distance between perturbed and non-perturbed characteristics, deviations between Markov chains, accuracy of approximations and bounds on the distribution function of the first visit time to a chosen subset, etc. The underlying techniques use the embedding of the general Markov chain into a wide sense regenerative process with the help of splitting construction.

  12. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector. Final Report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesecke, S.; Schaper-Rinkel

    2010-01-01

    The internationalization, concentration and differentiation of retailing is challenging the traditional retail and wholesale sector organisation and its distribution structures that firms have employed to get goods and services to market. With the intensification of competition and speed of change

  13. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  14. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  15. Regulatory reform in Mexico's natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In recent years Mexico has implemented remarkable structural changes in its economy. However, until recently its large and key energy sector was largely unreformed. This is now changing. In 1995 the Mexican Government introduced legislative changes permitting private sector involvement in natural gas storage, transportation and distribution. Subsequent directives set up a detailed regulatory framework. These developments offer considerable promise, not only for natural gas sector development but also for growth in the closely linked electricity sector. This study analyses the changes which have taken place and the rationale for the regulatory framework which has been established. The study also contains recommendations to assist the Government of Mexico in effectively implementing its natural gas sector reforms and in maximizing the benefits to be realised through the new regulatory framework. (author)

  16. 农产品供应链利益分配问题研究%The Benefit Distribution Research of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍红; 孟莹

    2015-01-01

    农产品供应链管理重点在供应链整体优化、降低参与企业运营成本的同时,能对增值利益进行科学、合理、公正、有效的分配,在实现供应链整体利益最大化基础上尽可能满足供应链企业的局部利益,保障和提高供应链参与企业合作的稳定性与积极性,促进形成风险较低的战略合作伙伴关系,提升供应链整体绩效水平,维持社会稳定和促进经济发展。%Supply chain management emphasis on optimization,reduce enterprise operating costs and carry on scientific, reasonable,fair and effective allocation of value -added benefits,as much as possible to meet local interest of enterprises, guarantee and improve the stability and motivation of cooperation,forming a lower risk strategic cooperative partnership,promote the overall performance,maintain social stability and economic development.

  17. The normal chain length distribution of the O antigen is required for the interaction of Shigella flexneri 2a with polarized Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilei Hoare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Essential to the establishment of the disease is the invasion of the colonic epithelial cells. Here we investigated the role of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS O antigen in the ability of S. flexneri to adhere to and invade polarized Caco-2 cells. The S. flexneri 2a O antigen has two preferred chain lengths: a short O antigen (S-OAg regulated by the WzzB protein and a very long O antigen (VL-OAg regulated by Wzz pHS2. Mutants with defined deletions of the genes required for O-antigen assembly and polymerization were constructed and assayed for their abilities to adhere to and enter cultured epithelial cells. The results show that both VL- and S-OAg are required for invasion through the basolateral cell membrane. In contrast, the absence of O antigen does not impair adhesion. Purified LPS does not act as a competitor for the invasion of Caco-2 cells by the wild-type strain, suggesting that LPS is not directly involved in the internalization process by epithelial cells.

  18. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  19. Stakeholder Analysis for Farmer inclusive Value chain Development in Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhika K; Jayasree Krishnankutty

    2017-01-01

    Mango is being cultivated over a substantial area in Palakkad District of Kerala state. Being one of the significant agricultural commodity value chains existing in Kerala, the mango value chain of Palakkad district needs urgent attention to improve its performance. The study highlights the stakeholder analysis and SWOC matrix analysis of the mango sector. Stakeholders were asked to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges in the mango sector. Based on the highest scor...

  20. Procedural Priorities of the Pork Loin Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Dhein Dill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pork meat production industry is facing new challenges as a consequence of consumers’ expectations regarding the quality and safety of food products. For the present study, experts and consumers in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were interviewed to identify the attributes of pork loin that need to be improved. Consumers have particular concerns about the juiciness, fibrousness, and portion size of the meat, the diversity of cuts and safety and animal welfare. The supply chain was also analyzed in order to verify the procedural priorities that need to be improved in order to meet the demands of consumers. Experts were interviewed using the quality function deployment methodology. The findings of the study indicate that, improvements must be made in the production sector in terms of animal handling and transportation. In the processing sector, improvements are required regarding slaughter control of PSE and DFD, the development of new packaging, and product fractionation. The requirements in the distribution sector relate to information campaigns for consumers to diffuse the nutritional characteristics of pork loin and in the product safety through sanitary inspection.

  1. Gluon chains and multiquark hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Jezabek, M.

    1979-01-01

    A monopole approximation to the confining potential is proposed. In this approximation spatially separated groups of quarks carry a definite total colour charge. The potentials which lead to the formation of gluon chains are discussed. The generalization of a (3,3bar) chain notion, studied by Tiktopoulos, to the case of arbitrary colour charges is given. It is argued that these generalized chains may be unstable with respect to splitting into a system of weakly interacting chains of the (3,3bar) type. A unified picture of the high energy hadronic collisions, based on the gluon chain notion and the monopole approximation is proposed. In the meson-meson sector this picture is equivalent to the topological approach. For the other processes it is similar to the approach of Rossi and Veneziano. However, it is argued that the introduction of the junction line into the quark frame is superfluous. The results are expressed in the language of the coloured dual diagrams which provide a generalization of those of Harari and Rosner. (author)

  2. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  3. Optimizing energy for a ‘green’ vaccine supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the ‘net zero energy’ (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7–10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  4. Distribution of the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex E1α subunit and glutamate dehydrogenase in the human brain and their role in neuro-metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Jonathon; Usmari Moraes, Marcela; Brookes, Emma; Love, Seth; Conway, Myra E

    2018-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, with the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) acting as key nitrogen donors for de novo glutamate synthesis. Despite the importance of these major metabolites, their metabolic pathway in the human brain is still not well characterised. The metabolic pathways that influence the metabolism of BCAAs have been well characterised in rat models. However, the expression of key proteins such as the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex and glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (GDH) in the human brain is still not well characterised. We have used specific antibodies to these proteins to analyse their distribution within the human brain and report, for the first time, that the E1α subunit of the BCKD is located in both neurons and vascular endothelial cells. We also demonstrate that GDH is localised to astrocytes, although vascular immunolabelling does occur. The labelling of GDH was most intense in astrocytes adjacent to the hippocampus, in keeping with glutamatergic neurotransmission in this region. GDH was also present in astrocyte processes abutting vascular endothelial cells. Previously, we demonstrated that the branched-chain aminotransferase (hBCAT) proteins were most abundant in vascular cells (hBCATm) and neurons (hBCATc). Present findings are further evidence that BCAAs are metabolised within both the vasculature and neurons in the human brain. We suggest that GDH, hBCAT and the BCKD proteins operate in conjunction with astrocytic glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase to regulate the availability of glutamate. This has important implications given that the dysregulation of glutamate metabolism, leading to glutamate excitotoxicity, is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Status of the methanization sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  6. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  7. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  8. Industry and chain responsibilities and integrative social contract theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)

    2010-01-01

    This article shows that business ethics is not capable of explaining the responsibility of limited organized collectives such as chains, sectors and industries. The responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry to make AIDSblockers available for patients in Africa is an example of such a sector

  9. Quality and value chain analyses of Ethiopian coffee | Beshah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the quality and value chain of Ethiopian coffee in a way to identify opportunities that maximize the benefits from the sector. First the Ethiopian coffee sector is overviewed and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively starting from the crop up to the cup based on data collected from ...

  10. Multi-chain Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for computationally expensive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Ray, J.; Ren, H.; Hou, Z.; Bao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to infer model parameters from observational data. The parameters are inferred as probability densities, thus capturing estimation error due to sparsity of the data, and the shortcomings of the model. Multiple communicating chains executing the MCMC method have the potential to explore the parameter space better, and conceivably accelerate the convergence to the final distribution. We present results from tests conducted with the multi-chain method to show how the acceleration occurs i.e., for loose convergence tolerances, the multiple chains do not make much of a difference. The ensemble of chains also seems to have the ability to accelerate the convergence of a few chains that might start from suboptimal starting points. Finally, we show the performance of the chains in the estimation of O(10) parameters using computationally expensive forward models such as the Community Land Model, where the sampling burden is distributed over multiple chains.

  11. The Space Sector and Civilization of Intangible Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The value of a company is no longer solely measured according to the value of its assets (stock of raw materials, products being manufactured or finished products, machines and tools, real estate, etc.). Intangible assets are also becoming increasingly important, especially in Western economies which have massively transferred the production of goods to the so-called emerging countries offering lower labor costs. Numerous companies subcontracting their production focus on the study and design of new products and their marketing. As a result, the intangible assets (patents, brands, distribution networks, etc.) represent a growing proportion of the value of companies. Nevertheless, it is not impossible, as we saw several decades ago with Japan, for example, that the "emerging" countries which largely depend on contract production and copies, move more or less quickly to economies including the entire chain from design to production of original products. We will analyze here the importance of intangible assets in the space sector, especially as regards orbital systems (satellites and associated ground facilities). While the space sector remains dominated by states through the orders they generate and the regulations they impose on the space industry, the commercial market continues to develop and, with it, the importance of marketing actions and more generally the development of distinctive brands.

  12. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Energy & Fuels

    2011-01-15

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  13. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  14. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  15. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  16. Assessing complexity of supply chains: evidence from wholesalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Grotenhuis, R.; van Goor, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss complexity assessment in supply chains, to describe a methodology for measuring supply chain complexity in distributive trade and to illustrate the measurement of supply chain complexity and mechanisms to cope with supply chain complexity in

  17. ICT Innovation Diffusion in the Construction Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widén, Kristian; Christiansson, Per; Hjelseth, Eilif

    is to increase the possibility of successful implementation and adoption of new ICT tools in the construction sector across the supply chain through increasing the knowledge and awareness of how to execute suitable development and diffusion/implementation schemes. This research carried out in this study consists...... an innovation. Recent research on innovation diffusion in the construction sector show that a way to increase opportunities for diffusion in the construction sector is to stop considering diffusion as a discrete activity following on from the development of the innovation. It is therefore of great importance...... directly. The need for stakeholder management right up from the start of the innovation projects and how to deal with it is the major difference between traditional innovation project management and the one necessary for innovation projects in construction, ICT innovations as well as others. To what extent...

  18. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis

    2001-10-01

    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  19. Dairy Supply Chain Risk Management in Bangladesh: Field studies of Factors and Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain risk management (SCRM has gained wide attention among the academia and the business community in the present competitive business world. This paper aims to investigate the main risk factors associated with the dairy industry along with focuses on possible mitigation strategy to mitigate those risks. Qualitative field study has been undertaken in this research. The results of the interviews identify the different risk issues along with the possible mitigation strategies, embedded at storage, processing and distribution level in dairy industry of Bangladesh. The practical implication will contribute significantly to the dairy sector in terms of mitigating risks.

  20. Chain Assembly and Disassembly Processes Differently Affect the Conformational Space of Ubiquitin Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker

    2018-02-06

    Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  2. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  3. Perturbation theory for Markov chains via Wasserstein distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolf, Daniel; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    Perturbation theory for Markov chains addresses the question of how small differences in the transition probabilities of Markov chains are reflected in differences between their distributions. We prove powerful and flexible bounds on the distance of the nth step distributions of two Markov chains

  4. Adaptation Measurement of CAD/CAM Dental Crowns with X-Ray Micro-CT: Metrological Chain Standardization and 3D Gap Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tapie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing systems are increasingly used to produce dental prostheses, but the parts produced suffer from a lack of evaluation, especially concerning the internal gap of the final assembly, that is, the space between the prepared tooth and the prosthesis. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT is a noninvasive imaging technique enabling the internal inspection of the assembly. It has proved to be an efficient tool for measuring the gap. In this study, a critical review of the protocols using micro-CT to quantify the gap is proposed as an introduction to a new protocol aimed at minimizing errors and enabling comparison between CAD/CAM systems. To compare different systems, a standardized protocol is proposed including two reference geometries. Micro-CT is used to acquire the reference geometries. A new 3D method is then proposed and a new indicator is defined (Gap Size Distribution (GSD. In addition, the usual 2D measurements are described and discussed. The 3D gap measurement method proposed can be used in clinical case geometries and has the considerable advantage of minimizing the data processing steps before performing the measurements.

  5. Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain

    OpenAIRE

    KALUSOVÁ, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the thesis Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain is to explore and analyze the sphere in which the retailer chain operates, and evaluate their financial situation. At the same time, the selected retail chain will compare with the selected sectoral competition. The first part of thesis covers the theoretical information about issues, in particular the definition of basic terms of trade and retail. The second part of thesis includes application theoretical knowledg...

  6. Torus sector handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

  7. Global value chains: Building blocks and network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekeris, Theodore

    2017-12-01

    The paper employs measures and tools from complex network analysis to enhance the understanding and interpretation of structural characteristics pertaining to the Global Value Chains (GVCs) during the period 1995-2011. The analysis involves the country, sector and country-sector value chain networks to identify main drivers of structural change. The results indicate significant intertemporal changes, mirroring the increased globalization in terms of network size, strength and connectivity. They also demonstrate higher clustering and increased concentration of the most influential countries and country-sectors relative to all others in the GVC network, with the geographical dimension to prevail over the sectoral dimension in the formation of value chains. The regionalization and less hierarchical organization drive country-sector production sharing, while the sectoral value chain network has become more integrated and more competitive over time. The findings suggest that the impact of country-sector policies and/or shocks may vary with the own-group and network-wide influence of each country, take place in multiple geographical scales, as GVCs have a block structure, and involve time dynamics.

  8. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  9. Milk value chain analysis: the case of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur GOLBAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a product can be evaluated using the value chain analysis which represents the needed steps of the development cycle or process through which a product proceeds from its initial concept to pro-duction and final sale. The value chain includes the design, production, marketing, distribution and support to bring the product to its final consumer. Milk production sector is of great importance to the national economy. However, the milk is produced mostly in private households (95% from total volume of milk and approximately five percent is produced in agricultural enterprises. The paper has the purpose to present the value chain analysis of milk, the major problems the milk producers face at the value chain level and to propose solutions in order to increase the competiti-veness of milk production. For this study, data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Mol-dova and international commercial databases, were used. The results of the research give the possibility to understand the role of each element of the milk value chain in increasing the competitiveness of this product.

  10. VBDO Responsible Supply Chain Benchmark 2012. A comparative investigation into CSR in the supply chain of 40 multinationals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bres, C.; Cotterell, P.; Kaya, R.; Verbunt, S.

    2012-11-15

    This benchmark is a qualitative (partly quantitative), comparative investigation among 40 Dutch publicly listed companies, aiming to inform stakeholders on responsible supply chain management. These stakeholders are company executives, investors, academia, NGOs, government and society at large. Rather than concentrate on the nature of a company's activities, this benchmark focuses on the company's supply chain governance and management thereof. This makes it possible to compare, to a reasonable degree, the responsible supply chain policies of companies across different sectors.

  11. The fish industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling

    2010-01-01

    such as quality and shelf-life issues enforce additional requirements onto the chains. In this article, we consider the supply chain structure of the fish industry. We discuss and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. The article provides a first......Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing aspects of supply chains such as distribution, planning, and optimal handling of raw materials are widely used. However, modeling based on a holistic chain view including several or all supply chain agents is less studied, and food-related aspects...... step toward innovative supply chain modeling aimed to identify benefits for all agents along chains in the fish industry....

  12. Analysis of Value Chain Governance: Scenarios to Develop Small-Scale Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini Irawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture industry had shown a long chain of production to consumption, from raw material producers (tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers, and retailers to exporters. Jepara as a centre furniture industry in Indonesia incorporates around 15,000 business units and provide livelihoods to approximately 170,000 workers. This sector contributes about 27% of Jepara‘s people domestic income. Small and medium furniture enterprises (SMEs have significant roles in the furniture industry as production structures are characterized by them. Power and information imbalance throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in problems of uneven distribution of gains among actors of the industry. SME furniture producers have experienced an unfair value added distribution. Hence, development of SMEs is important for strengthening the industry and expected to result in a portion of value added distribution to them.  We are trying to develop scenarios for SME improvement in the furniture industry in Jepara by identifying their problems and implementing Value Chain Analysis (VCA. VCA is an approach to describe SME producer relations with other actors in the industry and the governance type of their relations. Data is collected by interviewing selected SMEs from the association of small scale producers in Jepara to get detailed maps of their value chain. The research will produce future scenarios and intervention points to improve small-scale producer sustainability and better value added distribution among furniture actors. The scenarios will not only benefit selected producers but also the furniture industry of Jepara, and can be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and abroad. Keywords: furniture, value chain, governance, scenario, small-scale

  13. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  14. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  15. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  16. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Salvatore; Varho, Vilja; Rikkonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors. - Highlights: • We examine the possibilities and challenges of the transition to DE in Finland. • Technological niches are emerging both in the heat and electricity sector. • Business model innovation is evident only in the electricity sector. • Removing barriers and developing new business models will accelerate the transition.

  17. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C 10 and C 11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Finite fission chain length and symmetry around prompt-criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qilin; Yin Yanpeng; Gao Hui; Huang Po; Fang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Probability distribution of finite fission chain length was derived by assuming that all neutrons behave identically. Finite fission chain length was also calculated using a zero-dimension Monte-Carlo method based on point kinetics. Then symmetry of finite fission chain length probability distribution around prompt-criticality was deduced, which helps understanding the emission rate of delayed neutrons and initiation of fission chain in super-prompt-critical system. (authors)

  19. CHAINS-PC, Decay Chain Atomic Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CHAINS computes the atom density of members of a single radioactive decay chain. The linearity of the Bateman equations allows tracing of interconnecting chains by manually accumulating results from separate calculations of single chains. Re-entrant loops can be treated as extensions of a single chain. Losses from the chain are also tallied. 2 - Method of solution: The Bateman equations are solved analytically using double-precision arithmetic. Poles are avoided by small alterations of the loss terms. Multigroup fluxes, cross sections, and self-shielding factors entered as input are used to compute the effective specific reaction rates. The atom densities are computed at any specified times. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 100 energy groups, 100 time values, 50 members in a chain

  20. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  1. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDermotti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has responded in various forms. This paper will discuss different initiatives by the researchers,construction industry,and the UK government in order to achieve optimal level of supply chain integration. This paper will discuss the concept of aggregation,and also look at other supply chain integration related concepts including client-led supply chain, knowledge about the whole supply chain, effects of procurement on integration of supply chain, etc. The paper will give a brief overview and initial findings of a project undertaken by the authors, and also include examples from the UK construction industry on bundling of the supply and demand.

  2. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  3. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  4. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  5. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  6. CHALLENGES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia GALANTON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  7. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  8. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  9. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r

  10. Labour and Segmentation in Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Nikolaus; Riisgaard, Lone

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the linkages between labour process analysis and global value chains (GVCs) it is important to investigate the particular factory regimes at the upstream end of GVCs. Social relations of production were integrated into the global economy along different trajectories...... of production out of craft traditions; formal firms (and MNCs) either recruiting informal labour directly, or through labour-only contractors; and cases in which downsizing in the formal sector pushes workers into the informal sector. Each case results in different lines of segmentation, links into GVCs...

  11. The challenges of the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Penalosa, Miguel

    1995-01-01

    The author refers to the challenges of the electric sector, as is the structure of prices and good efficiency level, where the measures taken in the first group are not the solution but if they have an appropriate politics, they could make profitable the business of the energy distribution

  12. Logistic chain modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to

  13. Predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Alyssa S; Hirth, Richard A; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-04-01

    To determine the predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis providers. Retrospective facility-level data combined from CMS Cost Reports, Medical Evidence Forms, Annual Facility Surveys, and claims for 1996-2003. Independent dialysis facilities' probability of acquisition by a dialysis chain (overall and by chain size) was estimated using a discrete time hazard rate model, controlling for financial and clinical performance, practice patterns, market factors, and other facility characteristics. The sample includes all U.S. freestanding dialysis facilities that report not being chain affiliated for at least 1 year between 1997 and 2003. Above-average costs and better quality outcomes are significant determinants of dialysis chain acquisition. Facilities in larger markets were more likely to be acquired by a chain. Furthermore, small dialysis chains have different acquisition strategies than large chains. Dialysis chains appear to employ a mix of turn-around and cream-skimming strategies. Poor financial health is a predictor of chain acquisition as in other health care sectors, but the increased likelihood of chain acquisition among higher quality facilities is unique to the dialysis industry. Significant differences among predictors of acquisition by small and large chains reinforce the importance of using a richer classification for chain status.

  14. Smart grids and the transformation of the electricity sector: ICT firms as potential catalysts for sectoral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlinghagen, Sabine; Markard, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability challenges associated with increasing demand and generation of electricity require a far-reaching transformation of the energy system. Smart grid technologies are expected to play a major role in such sectoral transformation. While a growing body of literature is concerned with the dynamics and particularities of sectoral transformation, most contributions have focused on exogenous shocks or new technological developments as drivers of change. This paper complements the existing perspectives by exploring the role of actors as catalysts for transformation. Within the field of smart grid, we study the transformative influence of ICT firms on the energy sector in Europe. More specifically, we analyze actor participation in 450 European smart grid projects between 2000 and 2011 as well as acquisitions in the field. We find that incumbent firms from the ICT sector have gained influence and drive transformation through the creation of variety, in terms of technology, business models and value chains. As a strategic reaction, electricity sector incumbents have recently acquired many start-ups specialized in ICT technology and thus expanded their competence base. We conclude that entrants from another sector can be important catalysts for sectoral transformation and should be analyzed more systematically in transition studies. - Highlight: ► Entrants from adjacent sectors are important catalysts for sectoral transformation. ► We provide a socio-technical systems perspective on smart grid. ► We analyze actor participation in smart grid projects in Europe 2000–2011. ► ICT firms drive transformation towards a smarter grid.

  15. Haulier Value Creation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Road transport is a dynamic sector with market changes because of liberalization and increasing demand of transport and logistics services. Shippers’ supply chain objectives of low costs and agility and a demanding operating environment due to, for example, congestion is challenging...... understanding of capability deployment. Original/value: This research shows that innovation of transport companies’ (hauliers’ and other types of logistics providers’) value propositions drives competitiveness. The strategy-as-practice approach is applied as the theoretical lens for understanding and developing...... strategic outcomes of transport and logistics provision and supply chain value creation....

  16. A estratégia de marcas próprias influencia a gestão da cadeia de suprimentos? Insights para o setor atacadista brasileiro Do own brand strategies influence the supply chain management? Insights from the Brazilian wholesaling sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luiz Piato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A evolução do setor atacadista nos últimos anos possibilitou que estratégias mercadológicas influenciassem significativamente suas funções empresariais tradicionais da cadeia de suprimentos. Percebe-se, na literatura, forte relação entre a estratégia de marcas próprias e as atividades da gestão de suprimentos (em especial, compras, uma vez que o desenvolvimento de marcas próprias transforma o atacadista em comprador criterioso que procura selecionar e avaliar os fornecedores (fonte de suprimento, para obter o melhor desempenho dos produtos que carregam sua marca. Nesse sentido, o principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar o impacto da estratégia de marcas próprias do atacado na atividade de gestão de suprimentos (compras, apresentando e discutindo especificamente o processo de seleção e avaliação dos fornecedores (fabricantes. A partir de um estudo multicaso com três atacadistas e duas indústrias fornecedoras, foi possível demonstrar as principais características do processo de seleção e avaliação dos fornecedores de marcas próprias.The evolution of the wholesaling sector in the past few years has made possible that some traditional corporate functions of the supply chain were significantly influenced by its marketing strategies. The literature shows a deep relation between own brand strategies and the activities of supply management. It happens because the development of own brands makes the wholesaler a very careful buyer that aims at selecting and evaluating the suppliers in order to obtain the best performance of the own brand products. In this way, the main objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of the supply management in the own brand strategy in wholesalers, analysing the procedures and criteria used by wholesalers to select and evaluate own brand suppliers. From a multicase study with three wholesalers and two suppliers, all Brazilian companies, it is possible to demonstrate the main

  17. Summary of Climate Services for the Water Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the water sector. Global warming can potentially change the amount, distribution and intensity of precipitation. These changes can have large impacts on water availability and flood risks. The water sector is increasingly concerned about climate change and

  18. Chained Kullback-Leibler Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Weissman, Tsachy

    2017-01-01

    We define and characterize the “chained” Kullback-Leibler divergence minw D(p‖w) + D(w‖q) minimized over all intermediate distributions w and the analogous k-fold chained K-L divergence min D(p‖wk−1) + … + D(w2‖w1) + D(w1‖q) minimized over the entire path (w1,…,wk−1). This quantity arises in a large deviations analysis of a Markov chain on the set of types – the Wright-Fisher model of neutral genetic drift: a population with allele distribution q produces offspring with allele distribution w, which then produce offspring with allele distribution p, and so on. The chained divergences enjoy some of the same properties as the K-L divergence (like joint convexity in the arguments) and appear in k-step versions of some of the same settings as the K-L divergence (like information projections and a conditional limit theorem). We further characterize the optimal k-step “path” of distributions appearing in the definition and apply our findings in a large deviations analysis of the Wright-Fisher process. We make a connection to information geometry via the previously studied continuum limit, where the number of steps tends to infinity, and the limiting path is a geodesic in the Fisher information metric. Finally, we offer a thermodynamic interpretation of the chained divergence (as the rate of operation of an appropriately defined Maxwell’s demon) and we state some natural extensions and applications (a k-step mutual information and k-step maximum likelihood inference). We release code for computing the objects we study. PMID:29130024

  19. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  20. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.