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Sample records for sectional retrospective survey

  1. End-of-life care in general practice: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey of 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age/dementia' patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.C.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age or dementia'. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  2. Measuring the performance of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys: a likelihood framework and retrospective analysis.

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    Justin Lessler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of routine and supplemental immunization activities is usually measured by the administrative method: dividing the number of doses distributed by the size of the target population. This method leads to coverage estimates that are sometimes impossible (e.g., vaccination of 102% of the target population, and are generally inconsistent with the proportion found to be vaccinated in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. We describe a method that estimates the fraction of the population accessible to vaccination activities, as well as within-campaign inefficiencies, thus providing a consistent estimate of vaccination coverage.We developed a likelihood framework for estimating the effective coverage of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys of vaccine coverage combined with administrative data. We applied our method to measles vaccination in three African countries: Ghana, Madagascar, and Sierra Leone, using data from each country's most recent DHS survey and administrative coverage data reported to the World Health Organization. We estimate that 93% (95% CI: 91, 94 of the population in Ghana was ever covered by any measles vaccination activity, 77% (95% CI: 78, 81 in Madagascar, and 69% (95% CI: 67, 70 in Sierra Leone. "Within-activity" inefficiencies were estimated to be low in Ghana, and higher in Sierra Leone and Madagascar. Our model successfully fits age-specific vaccination coverage levels seen in DHS data, which differ markedly from those predicted by naïve extrapolation from country-reported and World Health Organization-adjusted vaccination coverage.Combining administrative data with survey data substantially improves estimates of vaccination coverage. Estimates of the inefficiency of past vaccination activities and the proportion not covered by any activity allow us to more accurately predict the results of future activities and provide insight into the ways in which vaccination programs are failing to meet their

  3. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Swedish obstetricians and midwives after severe obstetric events: a cross-sectional retrospective survey.

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    Wahlberg, Å; Andreen Sachs, M; Johannesson, K; Hallberg, G; Jonsson, M; Skoog Svanberg, A; Högberg, U

    2017-07-01

    To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat. The validated Screen Questionnaire Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD), based on DSM-IV (1994) 4th edition, was used to assess partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable PTSD. Partial or probable PTSD. The response rate was 47% for obstetricians (n = 706) and 40% (n = 1459) for midwives. Eighty-four percent of the obstetricians and 71% of the midwives reported experiencing at least one severe event on the delivery ward. Fifteen percent of both professions reported symptoms indicative of partial PTSD, whereas 7% of the obstetricians and 5% of the midwives indicated symptoms fulfilling PTSD criteria. Having experienced emotions of guilt or perceived insufficient support from friends predicted a higher risk of suffering from partial or probable PTSD. Obstetricians and midwives with partial PTSD symptoms chose to change their work to outpatient care significantly more often than colleagues without these symptoms. A substantial proportion of obstetricians and midwives reported symptoms of partial or probable PTSD after severe traumatic events experienced on the labour ward. Support and resilience training could avoid suffering and consequences for professional carers. In a survey 15% of Swedish obstetricians and midwives reported PTSD symptoms after their worst obstetric event. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. End-of-life care in general practice: a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of ‘cancer’, ‘organ failure’ and ‘old-age/dementia’ patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from ‘cancer’, ‘organ failure’ and ‘old-age or dementia’. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  5. Medical Cannabis Use Is Associated With Decreased Opiate Medication Use in a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey of Patients With Chronic Pain.

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    Boehnke, Kevin F; Litinas, Evangelos; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Opioids are commonly used to treat patients with chronic pain (CP), though there is little evidence that they are effective for long term CP treatment. Previous studies reported strong associations between passage of medical cannabis laws and decrease in opioid overdose statewide. Our aim was to examine whether using medical cannabis for CP changed individual patterns of opioid use. Using an online questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective survey of 244 medical cannabis patients with CP who patronized a medical cannabis dispensary in Michigan between November 2013 and February 2015. Data collected included demographic information, changes in opioid use, quality of life, medication classes used, and medication side effects before and after initiation of cannabis usage. Among study participants, medical cannabis use was associated with a 64% decrease in opioid use (n = 118), decreased number and side effects of medications, and an improved quality of life (45%). This study suggests that many CP patients are essentially substituting medical cannabis for opioids and other medications for CP treatment, and finding the benefit and side effect profile of cannabis to be greater than these other classes of medications. More research is needed to validate this finding. This article suggests that using medical cannabis for CP treatment may benefit some CP patients. The reported improvement in quality of life, better side effect profile, and decreased opioid use should be confirmed by rigorous, longitudinal studies that also assess how CP patients use medical cannabis for pain management. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Burden of illness associated with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy among adults seeking treatment in the US: results from a retrospective chart review and cross-sectional survey

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    Sadosky A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alesia Sadosky,1 Caroline Schaefer,2 Rachael Mann,3 Felicia Bergstrom,2 Rebecca Baik,2 Bruce Parsons,1 Srinivas Nalamachu,4 Edward Nieshoff,5 Brett R Stacey,6 Alan Anschel,7 Michael Tuchman81Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 2Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, 4International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 5Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 6Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 7Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 8Palm Beach Neurological Center, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to characterize the burden of illness among adult subjects with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN seeking treatment in the US.Methods: This observational study recruited 112 subjects with pDPN during routine visits from general practitioner and specialist sites. Subjects completed a one-time questionnaire, which included demographics, symptom duration, health care resource use, out-of-pocket costs, employment status, and validated measures that assessed pain, functioning, sleep, anxiety and depression, health status, and productivity. Investigators completed a case report form based on a 6-month retrospective chart review to capture clinical information, pDPN-related treatments, and other pDPN-related health care resource use over the past 6 months. Annualized costs were extrapolated based on reported 6-month health care resource use.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 61.1 years, 52.7% were female, and 17.9% were in paid employment. The most common comorbid conditions were sleep disturbance/insomnia (43.8%, depressive symptoms (41.1%, and anxiety (35.7%. The mean pain severity score was 5.2 (0–10 scale, and 79.5% reported moderate or severe pain. The mean pain interference with function score was 5.0 (0–10 scale overall, with 2.0 among mild, 5.1 among moderate, and 7

  7. Section Level Public Land Survey - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Data are derived primarily from Section corner locations captured from paper USGS seven and one-half...

  8. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  9. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands.

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    Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell; Harper, Lorraine

    2018-01-23

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Research outcomes. Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  10. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  11. Cross-sectional serological survey of human fascioliasis in haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnamey, P; Fortes-Lopes, E; Raccurt, C P; Boncy, J; Totet, A

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216). The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%), 42 kDa (64%), 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%). This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.

  12. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Haiti

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    P. Agnamey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216. The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%, 42 kDa (64%, 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%. This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.

  13. A retrospective and prospective survey of three-dimensional transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective survey is made on the three-dimensional radiation transport calculations. Introduction is given to computer codes based on the distinctive numerical methods such as the Monte Carlo, Direct Integration, Ssub(n) and Finite Element Methods to solve the three-dimensional transport equations. Prospective discussions are made on pros and cons of these methods. (author)

  14. The curative effect of a second curettage in persistent trophoblastic disease: a retrospective cohort survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommel, N.E. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Verheijen, R.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the curative effect of a second curettage in patients with low-risk Persistent Trophoblastic Disease (PTD) after molar pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort survey was performed on 2122 patients registered with the Dutch Central Registry for Hydatidiform Moles between 1987

  15. Retrospective

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    Brooks, David A.

    Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic

  16. Exploring full cervical dilatation caesarean sections-A retrospective cohort study.

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    Corry, Edward M A; Ramphul, Meenakshi; Rowan, Ann M; Segurado, Ricardo; Mahony, Rhona M; Keane, Declan P

    2018-05-01

    The rate of caesarean sections at full cervical dilatation with their high risk of morbidity continues to rise mirroring the overall increase in caesarean section rates internationally. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of full dilatation caesarean section in a tertiary referral unit and evaluate key labour, maternal and fetal factors potentially linked to those deliveries. We also assessed maternal and fetal morbidity at full dilatation sections. Where possible, these were compared with successful operative vaginal deliveries carried out in theatre to determine key differences. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the rate of full dilatation caesarean section over a 10-year period. We analysed deliveries (caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries) in single cephalic pregnancies ≥34 weeks with contemporaneously collected data from our unit's electronic database for 2015. The rate of full dilatation caesarean section increased by over a third in the ten-year period (56/6947 (0.80%) vs 92/7378 (1.24%), p = 0.01). Of 84 full dilatation caesarean sections who met the inclusion criteria, 63 (75%) were nulliparous and the mean maternal age was 33 (±5) years. Oxytocin was used in the second stage in less than half of second stage caesarean sections (22 out of a recorded 57, 38.6%). There were more fetal head malposition (occipito-posterior, or occipito-transverse) at full dilatation caesarean section compared to successful operative vaginal deliveries (41/46 (89.1%) vs 2/21 (9.5), p < 0.001). The rate of significant postpartum haemorrhage (defined as estimated blood loss ≥1000 ml) was similar in both full dilatation caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries. There was no difference in the mean birthweight at full dilatation caesarean sections compared to operative vaginal delivery (3.88 kg (2.80-5.33 kg) vs 3.48 kg (1.53-4.40 kg)). There was no difference in neonatal morbidity. Fetal head malposition is

  17. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PRIMARY CAESAREAN SECTION AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    S. Prasanna Lakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The caesarean section epidemic is a reason for immediate concern and deserves serious National and International attention. Rates of caesarean section are of concern to both developed and developing countries. The indications for caesarean section have been undergoing a gradual change over the last few decades. Besides the obstetric causes, several other medical, social, ethical, economical and medicolegal factors play a role in the rising trend of caesarean section. The aim of the study was undertaken to determine the rate, indications, intraoperative and postoperative complications of primary caesarean section in primi and multipara and maternal and foetal morbidities in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study carried out on primary caesarean section in the Department of O and G at Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Government Hospital attached to K.A.P.Viswanatham Government Medical College, Trichy, during 1 year period from January 2015-December 2015. Inclusion Criteria- Patients (booked/unbooked attending the labour room undergoing primary caesarean section in the department. Their intraoperative and postoperative complications were noted and also maternal and foetal morbidities and complications. Exclusion Criteria- Gestational age <28 wks., previous LSCS, previous uterine surgery or hysterotomy, multiple gestation. RESULTS There has been a steady increase in total deliveries (increase by 5.2% in the last 2 yrs. at Mahathma Gandhi Memorial Government Hospital attached to K.A.P. Viswanatham Government Medical College, Trichy, and total caesarean section rate (increased by 19.3% and primary caesarean section rate (increased by 12.3% in the past 2 years with concomitant reduction in neonatal mortality rate by 28%. However, this doesn’t justify the increase in primary caesarean section rate. CONCLUSION Potentially modifiable factors such as patient preferences, practice variations among hospitals, systems and

  18. Psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode: retrospective results from the French national SIP survey

    OpenAIRE

    Niedhammer , Isabelle; Chastang , Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Objectives : The objective was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode. Additional objectives included the study of the frequency and duration of exposure, and the evaluation of the induction period between exposures and outcome and of the reversibility of the effects.Methods : The study was based on a sample of 13,648 men and women from the 2006 national representative French SIP survey. Retrospective evaluation was p...

  19. Urinary tract injuries during cesarean section in patients with morbid placental adherence: retrospective cohort study.

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    Alanwar, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Elkotb, Ahmed M; Abdelshafy, Ahmed; Abdelhadi, Rasha; Abbas, Ahmed M; Abdelmenam, Hend S; Fares, Tamer; Nossair, Wael; Abdallah, Ameer A; Sabaa, Haitham; Nawara, Maii

    2017-12-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cases of lower urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with or without hysterectomy in cases with morbid placental adherence. This record based retrospective study was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital in Cairo, Egypt during the period between January 2014 and December 2016. It included all patients who had urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with or without hysterectomy in the cases with morbid placental adherence and they were collected from files of pregnant women who were admitted at hospital planned for termination of pregnancy. Patients were enrolled in four groups, Group 1: cases without urinary tract injuries. Group 2: cases with injuries to the bladder. Group 3: cases with injuries of the ureter. Group 4: cases with injuries to the bladder and ureter. This study gave us new information about the incidence of urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with morbid adherence placenta was 21.7% (Bladder 11.7%, Ureter 4.7%, and bladder with ureter 5.3%). There were various types of repair of urinary tract injury, as the following, bladder repair 10.8%, ureteric catheterization 0.9%, ureterovesical repair or reimplantation 1.5%, bladder repair and ureterovesical 1.2%, bladder repair and ureteric catheterization 2.3%, ureteric catheterization and ureterovesical 1.5 and 6.4% of cases needed urologic consultations. There is a real relation between urinary tract injury and obesity (55.3%). Bladder invasion was found in only 26.9% of all cases according to sonography findings. Most of the cases were delivered by cesarean section in 67.5%, and the remainders were delivered by cesarean hysterectomy 32.5%. About 96.5% of cases needed a blood transfusion. The morbid adherent placenta is still a challenge, which faces us as obstetricians, due to high morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary team is mandatory to avoid complications.

  20. Associations between childhood obesity and the availability of food outlets in the local environment: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

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    Miller, Laura J; Joyce, Sarah; Carter, Shannon; Yun, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Examine whether individual-level childhood obesity is related to residential availability of fast food and healthy food outlets. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Perth, Western Australia. A total of 1850 children aged 5 to 15 years in 2005-2010 who participated in the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System survey. Geographical Information Systems were used to calculate a range of measures of fast food and healthy food outlet access and availability. For example, distance to nearest and access and density measures within 800 m and 3 km of each child's residence were all tested. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviors. An increasing number of healthy food outlets within 800 m of a child's home was associated with a significantly reduced risk of being overweight/obese in all models tested. After controlling for age, physical activity, time spent sedentary, weekly takeaway consumption, area disadvantage, and count of fast food outlets, each additional healthy food outlet within 800 m was associated with a 20% decrease in the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese (odds ratio: .800, 95% confidence intervals: .686-.933). The local food environment around children's homes has an independent effect on child weight status. These findings highlight the importance of the built environment as a potential contributor towards child health, which should be considered when developing community health promotion programs.

  1. Which mothers receive a post partum home visit in Queensland, Australia? A cross-sectional retrospective study.

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    Brodribb, Wendy; Miller, Yvette

    2015-06-01

    Although home visiting in the early post partum period appears to have increased, there are limited data defining which women receive a visit and none that include Queensland. We aimed to investigate patterns of post partum home visiting in the public and private sectors in Queensland. Data were collected via a retrospective cross-sectional survey of women birthing in Queensland between 1 February and 31 May 2010 at 4 months post partum (n = 6948). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between receiving a home visit and sociodemographic, clinical and hospital variables. Analyses were stratified by public and private birthing sector because of significant differences between sectors. Public sector women were more likely to receive a visit from a nurse or midwife (from the hospital or child health sector) within 10 days of hospital discharge (67.2%) than private sector women (7.2%). Length of hospital stay was associated with home visiting in both sectors. Some vulnerable subpopulations in both sectors were more likely to be visited, whereas others were not. Home visiting in Queensland varies markedly between the public and private sector and is less common in some vulnerable populations. Further consideration to improving the equity of community post partum care in Queensland is needed.

  2. PROMETHEUS: an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study of hypertriglyceridemia in Russia.

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    Karpov, Yuri; Khomitskaya, Yunona

    2015-08-25

    Data regarding the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population are lacking, despite triglyceride (TG)-mediated pathways being causal in cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of mixed dyslipidemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population (PROMETHEUS) was undertaken to address this gap. This was an observational, cross-sectional retrospective study. Data from adults with a full/partial lipoprotein record who had blood analyses done at an INVITRO laboratory in Russia between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L); secondary endpoints included prevalence of borderline high, high, and very high TG and severe hypertriglyceridemia, defined as a TG level of 1.7 to hypertriglyceridemia, borderline high TG, high TG, very high TG, and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the full dataset was 29.2, 16.2, 12.9, 0.11, and 0.011%, respectively; corresponding rates in the nested sample were 19.0, 17.2, 0.25, and 0.016%, respectively. TG levels were 16.4% higher in males versus females; males had a greater risk of hypertriglyceridemia (risk ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.24, 1.26; P hypertriglyceridemia increased with age, peaking at 40-49 years in males (42.8%) and 60-69 years in females (34.4%); a 0.61% increase in TG levels for each year of life was predicted. Hypertriglyceridemia prevalence increased over time. Correlations between TG and LDL-C, HDL-C, TC, and HbA1c (nested sample only) were observed. Almost one-third of Russians have hypertriglyceridemia, but severe disease (TG ≥ 10.0 mmol/L) is rare. Although the risk of hypertriglyceridemia was greater in males versus females, its prevalence increased with age, regardless of sex. TG was associated with HbA1c, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TC.

  3. Antipsychotics and dementia in Canada: a retrospective cross-sectional study of four health sectors.

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    Rios, Sebastian; Perlman, Christopher M; Costa, Andrew; Heckman, George; Hirdes, John P; Mitchell, Lori

    2017-10-23

    Antipsychotic medications are not recommended for the management of symptoms of dementia, particularly among persons with no behavioral or psychological symptoms. We examine patterns of antipsychotic medication use among persons with dementia across health sectors in Canada, with a focus on factors related to use among those without behavioral or psychotic symptoms. Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, this study examines antipsychotic use among adults aged 65 or older with dementia in home care (HC), complex continuing care (CCC), long-term care (LTC), and among alternate level care patients in acute hospitals (ALC). Using clinical data from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014, the prevalence of antipsychotic medication use was estimated by the presence of behavioral and psychotic symptoms. Logistic regression was used to identify sector specific factors associated with antipsychotic use in the absence of behavioral and psychotic symptoms. The total prevalence of antipsychotic use among older adults with dementia was 26% in HC, 54% in ALC, 41% in CCC, and 48% in LTC. This prevalence ranged from 38% (HC) to 73% (ALC) for those with both behavioral and psychotic symptoms and from 15% (HC) to 31% (ALC) among those with no symptoms. The regression models identified a number of variables were related to antipsychotic use in the absence of behavior or psychotic symptoms, such as bipolar disorder (OR = 6.63 in CCC; OR = 5.52 in LTC), anxious complaints (OR = 1.54 in LTC to 2.01 in CCC), and wandering (OR = 1.83 in ALC). Potentially inappropriate use of antipsychotic medications is prevalent among older adults with dementia across health sectors. The variations in prevalence observed from community to facility based care suggests that system issues may exist in appropriately managing persons with dementia.

  4. Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkes, Alexander; Ashworth, Mark; Schofield, Peter; Harries, Timothy H; Durbaba, Stevo; Weston, Charlotte; White, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Lower risk of COPD has been reported in black and Asian people, raising questions of poorer recognition or reduced susceptibility. We assessed prevalence and severity of COPD in ethnic groups, controlling for smoking. A retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected primary care data in London. COPD prevalence, severity (% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]), smoking status, and treatment were compared between ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, deprivation, and practice clustering. Among 358,614 patients in 47 general practices, 47.6% were white, 20% black, and 5% Asian. Prevalence of COPD was 1.01% overall, 1.55% in whites, 0.58% in blacks, and 0.78% in Asians. COPD was less likely in blacks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.51) and Asians (0.82; CI, 0.68-0.98) than whites. Black COPD patients were less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.44-0.71) and more likely to be never-smokers (OR, 4.9; CI, 3.4-7.1). Treatment of patients with similar disease severity was similar irrespective of ethnic origin, except that long-acting muscarinic antagonists were prescribed less in black COPD patients (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.42-0.68). Black ethnicity was a predictor of poorer lung function (% predicted FEV1: B coefficient, -7.6; Pwhites to have COPD after adjusting for lower smoking rates in blacks. It seems likely that the differences observed were due either to ethnic differences in the way cigarettes were smoked or to ethnic differences in susceptibility to COPD.

  5. PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN NEONATOLOGY: RESULTS OF THE RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Kolbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Against the background of ever-increasing resistance of bacteria, it is necessary to develop effective measures aimed at the structure optimization of consumption of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the pharmacoepidemiological data describing either the consumption of antimicrobial agents or the resistance level to them is required. Objective: Our aim was to assess the antimicrobial load in term and preterm newborns during their stay in the maternity wards and/or in the intensive care units (ICU. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study has been carried out. The analysis included data of 419 newborns from 5 medical centers. The study has been carried out as part of a multi-purpose program on antibiotic resistance containment being held in St. Petersburg from 2014. Results. The antimicrobial load on the child's body expressed in days of the antimicrobial therapy was 1,838 per 1,000 patient-days in children staying in the ICU for not more than 16 days, and 1,434 per 1,000 patient-days when staying in the ICU for more than 16 days. The average duration of the antimicrobial therapy is 28 days in the ICU and 5 days out the ICU (department for newborns, physiological departments. The most commonly, the children were treated with ampicillin — 384 (92%, gentamicin — 254 (61%, and fluconazole — 150 (36%. The prevalence of off-label prescriptions was 41% (of 1,557 analyzed prescriptions, unlicensed prescriptions — 10%. Congenital infections were the main reasons for prescription of antimicrobial drugs — 225 (62%. Conclusion. The high anti-bacterial load in newborns has been established. The indicator 'days of antimicrobial therapy' in the ICU is 4 times higher than that in the United States. The prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescriptions is comparable with foreign data.

  6. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  7. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  8. Authors' perceptions of electronic publishing: two cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroter, Sara; Barratt, Helen; Smith, Jane

    2004-06-05

    To evaluate how acceptable authors find the BMJ's current practice of publishing short versions of research articles in the paper journal and a longer version on the web and to determine authors' attitudes towards publishing only abstracts in the paper journal and publishing unedited versions on bmj.com once papers have been accepted for publication. Two cross sectional surveys. General medical journal. Survey 1: corresponding authors of a consecutive sample of published BMJ research articles that had undergone the ELPS (electronic long, paper short) process. Survey 2: corresponding authors of consecutive research articles submitted to BMJ. Response rates were 90% (104/115) in survey 1 and 75% (213/283) in survey 2. ELPS is largely acceptable to BMJ authors, but there is some concern that electronic information is not permanent and uncertainty about how versions are referenced. While authors who had experienced ELPS reported some problems with editors shortening papers, most were able to rectify these. Overall, 70% thought that the BMJ should continue to use ELPS; 49% thought that publishing just the abstract in the printed journal with the full version only on bmj.com was unacceptable; and 23% thought it unacceptable to post unedited versions on bmj.com once a paper had been accepted for publication. It is acceptable to authors to publish short versions of research articles in the printed version of a general medical journal with longer versions on the website. Authors dislike the idea of publishing only abstracts in the printed journal but are in favour of posting accepted articles on the website ahead of the printed version.

  9. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the regionalization of complex surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Craver, Christopher; Blanchette, Christopher M; Fisher, John W; Shahbazi, Sara

    2014-08-16

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system has assigned a surgical complexity level to each of its medical centers by specifying requirements to perform standard, intermediate or complex surgical procedures. No study to similarly describe the patterns of relative surgical complexity among a population of United States (U.S) civilian hospitals has been completed. single year, retrospective, cross-sectional. the study used Florida Inpatient Discharge Data from short-term acute hospitals for calendar year 2009. Two hundred hospitals with 2,542,920 discharges were organized into four quartiles (Q 1, 2, 3, 4) based on the number of complex procedures per hospital. The VHA surgical complexity matrix was applied to assign relative complexity to each procedure. The Clinical Classification Software (CCS) system assigned complex procedures to clinically meaningful groups. For outcome comparisons, propensity score matching methods adjusted for the surgical procedure, age, gender, race, comorbidities, mechanical ventilator use and type of admission. in-hospital mortality and length-of-stay (LOS). Only 5.2% of all inpatient discharges involve a complex procedure. The highest volume complex procedure hospitals (Q4) have 49.8% of all discharges but 70.1% of all complex procedures. In the 133,436 discharges with a primary complex procedure, 374 separate specific procedures are identified, only about one third of which are performed in the lowest volume complex procedure (Q1) hospitals. Complex operations of the digestive, respiratory, integumentary and musculoskeletal systems are the least concentrated and proportionately more likely to occur in the lower volume hospitals. Operations of the cardiovascular system and certain technology dependent miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are the most concentrated in high volume hospitals. Organ transplants are only done in Q4 hospitals. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality rates and the

  10. Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilkes A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Gilkes, Mark Ashworth, Peter Schofield, Timothy H Harries, Stevo Durbaba, Charlotte Weston, Patrick White Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, Division of Health and Social Care Research, Kings College London, London, UK Background: Lower risk of COPD has been reported in black and Asian people, raising questions of poorer recognition or reduced susceptibility. We assessed prevalence and severity of COPD in ethnic groups, controlling for smoking. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected primary care data in London. COPD prevalence, severity (% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], smoking status, and treatment were compared between ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, deprivation, and practice clustering. Results: Among 358,614 patients in 47 general practices, 47.6% were white, 20% black, and 5% Asian. Prevalence of COPD was 1.01% overall, 1.55% in whites, 0.58% in blacks, and 0.78% in Asians. COPD was less likely in blacks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39–0.51 and Asians (0.82; CI, 0.68–0.98 than whites. Black COPD patients were less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.44–0.71 and more likely to be never-smokers (OR, 4.9; CI, 3.4–7.1. Treatment of patients with similar disease severity was similar irrespective of ethnic origin, except that long-acting muscarinic antagonists were prescribed less in black COPD patients (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.42–0.68. Black ethnicity was a predictor of poorer lung function (% predicted FEV1: B coefficient, -7.6; P<0.0001, an effect not seen when ethnic-specific predicted FEV1 values were used. Conclusion: Black people in London were half as likely as whites to have COPD after adjusting for lower smoking rates in blacks. It seems likely that the differences observed were due either to ethnic differences in the way cigarettes were smoked or to ethnic differences in susceptibility to

  11. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  12. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-02-09

    To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Survey response rate of 51% (102/199). Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS) and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS). Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors); similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  13. Infections by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in SCT recipients: a nationwide retrospective survey from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmenia, C; Rossolini, G M; Piciocchi, A; Bertaina, A; Pisapia, G; Pastore, D; Sica, S; Severino, A; Cudillo, L; Ciceri, F; Scimè, R; Lombardini, L; Viscoli, C; Rambaldi, A

    2015-02-01

    Infections by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) represent a challenging problem after SCT. A retrospective survey (January 2010 to July 2013) involving 52 Italian centers was performed to assess the epidemiology and the prognostic factors of CRKp infections in auto- and allo-SCT. Cases of CRKp infection were reported in 53.4% of centers. CRKp infections were documented in 25 auto-SCTs and 87 allo-SCTs, with an incidence of 0.4% (from 0.1% in 2010 to 0.7% in 2013) and 2% (from 0.4% in 2010 to 2.9% in 2013), respectively. A CRKp colonization documented before or after transplant was followed by an infection in 25.8% of auto-SCT and 39.2% of allo-SCT patients. The infection-related mortality rates were 16% and 64.4%, respectively. A pre-transplant CRKp infection (hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.15-0.74; P=0.007) and a not CRKp-targeted first-line treatment (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43-4.99; P=0.002) were independent factors associated with an increased mortality in allo-SCT patients who developed a CRKp infection. Our study shows challenging findings of CRKp infections in SCT patients in Italy particularly after allo-SCT. The detection of carriers and the definition of early therapeutic strategies represent critical aspects of the management of CRKp infections after SCT.

  14. Role of deeper sections in diagnostic oral histopathology: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manyam

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Diagnostic laboratories must balance the utility of deeper levels with the additional time required and expense incurred and the impact on patient care. Deeper sections are inevitable in certain situations and periodical auditing of laboratory work will reduce the need for additional sections and delay in the dispatch of biopsy report.

  15. Trends in baseline CD4 cell counts and risk factors for late antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive patients in Shanghai, a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Shen, Jiayin; Chen, Panpan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2017-04-19

    There are few studies focus on the factors underlying the late initiation of ART in China. We analyzed the trends in the median CD4 cell counts among different patient groups over time and the risk factors for the late initiation of ART in Shanghai, China. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was made in the Department of Infectious Disease of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center which is a designated diagnosis and treatment center for HIV-positive patients in Shanghai during the period of January 1st, 2008--June 30th, 2014. Late ART initiation was defined as a CD4 cell count 30 years) (p HIV exposure who are male, older even heterosexual orientation should be given more opportunities to receive frequently screening, earlier diagnoses and timely treatment.

  16. Turkish Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study: Retrospective Sectional Analysis of CML Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: here have been tremendous changes in treatment and follow-up of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML in the last decade. Especially, regular publication and updating of NCCN and ELN guidelines have provided enermous rationale and base for close monitorization of patients with CML. But, it is stil needed to have registry results retrospectively to evaluate daily CML practices. METHODS: In this article, we have evaluated 1133 patients’ results with CML in terms of demographical features, disease status, response, resistance and use of second-generation TKIs. RESULTS: The response rate has been found relatively high in comparison with previously published articles, and we detected that there was a lack of appropriate and adequate molecular response assessment. CONCLUSION: We concluded that we need to improve registry systems and increase the availability of molecular response assessment to provide high-quality patient care.

  17. Psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode: retrospective results from the French national SIP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode. Additional objectives included the study of the frequency and duration of exposure, and the evaluation of the induction period between exposures and outcome and of the reversibility of the effects. The study was based on a sample of 13,648 men and women from the 2006 national representative French SIP survey. Retrospective evaluation was performed for depressive episode for the whole life history, for psychological demands, skill discretion, social support, tension with the public, reward and work-life imbalance for each job, and within each job before and after each major change, and for time-varying covariates. The outcome was the first depressive episode. Statistical analysis was performed using weighted discrete time logistic regression model. High psychological demands and low social support were risk factors for first depressive episode for both genders. The risk increased with the frequency of exposure to these factors. Associations were found with the frequency of exposure to tension with the public among women and to work-life imbalance among men. The risk increased with the duration of exposure to psychological demands and low social support for both genders, however, these associations become non-significant when recent exposure was taken into account. Past exposure older than 2 years was not associated with the outcome. Associations between psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode were observed, including dose-response associations. However, after removal of the exposure, the risk may be reduced after 2 years.

  18. The economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations in China: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Jit, Mark; Leung, Kathy S; Zheng, Ya-Ming; Feng, Lu-Zhao; Wang, Li-Ping; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T; Yu, Hong-Jie

    2015-10-06

    The seasonal influenza vaccine coverage rate in China is only 1.9 %. There is no information available on the economic burden of influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations at the national level, even though this kind of information is important for informing national-level immunization policy decision-making. A retrospective telephone survey was conducted in 2013/14 to estimate the direct and indirect costs of seasonal influenza-associated outpatient visits and hospitalizations from a societal perspective. Study participants were laboratory-confirmed cases registered in the National Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network and Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Sentinel Surveillance Network in China in 2013. Patient-reported costs from the survey were validated by a review of hospital accounts for a small sample of the inpatients. The study enrolled 529 outpatients (median age: eight years; interquartile range [IQR]: five to 20 years) and 254 inpatients (median age: four years; IQR: two to seven years). Among the outpatients, 22.1 % (117/529) had underlying diseases and among the inpatients, 52.8 % (134/254) had underlying diseases. The average total costs related to influenza-associated outpatient visits and inpatient visits were US$ 155 (standard deviation, SD US$ 122) and US$ 1,511 (SD US$ 1,465), respectively. Direct medical costs accounted for 45 and 69 % of the total costs related to influenza-associated outpatient and inpatient visits, respectively. For influenza outpatients, the mean cost per episode in children aged below five years (US$ 196) was higher than that in other age groups (US$ 129-153). For influenza inpatients, the mean cost per episode in adults aged over 60 years (US$ 2,735) was much higher than that in those aged below 60 years (US$ 1,417-1,621). Patients with underlying medical conditions had higher costs per episode than patients without underlying medical conditions (outpatients: US$ 186 vs. US$ 146; inpatients: US$ 1

  19. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-01-01

    increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance. we designed a cross-sectional and a retrospective-longitudinal cohort study. Data from first, second and third year midwifery students were collected to study the variables 'clinical performance' and 'reflection ability'. Data were analysed with SPSS for Windows, Release 20.0. Descriptive statistics, Pearson׳s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) and r² values were computed to investigate associations between the research variables. the results showed a moderate observed correlation between reflection ability and clinical performance scores. When adopting a cross-sectional perspective, all correlation values were significant (p0.6). The results based on the retrospective-longitudinal data set explained a moderate proportion of the variance after correction for attenuation. Finally, the results indicate that 'reflection ability' scores of earlier years are significant related with 'clinical performance' scores of subsequent years. These results suggest that (1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement. the data showed a moderate but significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice of midwifery students. Reflection therefore seems an important component of professional competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  2. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Mehmet; Akan, Hülya; Izbirak, Güldal; Tanriöver, Özlem; Tilev, Sırma Mine; Yildiz, Anil; Tektaş, Simge; Vitrinel, Ayça; Hayran, Osman

    2010-12-19

    Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  3. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative molecular approach in biological samples from patients with syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel; Antelo, Minia; Ferreira, Rita; Azevedo, Jacinta; Santo, Irene; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Syphilis is the sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a pathogen highly adapted to the human host. As a multistage disease, syphilis presents distinct clinical manifestations that pose different implications for diagnosis. Nevertheless, the inherent factors leading to diverse disease progressions are still unknown. We aimed to assess the association between treponemal loads and dissimilar disease outcomes, to better understand syphilis. We retrospectively analyzed 309 DNA samples distinct anatomic sites associated with particular syphilis manifestations. All samples had previously tested positive by a PCR-based diagnostic kit. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR procedure was used to precisely quantify the number of treponemal and human cells to determine T. pallidum loads in each sample. In general, lesion exudates presented the highest T. pallidum loads in contrast with blood-derived samples. Within the latter, a higher dispersion of T. pallidum quantities was observed for secondary syphilis. T. pallidum was detected in substantial amounts in 37 samples of seronegative individuals and in 13 cases considered as syphilis-treated. No association was found between treponemal loads and serological results or HIV status. This study suggests a scenario where syphilis may be characterized by: i) heterogeneous and high treponemal loads in primary syphilis, regardless of the anatomic site, reflecting dissimilar duration of chancres development and resolution; ii) high dispersion of bacterial concentrations in secondary syphilis, potentially suggesting replication capability of T. pallidum while in the bloodstream; and iii) bacterial evasiveness, either to the host immune system or antibiotic treatment, while remaining hidden in privileged niches. This work highlights the importance of using molecular approaches to study uncultivable human pathogens, such as T. pallidum, in the infection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  5. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  6. Efficacy of Combined Laparoscopic and Hysteroscopic Repair of Post-Cesarean Section Uterine Diverticulum: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diverticulum, one of the long-term sequelae of cesarean section, can cause abnormal uterine bleeding and increase the risk of uterine scar rupture. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic repair, a newly occurring method, treating post-cesarean section uterine scar diverticulum. Methods. Data relating to 40 patients with post-cesarean section uterine diverticulum who underwent combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic repair were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative clinical manifestations, size of uterine defects, thickness of the lower uterine segment (LUS, and duration of menstruation were compared with follow-up findings at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. The average preoperative length and width of uterine diverticula and thickness of the lower uterine segment were recorded and analyzed. The average durations of menstruations at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery were significantly shorter than the preoperative one (p<0.05, respectively. At 6 months after surgery, the overall success improvement rate of surgery was 90% (36/40. Three patients (3/40 = 7.5% developed partial improvement, and 1/40 (2.5% was lost to follow-up. Conclusions. Our findings showed that combined treatment with laparoscopy and hysteroscopy was an effective method for the repair of post-cesarean section uterine diverticulum.

  7. Increased financial burden among patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia receiving imatinib in Japan: a retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Yuko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The financial burden of medical expenses has been increasing for cancer patients. We investigated the relationship between household income and financial burden among patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML who have been treated with imatinib. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 1200 patients between May and August 2009. We retrospectively surveyed their household incomes, out-of-pocket medical expenses, final co-payments after refunds, and the perceived financial burden of their medical expenses in 2000, 2005 and 2008. Results A total of 577 patients completed the questionnaire. Their median age was 61 years (range, 15–94. A financial burden was felt by 41.2 % (28 of 68 of the patients treated with imatinib in 2000, 70.8 % (201 of 284 in 2005, and 75.8 % (400 of 528 in 2008. Overall, 182 patients (31.7 % considered its discontinuation because of the financial burden and 15 (2.6 % temporarily stopped their imatinib prescription. In 2000, 2005 and 2008, the patients’ median annual household incomes were 49,615 US Dollars (USD, 38,510 USD and 36,731 USD, respectively, with an average currency exchange rate of 104 Yen/USD in 2008. Their median annual out-of-pocket expenses were 11,548, 12,067 and 11,538 USD and their median final annual co-payments were 4,375, 4,327 and 3,558 USD, respectively. Older patients (OR = 0.96, 95 % CI: 0.95–0.98, p ≪ 0.0001 for 1-year increments, and patients with higher household incomes (OR = 0.92, 95 % CI: 0.85–0.99, p = 0.03 for 10,000 USD-increments were less likely to have considered discontinuing their imatinib treatment. Conversely, patients with higher annual final co-payments (OR = 2.21, 95 % CI: 1.28–4.28, p = 0.004 for 10,000 USD-increments were more likely to have considered discontinuing their imatinib treatment. Conclusions The proportion of CML patients who sensed a financial burden increased between 2000 and 2008

  8. Retrospective review to determine the utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse evaluations when the initial skeletal survey is normal

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    Kachelmeyer Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The AAP recommends that a follow-up skeletal survey be obtained for all children Methods A retrospective review of radiology records from September 1, 1998 - January 31, 2007 was conducted. Suspected victims of child abuse who were Results Forty-seven children had a negative initial skeletal survey and were included for analysis. The mean age was 6.9 months (SD 5.7; the mean number of days between skeletal surveys was 18.7 (SD 10.1 Four children (8.5% had signs of healing bone trauma on a follow-up skeletal survey. Three of these children (75% had healing rib fractures and one child had a healing proximal humerus fracture. The findings on the follow-up skeletal survey yielded forensically important information in all 4 cases and strengthened the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. Conclusion 8.5 percent of children with negative initial skeletal surveys had forensically important findings on follow-up skeletal survey that increased the certainty of the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. A follow-up skeletal survey can be useful even when the initial skeletal survey is negative.

  9. The effectiveness of specialist roles in mental health metabolic monitoring: a retrospective cross-sectional comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Wallace, Elizabeth; Happell, Brenda; Stanton, Robert; Platania-Phung, Chris; Edward, Karen-leigh; Castle, David

    2014-09-02

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) exhibit a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Mental health services have a responsibility to address poor physical health in their consumers. One way of doing this is to conduct metabolic monitoring (MM) of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. This study compares two models of MM among consumers with SMI and describes referral pathways for those at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. A retrospective cross-sectional comparison design was used. The two models were: (1) MM integrated with case managers, and (2) MM integrated with case managers and specialist roles. Retrospective data were collected for all new episodes at two community mental health services (CMHS) over a 12-month period (September 2012 - August 2013). A total of 432 consumers with SMI across the two community mental health services were included in the analysis. At the service with the specialist roles, MM was undertaken for 78% of all new episode consumers, compared with 3% at the mental health service with case managers undertaking the role. Incomplete MM was systemic to both CMHS, although all consumers identified with high risk of cardiovascular diseases were referred to a general practitioner or other community based health services. The specialist roles enabled more varied referral options. The results of this study support incorporating specialist roles over case manager only roles for more effective MM among new episode consumers with SMI.

  10. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  11. Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics…

  12. A cross-sectional survey on the lifestyle and healthseeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of practice of a healthy lifestyle, to assess the health education provided to patients with diabetes and to determine the prevalence of obesity among Basotho patients with diabetes. Design: A cross-sectional study enrolled 192 patients between November ...

  13. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potentia...

  14. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Jung, Eva; Erbslöh-Möller, Brigitte; Gesmann, Mechthild; Kühn-Becker, Hedi; Petermann, Franz; Langhorst, Jost; Thoma, Reinhard; Weiss, Thomas; Wolfe, Frederick; Winkelmann, Andreas

    2012-05-18

    Consumer surveys provide information on effectiveness and side effects of medical interventions in routine clinical care. A report of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) consumers has not been carried out in Europe. The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. Participants diagnosed with FMS rated the effectiveness and side effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological FMS interventions on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being most efficacious (harmful). The questionnaire was distributed by the German League for people with Arthritis and Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to their members and to all consecutive FMS patients of nine clinical centers of different levels of care. 1661 questionnaires (95% women, mean age 54 years, mean duration since FMS diagnosis 6.8 years) were analysed. The most frequently used therapies were self-management strategies, prescription pain medication and aerobic exercise. The highest average effectiveness was attributed to whole body and local warmth therapies, thermal bathes, FMS education and resting. The highest average side effects were attributed to strong opioids, local cold therapy, gamma-amino-butyric acid analogues (pregabalin and gabapentin), tramadol and opioid transdermal systems. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports highlight the importance of non-pharmcological therapies in the long-term management of FMS, and challenges the strong recommendations for drug therapies given by FMS-guidelines.

  15. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

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    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  16. A national retrospective survey of anisakidosis in France (2010-2014: decreasing incidence, female predominance, and emerging allergic potential

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    Yera Hélène

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey was carried out over the years 2010–2014 among all Parasitology laboratories of University hospitals in France (ANOFEL network. The objective was to estimate the incidence of anisakidosis in France as new culinary habits such as the consumption of raw fish (sushi or undercooked fish are increasing. A total of 37 cases of anisakidosis were notified by all French laboratories: 7 proven cases with evidence of a worm, 12 possible cases with abdominal pain after consumption of raw fish with detection of anti-Anisakis precipitins, and 18 allergic cases defined as acute manifestations after consumption of fish, associated with specific IgE for Anisakis. The median age of affected individuals was 42 years (11-69 and there was a significant predominance of women (67%. Compared with previous surveys in France, this study indicates a decrease in clinical cases of anisakidosis and illustrates the emerging allergic potential of anisakids.

  17. Estimating mortality from external causes using data from retrospective surveys: A validation study in Niakhar (Senegal

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    Gilles Pison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, data on causes of death is often inaccurate or incomplete. In this paper, we test whether adding a few questions about injuries and accidents to mortality questionnaires used in representative household surveys would yield accurate estimates of the extent of mortality due to external causes (accidents, homicides, or suicides. Methods: We conduct a validation study in Niakhar (Senegal, during which we compare reported survey data to high-quality prospective records of deaths collected by a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS. Results: Survey respondents more frequently list the deaths of their adult siblings who die of external causes than the deaths of those who die from other causes. The specificity of survey data is high, but sensitivity is low. Among reported deaths, less than 60Š of the deaths classified as due to external causes by the HDSS are also classified as such by survey respondents. Survey respondents better report deaths due to road-traffic accidents than deaths from suicides and homicides. Conclusions: Asking questions about deaths resulting from injuries and accidents during surveys might help measure mortality from external causes in LMICs, but the resulting data displays systematic bias in a rural population of Senegal. Future studies should 1 investigate whether similar biases also apply in other settings and 2 test new methods to further improve the accuracy of survey data on mortality from external causes. Contribution: This study helps strengthen the monitoring of sustainable development targets in LMICs by validating a simple approach for the measurement of mortality from external causes.

  18. Estimating the Incidence of Acute Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community in the UK: A Retrospective Telephone Survey.

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    Laura Viviani

    Full Text Available To estimate the burden of intestinal infectious disease (IID in the UK and determine whether disease burden estimations using a retrospective study design differ from those using a prospective study design.A retrospective telephone survey undertaken in each of the four countries comprising the United Kingdom. Participants were randomly asked about illness either in the past 7 or 28 days.14,813 individuals for all of whom we had a legible recording of their agreement to participate.Self-reported IID, defined as loose stools or clinically significant vomiting lasting less than two weeks, in the absence of a known non-infectious cause.The rate of self-reported IID varied substantially depending on whether asked for illness in the previous 7 or 28 days. After standardising for age and sex, and adjusting for the number of interviews completed each month and the relative size of each UK country, the estimated rate of IID in the 7-day recall group was 1,530 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 1135-2113, while in the 28-day recall group it was 533 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 377-778. There was no significant variation in rates between the four countries. Rates in this study were also higher than in a related prospective study undertaken at the same time.The estimated burden of disease from IID varied dramatically depending on study design. Retrospective studies of IID give higher estimates of disease burden than prospective studies. Of retrospective studies longer recall periods give lower estimated rates than studies with short recall periods. Caution needs to be exercised when comparing studies of self-reported IID as small changes in study design or case definition can markedly affect estimated rates.

  19. A cross-sectional survey of parental care-seeking behavior for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Baba Abdulkadir

    2016-03-11

    Mar 11, 2016 ... Material and methods: The study is a secondary analysis of 2013 Demographic ... data for Nigeria, which was a cross-sectional survey conducted nationwide to .... excludes no medical care, pharmacies, shops and traditional.

  20. Childcare use and overweight in Finland: cross-sectional and retrospective associations among 3- and 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, R; Mäki, P; Ray, C; Laatikainen, T; Roos, E

    2016-04-01

    Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American. The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland. The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates. Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight. Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. A dedicated fungal culture medium is useful in the diagnosis of fungemia: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuwei; Ng, Tong Yong; Li, Huihua; Tan, Ai Ling; Tan, Thuan Tong; Tan, Ban Hock

    2016-01-01

    Mortality for candidemia ranges from 15% to 35%. Current guidelines recommend inoculating blood into three aerobic and three anaerobic blood culture bottles when candidemia is suspected, without mention of a fungal blood culture bottle. To determine the value of the BACTEC Myco/F Lytic blood culture media in the diagnosis of fungemia. A two-year retrospective cross-sectional study was performed for patients who had fungemia with submitted BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F (Aer), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (Anaer) or Myco/F Lytic (Myco) blood culture bottles. The detection rate of fungemia was 77.4% in 93 patients with contemporaneously submitted blood culture bottles when limited to only Aer/Anaer culture results. The detection rate improved significantly with the addition of the Myco culture bottle results (pculture bottle submissions were less useful for patients with appropriate anti-fungal therapy administered within 48 hours [OR = 0.18, 95% CI = (0.06, 0.49), p = 0.001] and those with fungal growth detected within 48 hours [OR = 0.33, 95% CI = (0.12, 0.89), p = 0.001]. Among a subset of patients with concordant blood culture results, those with Myco culture bottles submission allowed earlier fungal detection and speciation by at least one day in 27.5% and 25.0% of the cases respectively. Our study highlights the importance of a dedicated fungal blood culture when fungemia is clinically suspected. Nearly a quarter of fungemias may be missed if a fungal blood culture is not performed.

  2. A multicenter retrospective survey of poisoning after consumption of products containing novel psychoactive substances from 2013 to 2014 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Takai, Michiko; Fujita, Yuji; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    In Japan, fatalities among patients who experienced an acute reaction following self-administration of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have been more frequently reported since June 2014. This survey aimed to document and analyze trends in NPS consumption in emergency patients. We conducted a multicenter retrospective survey of patients who were transported to emergency facilities after consuming NPS-containing products between January 2013 and December 2014. Letters requesting participation were sent to 467 emergency facilities, and questionnaires were mailed to facilities that agreed to participate. We surveyed 589 patients from 85 (18.2%) facilities. Most patients were male (89.6%) and young (median age, 30 years), and inhaled (88%) NPS contained in herbal products (80.5%). Harmful behavior was observed at the scene of acute reaction, including violence (6.9%), traffic accidents (4.9%), and self-injury or suicidal attempts (1.1%). Other than neuropsychiatric and physical symptoms, many patients also had physical complications such as rhabdomyolysis (17.5%), liver injury (12.4%), acute kidney injury (9%), and physical injury (1.9%). Of the 256 patients (43.5%) admitted to hospitals, 35 (5.9%) were hospitalized for seven or more days. Most patients (93.2%) completely recovered, although a few (1.4%) died. However, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones were only detected in the blood of five patients. Consumption of NPS-containing products have been associated with harmful behaviors such as violence and traffic accidents, physical complications (e.g., rhabdomyolysis, liver injury), death, or physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Compared to a previous survey (2006-2012), the present survey revealed more severe toxicity.

  3. Postpartum tubal ligation: A retrospective review of anesthetic management at a single institution and a practice survey of academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Christine; Akdagli, Seden; Abir, Gillian; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-12-01

    The primary aim was to evaluate institutional anesthetic techniques utilized for postpartum tubal ligation (PPTL). Secondarily, academic institutions were surveyed on their clinical practice for PPTL. An institutional-specific retrospective review of patients with ICD-9 procedure codes for PPTL over a 2-year period was conducted. Obstetric anesthesia fellowship directors were surveyed on anesthetic management of PPTL. Labor and delivery unit. Internet survey. 202 PPTL procedures were reviewed. 47 institutions were surveyed; 26 responses were received. Timing of PPTL, anesthetic management, postoperative pain and length of stay. There was an epidural catheter reactivation failure rate of 26% (18/69 epidural catheter reactivation attempts). Time from epidural catheter insertion to PPTL was a significant factor associated with failure: median [IQR; range] time for successful versus failed epidural catheter reactivation was 17h [10-25; 3-55] and 28h [14-33; 5-42], respectively (P=0.028). Epidural catheter reactivation failure led to significantly longer times to provide surgical anesthesia than successful epidural catheter reactivation or primary spinal technique: median [IQR] 41min [33-54] versus 15min [12-21] and 19min [15-24], respectively (P8h and >24h post-delivery, respectively. Epidural catheter reactivation failure increases with longer intervals between catheter placement and PPTL. Failed epidural catheter reactivation increases anesthetic and operating room times. Our results and the significant variability in practice from our survey suggest recommendations on the timing and anesthetic management are needed to reduce unfulfilled PPTL procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A DOUBLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE 5 YEARS SURVEY OF 385 CABG CASES COMPARING GENDER CHARACTERISTICS

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    A. A. Karimi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality especially in the indusirialzcd societies. This retrospective study was carried out on 385 patients who were referred to Shariati and Jamaran Hospitals from 1992 till 1997 and who underwent coronaty artery bypass grafting. The objective was to obtain a descriptive analysis of the important factors in this population and to draw a comparison betweent the two genders and to draw genders regarding these variables. The data were obtained from patients' files, angiography and operation notes; 82.9% of the study population were of male. The mean age of women was higher than men by 2.2years. The most common risk factors among the male gender were found to be smoking, hyperlipedemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Except for smoking which was omitted in women, all other risk factors showed a comparative low prevalence in this gender. Most patients (93.37% fell in group II and III of functional class as per NYHA classification and the most frequent signs and symptoms on admission being chest pain (81.5% and dyspnea (11.2%. The affected vessels in order of frequency were the left anterior descending, the right coronary and the circumflex arteries respectively. The average number of grafts utilized were 3 in the entire population. Overall mortality recorded was 2.1%.

  5. Musculoskeletal impairment survey in Rwanda: Design of survey tool, survey methodology, and results of the pilot study (a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simms Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal impairment (MSI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Prevalence studies for MSI in the developing world have used varying methodologies and are seldom directly comparable. This study aimed to develop a new tool to screen for and diagnose MSI and to pilot test the methodology for a national survey in Rwanda. Methods A 7 question screening tool to identify cases of MSI was developed through literature review and discussions with healthcare professionals. To validate the tool, trained rehabilitation technicians screened 93 previously identified gold standard 'cases' and 86 'non cases'. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. A standardised examination protocol was developed to determine the aetiology and diagnosis of MSI for those who fail the screening test. For the national survey in Rwanda, multistage cluster random sampling, with probability proportional to size procedures will be used for selection of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the population. Households to be surveyed will be chosen through compact segment sampling and all individuals within chosen households will be screened. A pilot survey of 680 individuals was conducted using the protocol. Results: The screening tool demonstrated 99% sensitivity and 97% specificity for MSI, and a positive predictive value of 98%. During the pilot study 468 out of 680 eligible subjects (69% were screened. 45 diagnoses were identified in 38 persons who were cases of MSI. The subjects were grouped into categories based on diagnostic subgroups of congenital (1, traumatic (17, infective (2 neurological (6 and other acquired(19. They were also separated into mild (42.1%, moderate (42.1% and severe (15.8% cases, using an operational definition derived from the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

  6. Incorporating Colour Information for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Melanoma from Dermoscopy Images: A Retrospective Survey and Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Madooei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening form of skin cancer. Although advanced melanoma is often considered as incurable, if detected and excised early, the prognosis is promising. Today, clinicians use computer vision in an increasing number of applications to aid early detection of melanoma through dermatological image analysis (dermoscopy images, in particular. Colour assessment is essential for the clinical diagnosis of skin cancers. Due to this diagnostic importance, many studies have either focused on or employed colour features as a constituent part of their skin lesion analysis systems. These studies range from using low-level colour features, such as simple statistical measures of colours occurring in the lesion, to availing themselves of high-level semantic features such as the presence of blue-white veil, globules, or colour variegation in the lesion. This paper provides a retrospective survey and critical analysis of contributions in this research direction.

  7. How can a phone survey help in a retrospective assessment of the medical exposure of the population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rommens, C.; Brenot, J.; Maccia, C.; Pages, P.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective assessment of the medical exposure to ionising radiation of a given population requires the completion of several steps: knowledge of the past x-ray examination frequencies, appraisal of the individual dose for each examination type and estimation of the influence of the improvements of the imaging technique during the span of time considered. Within such a context, a pilot study was carried out in France in 1999 to prepare a retrospective evaluation of the collective medical exposure of a local population in the Nord-Cotentin region over the past 40 years. The aim of the evaluation is to provide a working group [Groupe Radioecologie Nord-Cotentin 1998] in charge of the evaluation of all exposure levels (natural and artificial) of this population with a realistic average value for diagnostic exposure. As far as the examination frequencies are concerned, the methodological approach chosen was a phone-based survey which dealt with the individual personal medical history of a representative sample of the population over the considered period of time (40 years). Two complementary samples were included in the pilot study: One hundred adults who answered their own medical history; Twenty mothers who answered one of their children's medical history thus providing a more reliable information on medical examinations underwent by such a population. The main difficulties in the preparation of the questionnaires were the tuning of questions towards the best possible recollection of individual past events having led to a medical exposure, the acceptability of questioning about personal health problems. Frequencies of the different examination types were deduced according to the individual answers provided by the questionnaires while doses attributable to each examination type were assessed using different mathematical phantoms simulating adult and paediatric patients. The response rate obtained during the phone survey shows that the methodology used to carry out

  8. Research design and statistical methods in Indian medical journals: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Shabbeer; Yellur, Rajashree; Subramani, Pooventhan; Adiga, Poornima; Gokhale, Manoj; Iyer, Manasa S; Mayya, Shreemathi S

    2015-01-01

    Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10) leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588) and 2013 (N = 774) were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were - study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials). From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418), 25% (80/320) in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490) in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, pdesign decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 pdesigns has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588) with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%). Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588)] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774)]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, presearch seems to have made no major progress regarding using correct statistical analyses, but error/defects in study designs have decreased significantly. Randomized clinical trials are quite rarely published and have high proportion of

  9. A SINGLE CENTRE RETROSPECTIVE 5 YEAR SURVEY OF INFECTIOUS COMPLICATION IN 85 CHILDREN WITH COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghamohammadi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with primary Tslymphocyte deficiency arc more ."I/."'clptihfe to infection hy organisms such (15: bacteria, fungi. prolo:o(J lind virus, 1711.' isniatian oj all opponuniuic ory;ani."m or an IImallally severe infection with higher grade pathogens, provide a clue (0 diagnosis of immunodeficiency, To determine the microorganisms causing recurrent or severe infections in children with T•(rmpllOcy!e doflcicncy, we carried out II retrospective case review oj H5 patients with 1'../ympllOC'te deficiency who wuc investigated at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Trust, OH'r the 5 year period between June I, 1188 and June I, 1193. Tuc /:mllp of patients included 53 mules anti 32 [cmales, among which 23 and 62 were diagnosed to prewnt SClf (/",1 elf subtypes respectively, Among the 174 organisms isolated. these included bacteria (97 isolates], viruses (43 isolates}, funJ:i (25 isolates] and parasites (9 isolates}, 17lC predominant ."ites of infections were mainly the gll. rointe. itwl (60 out of 174 and respiratory tracts (49 out of 174. 171£' most common bacterial infections, were with aerobic gram negative organisms (28 isolatcs, P.H'UdOmOnllS aeruginosa (17 isolates], Enterococcus (/2 isolates, C. difficile (10 isolates], Analysis: of 43 viral infection showed that Homvirus (10 isolates], Adenovirus (9 isolates], Herpes simplex (6 isolates], am!"nC}loml'!:altH'iTlH (6 isalatcs, Wi'rl! prrdominutu pathogens. Candida albicans was IIII' most commonly isolated fungi. Parasitic infections included P. curini and Cryp(o."poridillm, 3 and (j opt of 9 cases. In our }iTOUp of pmients 16 patients' died before hone maTOOW transplantation, due to infectimu complication. Based on this . lldy. we ,wgge.lt thai pronytaxis aJjllin.rt bacterial, viral, Jllngal ami protozoa agents is a necessity to minimize infectious complication." in 7~/ympilOcyte deficient patients, awaiting a hone

  10. Surgical care for the aged: a retrospective cross-sectional study of a national surgical mortality audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer; North, John B; Ware, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is assumed that increased age signifies increased surgical care. Few surgical studies describe the differences in care provided to older patients compared with younger patients. We aimed to examine the relationships between increasing age, preoperative factors and markers of postoperative care in adults who died in-hospital after surgery in Australia. Design This retrospective cross-sectional study extracted data from a national surgical mortality audit—an independent, peer-reviewed process. Setting From January 2009 to December 2012, 111 public and 61 private Australian hospitals notified the audit of in-hospital deaths after general anaesthetic surgery or if the patient was admitted under a surgeon. Participants Notified deaths totalled 19 723. We excluded deaths if patients were brain dead, younger than 17 years or never had an operation (n=11 376). From this baseline population, we divided 11 201 deaths into three patient age groups: youngest (17–64 years), medium (65–79 years) and oldest (≥80 years). Outcome measures Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses determined the relationships between increasing age and the measured preoperative factors and postoperative variables. Results The baseline population's median age was 78 years (IQR 66–85), 43.7% (4892/11 201) were 80 years or older and 83.4% (9319/11 173) had emergency admissions. The oldest group had increased trauma and emergency admissions than the medium and youngest age groups. Seven of the eight measured markers of postoperative care demonstrate strong and significant relationships with increasing age. The oldest group compared with the medium group had decreased rates of: unplanned returns to theatre (11.2% (526/4709) vs 20.2% (726/3586)), unplanned intensive care admissions (16.3% (545/3350) vs 24.0% (601/2504)) and treatment in intensive care units (59.7% (2689/4507) vs 76.7% (2754/3590)). Conclusions The oldest patients received

  11. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  12. [Retrospective analysis of Mexican National Addictions Survey, 2008. Bias identification and correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha María; Sandoval-Zárate, América Andrea; Zurita-Luna, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To determine the presence of bias on the estimation of the consumption sometime in life of alcohol, tobacco or illegal drugs and inhalable substances, and to propose a correction for this in the case it is present. Mexican National Addictions Surveys (NAS) 2002, 2008, and 2011 were analyzed to compare population estimations of consumption sometime in life of tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs and inhalable substances. A couple of alternative approaches for bias correction were developed. Estimated national prevalences of consumption sometime in life of alcohol and tobacco in the NAS 2008 are not plausible. There was no evidence of bias on the consumption sometime in life of illegal drugs and inhalable substances. New estimations for tobacco and alcohol consumption sometime in life were made, which resulted in plausible values when compared to other data available. Future analyses regarding tobacco and alcohol using NAS 2008 data will have to rely on these newly generated data weights, that are able to reproduce the new (plausible) estimations.

  13. The diffusion of telehealth in rural American Indian communities: a retrospective survey of key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Manson, Spero M; Bair, Byron; Dailey, Nancy; Shore, Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Mental health issues are a serious concern for many American Indian Veterans, especially for post-traumatic stress disorder and related psychiatric conditions. Yet, acquiring mental health treatment can be a challenge in Native communities where specialized services are largely unavailable. Consequently, telehealth is increasingly being suggested as a way to expand healthcare access on or near reservation lands. In this study, we wanted to understand the factors affecting the diffusion of telehealth clinics that provided mental health care to rural, American Indian Veterans. We surveyed 39 key personnel and stakeholders who were involved in the decision-making process, technological infrastructure, and implementation of three clinics. Using Roger Everett's Diffusion Theory as a framework, we gathered information about specific tasks, factors hindering progress, and personal reactions to telehealth both before and after implementation. Many participants expressed initial concerns about using telehealth; however, most became positive over time. Factors that influenced participants' viewpoint largely included patient and staff feedback and witnessing the fulfillment of a community health need. The use of outside information to support the implementation of the clinics and personal champions also showed considerable influence in the clinics' success. The findings presented here address critical gaps in our understanding of telehealth diffusion and inform research strategies regarding the cultural issues and outcomes related to telemental health services. Information contained in this report serves as a long overdue guide for developing telemental health programs and policies among American Indians, specifically, and rural populations in general.

  14. Retrospective analysis of Mexican National Addictions Survey, 2008. Bias identification and correction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the presence of bias on the estimation of the consumption sometime in life of alcohol, tobacco or illegal drugs and inhalable substances, and to propose a correction for this in the case it is present. Materials and methods. Mexican National Addictions Surveys (NAS 2002, 2008, and 2011 were analyzed to compare population estimations of consumption sometime in life of tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs and inhalable substances. A couple of alternative approaches for bias correction were developed. Results. Estimated national prevalences of consumption sometime in life of alcohol and tobacco in the NAS 2008 are not plausible. There was no evidence of bias on the consumption sometime in life of illegal drugs and inhalable substances. New estimations for tobacco and alcohol consumption sometime in life were made, which resulted in plausible values when compared to other data available. Conclusion. Future analyses regarding tobacco and alcohol using NAS 2008 data will have to rely on these newly generated data weights, that are able to reproduce the new (plausible estimations.

  15. [A retrospective survey of childhood corporal punishment by school teachers in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-qi; Wu, Chun-mei; Dunne, Michael P; Ma, Yu-xia; Chen, Bo; Liang, Yi-huai; Cheng, Ya-jie

    2006-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of childhood corporal punishment by teachers in students, to explore the influencing factors and associations between childhood corporal punishment and psychological problems. Five hundred and twenty-eight students from a college and a technical secondary school in Hebei province were surveyed by self-administered questionnaire anonymously in Dec. 2004. The questionnaire used for this survey mainly included (1) general demographic information; (2) 5 forms of childhood corporal punishments, in this study, cases of teachers' corporal punishments were defined as those who answered positively one or more of the 5 questions relating to childhood corporal punishment by school teachers occurring before the age of 16 years; (3) Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (4) Youth Risk Behaviours. Overall, 57.6% of students reported having been corporally punished at least one time, one of four forms of corporal punishment by teachers before age of 16 years, the four forms corporal punishment were non-contact corporal punishment, e.g., running for punishment, repeat-doing homework many times for punishment, standing for punishment, kneel down for punishment, not allowing to eat, sending outside in winter, etc. (53.4%), hitting/kicking/pushing very hard with open hands/fist/feet/other part of body (16.1%), beating with an object (10.2%), and locking in a small compartment/tying with rope (0.2%). No students reported having been choked, or burned/scalded, or stabbed with a sharp object by the teachers. Males had a significantly higher overall prevalence rate than females (66.4% vs. 46.6%, chi(2) = 21.01, P = 0.000). There was no statistically significant association between a history of childhood corporal punishment and the three other demographic indicators, which included residence region (rural and non-rural area) prior to 16 years of age, parental education level, and whether the respondent lived in a single or multiple children family. Compared with their

  16. Survey of Preventable Disaster Deaths at Medical Institutions in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: Retrospective Survey of Medical Institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mase, Tomohiko; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals with insufficient medical resources, disrupted lifelines, delayed medical intervention, and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters constituting the main contributing factors. Preventing PDD, in addition to strengthening organizational support and functional enhancement of DBHs, calls for the development of business continuity plans (BCPs) for medical facilities in directly affected areas, including non-DBHs. Yamanouchi S , Sasaki H , Kondo H , Mase T , Otomo Y , Koido Y , Kushimoto S . Survey of preventable disaster deaths at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: retrospective survey of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):515-522.

  17. Subjective perception of safety in healthy individuals working with 7 T MRI scanners: a retrospective multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Mahsa; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Speck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    To retrospectively assess perception of safety of healthy individuals working with human 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A total of 66 healthy individuals with a mean age of 31 ± 7 years participated in this retrospective multicentre survey study. Nonparametric correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relation between self-reported perception of safety and prevalence of sensory effects while working with 7 T MRI scanners for an average 47 months. The results indicated that 98.5 % of the study participants had a neutral or positive feeling about safety aspects at 7 T MRI scanners. 45.5 % reported that they feel very safe and none of the participants stated that they feel moderately or very unsafe while working with 7 T MRI scanners. Perception of safety was not affected by the number of hours per week spent in the vicinity of the 7 T MRI scanner or the duration of experience with 7 T MRI. More than 50 % of individuals experienced vertigo and metallic taste while working with 7 T MRI scanners. However, participants' perceptions of safety were not affected by the prevalence of MR-related symptoms. The overall data indicated an average perception of a moderately safe work environment. To our knowledge, this study delineates the first attempt to assess the subjective safety perception among 7 T MRI workers and suggests further investigations are indicated.

  18. Tobacco use among designated air pollution victims and its association with lung function and respiratory symptoms: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotaki, Kenji; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Yano, Yudai; Miyamoto, Naomi; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagita, Yorihide; Asai, Masaharu; Kozu, Ryo; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Sawai, Terumitsu; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to elucidate the long-term association of tobacco use and respiratory health in designated pollution victims with and without obstructive pulmonary defects. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: The register of pollution victims in Kurashiki, Japan. Participants: 730 individuals over 65 years of age previously diagnosed with pollution-related respiratory disease. Patients were classified into four groups according to their smoking status and whether the...

  19. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  20. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  1. Traumatic neuralgia from pressure-point strikes in the martial arts: results from a retrospective online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael D

    2008-06-01

    Many techniques in Asian martial arts hand-to-hand combat systems emphasize hitting or striking specific sites on the body that correlate with exposed portions of peripheral nerves. To evaluate the prevalence and clinical effects of this unique sports-related injury. An anonymous self-administered retrospective 20-question electronic survey was posted on a high-traffic martial arts Web site. Primary outcome measures were demographic and medical history data, including martial arts experience and neuropathic symptoms associated with injury from this form of combat. Risk of symptoms was calculated by dividing the number of individuals with symptoms in each pressure-point area by the number of individuals who were struck in these areas during martial arts training. Of the 651 survey responses received, 605 met inclusion criteria. Neuropathic symptoms were reported by 291 subjects. Most symptoms occurred in individuals aged between 20 and 30 years as well as in individuals with less than 1 year of martial arts training. The majority of respondents with neuropathic symptoms reported a symptom duration of less than 1 year (207 [71%]). Individuals with more than 5 years of combat training experience had a greater risk of chronic symptoms than individuals with less experience. Strikes to pressure points on the back had the greatest risk of inducing neuropathic symptoms. Symptoms of neurapraxia can occur in individuals as a result of practicing martial arts involving strikes on pressure points. Although the majority of symptoms resolve within 1 year, individuals with prolonged exposure to pressure-point strikes may be more likely to have chronic symptoms.

  2. Designing and Implementing a Retrospective Earthquake Detection Framework at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.; Yeck, W.; Benz, H.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC) is implementing and integrating new signal detection methods such as subspace correlation, continuous beamforming, multi-band picking and automatic phase identification into near-real-time monitoring operations. Leveraging the additional information from these techniques help the NEIC utilize a large and varied network on local to global scales. The NEIC is developing an ordered, rapid, robust, and decentralized framework for distributing seismic detection data as well as a set of formalized formatting standards. These frameworks and standards enable the NEIC to implement a seismic event detection framework that supports basic tasks, including automatic arrival time picking, social media based event detections, and automatic association of different seismic detection data into seismic earthquake events. In addition, this framework enables retrospective detection processing such as automated S-wave arrival time picking given a detected event, discrimination and classification of detected events by type, back-azimuth and slowness calculations, and ensuring aftershock and induced sequence detection completeness. These processes and infrastructure improve the NEIC's capabilities, accuracy, and speed of response. In addition, this same infrastructure provides an improved and convenient structure to support access to automatic detection data for both research and algorithmic development.

  3. Rated casemix of general practitioner referrals to practice counsellors and clinical psychologists: a retrospective survey of a year's caseload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J; Parham, A

    2001-06-01

    Although evidence-based guidelines are beginning to be produced as to which psychological therapies might be appropriate for which patients, little is known about how general medical practitioners (GPs) in practice distribute referrals between different psychological therapy services. In a retrospective survey, 19 practice counsellors and 10 clinical psychologists from the same geographical area rated a year's caseload of GP referrals using identical data collection methods. Rated casemix was found to be broadly similar, although practice counsellors rated relationship and bereavement problems as more common in their caseloads (totalling 986 patients), and clinical psychologists rated panic disorder, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive problems as more common in their caseloads (totalling 320 patients). Depression and anxiety reactions were the most common problems rated in both groups, but the clinical psychologist cases of depression were rated as more severe and complex. Where differences were found, they may have reflected the different ways that counsellors and clinical psychologists conceptualize cases rather than actual differences in casemix. The results are discussed in relation to evidence-based guideline recommendations about cases appropriate to be seen by practice counsellors and by clinical psychologists in primary and secondary care, and the need to adapt such guidance to local services and skills of practitioners.

  4. WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faúndes Anibal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. Methods We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. Results The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3 represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5 represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections. The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1 or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2, which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. Conclusion The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care

  5. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri; Deeksha Mehta; Sridharan Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities...

  6. Attitudes toward plagiarism among pharmacy and medical biochemistry students – cross-sectional survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Pupovac, Vanja; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Mavrinac, Martina; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Plagiarism is one of the most frequent and serious forms of misconduct in academic environment. The cross-sectional survey study was done with aim to explore the attitudes toward plagiarism. Materials and methods: First year students of Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia (N = 146) were anonymously tested using Attitude toward Plagiarism (ATP) questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of 29 statements on a 5 point Likert scale, (1 - ...

  7. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Malik, Amit; Ndetei, David M; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. METHODS: Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students' career intentions, motivations, medical sc...

  8. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel adu Gyamfi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternal healthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of both policy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of the maternal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readers have been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shape maternal and infant care in Ghana

  9. Medical expenditure for liver cancer in urban China: A 10-year multicenter retrospective survey (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu-Qi; Shi, Ju-Fang; Guo, Lan-Wei; Mao, A-Yan; Huang, Hui-Yao; Hu, Guang-Yu; Dong, Pei; Bai, Fang-Zhou; Yan, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Bai, Ya-Na; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Lin; Mai, Ling; Du, Ling-Bing; Zhou, Qi; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Song, Bing-Bing; Liu, Yu-Qin; Lou, Pei-An; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Shou-Ling; Cao, Rong; Qi, Xiao; Lan, Li; Ren, Ying; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Qu, Chunfeng; Dai, Min

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the medical expenditure for liver cancer during 2002-2011 in urban areas of China. This is a retrospective study. Based on a stratified cluster sampling method, a medical expenditure survey collected basic personal information from related medical records. Two-tailed independent sample t-test, variance analysis, and Student-Newman-Keuls Tests were used in cost analysis for the corresponding data types. A total of 12,342 liver cancer patients were included in the analysis. Overall average medical expenditure per case for liver cancer diagnosis and treatment in China has increased from ¥21, 950 to ¥40, 386 over the study period. For each liver cancer patient diagnosed between 2009 and 2011, the average expenditures were 29,332 CNY for stage I, 35,754 CNY for stage II, 34,288 CNY for stage III, and 30,275 CNY for stage IV diseases (P medical expenditure and it rose from 48.01% to 52.96% during these ten years, and the share of nursing fee expenses was the lowest (around 1%). Over the entire 10-year data period, the per capita expenditure of the east region (32,983 CNY) was higher than that of the west region (26,219 CNY) and slightly higher than the central region (31,018 CNY, P medical expenditure is heavy for families. Early diagnosis and treatment for liver cancer will save medical expenditure. The economic burden of liver cancer is high in China and related medical expenditure has increased.

  10. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Enamel Hypomineralization in Children With Clefts and the Relationship to Treatment: A Cross-sectional Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Eman; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Tholpady, Sunil S; Kula, Katherine

    2018-06-19

    The aim of this study was to determine whether molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is greater in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) who underwent primary alveolar grafting (PAG) as compared with CLP waiting for secondary alveolar grafting (SAG) and with controls. A retrospective analysis of intraoral photographs of 13 CLP patients who underwent a PAG, 28 CLP prior to SAG, and 60 controls without CLP was performed. Mantel-Haenszel χ tests were used to compare the 3 groups for differences in MIH scores, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the groups for differences in average MIH scores. A 5% significance level was used for all tests. Molar incisor hypomineralization scores were significantly higher for the PAG and SAG groups compared with the control group (P MIH (P = 0.016) compared with the SAG group. Molar incisor hypomineralization average scores were significantly higher for the 2 graft groups compared with the controls (P MIH score and average MIH score for incisors compared with the SAG group (P = 0.03). Cleft lip and palate patients have significantly greater MIH compared with controls, and CLP patients with PAGs have significantly greater MIH in the incisor region compared with CLP patients with SAGs, indicating that subjects with PAGs have more severely affected dentition.

  12. Feasibility online survey to estimate physical activity level among the students studying professional courses: a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Bhumika; Samuel, Asir John; Narkeesh, Kanimozhi

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the physical activity (PA) level among the professional college students in North India. One hundred three professional college students in the age group of 18-25 years were recruited by simple random sampling for this cross-sectional online survey. The survey was advertised on the social networking sites (Facebook, WhatsApp) through a link www.surveymonkey.com/r/MG-588BY. A Short Form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for this survey study. The questionnaire included total 8 questions on the basis of previous 7 days. The questionnaire consists of 3 main categories which were vigorous, moderate and high PA. Time spent in each activity level was multiplied with the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), which has previously set to 8.0 for vigorous activity, 4.0 for moderate activity, 3.3 for walking, and 1.5 for sitting. By multiplying MET with number of days and minutes performed weekly, amount of each activity level was calculated and measured as MET-min/wk. Further by adding MET minutes for each activity level, total MET-min/wk was calculated. Total number of 100 students participated in this study, and it was shown that all professional course students show different levels in PA. The total PA level among professional college students, which includes, physiotherapy, dental, medical, nursing, lab technician, pharmacy, management, law, engineering, were 434.4 (0-7,866), 170.3 (0-1,129), 87.7 (0-445), 102.8 (0-180), 469 (0-1,164), 0 (0-0), 645 (0-1,836), 337 (0-1,890), 396 (0-968) MET-min/wk respectively. PA levels among professional college students in North India have been established.

  13. Contributing factors of elective surgical case cancellation: a retrospective cross-sectional study at a single-site hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaiye; Xie, Xiaolei; Luo, Li; Gong, Renrong

    2017-09-11

    Case cancellation (CC) has significant impact on the efficiency of operating room (OR) management, which can be mitigated by taking preventive measures. In this study, using the data of the West China Hospital (WCH), we identified the effect of contributing factors and recommended hospital interventions to facilitate CC prevention. We conducted a retrospective review of 11,331 elective surgical cases from January 1 to December 31, 2014. CC reasons were grouped into six categories. The methods of descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were used to identify the effect of factors. CC reasons (746) were divided into six broad categories: workup related (preoperative diagnostic assessment issues or sudden medical condition changes) (25.8%), non-specified reasons (25.8%), coordination issues (15.1%), patient related (13.0%), support system issues (11.8%), and doctor related (8.5%). The types of the most frequently performed operations are identified, as well as their CRs. The cancellation rate (CR) of males was lower than that of females (16.7% to 18.3%). A large difference in the CRs existed among doctors. The CR on Monday was significantly higher than the other four weekdays. Workup related issues, the types of procedures, the menstrual cycle of females, highly imbalanced CRs among doctors, and tendency of cancellation on Monday are the major identified factors, which account for a significant amount of preventable cancellations. It is suggested that corresponding hospital interventions can reduce CR and improve OR efficiency, including maintaining effective coordination, good communication and well-designed preoperative assessment processes, focusing on the type of procedures which are more time-consuming and complex, paying special attention to the physiology of females during surgery planning, taking measures to reduce CR of top eight doctors, and improving surgery scheduling on Monday.

  14. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  15. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Chadaga

    Full Text Available To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups.A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications.Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months.Almost half of the respondents (48% reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively. Attendings (29% and nurses (27% were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each, followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37% and attempts to humiliate (32%. Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5'8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals.Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  16. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  17. [Attendance for Using Internet-Based Support After Inpatient Treatment - A Cross-Sectional Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Fabian; Gräder, Nicola; Dahlmann, Hannah; Berger, Mathias; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-05-01

    Examination of the attendance for using internet-based measures after inpatient treatment. Cross-sectional-survey in former inpatients (N = 247). 44.9 % are willing to use measures via videoconference, 34.7 % via Chat, 50.0 % via E-Mail and 38.0 % as onlinetherapy. Attendance is lower in older age groups. Benefits regarding the introduced measures are seen mainly in the flexibility and disadvantages in the impersonal character. A relevant share of especially younger patients is willing to use internet-based measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Rios-Seidel, Carmen; Nerrière, Eléna; Chan Chee, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results ...

  19. Survey of bone pain in patients of infectious section of Labafinejad hospital using radioisotope scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimie, Farhad

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy is the first or second most frequently performed imaging procedure in most nuclear medicine departments. The uses of bone scan in orthopedic practice are multiple. Bone scans are often used to localize disease, to identify areas of focal increased physiological activity, and to evaluate pain. Bone scans are particularly useful in depicting and localizing small tumors. Bone scans may clarify the significance of radiographic abnormalities. When pain is poorly localized, a bone scan helps focus attention, particularly when it precisely corresponds to the questionable radiographic lesion. In order to do a survey about role of bone scan for the detection and localizing bone pain, a retrospective study was done about 37 patient who from 1373 to 1374 were admitted to the infectious department of Martyr Labafinejad having bone pain. The results of our studies showed that most common case of bone pain of this patients was due to brucellosis (brucella arthritis) with 19%, and other causes were cellulits with 13.15% osteomyelitis and D.J.D with 11%, septic arthritis, bone metastasis, bone abscesses, discopathy, infectious spondylitis, lymphoma, D.V.T. and reactive traumatic arthritis with 2.7%

  20. Does metformin affect ovarian morphology in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome? A retrospective cross-sectional preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Angela; Orio, Francesco; Venturella, Roberta; Rania, Erika; Materazzo, Caterina; Tolino, Achille; Zullo, Fulvio; Palomba, Stefano

    2009-05-31

    The significance of polycystic ovarian morphology and its relation to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unclear, but probably it is associated with higher androgen and insulin levels and lower sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in absence of identifiable differences in gonadotropin dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian morphology in patients affected by PCOS with different ovulatory responses to metformin. In this cross-sectional analysis, we studied 20 young normal-weight PCOS patients who had received a six-month course of metformin treatment. Ten of these patients remained anovulatory (anovulatory group), whereas other ten became ovulatory, but failed to conceive (ovulatory group). Other ten age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched PCOS subjects were also enrolled as controls and observed without any treatment (control group). After six months of metformin, in both PCOS treated groups, a similar improvement in testosterone (T) and insulin resistance indexes was observed. Moreover, in one (10.0%) and nine (90.0%) subjects from anovulatory and ovulatory PCOS groups, respectively, ovarian morphology changed, whereas a significant reduction in ovarian dimension was observed in the PCOS ovulatory group only. PCOS patients under metformin administration demonstrate a change in ovarian morphology closely related to ovulatory response.

  1. Catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To determine the incidence of - and illnesses commonly associated with - catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal. We did a cross-sectional population-based survey in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley between November 2011 and January 2012. For each household surveyed, out-of-pocket spending on health in the previous 30 days that exceeded 10% of the household's total expenditure over the same period was considered to be catastrophic. We estimated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure. We identified the illnesses most commonly associated with such expenditure using a Poisson regression model and assessed the distribution of expenditure by economic quintile of households using the concentration index. Overall, 284 of the 1997 households studied in Kathmandu, i.e. 13.8% after adjustment by sampling weight, reported catastrophic health expenditure in the 30 days before the survey. After adjusting for confounders, this expenditure was found to be associated with injuries, particularly those resulting from road traffic accidents. Catastrophic expenditure by households in the poorest quintile were associated with at least one episode of diabetes, asthma or heart disease. In an urban area of Nepal, catastrophic household expenditure on health was mostly associated with injuries and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and asthma. Throughout Nepal, interventions for the control and management of noncommunicable diseases and the prevention of road traffic accidents should be promoted. A phased introduction of health insurance should also reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure.

  2. Professional satisfaction of family physicians in Pakistan--results of a cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hiba; Shah, Nasir; Anwer, Fahad; Akhtar, Hina; Abro, Mairaj Anwar; Khan, Asma

    2014-04-01

    To assess the level of professional satisfaction amongst family physicians of Pakistan and to identify the factors associated with professional dissatisfaction. The study was part of a larger national survey for "Status of PostgraduateTraining and Continuing Medical Education of Family Physicians in Pakistan" which was a cross-sectional, postal survey of family physicians conducted over 10 months between November 2009 and September 2010. The main outcome variables were professional satisfaction, as well as reasons for professional satisfaction and dissatisfaction. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with professional dissatisfaction. Of the total 1200 survey forms distributed, 288 (24%) were received back. The mean age of the participants was 37 +/- 9 years with a range between 26 and 72 years. Of the total, 226 (78.5%) were males. Overall, 213 (74%) family physicians were satisfied with their profession. The factors significantly associated with professional dissatisfaction included the participants opinion that they were not respected by the public (OR: 11.6, C.I: 1.9-71.5); as well as regretting being a doctor (OR:62.9, C.I: 8.4-469.8). Most of the family physicians had professional satisfaction, but a minority had regrets about being a doctor and were dissatisfied over how their profession affected their family life. Further research may be needed to study work-life balance amongst family physicians of Pakistan.

  3. Estimating health expectancies from two cross-sectional surveys: The intercensal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guillot

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Health expectancies are key indicators for monitoring the health of populations, as well as for informing debates about compression or expansion of morbidity. However, current methodologies for estimating them are not entirely satisfactory. They are either of limited applicability because of high data requirements (the multistate method or based on questionable assumptions (the Sullivan method. This paper proposes a new method, called the "intercensal" method, which relies on the multistate framework but uses widely available data. The method uses age-specific proportions "healthy" at two successive, independent cross-sectional health surveys, and, together with information on general mortality, solves for the set of transition probabilities that produces the observed sequence of proportions healthy. The system is solved by making realistic parametric assumptions about the age patterns of transition probabilities. Using data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS and from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, the method is tested against both the multistate method and the Sullivan method. We conclude that the intercensal approach is a promising framework for the indirect estimation of health expectancies.

  4. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-05-07

    To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Cross-sectional survey. Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). 14 health facilities. The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the allocation of resources and provision of emergency and essential

  5. Association between Intrapartum Magnesium Administration and the Incidence of Maternal Fever: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth M S; Segal, Scott; Pancaro, Carlo; Wong, Cynthia A; Grobman, William A; Russell, Gregory B; Toledo, Paloma

    2017-12-01

    Intrapartum maternal fever is associated with several adverse neonatal outcomes. Intrapartum fever can be infectious or inflammatory in etiology. Increases in interleukin 6 and other inflammatory markers are associated with maternal fever. Magnesium has been shown to attenuate interleukin 6-mediated fever in animal models. We hypothesized that parturients exposed to intrapartum magnesium would have a lower incidence of fever than nonexposed parturients. In this study, electronic medical record data from all deliveries at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (Chicago, Illinois) between 2007 and 2014 were evaluated. The primary outcome was intrapartum fever (temperature at or higher than 38.0°C). Factors associated with the development of maternal fever were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Propensity score matching was used to reduce potential bias from nonrandom selection of magnesium administration. Of the 58,541 women who met inclusion criteria, 5,924 (10.1%) developed intrapartum fever. Febrile parturients were more likely to be nulliparous, have used neuraxial analgesia, and have been delivered via cesarean section. The incidence of fever was lower in women exposed to magnesium (6.0%) than those who were not (10.2%). In multivariable logistic regression, women exposed to magnesium were less likely to develop a fever (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42 [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.58]). After propensity matching (N = 959 per group), the odds ratio of developing fever was lower in women who received magnesium therapy (odds ratio = 0.68 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.98]). Magnesium may play a protective role against the development of intrapartum fever. Future work should further explore the association between magnesium dosing and the incidence of maternal fever.

  6. CSEWG SYMPOSIUM, A CSWEG RETROSPECTIVE. 35TH ANNIVERSARY CROSS SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, NOV. 5, 2001, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNFORD, C.; HOLDEN, N.; PEARLSTEIN, S.

    2001-11-05

    This publication has been prepared to record some of the history of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). CSEWG is responsible for creating the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF/B) which is widely used by scientists and engineers who are involved in the development and maintenance of applied nuclear technologies. This organization has become the model for the development of nuclear data libraries throughout the world. The data format (ENDF) has been adopted as the international standard. On November 5, 2001, a symposium was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory to celebrate the 50 th meeting of the CSEWG organization and the 35 th anniversary of its first meeting in November 1966. The papers presented in this volume were prepared by present and former CSEWG members for presentation at the November 2001 symposium. All but two of the presentations are included. I have included an appendix to list all of the CSEWG members and their affiliations, which has been compiled from the minutes of each of the CSEWG meetings. Minutes exist for all meetings except the 4 th meeting held in January 1968. The list includes 348 individuals from 71 organizations. The dates for each of the 50 CSEWG meetings are listed. The committee structure and chairmen of all committees and subcommittees are also included in the appendix. This volume is dedicated to three individuals whose foresight and talents made CSEWG possible and successful. They are Henry Honeck who lead the effort to develop the ENDF format and the CSEWG system, Ira Zartman, the Atomic Energy Commission program manager who provided the programmatic direction and support, and Sol Pearlstein who led the development of the CESWG organization and the ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data library.

  7. Transportation assimilation revisited: New evidence from repeated cross-sectional survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Based on single cross-sectional data, prior research finds evidence of “transportation assimilation” among U.S. immigrants: the length of stay in the U.S. is negatively correlated with public transit use. This paper revisits this question by using repeated cross-sectional data, and examines the trend of transportation assimilation over time. Methods and results Using 1980, 1990, 2000 1% census and 2010 (1%) American Community Survey, I examine the relationship between the length of stay in the U.S. and public transit ridership among immigrants. I first run regressions separately in four data sets: I regress public transit ridership on the length of stay, controlling for other individual and geographic variables. I then compare the magnitudes of the relationship in four regressions. To study how the rate of transportation assimilation changes over time, I pool the data set and regress public transit ridership on the length of stay and its interactions with year dummies to compare the coefficients across surveys. Results confirm the conclusion of transportation assimilation: as the length of stay in the U.S. increases, an immigrant’s public transit use decreases. However, the repeated cross-section analysis suggests the assimilation rate has been decreasing in the past few decades. Conclusions This paper finds evidence of transportation assimilation: immigrants become less likely to ride public transit as the length of stay in the U.S. increases. The assimilation rate, however, has been decreasing over time. This paper finds that the rate of public transit ridership among new immigrants upon arrival, the geographic distribution of immigrants, and the changing demographics of the U.S. immigrants play roles in affecting the trend of transportation assimilation. PMID:29668676

  8. Emotional Abuse History and Migraine Among Young Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Add Health Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E; Karmakar, Monita; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr A

    2017-01-01

    To define and examine the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and migraine among young adults. Headache and migraine have been linked to childhood abuse in numerous studies, but there is incomplete characterization of headache types, and limited assessment of abuse types and frequency. Only one population-based study has examined the relationship between emotional abuse and migraine. None have investigated the temporal relationship between onset of abuse and of migraine. We analyzed data from 14,356 adults aged 24-32 years in Wave 4, which is a cross-sectional subset of the longitudinal Add Health study. Participants were queried regarding abuse (emotional, physical and sexual) during childhood, diagnosis of migraine, depression and anxiety by healthcare providers, and symptoms of current depression. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between childhood abuse and migraine, controlling for socio-demographic factors, current depression, and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety and depression. About 14% (n = 2040) of respondents reported migraine. Participants with migraine (vs no migraine) reported significantly higher rates of childhood abuse overall (60.6% vs 48.9%), including emotional (57.8% vs 45.4%), sexual (8.4% vs 4.6%) and physical (22.4% vs 17.9%) abuse. Emotional abuse had a stronger association with migraine (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-1.85) when compared with physical (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.89-1.68) and sexual abuse (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.93-1.68), adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The emotional abuse-migraine association remained even when controlling for lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and for current depression (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.30-1.67). The odds of migraine increased with increasing number of abuse types reported. There was a U-shaped distribution of odds of migraine associated with frequency of occurrences of emotional abuse, peaking at one time

  9. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Keon Hoon; Cho, Dae Seong; Lee, Jinmoo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Elhag, Mousab Siddig; Khaled, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa; Siddig, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali; Abdelrazig, Hana; Awadelkareem, Sarah; Elshafie, Azza Tag Eldin; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Amin, Mutamad

    2017-09-12

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. A school-based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control program. The mapping data will also be used for overviewing

  10. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  11. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  12. A cross-sectional survey to assess community attitudes to introduction of Human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen; Ryan, Philip; Roberton, Don; Baghurst, Peter

    2007-06-01

    A vaccine to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been licensed recently in the United States of America and Australia. The aim of this study was to assess community attitudes to the introduction of HPV vaccine in the State of South Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by computer-aided telephone interviews in February 2006. The survey assessed adult and parental attitudes to the introduction of HPV vaccine to provide protection against a sexually transmitted disease caused by HPV and against cervical cancer. Two thousand interviews were conducted in metropolitan and rural households. Two per cent of respondents knew that persistent HPV infection caused cervical cancer and a further 7% were aware that the cause was viral. The majority of adults interviewed (83%) considered that both men and women should receive HPV vaccine and 77% of parents agreed that they would have their child/children immunised. Parents were mainly concerned about possible side effects of the vaccine (66%), with only 0.2% being concerned about discussing a sexually transmitted disease with their children and 5% being concerned that use of the vaccine may lead to promiscuity. Our findings suggest that public health education campaigns for HPV vaccination will find a majority of parents receptive to their children being vaccinated, but attention must be paid to appropriate explanation about HPV infection as the cause of cervical cancer and education about the safety of the HPV vaccine.

  13. Repeat participation in annual cross-sectional surveys of drug users and its implications for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, P A; Aitken, C K; Breen, C; Dietze, P M

    2018-06-04

    We sought to establish the extent of repeat participation in a large annual cross-sectional survey of people who inject drugs and assess its implications for analysis. We used "porn star names" (the name of each participant's first pet followed by the name of the first street in which they lived) to identify repeat participation in three Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System surveys. Over 2013-2015, 2468 porn star names (96.2%) appeared only once, 88 (3.4%) twice, and nine (0.4%) in all 3 years. We measured design effects, based on the between-cluster variability for selected estimates, of 1.01-1.07 for seven key variables. These values indicate that the complex sample is (e.g.) 7% less efficient in estimating prevalence of heroin use (ever) than a simple random sample, and 1% less efficient in estimating number of heroin overdoses (ever). Porn star names are a useful means of tracking research participants longitudinally while maintaining their anonymity. Repeat participation in the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System is low (less than 5% per annum), meaning point-prevalence and effect estimation without correction for the lack of independence in observations is unlikely to seriously affect population inference.

  14. Burnout among public doctors in Hong Kong: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Christina F Y; Yuen, S K; Cheung, Andy

    2012-06-01

    The stressful life of doctors makes them prone to burnout. We evaluated the prevalence of burnout among Hong Kong public hospital doctors and correlated burnout with job characteristics, working hours, stressors, and stress-relieving strategies. Cross-sectional survey. Hong Kong. One thousand doctors were randomly sampled from the Hong Kong Public Doctors' Association registry. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires with postage-paid envelopes were mailed twice in early 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey was used for burnout assessment. According to this scale, burnout is defined as emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. Correlation analysis, as well as univariate and multivariate analyses, were performed to assess factors associated with high degrees of burnout. RESULTS. A total of 226 questionnaires were analysed, of which 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. They were younger and needed to work shifts, and their median year of practice was 8.5. High-burnout doctors worked similar hours per week to non-high-burnout doctors (mean ± standard deviation, 56.2 ± 12.7 vs 54.7 ± 10.9; P=0.413) and reported suicidal thoughts more often (9.9% vs 2.6%; P=0.033). Moreover, 52.2% of high-burnout doctors were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their jobs. 'Excessive stress due to global workload' and 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' were the most significant stressors associated with high emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, while 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' and 'poor job security' correlated with low personal accomplishment. A high proportion of public doctors who responded to our survey endured high burnout. Trainees with some experience were at heightened risk. Stressors identified in this study should be addressed, so as to improve job satisfaction.

  15. Burden of Surgical Conditions in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Nationwide Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the burden of surgical conditions in Uganda. Data on the burden of disease have long served as a cornerstone to health policymaking, planning, and resource allocation. Population-based data are the gold standard, but no data on surgical burden at a national scale exist; therefore, we adapted the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey and conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of Uganda to quantify the burden of surgically treatable conditions. The 2-stage cluster sample included 105 enumeration areas, representing 74 districts and Kampala Capital City Authority. Enumeration occurred from August 20 to September 12, 2014. In each enumeration area, 24 households were randomly selected; the head of the household provided details regarding any household deaths within the previous 12 months. Two household members were randomly selected for a head-to-toe verbal interview to determine existing untreated and treated surgical conditions. In 2315 households, we surveyed 4248 individuals: 461 (10.6%) reported 1 or more conditions requiring at least surgical consultation [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9%-12.4%]. The most frequent barrier to surgical care was the lack of financial resources for the direct cost of care. Of the 153 household deaths recalled, 53 deaths (34.2%; 95% CI 22.1%-46.3%) were associated with surgically treatable signs/symptoms. Shortage of time was the most frequently cited reason (25.8%) among the 11.6% household deaths that should have, but did not, receive surgical care (95% CI 6.4%-16.8%). Unmet surgical need is prevalent in Uganda. There is an urgent need to expand the surgical care delivery system starting with the district-level hospitals. Routine surgical data collection at both the health facility and household level should be implemented.

  16. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

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    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  17. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  18. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  19. Filipino therapists' experiences and attitudes of interprofessional education and collaboration: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Sy, Michael Palapal

    2017-11-01

    For the past more than 50 years, the World Health Organisation has acknowledged through empirical findings that health workers that learn together work together effectively to provide the best care for their patients. This study aimed to: (1) describe the perceived extent of interprofessional education (IPE) experience among Filipino occupational therapists (OTs), physical therapists (PTs), and speech-language-pathologists (SLPs); (2) identify their attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC); and (3) compare their attitudes towards IPC according to: prior IPE experience, classification of IPE experience, profession, years of practice, and practice setting. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a two-part questionnaire was sent to Filipino OTs, PTs, and SLPs working in the Philippines via an online survey application. The first part of the survey contained eight items of demographic information and the second part contained the 14-item Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS). Findings revealed that among the Filipino OT, PT and SLP respondents (n = 189), 70.9% had prior experience on IPE. Moreover, the three most commonly used IPE teaching-learning strategies were case discussion (clinical setting), small group discussion, didactics, and case discussion (community setting), while the use of didactics and case discussion (community setting) yielded more agreeable attitudes towards IPC. Among the 14 items in the ATHCTS, 11 were rated with agreeability and three items with neutrality. For professional variables, only the practice setting variable yielded a statistically significant finding confirming those working in the academia to be more agreeable towards IPC compared to other settings. However, years of practice and professional background variables both yielded no statistically significant difference implying no association between years of practice and attitude towards IPC and a homogenous composition among respondents, respectively

  20. A cross-sectional internet-based patient survey of the management strategies for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Shah, Nipam; Edwards, N Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Almost half of the patients with gout are not prescribed urate-lowering therapy (ULT) by their health care provider and >50 % use complementary and alternative therapies. Diet modification is popular among gout patients due to known associations of certain foods with gout flares. The interplay of the use of dietary supplements, diet modification, and ULT adherence in gout patients is not known. Despite the recent interest in diet and supplements, there are limited data on their use. Our objective was to assess ULT use and adherence and patient preference for non-pharmacological interventions by patients with gout, using a cross-sectional survey. People who self-reported physician-diagnosed gout during their visit to a gout website ( http://gouteducation.org ) were invited to participate in a brief anonymous cross-sectional Internet survey between 08/11/2014 to 04/14/2015 about the management of their gout. The survey queried ULT prescription, ULT adherence, the use of non-pharmacological interventions (cherry extract, diet modification) and the likelihood of making a lifelong diet modification for gout management. A total of 499 respondents with a mean age 56.3 years were included; 74% were males and 74% were White. Of these, 57% (285/499) participants were prescribed a ULT for gout, of whom 88% (251/285) were currently taking ULT. Of those using ULT, 78% (97/251) reported ULT adherence >80%. Gender, race, and age were not significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving a ULT prescription or ULT adherence >80%. Fifty-six percent of patients with gout preferred ULT as a lifelong treatment for gout, 24% preferred cherry extract and 16% preferred diet modification (4% preferred none). Men had significantly lower odds of preferring ULT as the lifelong treatment choice for gout vs. other choices (p = 0.03). We found that 38.3% participants were highly motivated to make a lifelong dietary modification to improve their gout (score of 9-10 on a 0

  1. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  3. Psychosocial and professional characteristics of burnout in Swiss primary care practitioners: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Goehring, Catherine; Bouvier Gallacchi, Martine; Künzi, Beat; Bovier, Patrick

    2005-02-19

    To measure the prevalence of burnout and explore its professional and psychosocial predictors among Swiss primary care practitioners. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to measure burnout, work-related stressors, professional and psychosocial characteristics among a representative sample of primary care practitioners. Answers to the Maslach burnout inventory were used to categorize respondents into moderate and high degree of burnout. 1784 physicians responded to the survey (65% response rate) and 1755 questionnaires could be analysed. 19% of respondents had a high score for emotional exhaustion, 22% had a high score for depersonalisation/cynicism and 16% had a low score for professional accomplishment; 32% had a high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism scale (moderate degree of burnout) and 4% had scores in the range of burnout in all three scales (high degree of burnout). Predictors of moderate burnout were male sex, age 45-55 years and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, health-insurance-related work, difficulties to balance professional and private life, changes in the health care system and medical care uncertainty. A high degree of burnout was associated with male sex, practicing in a rural area, and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, patient's expectations, difficulties to balance professional and private life, economic constraints in relation to the practice, medical care uncertainty and difficult relations with non-medical staff at the practice. About one third of Swiss primary care practitioners presented a moderate or a high degree of burnout, which was mainly associated with extrinsic work-related stressors. Medical doctors and politicians in charge of redesigning the health care system should address this phenomenon to maintain an efficient Swiss primary care physician workforce in the future.

  4. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males ( P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years ( P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope ( r = 0.65, P mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  5. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Cross-sectional survey. Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1-2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of therapeutic fasting among naturopathy physicians: across sectional national survey

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    Pradeep Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is a common ingredient of naturopathic prescription in India. However no studies have been conducted to establish the use, approach of naturopathy physicians towards fasting.The present study, a cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the attitude, use, belief and understanding about therapeutic fasting among the naturopathy physicians in India.Methods: A 12 item e-mail based questionnaire was sent among 334 naturopathy physicians, whichwere designed to obtain demographic data, practice characteristics and multiple choice and multipleresponse close-ended questions along with an open-response final question. Survey questionnaire datawas analyzed using descriptive statistics via frequency distribution and cross tabulations. Results: A convenient sample of total 257 participants was collected. Majority of the respondents wereprivate practitioners with an average experience of 5 years. 50% of the total population confirms theuse of fasting in their daily prescription which is mostly for 1-5 days (54% and for all diseases (38.5%.Physicians mostly prescribe short term mono fasting with fruits or juices (42.8% along with all othermodalities (61.5% to get desired effect. The end results of fasting therapy was quoted as satisfactory(51.7% whereas the misconceptions of the patients was a challenge for 1/3 and  most of them find it easy to administer in adults (85%. Conclusion:Naturopathy physicians use fasting as a first line management in almost all chronic andacute diseases. However there is a need for strengthening the evidence based practice to bestow bettercare.

  7. Premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Malaysia: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L K; Chen, P C Y; Lee, K K; Kaur, J

    2006-06-01

    Sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents is a major concern, especially with the worry of HIV/AIDS. This study was done to determine the prevalence of sexual intercourse among secondary school students aged 12 to 19 years in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional school survey conducted on 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the self-administered questionnaire (translated version of the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance in Bahasa Malaysia). The study showed that 5.4 percent of the total sample were reported to have had sexual intercourse. The proportion among male students who had had sex was higher (8.3 percent) compared with female students (2.9 percent). The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 15 years. One percent of students reported that they had been pregnant or had made someone else pregnant. Adolescent sexual intercourse was significantly associated with (1) socio-demographical factors (age, gender); (2) environmental factors (staying with parents); and (3) substance use (alcohol use, cigarette smoking, drug use), even after adjustment for demographical factors. The survey showed that 20.8 percent of respondents had taken alcohol, 14.0 percent had smoked cigarettes, 2.5 percent had tried marijuana, 1.2 percent had tried ecstasy pills, 2.6 percent had tried glue sniffing, 0.7 percent had tried heroin, and 0.7 percent had intravenous drugs. Prevalence of sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents was relatively low compared to developed countries. However, certain groups of adolescents tend to be at higher risk of engaging in sexual intercourse. This problem should be addressed early by targeting these groups of high-risk adolescents.

  8. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

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    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  10. Malaria and anaemia among children in two communities of Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

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    Boakye Isaac

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia. The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine whether this parasite rate difference was consistent over time. Secondary objectives were to compare prevalences of clinical malaria, anaemia, intestinal parasite infections, and malnutrition between these communities; and to identify potential risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia. Methods A cross-sectional house-to-house survey of P. falciparum parasitaemia, clinical malaria, anaemia, anthropometric indices, and intestinal helminths was conducted in April-May 2005. Data collection included child and household demographics, mosquito avoidance practices, distance to nearest health facility, child's travel history, symptoms, and anti-malarial use. Risk factors for P. falciparum and anaemia (Hb Results In total, 296 children were tested from 184 households. Prevalences of P. falciparum, clinical malaria, anaemia, and stunting were significantly higher in Moshie Zongo (37.8%, 16.9%, 66.2% and 21.1%, respectively compared to Manhyia (12.8%, 3.4%, 34.5% and 7.4%. Of 197 children tested for helminths, four were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Population attributable risks (PAR% of anaemia were 16.5% (P. falciparum and 7.6% (malnutrition. Risk factors for P. falciparum infection were older age, rural travel, and lower socioeconomic status. Risk factors for anaemia were P. falciparum infection, Moshie Zongo residence, male sex, and younger age. Conclusion Heterogeneities in malariometric indices between neighbouring Kumasi communities are consistent over time. The low helminth prevalence, and the twofold higher PAR% of anaemia attributable to P. falciparum infection compared to malnutrition, indicate the importance of malaria as a cause of anaemia in this urban population.

  11. Factors relating to adolescent suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.

  12. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  13. Teaching science content in nursing programs in Australia: a cross-sectional survey of academics.

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    Birks, Melanie; Ralph, Nicholas; Cant, Robyn; Hillman, Elspeth; Chun Tie, Ylona

    2015-01-01

    Professional nursing practice is informed by biological, social and behavioural sciences. In undergraduate pre-registration nursing programs, biological sciences typically include anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, physics and pharmacology. The current gap in the literature results in a lack of information about the content and depth of biological sciences being taught in nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to establish what priority is given to the teaching of science topics in these programs in order to inform an understanding of the relative importance placed on this subject area in contemporary nursing education. This study employed a cross-sectional survey method. This paper reports on the first phase of a larger project examining science content in nursing programs. An existing questionnaire was modified and delivered online for completion by academics who teach science to nurses in these programs. This paper reports on the relative priority given by respondents to the teaching of 177 topics contained in the questionnaire. Of the relatively small population of academics who teach science to nursing students, thirty (n = 30) completed the survey. Findings indicate strong support for the teaching of science in these programs, with particular priority given to the basic concepts of bioscience and gross system anatomy. Of concern, most science subject areas outside of these domains were ranked as being of moderate or low priority. While the small sample size limited the conclusions able to be drawn from this study, the findings supported previous studies that indicated inadequacies in the teaching of science content in nursing curricula. Nevertheless, these findings have raised questions about the current philosophy that underpins nursing education in Australia and whether existing practices are clearly focused on preparing students for the demands of contemporary nursing practice. Academics responsible for the design and implementation of

  14. Cross-sectional survey of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Stanley, James; Mathieson, Fiona; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand and compare certain beliefs based on back pain history or health professional exposure. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Postal survey. Participants New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. Participants listed on the Electoral Roll with an overseas postal address were excluded. 602 valid responses were received. Measures Attitudes and beliefs about back pain were measured with the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ). The interaction between attitudes and beliefs and (1) back pain experience and (2) health professional exposure was investigated. Results The lifetime prevalence of back pain was reported as 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), and the point prevalence as 27% (95% CI 24% to 31%). Negative views about the back and back pain were prevalent, in particular the need to protect the back to prevent injury. People with current back pain had more negative overall scores, particularly related to back pain prognosis. There was uncertainty about links between pain and injury and appropriate physical activity levels during an episode of back pain. Respondents had more positive views about activity if they had consulted a health professional about back pain. The beliefs of New Zealanders appeared to be broadly similar to those of other Western populations. Conclusions A large proportion of respondents believed that they needed to protect their back to prevent injury; we theorise that this belief may result in reduced confidence to use the back and contribute to fear avoidance. Uncertainty regarding what is a safe level of activity during an episode of back pain may limit participation. People experiencing back pain may benefit from more targeted information about the positive prognosis. The provision of clear guidance about levels of activity may enable

  15. Factors associated with domestic violence: a cross-sectional survey among women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-02-14

    This study aims to identify the factors associated with domestic violence (DV) among women in Jeddah. Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Jeddah. Convenience sample of women, aged 15-70 years, at the outpatient and inpatient clinics. Between 15 December 2011 and 30 May 2012, a psychologist and a professional health assistant explained the purpose of the research to participants, who were then asked to fill a 50-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was created based on questions from three questionnaires: the NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the association between DV and family status, male partner attitudes, age, educational attainment, employment, financial and socioeconomic status. A total of 2301 women participated in the survey (81% response rate). The mean±SD age of the participants was 34.4±10.9 years. The lifetime prevalence of DV was 34%. Abused women had more children than non-abused women (p=0.001), and their spouses were significantly older than those of non-abused women (p<0.0001). Financially dependent women and those with a high educational status were significantly more likely to report abuse (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Abused women were also likely to report that their spouse was a smoker (p<0.0001) and had completed at least primary or secondary education (p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of abused women reported that their male partners were alcohol users (p=0.001). The results of logistic regression showed that women who were financially dependent had about 1.5-fold odds of being physically abused by a spouse. Many factors are associated with DV against women, thereby highlighting the need to design effective DV prevention programmes.

  16. Perspectives of Oncology Nurses on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Gok Metin, Zehra; Izgu, Nur; Karadas, Canan; Arikan Donmez, Ayse

    In Turkey, between 22.1% and 84.1% of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, few CAM-related studies have focused on the perspective of oncology nurses. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish oncology nurses regarding CAM. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 127 participants was conducted in Ankara, Turkey. A semistructured questionnaire including characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of oncology nurses toward CAM was administered to participants. We found that more than half of nurses (54.0%) surveyed had no information on CAM modalities. Most oncology nurses (81.1%) used audiovisual media sources to obtain CAM information. Many nurses (81.3%) reported not using any CAM in cancer care, and only 26.8% recommended CAM to patients. Most nurses used CAM to accelerate wound healing (19.7%) and to manage symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea (8.8%) and anxiety (7.9%). Music (52.8%), massage (49.6%), and exercise (48.8%) were stated to be beneficial. Important barriers to use CAM for patients with cancer involved a lack of knowledge (60.6%); needing physician approval to apply any CAM methods to patients (52.1%); legal and institutional issues (47.2%); and limited educational, training, or certificate programs (44.1%). There is a need for increased knowledge about CAM by oncology nurses, considering their vital role in symptom management of patients with cancer. This can be achieved through solving legal and institutional problems, structured and comprehensive education/training programs, and the integration of CAM therapy into cancer care guidelines.

  17. Honorary and ghost authorship in high impact biomedical journals: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislar, Joseph S; Flanagin, Annette; Fontanarosa, Phil B; Deangelis, Catherine D

    2011-10-25

    To assess the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors in six leading general medical journals in 2008 and compare this with the prevalence reported by authors of articles published in 1996. Cross sectional survey using a web based questionnaire. International survey of journal authors. Sample of corresponding authors of 896 research articles, review articles, and editorial/opinion articles published in six general medical journals with high impact factors in 2008: Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Nature Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, and PLoS Medicine. Self reported compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for all authors on the selected articles. A total of 630/896 (70.3%) corresponding authors responded to the survey. The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship or ghost authorship, or both, was 21.0% (95% CI 18.0% to 24.3%), a decrease from 29.2% reported in 1996 (P = 0.004). Based on 545 responses on honorary authorship, 96 articles (17.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 21.0%)) had honorary authors (range by journal 12.2% to 29.3%), a non-significant change from 1996 (19.3%; P = 0.439). Based on 622 responses on ghost authorship, 49 articles (7.9% (6.0% to 10.3%)) had ghost authors (range by journal 2.1% to 11.0%), a significant decline from 1996 (11.5%; P = 0.023). The prevalence of honorary authorship was 25.0% in original research reports, 15.0% in reviews, and 11.2% in editorials, whereas the prevalence of ghost authorship was 11.9% in research articles, 6.0% in reviews, and 5.3% in editorials. Evidence of honorary and ghost authorship in 21% of articles published in major medical journals in 2008 suggests that increased efforts by scientific journals, individual authors, and academic institutions are essential to promote responsibility, accountability, and transparency in authorship, and to maintain integrity in scientific publication.

  18. Integrated surgical academic training in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Natalie S; Glasbey, James C; McElnay, Philip J; Bhangu, Aneel; Gokani, Vimal J; Harries, Rhiannon L

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore variations in the provision of integrated academic surgical training across the UK. This is an online cross-sectional survey (consisting of 44 items with a range of free-text, binomial and 5-point Likert scale responses) developed by the Association of Surgeons in Training. A self-reported survey instrument was distributed to academic surgical trainees across the UK (n=276). 143 (51.9%) responses were received (81% male, median age: 34 years), spanning all UK regions and surgical specialties. Of the 143 trainees, 29 were core trainees (20.3%), 99 were specialty trainees (69.2%) and 15 (10.5%) described themselves as research fellows. The structure of academic training varied considerably, with under a third of trainees receiving guaranteed protected time for research. Despite this, however, 53.1% of the respondents reported to be satisfied with how their academic training was organised. Covering clinical duties during academic time occurred commonly (72.7%). Although most trainees (n=88, 61.5%) met with their academic supervisor at least once a month, six (4.2%) never had an academic supervisory meeting. Most trainees (n=90, 62.9%) occupied a full-time rota slot and only 9.1% (n=13) described their role as 'supernumerary'. Although 58.7% (n=84) of the trainees were satisfied with their clinical competence, 37.8% (n=54) felt that clinical time focused more on service provision than the acquisition of technical skills. 58 (40.6%) had experienced some form of negative sentiment relating to their status as an academic trainee. Integrated academic training presents unique challenges and opportunities within surgery. This survey has identified variation in the quality of current programmes, meaning that the future provision of integrated surgical academic training should be carefully considered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  19. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses' mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses' health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and Enrolled Nurse workforce, employed on any form of contract, at two teaching hospitals in Sydney Australia were invited to participate. The survey tool was compiled of validated tools and questions. Family and medical history and health risk-related characteristics, current psycho-active medications, smoking status, alcohol intake, eating disorders, self-perceived general health, mental health and vitality, demographic, social and occupational details were collected. A total of 1215 surveys were distributed with a usable response rate of 382 (31.4%). Altogether 53 nurses (14%) reported a history of mental health disorders, of which n = 49 (13%) listed diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression; 22 (6%) were currently taking psychoactive medication. Symptoms that could potentially indicate a mental health issue were more common, with 248 (65.1%) reporting they had experienced symptoms sometimes or often in the last 12 month. Nurses had better mental health if they had better general health, lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone, had fewer symptoms, sleep problems or disordered eating behaviours, were not an informal carer and did not work nights. Nurses had greater vitality if they were male, had better general health, fewer sleep problems or symptoms generally and lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone; less vitality if they were an informal carer or had disordered eating. Nurses and their managers should strive to create workplaces where working practices promote nurses' health

  20. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

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    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  1. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

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    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  2. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  3. The direct health services costs of providing assisted reproduction services in overweight or obese women: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Abha; Scotland, Graham; Bell, Jacqueline; McTavish, Alison; Hamilton, Mark; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2009-03-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising. Hence, it is likely that a higher proportion of women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment are overweight or obese. In a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using routinely collected data of an IVF Unit and maternity hospital in a tertiary care setting in the UK, direct costs were assessed for all weight classes. Costs for underweight, overweight and obese were compared with those for women with normal body mass index (BMI). Of 1756 women, who underwent their first cycle of IVF between 1997 and 2006, 43 (2.4%) were underweight; 988 (56.3%) had normal BMI; 491 (28.0%) were overweight; 148 (8.4%) were obese (class I) and 86 (4.9%) were obese (class II). The mean (95% CI) cost of each live birth resulting from IVF was pound 18,747 (13 864-27 361) in underweight group; pound 16,497 (15 374-17 817) in women with normal BMI; pound 18,575 (16,648-21,081) in overweight women; pound 18,805 (15 397-23 554) in obese class I; pound 20,282 (15 288-28 424) in obese class II or over. The cost of a live birth resulting from IVF is not different in underweight, overweight and obese class I when compared with women with normal BMI. However, due to increased obstetric complications weight loss should still be recommended prior to commencing IVF even in overweight or obese (class I) women.

  4. Risk factors for morbidity and death in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of CT diagnosed bronchiectatic patients

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    Goeminne Pieter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There is a relative lack of information about the death rate and morbidity of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and most studies are limited due to referral bias. We wanted to assess death rate and morbidity in those patients at our hospital. Methods Adult patients seen at our department between June 2006 and November 2009 were recruited if the key string "bronchiect-" was mentioned in electronic clinical records and if chest CT imaging was available. Clinical records of all patients with confirmed radiologic diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results 539 patients with a radiographic diagnosis of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis were identified in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis giving a prevalence of 2.6% in our hospital population. A wide range of etiologies was found with idiopathic bronchiectasis in 26%. In the 41 months interval, 57 patients (10.6% died. We found a median exacerbation rate of 1.94 per year. Bacterial colonization status was associated with more deaths, exacerbation rate, symptoms and reduced pulmonary function. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 48% of our patients. Conclusions We evaluated a large non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis population, and provided new epidemiological data on associations between clinical characteristics and deaths and morbidity in these patients.

  5. Quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

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    Fenta, Teferi Gedif; Assefa, Tamrat; Alemayehu, Bekele

    2017-06-06

    Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant in the world. The difficulty of managing warfarin contributes to great potential for patient harm, both from excessive anticoagulation and insufficient anticoagulation. This study assessed the International Normalized Ratio (INR) control outcome measures and warfarin dose adjustment practices at cardiology and hematology outpatient clinics at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was based on a cross - sectional study design involving 360 retrospective patients' chart review among outpatients who received warfarin for its various indications. The mean frequency of INR monitoring per patient was 62.9 days (17.2-143.7 days). Patients spent 52.2%, 29.0% and 18.8% of the time in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic and supra-therapeutic ranges, respectively. The daily warfarin dose was increased 50.9% and 36.9% and decreased in 52.8% and 60.9% of the time for occurrences of sub-therapeutic and supra-therapeutic INRs to achieve target ranges of 2.0-3.0 and 2.5-3.5, respectively. The quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital was sub-optimal. This was reflected by low Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR), longer than recommended INR monitoring frequency, and minimal actions taken to adjust warfarin dose after occurrences of non-therapeutic INRs.

  6. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Filipino vs Caucasian Americans: a retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Hee, Michael R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Filipino and Caucasian Americans in two clinic populations. Retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples. Five hundred twelve Filipino and 600 Caucasian patients aged 40 years or older examined by two community-based comprehensive ophthalmology clinics during a one-year period. The prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus among Filipino (F) and Caucasian Americans (C) was 40.6% and 24.8%, respectively (PFilipino; 149 Caucasian), there was a statistically insignificant higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Filipino diabetics compared to Caucasians (F vs C: all forms of diabetic retinopathy, 24.5% vs 16.8%, P=.08; non-proliferative retinopathy, 17.3% vs 12.8%, P=.24; proliferative retinopathy, 7.2% vs. 4.0%, P=.21). In multivariate analyses of the diabetic subpopulation, Filipino ethnicity was not a significant predictor of diabetic retinopathy. Filipino Americans may have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans. Among those with type 2 diabetes, however, Filipino Americans were not found to be more likely to show manifestations of diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans.

  7. Tobacco use among designated air pollution victims and its association with lung function and respiratory symptoms: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Kenji; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Yano, Yudai; Miyamoto, Naomi; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagita, Yorihide; Asai, Masaharu; Kozu, Ryo; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Sawai, Terumitsu; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-07-31

    We sought to elucidate the long-term association of tobacco use and respiratory health in designated pollution victims with and without obstructive pulmonary defects. A retrospective cross-sectional study. The register of pollution victims in Kurashiki, Japan. 730 individuals over 65 years of age previously diagnosed with pollution-related respiratory disease. Patients were classified into four groups according to their smoking status and whether they had obstructive pulmonary disease. We then compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function over time between groups. Spirometry was performed and a respiratory health questionnaire completed in the same season each year for up to 30 years. Rates of smoking and respiratory disease were high in our sample. Although respiratory function in non-smoking patients did not completely recover, the annual rate of change in lung function was within the normal range (prespiratory function did not fully recover despite improved air quality. Our results suggest that, in the context of exposure to air pollution, tobacco use causes additional loss of lung function and exacerbates respiratory symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Cross-sectional analysis of adult diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetic microvascular complications from a German retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happich, M; Breitscheidel, L; Meisinger, C; Ulbig, M; Falkenstein, P; Benter, U; Watkins, J

    2007-06-01

    To obtain epidemiological data on the prevalence of predefined stages of diabetic microvascular complications from a representative cross-section of patients with existing microvascular complications of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Germany. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of medical records of 705 type 1 and 1910 type 2 adult diabetic patients with a diagnosis of retinopathy and/or peripheral neuropathy and/or nephropathy before 2002 and treated in 2002 in Germany. Of 376 patients with type 1 diabetes having retinopathy, 59.3% had mild or moderate non-proliferative retinopathy without macular oedema, 27.1% had macular oedema, and 13.6% had severe retinopathy without macular oedema. In 862 patients with type 2 diabetes, the distribution of retinopathy/maculopathy classes was 56.8%, 35.5%, and 7.7%, respectively. Of 381 type 1 diabetes patients with observed peripheral neuropathy, 81.4% had sensorimotor neuropathy, 8.9% had diabetic foot conditions, and 9.7% had lower extremity amputations because of diabetes. In 1005 patients with type 2 diabetes, the distribution of neuropathy classes was 78.2%, 12.1%, and 9.7%, respectively. The proportions of patients with renal insufficiency in type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups were 15.3% versus 13.5%, respectively. The study suggests that there are considerable proportions of patients with progressive stages of microvascular complications related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Germany. This underlines the importance of improvement of optimal quality of care and frequent screening for preventing late diabetic microvascular complications and the necessity of effective intervention strategies to tackle this major public health problem.

  9. Burnout in emergency department healthcare professionals is associated with coping style: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, M; Doody, K; Murray, J; LeBlanc-Duchin, D; Fraser, J; Atkinson, P R

    2015-09-01

    Ineffective coping may lead to impaired job performance and burnout, with adverse consequences to staff well-being and patient outcomes. We examined the relationship between coping styles and burnout in emergency physicians, nurses and support staff at seven small, medium and large emergency departments (ED) in a Canadian health region (population 500,000). Linear regression with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate the effect of coping style on levels of burnout in a cross-sectional survey of 616 ED staff members. CISS measures coping style in three categories: task-oriented, emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping; MBI, in use for 30 years, assesses the level of burnout in healthcare workers. Task-oriented coping was associated with decreased risk of burnout, while emotion-oriented coping was associated with increased risk of burnout. Specific coping styles are associated with varied risk of burnout in ED staff across several different types of hospitals in a regional network. Coping style intervention may reduce burnout, while leading to improvement in staff well-being and patient outcomes. Further studies should focus on building and sustaining task-oriented coping, along with alternatives to emotion-oriented coping. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  11. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Pournaras, Spyros; Mavrouli, Maria; Marka, Andriani; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Baka, Agoritsa; Billinis, Charalambos; Katsioulis, Antonios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Papa, Anna; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Mamuris, Zissis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive samples were further tested by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and WNV Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 82 samples and 61 were also positive in PRNT representing a weighted seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% C.I.: 1.7–2.6) and 1.5% (95% C.I.: 1.2–2.0), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that seroprevalence was associated with age and residence. The overall ratio of neuroinvasive disease to infected persons was estimated at 1:376 (95% C.I.: 1:421–1:338), while the elderly people had the highest ratio. This nationwide study provided valuable data regarding the epidemiology of WNV in Greece based on the fact that elderly people have higher risk of being both infected and having severe disease. PMID:26605539

  12. Motivational Factors in Women Seeking Augmentation Mammoplasty Across Different Age Groups: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior

    2018-02-19

    Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-02-01

    (1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. A 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed. Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (Pweight management counseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  15. Social capital and antenatal depression among Chinese primiparas: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Ogihara, Atsushi; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weijue; Huang, Liu; Zhang, Baodan; Zhang, Xueni; Xu, Liangwen; Yang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between social capital and antenatal depression among Chinese primiparas. A cross-sectional design was used and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 1471 participants using the intercept method at the provincial hospital in Zhejiang in 2016. Antenatal depression was evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and social capital was assessed by the Chinese version of Social Capital Assessment Questionnaire (C-SCAQ). The prevalence of antenatal depression was assessed among Chinese primiparas in their third trimesters. The antenatal depression prevalence among sub-groups with lower social trust (ST), social reciprocity (SR), social network (SN), and social participation (SP) were significantly higher than those among higher score sub-groups. In the fully adjusted model, primiparas' antenatal depression was significantly associated with ST, SR, SN, and SP. Compared to the structural social capital, the cognitive social capital was a more crucial dimension to the prevalence of antenatal depression. For future community pregnancy health care management programs in China, it might be beneficial to add more social capital related intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Roy Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Mohan Roy; Karunakaran, Vidhukumar; Prabhakaran, Anil; Jayakumar, Krishnannair Lalithamma

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above), having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7%) had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6%) of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients. PMID:28066004

  18. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  19. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for preventing adverse health outcomes: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Robert; Pignone, Michael P; Sheridan, Stacey L; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-05-11

    The utility value attributed to taking pills for prevention can have a major effect on the cost-effectiveness of interventions, but few published studies have systematically quantified this value. We sought to quantify the utility value of taking pills used for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional survey. Central North Carolina. 708 healthcare employees aged 18 years and older. Utility values for taking 1 pill/day, assessed using time trade-off, modified standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods. Mean age of respondents was 43 years (19-74). The majority of the respondents were female (83%) and Caucasian (80%). Most (80%) took at least 2 pills/day. Mean utility values for taking 1 pill/day using the time trade-off method were: 0.9972 (95% CI 0.9962 to 0.9980). Values derived from the standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods were 0.9967 (0.9954 to 0.9979) and 0.9989 (95% CI 0.9986 to 0.9991), respectively. Utility values varied little across characteristics such as age, sex, race, education level or number of pills taken per day. The utility value of taking pills daily in order to prevent an adverse CVD health outcome is approximately 0.997. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  1. On the report of the Nuclear Energy Section Meeting, General Survey Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Shigehiro

    1979-01-01

    The demand and supply of petroleum have relaxed temporarily, but in the long run, the difficulty of energy problem does not change. More powerful promotion of general energy policy with conformity and effectiveness is a worldwide problem. In order to cope with such situation, General Energy Survey Committee has examined the concrete measures, and drawn up the interim report in August, 1977. The present report does not change from the interim report in its basic framework, but the background on which this framework is based is clarified, and the contents of the concrete measures are examined in more detail. The Nuclear Energy Sectional Meeting has obtained the conclusions about the basic matters in the development and utilization of nuclear energy and the concrete measures required to be taken urgently. The domestic and foreign situations about the development and utilization of nuclear energy are explained, and the location of nuclear power stations is the most serious bottleneck, therefore the measures to obtain national consensus are the most important problem in every country. The nuclear power generation in Japan is expected to reach 33 million kW by 1985 and 60 million kW by 1990. As the concrete measures, improvement of safety and reliability, establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, development and adoption of new type nuclear reactors, strengthening of the base of nuclear energy industries, promotion of research and development, and contribution to international activities are briefly discussed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Perceptions of genetic discrimination among people at risk for Huntington's disease: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Veenstra, Gerry; Friedman, Jan M; Creighton, Susan; Currie, Lauren; Paulsen, Jane S; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2009-06-09

    To assess the nature and prevalence of genetic discrimination experienced by people at risk for Huntington's disease who had undergone genetic testing or remained untested. Cross sectional, self reported survey. Seven genetics and movement disorders clinics servicing rural and urban communities in Canada. 233 genetically tested and untested asymptomatic people at risk for Huntington's disease (response rate 80%): 167 underwent testing (83 had the Huntington's disease mutation, 84 did not) and 66 chose not to be tested. Self reported experiences of genetic discrimination and related psychological distress based on family history or genetic test results. Discrimination was reported by 93 respondents (39.9%). Reported experiences occurred most often in insurance (29.2%), family (15.5%), and social (12.4%) settings. There were few reports of discrimination in employment (6.9%), health care (8.6%), or public sector settings (3.9%). Although respondents who were aware that they carried the Huntington's disease mutation reported the highest levels of discrimination, participation in genetic testing was not associated with increased levels of genetic discrimination. Family history of Huntington's disease, rather than the result of genetic testing, was the main reason given for experiences of genetic discrimination. Psychological distress was associated with genetic discrimination (PGenetic discrimination was commonly reported by people at risk for Huntington's disease and was a source of psychological distress. Family history, and not genetic testing, was the major reason for genetic discrimination.

  3. A cross-sectional survey on consequences of nurses' burnout: moderating role of organizational politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Basim, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether perceptions of organizational politics (defined as self-serving behaviours at the expense of others) influence the prospective associations between nurses' burnout and its consequences, namely, intention to quit and neglect of work. Researchers have previously investigated relationships between nurses' burnout, intention to quit, neglect of work and perceptions of organizational politics in different research models and from different perspectives. As far as we know, no studies have considered whether nurses' perceptions of organizational politics moderate the influence of burnout. A cross-sectional survey using self-report questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaire from a sample of 456 nurses from six private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey in March 2015. Four different previously designed scales were used to measure research variables (burnout, intention to quit, neglect of work and perceptions of organizational politics). Following confirmatory validity and reliability analyses of data collection instruments, descriptive statistics for each research variable were analysed. Structural regression models were created to assess relationships among variables. Burnout resulted in intention to quit and neglect. Intention to quit partially mediated the association between burnout and neglect. Burnout gave rise to intention to quit slightly more strongly in nurses who had greater perceptions of organizational politics. This study uncovers and emphasizes the moderating role of perceptions of organizational politics in consequences of burnout. This may help hospital managers and nurses to improve costs, efficiency, satisfaction and productivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Child obesity service provision: a cross-sectional survey of physiotherapy practice trends and professional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Nikki; Choy, Nancy Low; Leong, Gary M; Hughes, Roger; Hing, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored current physiotherapy practice trends for management of children who are overweight or obese. The professional needs of physiotherapists working with this population were also assessed, including the perceived need for physiotherapy clinical guidelines for prevention and management of children with obesity. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with questionnaires purposefully distributed through 13 key physiotherapy services throughout Australia. Snowball sampling resulted in completed questionnaires from 64 physiotherapists who provided services to children. Half (n=33, 52%) of respondents provided services specifically to overweight or obese children. Of those providing services, one-quarter had prior training specific to working with this population. Most used multi-disciplinary models (n=16, 76%) and provided under 5h of obesity-related services each week (n=29, 88%). Half (n=16, 49%) used body mass index as an outcome measure but more (n=25, 76%) used bodyweight. Only 14 (42%) assessed motor skills. The majority of respondents (n=57, 89%) indicated a need for physiotherapy guidelines to best manage overweight and obese children. Professional development priorities included: 'Educating children and families', 'Assessment methods' and 'Exercise prescription' for overweight and obese children. This data provides workforce intelligence to guide future professional training and inform development of clinical guidelines for physiotherapists in prevention and management of children with obesity and related chronic disease.

  5. Stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese school children: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Zhen, Yan; Lu, Li; Dong, Zhou Xu; Jun, Ye Xu; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2010-02-01

    The Chinese educational system is highly competitive from the start of primary school with great emphasis on academic performance and intolerance of failure. This study aimed to explore the pressures on primary schoolchildren, and to determine the relationship between these pressures and psychosomatic symptoms: abdominal pain and headache. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. 9- to 12-year-olds in primary schools in urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. Proportion of children with defined school-related stressors and frequency of psychosomatic illness. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2191 children. All stressors were common in boys and girls and in urban and rural schools. Eighty-one per cent worry 'a lot' about exams, 63% are afraid of the punishment of teachers, 44% had been physically bullied at least sometimes, with boys more often victims of bullying, and 73% of children are physically punished by parents. Over one-third of children reported psychosomatic symptoms at least once per week, 37% headache and 36% abdominal pain. All individual stressors were highly significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms. Children identified as highly stressed (in the highest quartile of the stress score) were four times as likely to have psychosomatic symptoms. The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently.

  6. Productivity loss of caregivers of schizophrenia patients: a cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Mori, Yasuhiro; Mahlich, Jörg

    2018-04-27

    When a family member is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it causes stress to the caregiver that can eventually result in missed work days and lower work performance. This study aims at revealing productivity costs for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of caregivers was conducted and resulted in 171 respondents. The assessment of work productivity included calculating the costs of absenteeism, presenteeism and total productivity costs. This was accomplished using the "Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire" (WPAI). A relative majority of caregivers in the sample provided care for their spouse (47%), 18% cared for their brother or sister and 16% provided care for their child. Per capita productivity costs totaled JPY 2.42 million, with JPY 2.36 million (97%) of that amount being due to presenteeism. The burden on caregivers is substantial enough to warrant structured support programs aimed at maintaining careers' physical and mental health, helping them provide more effective care to schizophrenia patients and eventually increase productivity at work.

  7. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey's emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-06-29

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Cross-sectional survey study. Country of Turkey. Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians' personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians' opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Our results indicated that ED physicians' experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Workplace violence against physicians in Turkey’s emergency departments: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Başak; Çetin, Murat; Çolak Oray, Neşe; Can, İsmail Özgür

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence directed at emergency department (ED) physicians in Turkey and confirm the factors influencing such violence. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Setting Country of Turkey. Participants Physicians currently practising in EDs in Turkey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of violence directed at physicians and factors that may influence it, such as physicians’ personal characteristics, ED characteristics and physicians’ opinions regarding the causes of and suggested methods of preventing violence. Results A total of 713 physicians participated. Of these, 78.1% reported being subjected to violence in the past year and 65.9% reported more than one such incident. Being subjected to violence was related to age (p=0.008), working in an ED with a high patient admission rate (p=0.018), current position (pviolence. The present safety precautions against violence do not appear to influence the prevalence of violence. Conclusions Our results indicated that ED physicians’ experience of violence is related to personal characteristics such as age and level of expertise, and hospital and ED characteristics such as high patient admission rates. Presently, no measures taken to reduce this violence have been proven effective. PMID:28663323

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.

  10. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives.

  11. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  13. Psychosocial Factors of Dietitians' Intentions to Adopt Shared Decision Making Behaviours: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Sarah-Maude; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Légaré, France; Lapointe, Annie; Turcotte, Stéphane; Desroches, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While shared decision making (SDM) promotes health-related decisions that are informed, value-based and adhered to, few studies report on theory-based approaches to SDM adoption by healthcare professionals. We aimed to identify the factors influencing dietitians' intentions to adopt two SDM behaviours: 1) present dietary treatment options to patients and 2) help patients clarify their values and preferences. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour among 428 randomly selected dietitians working in clinical practice across the Province of Quebec, Canada. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple regression analyses to determine the variables that explained the variance in intention to perform the behaviours. Results A total of 203 dietitians completed the questionnaire. Their ages were from 23 to 66 and they had been practising dietetics for 15.4±11.1 years (mean ± SD). On a scale from 1 to 7 (from strongly disagree to strongly agree), dietitians' intentions to present dietary treatment options and to clarify their patients' values and preferences were 5.00±1.14 and 5.68±0.74, respectively. Perceived behavioural control (β = 0.56, ρadopt the two SDM behaviours studied. Factors influencing intention were different for each behaviour, except for perceived behavioural control which was common to both behaviours. Thus, perceived behavioural control could be a key factor in interventions aiming to encourage implementation of SDM by dietitians. PMID:23700484

  14. Status of problem based learning in postgraduate anesthesia teaching: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a specialized branch of medicine with a very narrow margin of error. Incorporation of problem-based learning (PBL in anesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills. It also helps in developing a broader prospective of clinical case scenarios. Case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all PBL methods in anesthesia PG teaching. Materials and Methods: We conducted an anonymous questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey among 62 anesthesia residents from various medical institutions in a city of Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the current status of PBL by assessing the student satisfaction with CBD in anesthesia PG teaching, educational objectives accomplished with CBD and effectiveness of teaching curriculum in PG teaching with suggested modifications, if any. Result and Conclusion: We observed that CBD is lacking in many important key areas of PBL e.g., formulation of objectives, communication on the content and direction of PBL, facilitation skills, supplementation of inadequacies of CBD. However, CBD seems to be a valid method of PBL in terms of the educational objectives accomplished with it but increased motivation for learning is required. Majority of the students felt that PG teaching curriculum should be centralized, with increased emphasis on open interactive sessions regarding its effectiveness.

  15. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dental practitioners in Davangere, Karnataka: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D J Veeresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite numerous advances in dentistry many occupational health problems still persist in modern dentistry, of which the most common is a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD and pain is the most common symptom of MSD. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among the dental practitioners in Davangere and the prevalence of pain in different anatomic location. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 70 dental practitioners residing in Davangere city. A self-designed questionnaire containing eight questions was self-administered to all the available dentists at their place of work. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of at least one musculoskeletal pain among the dentists was found to be 34.71%, and they reported a higher frequency of pain in the neck region (71%. Conclusions: Among the dentists practicing in Davangere, there was relatively lower prevalence of at least one musculoskeletal pain and the most common site of pain was neck region.

  16. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training.

  17. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrière Eléna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. Results No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Conclusion Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

  18. Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Rios-Seidel, Carmen; Nerrière, Eléna; Chan Chee, Christine

    2006-04-21

    Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men) or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.

  19. Attitudes of Mexican anesthesiologists to indicate preoperative fasting periods: A cross-sectional survey

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    Nava-Ocampo Alejandro A

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, guidelines for fasting periods, or any audits on this topic are unavailable, and therefore the attitudes of anesthesiologists for recommending preoperative fasting periods are unknown. Material and methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of anesthesiologists subscribed to the Annual Updated Course, organized by the Sociedad Mexicana de Anestesiologia in 2000. The response rate was 31.4%. Results Most respondents were general anesthesiologists, with 5 or more years experience in a clinical post, were working in both public and private hospitals, and were performing anesthetic procedures on both pediatric and adult patients and in both ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Approximately 23% of the respondents considered natural fruit juices to be clear liquids. For a pediatric patient ingesting breast milk 1 h before undergoing a surgical procedure, 45% thought that surgery should be delayed for 3h, followed by those delaying the surgical procedure for 6 to 8 h. Our results show that more than 50% of the anesthesiologists had better defined attitudes for fasting milk and clear liquids in patients of 6 month or under than for older children and adults. However, due to the poor definition or pre-operative fasting, using clear liquids, in all other patient groups, several patients are allowed to go without oral clear liquids administration for prolonged periods. Conclusion Preoperative fasting periods recommended by Mexican anesthesiologists differ from international guidelines.

  20. Employment after Spinal Cord Injury in Norway: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Erling F. Solheim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two research questions are addressed: 1 What predicts employment among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI in Norway? 2 How do the employed compare with the non-employed in their job motivation, labour discrimination, quality of life, everyday coping, health and pain suffering? We use a cross-sectional survey from 2012. With a 51% response rate, 320 Norwegians aged 21–66 years with SCI participated. After injury, 69.5% were employed, and 44.5% remained employed at the time of the interview. There was no gender difference in employment. Among men and women, age at onset of SCI, ability to continue working in the same organisation and education was associated with employment. For men paraplegia and vocational rehabilitation were also significant. Occupational class was non-significant among both men and women. Job motivation and work ability could have affected past employment, and both the employed and non-employed supported the statement that employers discriminate against wheelchair users.

  1. Job satisfaction and leaving intentions of midwives: analysis of a multinational cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Ziakova, Katarina; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata; Nedvedova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between turnover intentions and job satisfaction among hospital midwives from seven countries and to determine how the related variables differ between countries. Studies investigating professional turnover and job satisfaction among midwives are limited in scope. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used to investigate the intended turnover and job satisfaction relationship among 1190 hospital midwives in European and Asian countries. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included questions regarding the leaving intentions of midwives and the McCloskey/Mueller satisfaction scale. Midwives were least satisfied with their extrinsic rewards and professional opportunities and with the balance between family and work. Significant differences were found in all domains of job satisfaction according to midwives' intentions to leave their current workplace in hospital or profession of midwife, and to work abroad. There are some general satisfying and dissatisfying elements for the profession of midwife across different countries. The results highlight the importance of understanding midwives' leaving intentions and related factors across different countries. To prevent midwife turnover, health-care managers should gain greater insight into the early stage of midwives' turnover intention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country...

  3. Changes in Hypertension Treatment in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia: Improvements Observed Between 2 Cross-Sectional Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mozheyko, Maria; Eregin, Sergey; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Tobe, Sheldon; Campbell, Norman; Riahi, Farhad; Hughes, David

    2013-01-01

    This prospective before-and-after survey of hypertensive patients visiting government-run outpatient health facilities in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia assessed blood pressure (BP)–related endpoints following initiation of a comprehensive health system improvement program for hypertension. Two cross-sectional surveys, one at baseline and the other approximately 1 year after program initiation, evaluated the primary measure of BP control rate. Secondary measures included mean BP levels and di...

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of lanreotide in combination with targeted therapies in patients with neuroendocrine tumours in clinical practice: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, Jaume; Sevilla, Isabel; Alonso, Vicente; Antón Aparicio, Luís; Jiménez Fonseca, Paula; Grande, Enrique; Reina, Juan José; Manzano, José Luís; Alonso Lájara, Juan Domingo; Barriuso, Jorge; Castellano, Daniel; Medina, Javier; López, Carlos; Segura, Ángel; Carrera, Sergio; Crespo, Guillermo; Fuster, José; Munarriz, Javier; García Alfonso, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of action, combining somatostatin analogues (SSAs) with mTOR inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents may provide synergistic effects for the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Herein, we investigate the use of these treatment combinations in clinical practice. This retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patients with NETs treated with the SSA lanreotide and targeted therapies at 35 Spanish hospitals evaluated the efficacy and safety of lanreotide treatment combinations in clinical practice. The data of 159 treatment combinations with lanreotide in 133 patients was retrospectively collected. Of the 133 patients, with a median age of 59.4 (16–83) years, 70 (52.6 %) patients were male, 64 (48.1 %) had pancreatic NET, 23 (17.3 %) had ECOG PS ≥2, 41 (30.8 %) had functioning tumours, 63 (47.7 %) underwent surgery of the primary tumour, 45 (33.8 %) had received prior chemotherapy, and 115 (86.5 %) had received prior SSAs. 115 patients received 1 lanreotide treatment combination and 18 patients received between 2 and 5 combinations. Lanreotide was mainly administered in combination with everolimus (73 combinations) or sunitinib (61 combinations). The probability of being progression-free was 78.5 % (6 months), 68.6 % (12 months) and 57.0 % (18 months) for patients who only received everolimus plus lanreotide (n = 57) and 89.3 % (6 months), 73.0 % (12 months), and 67.4 % (18 months) for patients who only received sunitinib and lanreotide (n = 50). In patients who only received everolimus plus lanreotide the median time-to-progression from the initiation of lanreotide combination treatment was 25.8 months (95 % CI, 11.3, 40.3) and it had not yet been reached among the subgroup of patients only receiving sunitinib plus lanreotide. The safety profile of the combination treatment was comparable to that of the targeted agent alone. The combination of lanreotide and targeted therapies, mainly everolimus and sunitinib, is widely

  5. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Quarter Section Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSSecondDivision: This data set represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary...

  6. Longitudinal Weight Calibration with Estimated Control Totals for Cross Sectional Survey Data: Theory and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Siyu

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) collects information on a sample of individuals in the United States with PhD degrees. A significant portion of the sampled individuals appear in multiple survey years and can be linked across time. Survey weights in each year are created and adjusted for oversampling and…

  7. '20 days protected learning' - students' experiences of an overseas nurses programme - 4 years on: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gill; Brown, Petra

    2011-04-19

    From September 2005 the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) introduced new arrangements for the registration of non-EU overseas nurses which requires all applicants to undertake '20 days of protected learning' time in the UK and for some, a period of supervised practice. A survey was undertaken at Bournemouth University, which offers a '20 days protected learning only' programme, to elicit overseas nurses' demographic details, experiences in completing the programme and their 'final destinations' once registered. An online survey was devised which contained a mixture of tick box and open ended questions which covered demographic details, views on the programme and final destinations This was uploaded to http://www.surveymonkey.com/ and sent out to nurses who had completed the Overseas Nurses Programme (ONP) with Bournemouth University (n = 1050). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were coded and analysed using content analysis. There were 251 respondents (27.7% response rate). The typical 'profile' of a nurse who responded to the survey was female, aged 25-40 years and had been qualified for more than 5 years with a bachelors degree. The majority came from Australia on a 2 year working holiday visa and the key final destination in the UK, on registration with the NMC, was working for an agency.There were five key findings regarding experience of the programme. Of those surveyed 61.2% did not feel it necessary to undergo an ONP; 71.6% felt that they should be able to complete the programme on-line in their own country; 64.2% that the ONP should only contain information about delivery of healthcare in UK and Legal and professional (NMC) issues; 57% that European nurses should also undergo the same programme and sit an IELTS test; and 68.2% that the programme was too theory orientated; and should have links to practice (21%). The NMC set the admissions criteria for entry to the register and Standards for an ONP. The

  8. '20 days protected learning' - students' experiences of an overseas nurses programme - 4 years on: a retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Petra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From September 2005 the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC introduced new arrangements for the registration of non-EU overseas nurses which requires all applicants to undertake '20 days of protected learning' time in the UK and for some, a period of supervised practice. A survey was undertaken at Bournemouth University, which offers a '20 days protected learning only' programme, to elicit overseas nurses' demographic details, experiences in completing the programme and their 'final destinations' once registered. Methods An online survey was devised which contained a mixture of tick box and open ended questions which covered demographic details, views on the programme and final destinations This was uploaded to http://www.surveymonkey.com/ and sent out to nurses who had completed the Overseas Nurses Programme (ONP with Bournemouth University (n = 1050. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were coded and analysed using content analysis. Results There were 251 respondents (27.7% response rate. The typical 'profile' of a nurse who responded to the survey was female, aged 25-40 years and had been qualified for more than 5 years with a bachelors degree. The majority came from Australia on a 2 year working holiday visa and the key final destination in the UK, on registration with the NMC, was working for an agency. There were five key findings regarding experience of the programme. Of those surveyed 61.2% did not feel it necessary to undergo an ONP; 71.6% felt that they should be able to complete the programme on-line in their own country; 64.2% that the ONP should only contain information about delivery of healthcare in UK and Legal and professional (NMC issues; 57% that European nurses should also undergo the same programme and sit an IELTS test; and 68.2% that the programme was too theory orientated; and should have links to practice (21%. Conclusions The NMC set the admissions

  9. A retrospective survey of human hydatidosis based on hospital records during the period 1990-2003 in Ngorongoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, E; Nonga, H E; Kynsieri, N; Cleaveland, S

    2010-12-01

    A 13-year (1990-2003) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in patients at Wasso hospital in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania. Hospitalization records were reviewed and confirmed cases of CE were classified according to ward of residence, age, sex, cyst location and type. A total of 171 hydatidosis patients were diagnosed and operated giving an average of 13 cases per year, equivalent to approximately 10 cases per 100,000 people per year. Cystic echinococcosis affected more females (59.1%) than males (40.9%). A significantly higher number of CE cases were recorded in individuals 30 years of age (2.3-9.4%) (P Ngorongoro district and female and youths are those most affected. These findings merit for more extensive epidemiological investigations of CE in human to better determine the prevalence, economic impact and risk factors for the disease in this district and other areas of Tanzania. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Disease characteristics and management of hospitalised adolescents and adults with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a retrospective multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Fei; Li, Hui; Xing, Xiqian; Han, Xiudi; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Chunxiao; Suo, Lijun; Wang, Jingxiang; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Guangqiang; Yao, Xuexin; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Xue, Chunxue; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Yanli; Xiao, Ying; Cui, Xiaojing; Li, Lijuan; Uyeki, Timothy M; Wang, Chen; Cao, Bin

    2018-02-15

    To describe the clinical characteristics and management of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. 13 teaching hospitals in northern, central and southern China from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 PARTICIPANTS: Information on hospitalised patients aged ≥14 years with radiographically confirmed pneumonia with illness onset in the community was collected using standard case report forms. Resource use for CAP management. Of 14 793 patients screened, 5828 with radiographically confirmed CAP were included in the final analysis. Low mortality risk patients with a CURB-65 score 0-1 and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class I-II accounted for 81.2% (4434/5594) and 56.4% (2034/3609) patients, respectively. 21.7% (1111/5130) patients had already achieved clinical stability on admission. A definite or probable pathogen was identified only in 12.7% (738/5828) patients. 40.9% (1575/3852) patients without pseudomonal infection risk factors received antimicrobial overtreatment regimens. The median duration between clinical stability to discharge was 5.0 days with 30-day mortality of 4.2%. These data demonstrated the overuse of health resources in CAP management, indicating that there is potential for improvement and substantial savings to healthcare systems in China. NCT02489578; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation--A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Professionals in Primary Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal S Taggar

    Full Text Available Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF in primary care has been recommended; however, the views of healthcare professionals (HCPs are not known. This study aimed to determine the opinions of HCP about the feasibility of implementing screening within a primary care setting.A cross-sectional mixed methods census survey of 418 HCPs from 59 inner-city practices (Nottingham, UK was conducted between October-December 2014. Postal and web-surveys ascertained data on existing methods, knowledge, skills, attitudes, barriers and facilitators to AF screening using Likert scale and open-ended questions. Responses, categorized according to HCP group, were summarized using proportions, adjusting for clustering by practice, with 95% C.Is and free-text responses using thematic analysis.At least one General Practitioner (GP responded from 48 (81% practices. There were 212/418 (51% respondents; 118/229 GPs, 67/129 nurses [50 practice nurses; 17 Nurse Practitioners (NPs], 27/60 healthcare assistants (HCAs. 39/48 (81% practices had an ECG machine and diagnosed AF in-house. Non-GP HCPs reported having less knowledge about ECG interpretation, diagnosing and treating AF than GPs. A greater proportion of non-GP HCPs reported they would benefit from ECG training specifically for AF diagnosis than GPs [proportion (95% CI GPs: 11.9% (6.8-20.0; HCAs: 37.0% (21.7-55.5; nurses: 44.0% (30.0-59.0; NPs 41.2% (21.9-63.7]. Barriers included time, workload and capacity to undertake screening activities, although training to diagnose and manage AF was a required facilitator.Inner-city general practices were found to have adequate access to resources for AF screening. There is enthusiasm by non-GP HCPs to up-skill in the diagnosis and management of AF and they may have a role in future AF screening. However, organisational barriers, such as lack of time, staff and capacity, should be overcome for AF screening to be feasibly implemented within primary care.

  12. Postpartum nurses' perceptions of barriers to screening for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillery Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a human rights violation that is pervasive worldwide, and is particularly critical for women during the reproductive period. IPV includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Nurses on in-patient postpartum units are well-positioned to screen women for IPV, yet low screening rates suggest that barriers to screening exist. The purpose of this study was to (a identify the frequency of screening for IPV, (b the most important barriers to screening, (c the relationship between the barriers to screening and the frequency of screening for types of abuse, and (d to identify other factors that contribute to the frequency of screening for IPV. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 96 nurses from postpartum inpatient units in three Canadian urban hospitals. The survey included the Barriers to Abuse Assessment Tool (BAAT, adapted for postpartum nurses (PPN. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression models were used to predict barriers to screening for each type of IPV. Results The frequency of screening varied by the type of abuse with highest screening rates found for physical and emotional abuse. According to the BAAT-PPN, lack of knowledge was the most important barrier to screening. The BAAT-PPN total score was negatively correlated with screening for physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Using OLS regression models and after controlling for demographic characteristics, the BAAT-PPN explained 14%, 12%, and 11% of the variance in screening for physical, sexual and emotional abuse, respectively. Fluency in the language of the patient was negatively correlated with screening for each type of abuse. When added as Step 3 to OLS regression models, language fluency was associated with an additional decrease in the likelihood of screening for physical (beta coefficient = -.38, P P = .05, and emotional abuse (beta coefficient = -.48, P Conclusions Our findings support an inverse

  13. Burden of heart failure on patients from China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson JDS

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available James DS Jackson,1 Sarah E Cotton,1 Sara Bruce Wirta,2 Catia C Proenca,3 Milun Zhang,4 Raquel Lahoz,5 Frederico J Calado5 1Real World Research, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 2Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolics Franchise, Novartis Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Wellmera AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research and Access Strategy, Novartis Pharma China, Beijing, China; 5Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolics Franchise, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Purpose: Little evidence exists on the burden that chronic heart failure (HF poses specifically to patients in China. The objective of this study, therefore, was to describe the burden of HF on patients in China.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of cardiologists and their patients with HF was conducted. Patient record forms were completed by 150 cardiologists for 10 consecutive patients. Patients for whom a patient record form was completed were invited to complete a patient questionnaire.Results: Most of the 933 patients (mean [SD] age 65.8 [10.2] years; 55% male; 80% retired included in the study received care in tier 2 and 3 hospitals in large cities. Patients gave a median score of 4 on a scale from 1 (no disruption to 10 (severe disruption to describe how much HF disrupts their everyday life. Patients in paid employment (8% missed 10% of work time and experienced 29% impairment in their ability to work due to HF in the previous week. All aspects of patients’ health-related quality of life (QoL were negatively affected by their condition. Mean ± SD utility calculated by the 3-level 5-dimension EuroQol questionnaire was 0.8±0.2, and patients rated their health at 70.3 (11.5 on a 100 mm visual analog scale. Patients incurred costs associated with HF treatment, travel, and professional caregiving services.Conclusion: HF is associated with poor health-related QoL and considerable disruption in patients’ lives. Novel and improved therapies

  14. Nursing home administrators’ perspectives on a study feedback report: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström Anne-Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is part of the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC program of research, a multi-level and longitudinal research program being conducted in 36 nursing homes in three Canadian Prairie Provinces. The overall goal of TREC is to improve the quality of care for older persons living in nursing homes and the quality of work life for care providers. The purpose of this paper is to report on development and evaluation of facility annual reports (FARs from facility administrators’ perspectives on the usefulness, meaningfulness, and understandability of selected data from the TREC survey. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used in this study. The feedback reports were developed in collaboration with participating facility administrators. FARs presented results in four contextual areas: workplace culture, feedback processes, job satisfaction, and staff burnout. Six weeks after FARs were mailed to each administrator, we conducted structured telephone interviews with administrators to elicit their evaluation of the FARs. Administrators were also asked if they had taken any actions as a result of the FAR. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis for open-ended questions, were used to summarize findings. Results Thirty-one facility administrators (representing thirty-two facilities participated in the interviews. Six administrators had taken action and 18 were planning on taking action as a result of FARs. The majority found the four contextual areas addressed in FAR to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. They liked the comparisons made between data from years one and two and between their facility and other TREC study sites in their province. Twenty-two indicated that they would like to receive information on additional areas such as aggressive behaviours of residents and information sharing. Twenty-four administrators indicated that FARs contained enough information, while eight

  15. Predictors of hospitalized patients' intentions to prevent healthcare harm: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R; Anderson, O; Vincent, C; Miles, K; Sevdalis, N

    2012-04-01

    Patients can play an important role in reducing healthcare harm but little is known about the factors that may affect patients' willingness to participate. In order to encourage the 'active' patient it is critical that we gain a deeper understanding of the antecedents of safety-relevant behaviours. Doing this will enable the implementation of effective interventions aimed at supporting patients to work with healthcare professionals in ensuring safe care. To examine predictors of patients' intentions to engage in two safety behaviours: (1) reminding healthcare staff to wash their hands and; (2) notifying healthcare staff if they are not wearing a hospital identification bracelet. Cross-sectional survey study. A purposive sampling method was employed to recruit 80 medical and surgical hospital inpatients aged 18-80 (mean 48) from one inner city London teaching hospital. A 42 item survey that measured the extent that patients' control beliefs, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and perceived susceptibility and severity towards a hospital-acquired infection or a misidentification error could predict their intentions to ask doctors/nurses about their hand washing compliance or notify doctors/nurses if they are not wearing a hospital identification bracelet. Data was analysed using multiple regression analysis. Control beliefs, normative beliefs and perceived severity were the strongest predictors of patients' intentions to participate in both behaviours. The regression models accounted for a smaller percentage of the variance in patients' intentions to ask doctors/nurses if they have washed their hands (42%/37%) than notifying staff if they were not wearing an identification bracelet (54%/56%). If patients understand why a behaviour is beneficial, they perceive it as acceptable to participate in and that they have control over the decision to engage in the behaviour, we hypothesise that more patients will intend to participate in that behaviour. When designing

  16. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Daniels

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents.This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1 and 3 years after (Group 2 the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology.131 (80.9% of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8% residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3% indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2 and residents who were not (Group 1. The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed, practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed, and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed. More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04, whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02.The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. The Canadian population is becoming increasingly diverse because of immigration. Understanding ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors is critically important in planning appropriate prevention strategies for the country's rapidly changing population. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in various Canadian ethnic groups. We analyzed 3 cross-sectional cycles (for 2000, 2003 and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Survey of people aged 12 years and older. The surveys were conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires. We used stratified analysis to evaluate the relation between risk factors and ethnicity. The effect of participants' ethnicity on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated by means of logistic regression, with adjustment for differences in age, sex, marital status, education, household income, language spoken, immigration status, residency type (urban or rural), household size, region (province or territory) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bowel disease, arthritis, epilepsy, ulcers, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus). We included 371 154 individuals in the analysis. Compared with white people, people from visible minorities (i.e., neither white nor Aboriginal) had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.5% v. 4.0%), hypertension (14.7% v. 10.8%), smoking (20.4% v. 9.7%) and obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 30; 14.8% v. 9.7%) but a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (50.3% v. 58.1%). More specifically, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, people from most visible minorities, in comparison with the white population, were less likely to smoke; were more likely to be physically inactive, with the exception of people of Korean, Japanese and

  18. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  19. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  20. Eczema Is Associated with Childhood Speech Disorder: A Retrospective Analysis from the National Survey of Children's Health and the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-01-01

    To determine if eczema is associated with an increased risk of a speech disorder. We analyzed data on 354,416 children and adolescents from 19 US population-based cohorts: the 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health and 1997-2013 National Health Interview Survey, each prospective, questionnaire-based cohorts. In multivariate survey logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbid allergic disease, eczema was significantly associated with higher odds of speech disorder in 12 of 19 cohorts (P speech disorder in children with eczema was 4.7% (95% CI 4.5%-5.0%) compared with 2.2% (95% CI 2.2%-2.3%) in children without eczema. In pooled multivariate analysis, eczema was associated with increased odds of speech disorder (aOR [95% CI] 1.81 [1.57-2.05], P speech disorder. History of eczema was associated with moderate (2.35 [1.34-4.10], P = .003) and severe (2.28 [1.11-4.72], P = .03) speech disorder. Finally, significant interactions were found, such that children with both eczema and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity or sleep disturbance had vastly increased risk of speech disorders than either by itself. Pediatric eczema may be associated with increased risk of speech disorder. Further, prospective studies are needed to characterize the exact nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  2. Menstrual Disorders from Puberty to Early Adult Age: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Krupa Hitesh Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A female encounters various menstrual disorders from puberty to menopause. We evaluated menstrual disturbances in post-menarche age and young adult age. Aim: To know the prevalence and impact of menstrual abnormalities at early adolescent and young adult age and to evaluate course of disorders identified at early adolescent age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaire on 367 consented students at Melaka Manipal Medical College at Manipal, during December 2015- April 2016. Data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders at early adolescent and at young adult age were noted. The mean age of menarche was 12.1 ±1.1 years. Menorrhagia was the most frequent (14.7% and 11.7% and polymenorrhea (7.6 % and 6% was least frequent menstrual disorder at adolescent age and young adult age respectively. Resolution of pubertal menstrual disorders was observed in all disorders, but noticed highest in oligomenorrhea (91%, (p-value <0.05. Prevalence of menstrual related disorder like dysmenorrhea was 88.7% at adolescent age and 67.6% at the young adult age. It was statistically significant reduction. Hindrance in academic performance and social behavior was noted more at young adult age, which was in 23.9% and 46.7% respectively (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia at the early adolescent and the young adult age. Associated the most prevalent menstrual related symptoms were dysmenorrhea at early adolescent age, and premenstrual symptom at the young adult age. The study demonstrates the natural course (decreasing prevalence of all menstrual disorders from early adolescent to young adult age.

  3. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

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    Cook Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs. The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.

  4. Factors influencing blood donation: a cross-sectional survey in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H; He, B; Rong, X

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine major factors that influence blood donation in China. Factors affecting blood donation often vary in various populations. This cross-sectional study used self-administered, standardised, structured questionnaires to survey selected donors and non-donors in Guangzhou, China between 10 December 2013 and 25 June 2014. Among the 1080 questionnaires collected, 1034 (95·7%) questionnaires were valid for this analysis, including 602 donors and 432 non-donors. Results revealed that helping patients (n = 405, 68·2%) was the main objective of blood donation, and self-perception of poor health (n = 138, 33·1%) was the main reason for not donating. Responses to questions raised by donors and inquiring about a donor's physical condition were thought to be the most important blood donation routines (n = 302, 65·5%). For non-donors, 90·3% (n = 390) expressed their intention to donate blood in the future, and usage of blood (n = 182, 46·7%) was the most asked question. Prepaid cellular phone cards were the most popular incentives. Raising the awareness of blood donation was the most effective way of enhancing blood donation programmes, and television ads and the internet were the most effective means. Helping patients was the main objective of blood donation in China. However, self-perception of poor health was a major barrier to donating blood. Raising the awareness of blood donation in combination with multiple aspects of campaigns that target different populations with potential blood donors is critical. Television and the internet are the most effective tools for promotion of and recruitment for blood donation. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Role of ethnicity in social anxiety disorder: A cross-sectional survey among health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Philip De; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the influence of ethnicity in social anxiety disorder (SAD), and the relationship with symptom severity, depression and substance use or abuse, in health sciences' students . This was a cross-sectional survey of 112 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) year students from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. The self-reported Social Anxiety Spectrum questionnaire was used to assess for SAD. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was adapted to a version called the E-SPIN (Ethnic-SPIN) in order to evaluate the effects of ethnicity. Two sub-questions per stem question were included to assess whether SAD symptoms in social interactions were ethnicity dependent. Substance use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, and depression with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Of 112 students who completed the E-SPIN questionnaire, 54.4% (n = 61) met criteria for SAD, with significantly more females than males meeting criteria. Ethnicity had a significant effect on SAD symptomatology, but there was no effect of ethnicity on the rates of drug and alcohol abuse in students with and without SAD. Overall significantly more students with SAD met criteria for depression compared with students without the disorder. Among university students, SAD is prevalent regardless of whether interactions are with individuals of the same or different ethnic group. However, ethnicity may be an important determinant of social anxiety for some ethnic groups. SAD was significantly associated with major depression but not significantly associated with drug or alcohol abuse.

  6. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  7. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  8. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

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    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  9. Bullying of medical students in Pakistan: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

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    Syed Ahmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies from other countries have shown that bullying, harassment, abuse or belittlement are a regular phenomenon faced not only by medical students, but also junior doctors, doctors undertaking research and other healthcare professionals. While research has been carried out on bullying experienced by psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees in Pakistan no such research has been conducted on medical students in this country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on final year medical students in six medical colleges of Pakistan. The response rate was 63%. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported that they had faced bullying or harassment during their medical education, about 28% of them experiencing it once a month or even more frequently. The overwhelming form of bullying had been verbal abuse (57%, while consultants were the most frequent (46% perpetrators. Students who were slightly older, males, those who reported that their medical college did not have a policy on bullying or harassment, and those who felt that adequate support was not in place at their medical college for bullied individuals, were significantly more likely to have experienced bullying. CONCLUSION: Bullying or harassment is faced by quite a large proportion of medical students in Pakistan. The most frequent perpetrators of this bullying are consultants. Adoption of a policy against bullying and harassment by medical colleges, and providing avenues of support for students who have been bullied may help reduce this phenomenon, as the presence of these two was associated with decreased likelihood of students reporting having being bullied.

  10. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  11. Health professional students' rural placement satisfaction and rural practice intentions: A national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony; Sutton, Keith; Pit, Sabrina; Muyambi, Kuda; Terry, Daniel; Farthing, Annie; Courtney, Claire; Cross, Merylin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to profile students undertaking placements at University Departments of Rural Health (UDRHs) and investigate factors affecting students' satisfaction and intention to enter rural practice. Cross-sectional survey comprising 21 core questions used by all UDRHs. Eleven UDRHs across Australia that support students' placements in regional, rural and remote locations. Medical, nursing and allied health students who participated in UDRH placements between July 2014 and November 2015 and completed the questionnaire. Key dependent variables were placement satisfaction and rural practice intention. Descriptive variables were age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) background, location of placement, healthcare discipline, year of study and type and length of placement. A total of 3328 students responded. The sample was predominantly female (79%), the mean age was 26.0 years and 1.8% identified as ATSI. Most placements (69%) were >2 but ≤12 weeks, 80% were in Modified Monash 3, 4 or 5 geographical locations. Public hospitals and community health made up 63% of placements. Students satisfied with their placement had 2.33 higher odds of rural practice intention. Those satisfied with Indigenous cultural training, workplace supervision, access to education resources and accommodation had higher odds of overall satisfaction and post-placement rural practice intention. The majority of students were highly satisfied with their placement and the support provided by rural clinicians and the UDRHs. UDRHs are well placed to provide health professional students with highly satisfactory placements that foster rural practice intention. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Social support contributes to resilience among physiotherapy students: a cross sectional survey and focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Éva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Kósa, Karolina

    2016-06-01

    The present study, taking a resource-oriented approach to mental health, aimed at investigating mental resilience and its determinants among undergraduate physiotherapy students using quantitative and qualitative tools. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey supplemented by 2 focus groups. One university in Hungary. 130 physiotherapy students at years 1, 2, and 3. Sense of coherence, a measure of dynamic self-esteem, as well as social support from family and peers were used to assess mental well-being. A screening instrument for psychological morbidity and perceived stress were used as deficiency-oriented approaches. Student opinions were gathered on positive and negative determinants of mental health. Resilience was lower [mean difference 4.8 (95% CI -3.4; 13.1)], and the occurrence of psychological morbidity (32.5% vs. 0%) was higher among female compared to male students. However, the proportion of students fully supported by their peers was higher among females (63% vs. 37.5%). Female students, unlike their male counterparts, experienced higher stress compared to their peers in the general population. Social support declined as students progressed in their studies though this proved to be the most important protective factor for their mental well-being. Results were fed back to the course organizers recommending the implementation of an evidence-based method to improve social support as delineated by the Guide to Community Preventive Services of the US the outcomes of which are to be seen in the future. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Domestic violence in a UK abortion clinic: anonymous cross-sectional prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Silvia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Bewley, Susan

    2015-04-01

    To measure the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) experienced by women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) in a UK abortion clinic. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all women aged over 16 years accessing a TOP clinic in inner London between 20 May 2012 and 2 July 2012. The main outcome measures were: distribution of questionnaires, response rate, lifetime prevalence of abuse, past-year prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, prevalence of physical abuse during current pregnancy, relationship of lifetime abuse to number of terminations, and receptivity to DV services. Questionnaires were distributed to 46% (383/828) of women accessing the clinic. Response rate was 50% (190/383). Lifetime prevalence of abuse was 16%. Past-year prevalence of physical abuse was 11% and sexual abuse was 4%. Prevalence of physical abuse during the current pregnancy was 4%. Prevalence of lifetime abuse was lower in women having a first termination (12%) versus one (20%) or two or more previous terminations (24%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.192). The majority (75%) of participants expressing an opinion on the possibility of having a support service for DV in the abortion clinic setting were positive, unrelated to their personal experience, but some concerns were raised about implementation. In order to provide effective support for women, services require a needs assessment of their local population. Asking women presenting for abortion about DV, even anonymously, is challenging but feasible. Future work should be directed to women's unmet safety needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Predictors of home death of home palliative cancer care patients: a cross-sectional nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sakiko; Fujita, Junko; Tsujimura, Mayuko; Sumikawa, Yuka; Hayashi, Yayoi

    2011-11-01

    To identify factors influencing the place of death among home palliative cancer care patients, focusing on the role of nurses in terms of pre- and post-discharge from hospital to home care settings. A cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted at 1000 randomly selected homecare agencies in Japan. The questionnaires were completed by primary community nurses of home palliative patients just after their discharge. A total of 568 responses were analyzed (effective response rate, 69%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following independent factors of place of death among those patients: desire for home death at referral by both patient and family caregiver; caregiver relationship to patient as daughter or daughter-in-law; totally bedridden functional status of patient; patient not suffering from depression and/or anxiety at referral; patients and caregivers duly informed about the dying process/death in detail, as well as instructed by community nurses about pain management and how to treat/prevent bedsores in home care settings. This study demonstrated the importance of both the hospital and community nurses' role in increasing the patients' chance of dying at home. Hospital nurses should support early transfer to home palliative care according to their assessment of the desire of patient/family caregiver for home death, the patients' clinical status, and caregivers' ability to provide patient care at home. Community nurses should inform patients/family caregiver in detail about the dying process/death just after discharge, relieve patient pain, treat/prevent bedsores, and instruct family caregivers on their symptom control. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

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    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control.A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals.In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level.Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  17. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

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    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  18. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

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    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  19. Relationship between parental locus of control and caries experience in preschool children - cross-sectional survey.

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    Lencová, Erika; Pikhart, Hynek; Broukal, Zdenek; Tsakos, Georgios

    2008-06-12

    Due to high prevalence and serious impacts, childhood caries represents a public health issue. Behavioural risk factors such as locus of health control have been implicated in the development of the disease; however their association with childhood caries has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the relationship between parental locus of health control and caries experience and untreated caries of their preschool children in a representative sample in Czech Republic, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables. There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23-6.42, pcontrol of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.

  20. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  1. Correlates of motivation to prevent weight gain: a cross sectional survey

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    Breedveld Boudewijn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is an application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB with additional variables to predict the motivations to prevent weight gain. In addition, variations in measures across individuals classified into Precaution Adoption Process stages (PAPM-stages of behaviour change were investigated. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 979 non-obese Dutch adults aged 25–35 years was conducted. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of Body Mass Index (BMI, demographic factors and psychosocial variables from the TPB with the intention to prevent weight gain. Differences in BMI, demographic and psychosocial factors between PAPM-stages were explored using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results Eighty-five percent of respondents intended to prevent weight gain. Age, attitudes and risk perceptions related to weight gain were the strongest correlates of intention (age: OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.04–1.20; attitude OR = 7.91, 95%CI: 5.33–11.74; risk perception OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.11–1.38. Significant differences were detected between the PAPM-stages in almost all variables. Notably, perceived behavioural control was lowest among people who had decided to prevent weight gain. Conclusion Messages to influence attitudes towards the prevention of weight gain and risk perception may affect people who are not yet motivated to prevent weight gain. Interventions increasing people's perceived behavioural control in overcoming barriers to prevent weight gain may help people to act on their intentions.

  2. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey.

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    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Malik, Amit; Ndetei, David M; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-01-15

    Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students' career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students' attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were "quite likely", and 25% were "definitely not" considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p school, experience of psychiatric enrichment activities (special studies modules and university psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry.Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p student selection and psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally.

  3. Quality of web based information on treatment of depression: cross sectional survey.

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    Griffiths, K M; Christensen, H

    2000-12-16

    To evaluate quality of web based information on treatment of depression, to identify potential indicators of content quality, and to establish if accountability criteria are indicators of quality. Cross sectional survey. 21 frequently accessed websites about depression. (i) Site characteristics; (ii) quality of content-concordance with evidence based depression guidelines (guideline score), appropriateness of other relevant site information (issues score), and subjective rating of site quality (global score); and (iii) accountability-conformity with core accountability standards (Silberg score) and quality of evidence cited in support of conclusions (level of evidence score). Although the sites contained useful information, their overall quality was poor: the mean guideline, issues, and global scores were only 4.7 (range 0-13) out of 43, 9.8 (6-14) out of 17, and 3 (0.5-7. 5) out of 10 respectively. Sites typically did not cite scientific evidence in support of their conclusions. The guideline score correlated with the two other quality of content measures, but none of the content measures correlated with the Silberg accountability score. Content quality was superior for sites owned by organisations and sites with an editorial board. There is a need for better evidence based information about depression on the web, and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality and to develop simple valid indicators of quality. Ownership by an organisation and the involvement of a professional editorial board may be useful indicators. The study methodology may be useful for exploring these issues in other health related subjects.

  4. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22–93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0.002). There were no sex-specific significant differences regarding LS-incidence at the L4 level. We found no significant differences of risk of LS between nulliparous or multiparous women (L4 P = 0.54/L5 P = 0.35). Furthermore, we found no significant relationship between age at menopause and LS-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P spondylolysis (P spondylolysis in both men and women (P spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact estimate of the age at onset; future, sequential studies of the cohort may provide us with some important answers on this topic. Apart from aging–obesity, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination were found to be individual risk factors for LS. PMID:17120072

  5. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

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    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Practice nurses' workload, career intentions and the impact of professional isolation: A cross-sectional survey

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    Watt Graham CM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice nurses have a key role within UK general practice, especially since the 2004 GMS contract. This study aimed to describe that role, identify how professionally supported they felt and their career intentions. An additional aim was to explore whether they felt isolated and identify contributory factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey in one large urban Scottish Health Board, targeted all practice nurses (n = 329. Domains included demographics, workload, training and professional support. Following univariate descriptive statistics, associations between categorical variables were tested using the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend; associations between dichotomous variables were tested using Fisher's Exact test. Variables significantly associated with isolation were entered into a binary logistic regression model using backwards elimination. Results There were 200 responses (61.0% response rate. Most respondents were aged 40 or over and were practice nurses for a median of 10 years. Commonest clinical activities were coronary heart disease management, cervical cytology, diabetes and the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most had a Personal Development Plan and a recent appraisal, 103 (52.3% felt isolated at least sometimes; 30 (15.5% intended leaving practice nursing within 5 years. Isolated nurses worked in practices with smaller list sizes (p = 0.024 and nursing teams (p = 0.003; were less likely to have someone they could discuss a clinical/professional (p = 0.002 or personal (p Conclusions A significant proportion of practice nurses reported feeling isolated, at least some of the time. They were more likely to be in small practices and more likely to be considering leaving practice nursing. Factors contributing to their isolation were generally located within the practice environment. Providing support to these nurses within their practice setting may help

  7. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

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    Crabb Jim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%. This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%, spirit possession (82.8% and psychological trauma (76.1%. There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.

  8. Developmental risk factors in Vietnamese preschool-age children: Cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) strongly influences children's basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry and health. Although some risk factors related to childhood development are documented, further exploration is necessary considering various sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial factors. This study investigated factors affecting ECD in Vietnamese preschoolers. We used data from the representative, cross-sectional round of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey 2011. Early Childhood Development Index questionnaires were administered to mothers of all children aged 36-59 months in the household (n = 1459). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. In Vietnam, 17.2% of children did not reach their full developmental potential within the first 5 years. Children who had been breast-fed (AOR, 2.78; 95%CI: 1.28-6.02), attended preschool (AOR, 1.75; 95%CI: 1.28-2.39), were of major ethnicity (AOR, 2.41; 95%CI: 1.55-3.74), had a mother with secondary or higher education (AOR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.19-2.38) and had relatives who engaged with them in four or more activities that promote learning (AOR, 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.14) were more likely to have a normal developmental trajectory. Furthermore, children who experienced physical punishment and stunting were 0.69-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and 0.71-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.98) less likely to be on track for ECD, respectively. The risk factors associated with delayed ECD were low level of maternal education; family ethnicity; lack of preschool attendance; relatives who did not engage with them in learning; physical punishment; not being breast-fed; and stunting. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Self-efficacy and Associated Factors in Patients With Temporary Ostomies: A Cross-sectional Survey.

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    Su, Xi; Qin, Fang; Zhen, Li; Ye, Xinmei; Kuang, Yinyi; Zhu, Mulan; Yin, Xuexia; Wang, Huizhen

    To examine stoma self-efficacy (SE) and its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and social support in patients with temporary ostomies. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 150 patients from 5 hospitals in Guangdong province, China, who had been living with a temporary ostomy for at least 1 month. Cross-sectional survey. Respondents completed a questionnaire that included ostomy-related sociodemographic and clinical data, and Chinese language versions of several validated instruments, the Stoma Self-efficacy Scale (C-SSES), City of Hope-Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire (C-COH-QOL-OQ), and Perceived Social Support Scale (C-PSSS). Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 122 (81.3%) were returned, and 111 (74%) had sufficiently complete responses to be included in the final analysis. The average score from the C-SSES was 78.55 ± 14.72 (mean ± standard deviation) for total stoma SE; 85.6% of respondents showed low or moderate self-efficacy related to ostomy care. The scores from the C-SSES were 39.36 ± 7.72 for stoma care SE and 23.33 ± 6.69 for social SE. Stoma care SE was significantly associated with HRQOL domains, psychological well-being (B = 2.09, P ostomies reported low or moderate levels of SE, suggesting the need to focus on HRQOL aspects of psychological and social well-being, as well as social support. We hypothesize that interaction with other ostomy patients, especially those with long-term enterostomy experience or those trained through ostomy organizations, may improve stoma SE.

  10. Venous thromboembolism in medical outpatients - a cross-sectional survey of risk assessment and prophylaxis.

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    Lawall, Holger; Matthiessen, Andreas; Hohmann, Volker; Bramlage, Peter; Haas, Sylvia; Schellong, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The degree of thromboprophylaxis in medical outpatients is low despite a substantial risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). This may be attributable to difficulties in assessing risk. Assessment tools like the Haas' scorecard aid in determining the need for thromboprophylaxis. We aimed at evaluating how the use of this tool may aid physicians in appropriately using anticoagulants. This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional survey of acute medically ill patients with limited mobility treated by general practitioners and internists. Risk assessment for VTE by the treating physician was compared to calculated risk. Of 8,123 patients evaluated between August 2006 and April 2008, 7,271 fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. Mean age was 69.4 ± 13.6 years, and 45.2% were male. Of these 82.8% were high risk based on their acute medical condition, 37.9% based on their underlying chronic condition. Immobilisation, heart failure, pneumonia, age, obesity, and major varicosis were the most frequently encountered risk factors. The agreement between the Haas' scorecard and physician indicated risk was high. At least 94.1% of patients with high risk received adequate anticoagulation mostly as low molecular weight heparins for a mean duration of 15.1 ± 30.5 days. There is a substantial risk for VTE in medical outpatients. Using a simple structured scorecard resulted in an overall appropriate risk assessment and high degree of anticoagulation. The scorecard may provide a tool to improve the overall awareness for VTE risk in medical outpatients, substantially improving the degree of prophylaxis in a patient population with largely underestimated risk.

  11. Workplace bullying among nurses and their related factors in Japan: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Yokoyama, Mami; Suzuki, Miho; Takai, Yukari; Igarashi, Ayumi; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    To explore the association between workplace bullying and workplace environment factors among nurses in Japan. Workplace bullying among nurses is increasing globally and occurs more frequently than among other professions. However, there is little information on the impact of workplace environment factors on nurse bullying in Japan. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were 1152 nurses recruited at seminars or training courses outside of their workplaces in Tokyo. Workplace bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Participants were considered to have been 'bullied' if they reported experiencing at least one negative act on a daily or weekly basis. Workplace environment factors were measured using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, which comprises five domains: nurse participation in hospital affairs; nursing foundations for quality of care; nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses; staffing and resource adequacy; and collegial nurse-physician relationships. A total of 898 (78·0%) questionnaires were returned, of which 825 (71·6%) were analysed. Altogether, 153 (18·5%) nurses were considered 'bullied.' The three most frequent negative acts reported as occurring on a weekly or daily basis were 'someone withholding information which affects your performance' (6·7%), 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload' (4·4%) and 'being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage)' (3·6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that 'bullied' were associated with low scores on two work environment domains: nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses and staffing and resource adequacy. Effective nurse manager leadership and support as well as appropriate staffing management may positively influence workplace bullying among nurses in Japan. Authentic leadership styles and allowing nurses to easily request days off might also be important

  12. Melanoma awareness and prevalence of dermoscopic examination among internet users: a cross-sectional survey

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    Grazyna Kaminska-Winciorek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Melanoma presents the greater threat to health the later the disease is detected and treated, although treatment results can be improved by the widespread use of dermoscopy. However, scarce data are available concerning the awareness of dermoscopy and the frequency of its performance in the non-patient population. Aim: To assess the awareness of melanoma detection by dermoscopic examination among the audience of a scientific website. Material and methods : Respondents were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire designed by the authors. The preliminary analysis of 5,154 collected forms and the exclusion of incomplete forms yielded 4,919 fully completed questionnaires; the resulting database was analyzed statistically using logistic regression with the R software program (95% CI. Results: Less than two-fifths (39.2% of respondents reported ever having sought the advice of a medical professional (dermatologist or other specialist, and 25.4% of the respondents had undergone dermoscopy at least once in their life. Furthermore, approximately one-tenth of respondents (10.7% were not aware of this detection tool. The study respondents gained knowledge about dermoscopic examination from television and magazines. The performance of dermoscopy was more increasingly associated with inhabitants of larger locales, the use of higher-SPF sunscreens, and greater awareness of the relationship between the risk of melanoma and sunburn. Conclusions : Awareness of melanoma and sun care varied within the analyzed population. A subset of individuals at high risk of melanoma was identified. This group included those who engaged in risky sun exposure behaviors and who had never been examined by dermoscopy.

  13. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p psychiatry special study module, OR 1.45 (1.05 to 2.01, p = 0.03) or elective OR 4.28 (2.87- 6.38, p psychiatry club, OR 3.25 (2.87 to 6.38, p psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. PMID

  14. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

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    Molloy Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36 was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc, anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25, perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66, anticipated regret (r=0.20, concerns about OCP (r =0.31, and action (r= −0.25 and coping (r= −0.28 planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48% of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP.

  15. A retrospective histopathological survey on canine and feline liver diseases at the University of Tokyo between 2006 and 2012.

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    Hirose, Naoki; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Ohno, Koichi; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    To determine the incidence of hepatic diseases in dogs and cats in Japan, a retrospective study was performed using data of 463 canine and 71 feline liver biopsies at the Veterinary Medical Center of the University of Tokyo. The most common canine hepatic disease was microvascular dysplasia (MVD) and occupied 29.4% of all diagnoses. This terminology might contain "real" MVD and primary portal vein hypoplasia, because these two conditions were difficult to be clearly distinguished histopathologically. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis and primary hepatic tumors accounted for 23.5% and 21.0% of the diagnoses, respectively. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis occupied 34.1% of non-proliferative canine hepatic diseases, while hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma were 26.6% and 24.5% of proliferative hepatic diseases, respectively. Breed-specificity was seen in MVD for Yorkshire terrier, Papillon and Toy poodle, in hepatitis for Doberman pinscher and Labrador retriever, in cholangiohepatitis for American cocker spaniel, Miniature schnauzer and Pomeranian, in hepatocellular adenoma for Golden retriever and Shiba and in hepatocellular carcinoma for Shih Tzu. The most common feline liver disease was parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis (45.1% of all diagnoses). Among feline hepatitis, neutrophilic cholangiohepatitis (23.9%), lymphocytic cholangiohepatitis (14.1%) and chronic hepatitis (5.6%) were recorded. Adult polycystic liver disease was 5.6%. Among proliferative diseases in the feline liver (11.3% of the all), lymphoma (4.2%) and primary epithelial tumors (4.2%) including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular adenoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma were observed. Hepatic degeneration was 14.1%, and MVD was 12.7%, respectively.

  16. Epidemiological situation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luana Rodrigues da; Araújo, Ellen Thallita Hill; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Oliveira, Adélia Dalva da Silva; Carvalho, Patrícia Maria Gomes de; Rodrigues, Tatyanne Silva; Campelo, Viriato

    2018-01-01

    The number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths covers different segments of the population differently, making monitoring of this mortality essential. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of AIDS-related mortality in a municipality in the northeastern region of Brazil. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on data from death certificates in the mortality information system of the Health Information Center, Municipal Health Foundation, Brazil. Between 2003 and 2013, we investigated death certificates on which AIDS-related mortality was reported. Sociodemographic data, year, place, type of establishment where death occurred and underlying and associated causes that led to AIDS-related death were described. The Mann-Kendall test was used to verify the growth trend of the standardized mortality rate over the period studied. Among the 1,066 AIDS-related deaths, 69.7% were among men; 47.2% of the individuals were 28-41 years of age, 32.7% had had 4-7 years of schooling, 66.9% were pardos (mixed race), 55.7% were unmarried and 15.3% were housekeepers. Hospitals were the site of 97% of the deaths, and 91% occurred at public hospitals. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death. The prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases was 99.0%. AIDS-related mortality increased by 160% over the period studied, from 5.5/100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 14.3/100,000 in 2013. In the Brazilian municipality studied here, AIDS-related mortality was most prevalent among men and young adults of lower socioeconomic level. Over the period studied, the mortality rate increased.

  17. Phenotypic and antibiogram pattern of V. cholerae isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai during 2004-2013: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torane, V; Kuyare, S; Nataraj, G; Mehta, P; Dutta, S; Sarkar, B

    2016-11-25

    Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. A retrospective cross-sectional study. A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India). Records of stool specimen cultures of patients with suspected cholera from January 2004 to December 2013 were analysed. The organisms were identified as per standard protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Biotyping, serotyping and phage typing were carried out. From the confirmed cases of cholera, demographic and laboratory details were noted. Descriptive analysis was used and the data were presented in the form of percentages. Vibrio cholerae was predominant in males and was isolated from 9.41% (439/4664) of stool specimens. Variability was found in terms of the gross appearance of stool specimens, seasonal trend and antibiotic resistance pattern. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed a waxing and waning pattern for most of the antibiotics (ampicillin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) tested, while for a few others the strains were either uniformly sensitive (gentamicin, norfloxacin) or resistant (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid). All isolates belonged to subgroup O1 and biotype El Tor. The most common serotype was Ogawa. The predominant phage type was T2 (old scheme) and T27 (new scheme). The predominant biotype, serotype and phage type were El Tor, Ogawa and T27 phage, respectively. The changing trends in antimicrobial resistance pattern over the years necessitate continued epidemiological and microbiological surveillance of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  18. Phenotypic and antibiogram pattern of V. cholerae isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai during 2004–2013: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torane, V; Kuyare, S; Nataraj, G; Mehta, P; Dutta, S; Sarkar, B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Settings A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India). Methods Records of stool specimen cultures of patients with suspected cholera from January 2004 to December 2013 were analysed. The organisms were identified as per standard protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Biotyping, serotyping and phage typing were carried out. From the confirmed cases of cholera, demographic and laboratory details were noted. Descriptive analysis was used and the data were presented in the form of percentages. Results Vibrio cholerae was predominant in males and was isolated from 9.41% (439/4664) of stool specimens. Variability was found in terms of the gross appearance of stool specimens, seasonal trend and antibiotic resistance pattern. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed a waxing and waning pattern for most of the antibiotics (ampicillin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) tested, while for a few others the strains were either uniformly sensitive (gentamicin, norfloxacin) or resistant (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid). All isolates belonged to subgroup O1 and biotype El Tor. The most common serotype was Ogawa. The predominant phage type was T2 (old scheme) and T27 (new scheme). Conclusions The predominant biotype, serotype and phage type were El Tor, Ogawa and T27 phage, respectively. The changing trends in antimicrobial resistance pattern over the years necessitate continued epidemiological and microbiological surveillance of the disease. PMID:27888174

  19. Nephrology comanagement and the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care for patients with chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Justin X G; Nash, Danielle M; McArthur, Eric; Farag, Alexandra; Garg, Amit X; Jain, Arsh K

    2018-04-12

    In primary care, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently prescribed excessive doses of antibiotics relative to their kidney function. We examined whether nephrology comanagement is associated with improved prescribing in primary care. In a retrospective propensity score-matched cross-sectional study, we studied the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions by primary care physicians to Ontarians ≥66 years of age with CKD Stages 4 and 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 not receiving dialysis) from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2014. Comanagement was defined as having at least one outpatient visit with a nephrologist within the year prior to antibiotic prescription date. We compared the rate of appropriately dosed antibiotics in primary care between 3937 patients who were comanaged by a nephrologist and 3937 patients who were not. Only 1184 (30%) of 3937 noncomanaged patients had appropriately dosed antibiotic prescriptions prescribed by a primary care physician. Nephrology comanagement was associated with an increased likelihood that an appropriately dosed prescription was prescribed by a primary care physician; however, the magnitude of the effect was modest [1342/3937 (34%); odds ratio 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.32); P < 0.001]. The majority of antibiotics prescribed by primary care physicians are inappropriately dosed in CKD patients, whether or not a nephrologist is comanaging the patient. Nephrologists have an opportunity to increase awareness of appropriate dosing of medications in primary care through the patients they comanage.

  20. Adverse effects as a consequence of being the subject of orthopaedic manual therapy training, a worldwide retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes-de Graaf, M; Thoomes, E; Carlesso, L; Kerry, R; Rushton, A

    2017-06-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) use a range of manual therapy techniques developed to an advanced level through postgraduate orthopaedic manipulative physical therapy (OMPT) programmes. The aim of this study was to describe the adverse effects experienced by students after having techniques performed on them as part of their OMPT training. A descriptive online survey of current students and recent graduates (≤5 years)m of OMPT programmes across the 22 Member Organisations of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists. The questionnaire was completed by 1640 respondents across 22 countries (1263 graduates, 377 students. Some 60% of respondents reported never having experienced adverse effects during their manual therapy training. Of the 40% who did, 66.4% reported neck pain, 50.9% headache and 32% low back pain. Most reports of neck pain started after a manipulation and/or mobilisation, of which 53.4% lasted ≤24 h, 38.1% > 24 h but <3 months and 13.7% still experienced neck pain to date. A small percentage of respondents (3.3%) reported knowing of a fellow student experiencing a major adverse effect. Mild to moderate adverse effects after practising manual therapy techniques are commonly reported, but usually resolve within 24 h. However, this survey has identified the reported occurrence of major adverse effects that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence of stillbirth and perinatal mortality and their associated factors among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital, Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional retrospective analysis

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    Welch Kathy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death of an infant in utero or at birth has always been a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Infant mortality remains a challenge in the care of pregnant women worldwide, but particularly for developing countries and the need to understand contributory factors is crucial for addressing appropriate perinatal health. Methods Using information available in obstetric records for all deliveries (17,072 births at Harare Maternity Hospital, Zimbabwe, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a one-year data, (1997–1998 to assess demographic and obstetric risk factors for stillbirth and early neonatal death. We estimated risk of stillbirth and early neonatal death for each potential risk factor. Results The annual frequency of stillbirth was 56 per 1,000 total births. Women delivering stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were less likely to receive prenatal care (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 2.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.19–2.94 and RR = 2.52; 95% CI 1.63–3.91, which for combined stillbirths and early neonatal deaths increased with increasing gestational age (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.98, HR = 7.49 at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively. Rural residence was associated with risk of infant dying in utero, (RR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.12–1.59, and the risk of death increased with increasing gestational age (HR = 1.04, HR = 1.69, at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively. Older maternal age was associated with risk of death (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.21–1.84. Stillbirths were less likely to be delivered by Cesarean section (RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.51–0.79, but more likely to be delivered as breech (RR = 4.65; 95% CI 3.88–5.57, as were early neonatal deaths (RR = 3.38; 95% CI 1.64–6.96. Conclusion The frequency of stillbirth, especially macerated, is high, 27 per 1000 total births. Early prenatal care could help reduce perinatal death linking the woman to the health

  2. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sarwat; Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section) in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%), compared with the women with higher education (40.3%). C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and rural areas and

  3. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Mumtaz

    Full Text Available Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%, compared with the women with higher education (40.3%. C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with acute leukemia: a retrospective survey of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Michiki; Miyamura, Takako; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kajihara, Ryosuke; Adachi, Souichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Tomizawa, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause life-threatening complications of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children with malignancies, but reports remain limited. We performed a retrospective nationwide survey to clarify the current status of RSV disease among infants with hematological malignancies. Clinical course, treatment, and outcome of patients with hematological malignancies who suffered from RSV infections at the age of acute leukemia were identified as having experienced RSV disease. The primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4). RSV infection occurred pre- or during induction therapy (n = 8) and during consolidation therapy (n = 4). Eight patients developed LRTI, four of whom had severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome; these four patients died despite receiving intensive care. In our survey, the prognosis of RSV disease in pediatric hematological malignancies was poor, and progression of LRTI in particular was associated with high mortality. In the absence of RSV-specific therapy, effective prevention and treatment strategies for severe RSV disease must be investigated.

  5. A Clinical Retrospective Study of Distal Extension Removable Partial Denture with Implant Surveyed Bridge or Stud Type Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Seong-Jong; Choi, Jae-Won; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to make comparative analysis of the clinical findings between the two different types of the implant-assisted removable partial dentures: removable partial dentures using implant surveyed bridge as an abutment (ISBRPD) and overdenture type of removable partial denture using implant attachment (IARPD). Implant cumulative survival rate, marginal bone resorption, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, and complications were evaluated on 24 patients who were treated with implants in conjunction with removable partial denture and have used them for at least 1 year (ISCRPD: n = 12; IARPD: n = 12). There was no failed implant and all implants were functioning without clinical mobility. Marginal bone loss of ISCRPD (1.44 ± 0.57 mm) was significantly lower than that of IARPD (p 0.05), while the calculus was significantly more observed in ISCRPD group than in IARPD group (p < 0.05). The retention loss of IARPD was the most common complication. Within the limits of the present study, it was found that well-planned ISBRPD was clinically appropriate. Longitudinal and systematic clinical studies are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:28497062

  6. A Clinical Retrospective Study of Distal Extension Removable Partial Denture with Implant Surveyed Bridge or Stud Type Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Bin Bae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to make comparative analysis of the clinical findings between the two different types of the implant-assisted removable partial dentures: removable partial dentures using implant surveyed bridge as an abutment (ISBRPD and overdenture type of removable partial denture using implant attachment (IARPD. Implant cumulative survival rate, marginal bone resorption, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, and complications were evaluated on 24 patients who were treated with implants in conjunction with removable partial denture and have used them for at least 1 year (ISCRPD: n=12; IARPD: n=12. There was no failed implant and all implants were functioning without clinical mobility. Marginal bone loss of ISCRPD (1.44 ± 0.57 mm was significantly lower than that of IARPD (p0.05, while the calculus was significantly more observed in ISCRPD group than in IARPD group (p<0.05. The retention loss of IARPD was the most common complication. Within the limits of the present study, it was found that well-planned ISBRPD was clinically appropriate. Longitudinal and systematic clinical studies are necessary to confirm these results.

  7. A retrospective survey of substance abuse in anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand from 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R A; Fry, L E; Castanelli, D J

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire on substance abuse was distributed electronically to the heads of 185 Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists accredited anaesthesia departments in Australia and New Zealand. The response rate was 57%. From January 2004 to December 2013, 61 cases of substance abuse were identified, giving an estimated incidence of 1.2 cases per 1000 anaesthetist years. Of 44 detailed reports completed, the majority were aged between 30 and 49 years, were male and of specialist grade. However, when corrected for gender and grade, the estimated overall incidence was higher in females and twice as high for trainees compared with specialists. When compared with prior surveys, the pattern of substance abuse in Australia and New Zealand appears to have changed significantly, with a notable increase in propofol and alcohol abuse and a decrease in reported cases of opioid abuse. Common presenting features of abuse included intoxication and witnessed abuse. Seventy percent of cases had more than one comorbid condition, most frequently either mental health or family problems. Only 32% of abusers had made a long-term recovery within the specialty. Death was the eventual outcome in 18% overall, with a particularly high mortality associated with propofol abuse (45%). Trainee suicide from all causes was reported at three times the rate of specialists. The findings indicate that substance abuse remains a significant problem in Australia and New Zealand and is associated with a significant mortality rate.

  8. Reported planning before and after quitting and quit success: retrospective data from the ITC 4-Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Planning before quitting smoking is widely believed to be beneficial and is usually recommended in cessation counseling, but there is little evidence on the efficacy of specific planning activities. Using data from 1140 respondents who reported quit attempts at Wave 8 of the ITC 4-Country Survey, we analyzed use of 8 specific planning strategies before (5) and after (3) implementation of a quit attempt, in relation to cessation outcomes, delay in implementation of the attempt, and recent quitting history. Most participants reported some planning both before and after quitting, even among those reporting quitting 'spontaneously.' Younger smokers, those who cut down before quitting, and users of stop-smoking medication were more likely to report planning. Those who planned prequit were also more likely to plan postquit. Unexpectedly, we found no clear benefit of planning on short-term (1 month) cessation outcomes, whereas one prequit strategy (practicing not smoking) was negatively related to outcome. There was evidence for a predicted moderating effect of recent quitting experience on planning for the prequit task 'practice replacement strategies.' This predicted quit success among those with multiple quit attempts in the past year, but failure among those without. This finding suggests that the quality of planning may be critical. More research, particularly on the moderating effect of quit experience, and where measures of planning are collected before outcomes become evident, is needed before clear recommendations can be made on the utility of various forms of planning for the success of quit attempts.

  9. Public knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Abdelmoneim; Al-Nafisi, Hala

    2014-11-04

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is estimated to cause 46% of all mortalities in Kuwait. To design effective primary and secondary prevention programs, an assessment of a population's prior CVD knowledge is of paramount importance. There is scarcity of data on the existing CVD knowledge among the general Kuwaiti population. Hence, this study was performed to assess the level of knowledge towards CVD types, warning symptoms of heart attack or stroke, and CVD risk factors. It also explored public views on the community pharmacists' role in CVD prevention and management. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 900 randomly selected Kuwaiti individuals. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. The response rate was 90.7%. Respondents' knowledge about types of CVD, heart attack or stroke symptoms was low. Almost 60% of respondents did not know any type of CVD, and coronary heart disease was the commonest identified type (29.0%). Two-fifths of participants were not aware of any heart attack symptoms, and the most commonly known were chest pain (50.4%) and shortness of breath (48.0%). Approximately half of respondents did not recognize any stroke symptoms, and the most commonly recognized were 'confusion or trouble speaking' (36.4%) and 'numbness or weakness' (34.7%). Respondents' knowledge regarding CVD risk factors was moderate. The commonest factors identified by over four-fifths of participants were smoking, obesity, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of better level of CVD knowledge were females, age 50-59 years, high level of education, regular eating of healthy diet, and had a family history of CVD. Most of respondents only identified the role that pharmacists had to play is to help patients manage their medications, with a minimal role in other aspects of CVD prevention

  10. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.

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    Conall H Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%, 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%. The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4 per 10 years, the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3 as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7. Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid

  11. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders--a cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria E H; Nordholm, Lena A

    2008-08-05

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082) responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683-693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM) instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical) professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders and investigated background variables were that

  12. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Fall Prevalence among Older Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yifan; Lo, Joan C; Brickner, Leslea; Gordon, Nancy P

    2017-03-11

    Falls are the leading cause of hip fracture in older women, with important public health implications. Fall risk increases with age and other clinical factors, and varies by race/ethnicity. International studies suggest that fall risk is lower in Asians, although data are limited in U.S. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in fall prevalence among older U.S. women within a large integrated healthcare delivery system. This cross-sectional study used data from 6277 women ages 65-90 who responded to the 2008 or 2011 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (KPNC-MHS). The KPNC-MHS is a mailed questionnaire sent to a random sample of adult members stratified by age, gender, and geographic location, representing a population estimate of >200,000 women age ≥65 years. Age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health status, presence of diabetes, arthritis or prior stroke, mobility limitations and number of falls in the past year were obtained from the KPNC-MHS. The independent association of race/ethnicity and recent falls was examined, adjusting for known risk factors. The weighted sample was 76.7% non-Hispanic white, 6.2% Hispanic, 6.8% black and 10.3% Asian. Over 20% reported having fallen during the past year (28.5% non-Hispanic white, 27.8% Hispanic, 23.4% black and 20.1% Asian). Older age was associated with greater fall risk, as was having diabetes (OR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.48), prior stroke (OR 1.51, CI 1.09-2.07), arthritis (OR 1.61, CI 1.39-1.85) and mobility limitations (OR 2.82, CI 2.34-3.39), adjusted for age. Compared to whites, Asian (OR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.81) and black (OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.95) women were much less likely to have ≥1 fall in the past year, adjusting for age, comorbidities, mobility limitation and poor health status. Asians were also less likely to have ≥2 falls (OR 0.62, CI 0.43-0.88). Among older women, the risk of having a recent fall was substantially lower for black and Asian women when compared to white women. This may

  13. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Conall H; Baker, Stephen; Lau, Colleen L; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Hens, Niel; Lowry, John H; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Cano, Jorge; Jenkins, Kylie; Mulholland, E Kim; Nilles, Eric J; Kama, Mike; Edmunds, W John

    2017-07-01

    Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%)), 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%)). The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) per 10 years), the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3) as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7). Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid

  14. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  15. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  16. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

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    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  17. Career intentions of PhD students in nursing: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Bai, XiaoLing; Luo, ZhongChen; Lou, Ting; Pang, Jin; Tang, SiYuan

    2018-05-01

    Despite the rapid growth of Chinese nursing PhD programs, little is known about the career intentions of students in this field. To investigate the career intentions of nursing PhD students. Online cross-sectional survey. Nursing PhD students at Chinese universities. An online questionnaire was designed and the data were analyzed using SPSS. The mean age of the participants was 31.53 ± 4.92 years, and most were female (89.9%), married (74.2%), and had been employed previously (69.7%). Most intended to work in the city where their family lived (34.8%) or near their previous workplace (32.6%). Most (60.7%) desired to work in an educational institution (e.g., a university or college). The most common expected salary was 8000-11,999 RMB/month. The work benefits perceived as indispensable were "Five Insurances and One Fund" (77.5%), good educational resources for children (59.6%), financial allowances for PhD graduates (52.8%), staff dormitories/housing subsidies (50.6%), and tenure (50.6%). Nursing education (75.3%) and research (70.8%) were the most favored fields. The key job characteristics were the opportunity to put strengths to fullest use (79.8%), time to conduct research (60.7%), and work-life balance (51.7%). The key research conditions included a good research incentive mechanism (77.5%), a Basic Scientific Research Foundation (68.5%), opportunity to apply to conduct research projects (66.3%), and the nursing team's atmosphere regarding research (64.0%), and 91.0% were eager to study abroad (e.g., as part of an international exchange). Nursing PhD students would like to work in their hometown or near their previous workplace. Most preferred working in an educational institution, and the most popular fields were nursing education and research (rather than clinical care), despite the high demand of hospital management for nursing PhD graduates. Flexible work, high-quality research conditions, a certain salary, work benefits, and training were key

  18. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  19. Hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities.

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    Marleen E Hendriks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and determinants of blood pressure in four SSA populations in rural Nigeria and Kenya, and urban Namibia and Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed four cross-sectional household surveys in Kwara State, Nigeria; Nandi district, Kenya; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Greater Windhoek, Namibia, between 2009-2011. Representative population-based samples were drawn in Nigeria and Namibia. The Kenya and Tanzania study populations consisted of specific target groups. Within a final sample size of 5,500 households, 9,857 non-pregnant adults were eligible for analysis on hypertension. Of those, 7,568 respondents ≥ 18 years were included. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypertension in each of the populations under study. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 19.3% (95%CI:17.3-21.3 in rural Nigeria, 21.4% (19.8-23.0 in rural Kenya, 23.7% (21.3-26.2 in urban Tanzania, and 38.0% (35.9-40.1 in urban Namibia. In individuals with hypertension, the proportion of grade 2 (≥ 160/100 mmHg or grade 3 hypertension (≥ 180/110 mmHg ranged from 29.2% (Namibia to 43.3% (Nigeria. Control of hypertension ranged from 2.6% in Kenya to 17.8% in Namibia. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥ 30 ranged from 6.1% (Nigeria to 17.4% (Tanzania and together with age and gender, BMI independently predicted blood pressure level in all study populations. Diabetes prevalence ranged from 2.1% (Namibia to 3.7% (Tanzania. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was the most frequently observed risk factor for CVD in both urban and rural communities in SSA and will contribute to the growing burden of CVD in SSA. Low levels of control of hypertension are alarming. Strengthening of health

  20. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

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    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  1. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years' stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65-2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00-32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16-11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35-8.46), respectively. The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be beneficial to minimise climate change attributed health

  2. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  3. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

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    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  4. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

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    Larsson Maria EH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082 responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal

  5. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-10-14

    This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15 years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was linked to register data on demographics and parental socioeconomic position. 9215 (47.9%) children were included in the analyses. Linear regression analyses showed that children with current eczema symptoms had higher SDQ scores (mean difference, 95% CI) of emotional problems (0.26, 0.12 to 0.39), conduct problems (0.19, 0.09 to 0.29) and hyperactivity problems (0.32, 0.16 to 0.48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0.72), conduct problems (0.22, 0.11 to 0.33), hyperactivity problems (0.44, 0.26 to 0.61) and peer problems (0.14, 0.01 to 0.26), compared with children without current symptoms of the relevant disease. For most associations, parental socioeconomic position did not modify the effect. Children with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

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    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703. Results 18.1% (799/4416 of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%, kidney disease (4.9%, cholesterol (4.5%, urinary tract infection (1.9% and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%. A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6% of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self

  7. Pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention practices: a cross-sectional comparative survey in Norway and Ireland.

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    Moore, Z; Johansen, E; Etten, M van; Strapp, H; Solbakken, T; Smith, B Eskerud; Faulstich, J

    2015-08-01

    This study explored whether the risk assessment method, structured versus clinical judgment, influences pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence or prevention strategies. A cross section survey design was employed with use of a pre-designed data collection instrument. Following ethical approval and consent, data was gathered from two acute care settings, one in Norway (clinical judgment) and one in Ireland (structured risk assessment using the Maelor Score). Data were obtained from 180 patients, 59 in Norway and 121 in Ireland. Of the patients 48% were male and 49% were female, gender was not recorded for 3%. The most common age bracket was 70-99 years of age, 46% of the study population. PU prevalence was 54% in the Norwegian site with the majority of PUs (69%) being category 1, and 12% in the Irish site with the majority (50%) being category 2. Only 8% of patients in the Norwegian site were risk assessed on admission compared with 85% in the Irish site. No dynamic mattresses and four pressure redistribution cushions were in use in the Norwegian site, whereas, in the Irish site, 27 dynamic mattresses and 11 pressure redistribution cushions were used, the majority (44%) for high-risk individuals. Of those at risk of PU development, 15% in the Norwegian site and 56% in the Irish site had a documented repositioning care plan when in bed, and 0% in the Norwegian site and 13% in the Irish site for when seated on a chair. There were inconsistencies in approach to PU risk assessment and prevention across the two clinical settings. However, prevalence rates differed, mainly relating to category 1 PU damage. Even though formal risk assessment is well established in the Irish site, this is not necessarily followed up with appropriated PU prevention. Thus, the method of risk assessment does not seem to influence subsequent care planning, questioning the role of formal risk assessment; however, despite this, risk assessment does put a focus on an important clinical problem. In the

  8. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

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    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  9. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies: Results of a Europe-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner; Ilie, Mădălina; Holleran, Grainne; Salaga, Maciej; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn; Burisch, Johan

    2017-08-01

    One of the aims of the Young Talent Group (YTG) is to make United European Gastroenterology (UEG) more attractive for young fellows interested in gastroenterology, and to involve them actively in UEG activities, by collaborating with young GI sections (YGIS) across Europe. Therefore, the YTG launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes that a close collaboration between National Societies, UEG, and the YTG is necessary in order to offer young fellows the most productive and professionally satisfying future possible.

  10. What Is the Rate of Incomplete Fetal Anatomic Surveys During a Second-Trimester Scan? Retrospective Observational Study of 4000 Nonobese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Francesco; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Capriglione, Stella; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Cignini, Pietro; Mastrandrea, Maria Luisa; D'Emidio, Laura; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the rate of incomplete fetal anatomic surveys during a second-trimester scan due to an unfavorable fetal position in a nonobese population. All pregnant women who came to the Altamedica Fetal-Maternal Medical Center, a specialized center for prenatal diagnosis, for a routine second-trimester scan between January 2012 and April 2013 were retrospectively included in the analysis. Patients with a body mass index higher than 30.0 kg/m(2) or anterior fibroids larger than 5 cm were not included in the study. Of 4000 pregnant women admitted for a second-trimester scan, 169 (4.2%) came back within 2 weeks to complete the examination because of an unfavorable fetal position. In particular, 104 (2.6%) needed visualization of only 1 view, and 65 (1.6%) needed more than 1 view. The most difficult organ to visualize was the corpus callosum, in 73 cases (1.8%); the face was not visualized in 69 cases (1.7%); the cerebellar vermis was not seen in 47 fetuses (1.1%); and the heart could not be completely examined in 40 fetuses (1.0%). Of the 4000 women, 169 (4.2%) had a nonexhaustive scan; 149 (3.7%) needed a second scan to complete the second-trimester survey; 14 (0.35%) needed a third scan; and 2 (0.05%) remained with a not completely exhaustive scan. There is always a small percentage of incomplete fetal anatomic surveys during a second-trimester scan, which cannot be modified by the sonographer's skill or by technical sonographic innovations. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) at Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalo, Mulugeta Yohannis; Seifu, Canaan Negash

    2017-03-09

    Children in third world countries suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in an extent of public health important. SAM management protocol available this time brought the approach from facility-based to community-based by Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP). But, little was known about the treatment outcomes of the program in Ethiopia. Thus, this study was aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and identify factors associated among children treated at OTP in Wolaita Zone. A retrospective facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in OTP records of 794 children, treated at 24 health posts retrieved from January to December 2014. Population proportion to size (PPS) was used to allocate sample for each selected district and OTP sites within district. Individual cards of children were selected by systematic random sampling. Data were entered, thoroughly cleaned, and analyzed in SPSS version 20. The recovery rate was revealed as 64.9% at 95% CI (61, 68). Death rate, default rate, weight gain, and length of stay were 1.2%, 2.2%, 4.2 g/kg/day, and 6.8 weeks respectively. Children living in children residing in ≥25 min (AOR = 1.53 at 95% CI (1.11, 2.12)). The likelihood of recovery was 2.6 times higher for children with kwashiorkor than for those with marasmus (AOR = 2.62 at 95% CI (1.77, 3.89)). Likewise, children provided with amoxicillin were 1.52 times more likely to recover compared to their counterparts (AOR = 1.52 at 95% CI (1.09, 2.11)). The recovery rate and weight gain were lower than sphere standard. Distance from OTP, provision of amoxicillin, and type of malnutrition were factors identified as significantly associated with treatment outcome of SAM. Building capacity of OTP service providers and regular monitoring of service provision based on the management protocol were recommended.

  12. Generic atorvastatin is as effective as the brand-name drug (LIPITOR®) in lowering cholesterol levels: a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexander; Bewersdorf, Jan Philipp; Kofink, Daniel; Ismail, Dzafir; Abidin, Imran Zainal; Veriah, Ramesh Singh

    2017-07-17

    In a world of ever increasing health care costs, generic drugs represent a major opportunity to ensure access to essential medicines for people who otherwise would be unable to afford them. However, some clinicians and patients are still questioning the safety and effectiveness of generic formulations compared to the proprietary drugs necessitating further systematic research analyzing the generic drugs' efficacy. Our objective was to compare the lipid lowering effects of generic and branded atorvastatin. This cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 May 2013 until 30 May 2013. We analyzed the lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) of 629 patients before and at least 3 months after switching them from proprietary atorvastatin (Lipitor ® ) to generic atorvastatin (atorvastatin calcium from Ranbaxy Laboratories, Inc.). We also investigated if there was any difference in the effectiveness of both atorvastatin formulations in various ethnic groups. 266 patients were included in this study. When comparing the median values we found no statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p atorvastatin in lowering total cholesterol (4.60 mmol/l pre-transition vs. 4.50 mmol/l post-transition; p = 0.583), LDL-cholesterol (2.42 mmol/l vs. 2.41 mmol/l; p = 0.923) and triglycerides (1.50 mmol/l vs. 1.50 mmol/l; p = 0.513). While there was a statistically significant (p = 0.009) difference in HDL-cholesterol levels favouring proprietary atorvastatin, the extent of this change (1.26 mmol/l vs. 1.25 mmol/l) was deemed not to be clinically relevant. There was no statistically significant difference when analyzing the effects on various ethnic groups. Substituting proprietary atorvastatin for its generic formulation atorvastatin calcium does not result in a less effective management of hyperlipidemia. Our findings lend support to the

  13. Retrospective analysis of clinical efficacy of protocol-based management of postdural puncture headache in patients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Salim Said Al Amri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in needle size and design, postdural puncture headache (PDPH still remains a significant cause of morbidity in parturients receiving spinal anesthesia. Several treatment options have been suggested to treat PDPH ranging from bed rest, rehydration, and analgesics to epidural blood patch. At our institution, we adhere to a strict protocol for managing PDPH wherein adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH is one of the treatment steps in cases of unrelieved PDPH. We carried out a 1-year retrospective analysis to note the efficacy of ACTH in managing PDPH in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. All patients with PDPH were followed up for at least 2 months after being discharged from the hospital to note recurrence, if any. Data revealed that a total of 614 patients received spinal anesthesia during this period using a 25- or 26-G Quincke needle with the patient in the sitting position using a midline approach. Totally 31 patients developed PDPH and all patients reported their headache spontaneously. As per protocol, if the PDPH did not resolve or lessen in intensity with bed rest and simple analgesics (paracetamol, diclofenac or tramadol alone, or in combination over the first 24 h, two injections of ACTH (1.5 μg/kg in 500 ml saline intravenous over 30 min were administered 12 h apart. No further injections of ACTH were administered. If any treatment modality demonstrated relief or attenuation in PDPH, the patient was observed for the next 2 days. If there was no further improvement, next step of the protocol using epidural blood patch was adopted. Of these 614 patients, 31 developed PDPH giving an incidence of 5.04%. The first line of conservative treatment with bed rests and simple analgesics was successful in relieving or alleviating PDPH in 20 patients (64.5% within 24 h. About 11 patients (35.5% went on to receive ACTH as the second conservative line of management. In 10 of these 11 patients (90.9%, PDPH

  14. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, K; Bishop, JF; Cross, HL; Chondros, P; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, JD

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 20...

  15. A survey of cross-section sensitivity analysis as applied to radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.

    1977-01-01

    Cross section sensitivity studies revolve around finding the change in the value of an integral quantity, e.g. transmitted dose, for a given change in one of the cross sections. A review is given of the principal methodologies for obtaining the sensitivity profiles-principally direct calculations with altered cross sections, and linear perturbation theory. Some of the varied applications of cross section sensitivity analysis are described, including the practice, of questionable value, of adjusting input cross section data sets so as to provide agreement with integral experiments. Finally, a plea is made for using cross section sensitivity analysis as a powerful tool for analysing the transport mechanisms of particles in radiation shields and for constructing models of how cross section phenomena affect the transport. Cross section sensitivities in the shielding area have proved to be highly problem-dependent. Without the understanding afforded by such models, it is impossible to extrapolate the conclusions of cross section sensitivity analysis beyond the narrow limits of the specific situations examined in detail. Some of the elements that might be of use in developing the qualitative models are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Amr; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Koppel, Cristina; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-05-19

    Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient's data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents' mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation applications (61/101, 60.4%) were the most commonly

  17. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient’s data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. Results With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents’ mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation

  18. Perceptions of genetic discrimination among people at risk for Huntington?s disease: a cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Yvonne; Veenstra, Gerry; Friedman, Jan M; Creighton, Susan; Currie, Lauren; Paulsen, Jane S; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the nature and prevalence of genetic discrimination experienced by people at risk for Huntington?s disease who had undergone genetic testing or remained untested. Design Cross sectional, self reported survey. Setting Seven genetics and movement disorders clinics servicing rural and urban communities in Canada. Participants 233 genetically tested and untested asymptomatic people at risk for Huntington?s disease (response rate 80%): 167 underwent testing (83 had the Huntingt...

  19. The association between patients? beliefs about medicines and adherence to drug treatment after stroke: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sj?lander, Maria; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adherence to preventive drug treatment is a clinical problem and we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about medicines and stroke are associated with adherence. The objective was to examine associations between beliefs of patients with stroke about stroke and drug treatment and their adherence to drug treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING: Patients with stroke from 25 Swedish hospitals were included. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires were sent to 989 patient...

  20. A cross-sectional survey to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the oral hygiene habits

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi; Gaurav Sharma; Avneet Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to Oct...

  1. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA, 2008: A COMMENTARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-gyamfi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.

  2. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children:a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15?years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnair...

  3. Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

  4. Effect of counselling on health-care-seeking behaviours and rabies vaccination adherence after dog bites in Haiti, 2014-15: a retrospective follow-up survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheart, Melissa Dominique; Kligerman, Maxwell; Augustin, Pierre Dilius; Blanton, Jesse D; Monroe, Benjamin; Fleurinord, Ludder; Millien, Max; Crowdis, Kelly; Fenelon, Natael; Wallace, Ryan MacLaren

    2017-10-01

    Haiti has an integrated bite case management (IBCM) programme to counsel animal-bite victims on the risk of rabies and appropriate treatment, as well as the Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) to examine the animals. We assessed the usefulness of the IBCM programme to promote best practices for rabies prophylaxis after exposure in a low-income rabies-endemic setting. We did a retrospective follow-up survey of randomly selected bite victims who were counselled by Haiti's IBCM programme between May 15, 2014, and Sept 15, 2015. We classified participants by HARSP decisions of confirmed, probable, suspected, or non-rabies exposures. We compared health-care outcomes in people who sought medical care before IBCM counselling with those in people who sought care after counselling. We used decision trees to estimate the probability of actions taken in the health-care system, and thereby human deaths. During the study period, 1478 dog bites were reported to HARSP for assessment. 37 (3%) were confirmed exposures, 76 (5%) probable exposures, 189 (13%) suspected exposures, and 1176 (80%) non-rabies exposures. 115 of these cases were followed up in the survey. IBCM counselling was associated with a 1·2 times increase in frequency of bite victims seeking medical care and of 2·4 times increase in vaccination uptake. We estimated that there would be four human rabies deaths among the 1478 people assessed by IBCM during the survey period, and 11 in the absence of this programme, which would equate to a 65% decrease in rabies deaths. Among three people dead at the time of the follow-up survey, one was deemed to be due to rabies after a probable rabies exposure. Adherence to medical providers' recommendations might be improved through counselling provided by IBCM programmes. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A HEALTH SURVEY OF WORKERS IN THE PENTACHLOROPHENOL SECTION OF A CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING PLANT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHENG, WN; COENRAADS, PJ; HAO, ZH; LIU, GF

    During 1968 to 1985, 109 workers who had been engaged in the production of pentachlorophenol, using non-gamma isomers of hexachloroclohexane (BHC) as the raw material, were surveyed. Endemic chloracne among them had been noted since 1974. The prevalence of chloracne was 73.4% (80/109) in total and

  6. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Elmore, PharmD, BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine how often boards of pharmacy (BOPs receive complaints related to licensee’s online behavior, and what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation of a licensee.Methods: A survey (consisting of questions related to BOP’s management of complaints against licensee online behavior and 10 case vignettes was adapted from a previous survey of United States medical boards. Vignettes encompassed themes such as patient confidentiality, derogatory language, alcohol use, false or misleading product claims, and others. Following institutional review board approval, survey materials were distributed via email by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy to 63 domestic and international boards of pharmacy. Completed surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The proportion of respondents who indicated that the vignette would “very likely” or “likely” result in an investigation was used to determine consensus. Proportions of >75%, 50%-75% and <50% were classified as high, moderate and low consensus, respectively.Results: Fourteen completed surveys (22.2% were received. Sixty percent of respondents stated that their board has been involved in managing a complaint regarding the online behavior of a licensee, and that disciplinary actions including revocation or suspension of license, letter of reprimand, and monetary fines have been enacted. While 79% of responding BOPs have a policy regarding Internet usage, 36% are unsure whether the policies are sufficient to cover online professionalism. One vignette, where a pharmacist made misleading claims regarding a compounded product, achieved high consensus for likelihood to prompt an investigation. Moderate consensus was achieved for a breach of patient confidentiality, inappropriate alcohol use, and misrepresentation of professional credentials.Conclusion: Boards of pharmacy are widely varied in what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation

  7. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Skelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine how often boards of pharmacy (BOPs receive complaints related to licensee's online behavior, and what types online behaviors may prompt an investigation of a licensee. Methods: A survey (consisting of questions related to BOP's management of complaints against licensee online behavior and 10 case vignettes was adapted from a previous survey of United States medical boards. Vignettes encompassed themes such as patient confidentiality, derogatory language, alcohol use, false or misleading product claims, and others. Following institutional review board approval, survey materials were distributed via email by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy to 63 domestic and international boards of pharmacy. Completed surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The proportion of respondents who indicated that the vignette would "very likely" or "likely" result in an investigation was used to determine consensus. Proportions of >75%, 50%-75% and <50% were classified as high, moderate and low consensus, respectively. Results: Fourteen completed surveys (22.2% were received. Sixty percent of respondents stated that their board has been involved in managing a complaint regarding the online behavior of a licensee, and that disciplinary actions including revocation or suspension of license, letter of reprimand, and monetary fines have been enacted. While 79% of responding BOPs have a policy regarding Internet usage, 36% are unsure whether the policies are sufficient to cover online professionalism. One vignette, where a pharmacist made misleading claims regarding a compounded product, achieved high consensus for likelihood to prompt an investigation. Moderate consensus was achieved for a breach of patient confidentiality, inappropriate alcohol use, and misrepresentation of professional credentials. Conclusion: Boards of pharmacy are widely varied in what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation. Additional

  8. Cross-sectional survey of Good Samaritan behaviour by physicians in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Garneau, William M; Harris, Dean M; Viera, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the responses of physicians to providing emergency medical assistance outside of routine clinical care. We assessed the percentage who reported previous Good Samaritan behaviour, their responses to hypothetical situations, their comfort providing specific interventions and the most likely reason they would not intervene. Setting Physicians residing in North Carolina. Participants Convenience sample of 1000 licensed physicians. Intervention Mailed survey. Design Cross-secti...

  9. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge qu...

  10. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Álvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students...

  11. A cross-sectional survey of interprofessional education across 13 healthcare professions in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Goto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rapid aging of the population, collaboration among the various medical professions throughout the country is becoming increasingly indispensable in Japan. To promote collaboration in medical care, it is necessary to introduce the concept of collaboration to students at an early stage of their professional education. Despite this need, there are no core medical, healthcare and welfare education curricula in Japan that include interprofessional education (IPE. Therefore, the status of IPE in Japanese schools of medicine and other healthcare-related services is unclear. Methods: We sent 3,430 questionnaires to 13 schools of medicine and related healthcare providers: doctors, nurses, physical therapists, registered dieticians, dentists, dental hygienists, social workers, pharmacists, occupational therapists, clinical psychologists, medical administrators, certified care workers, and speech therapists. The items addressed implementation rate of IPE, teaching methods and grading methods. Results: Of the 3,430 surveys distributed, 572 completed surveys were returned (response rate 17%. Of the completed surveys, 493 qualified as valid, resulting in a final response rate of 14%. Only 19% (n = 93 of the analysed medical educational institutions included IPE instruction in their curricula. Conclusion: While many educational institutions were conducting IPE, there were important inter-institutional differences with respect to attitudes towards IPE, teaching methods, and evaluation methods. This study was unprecedented in scale, and provides important basic information for the future development of IPE in Japan.

  12. Smartphone Usage Patterns by Canadian Neurosurgery Residents: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda-Smith, Michelle Masayo; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Ahmed, Uzair S; Bergeron, David; Bigder, Mark; Dakson, Ayoub; Elliott, Cameron A; Guha, Daipayan; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Tso, Michael; Wang, Bill; Fortin, David

    2018-03-01

    Smartphones and their apps are used ubiquitously in medical practice. However, in some cases their use can be at odds with current patient data safety regulations such as Canada's Personal Health Information Protection Act of 2004. To assess current practices and inform mobile application development, we sought to better understand mobile device usage patterns among Canadian neurosurgery residents. Through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative, an online survey characterizing smartphone ownership and usage patterns was developed and sent to all Canadian neurosurgery resident in April of 2016. Questionnaires were collected and completed surveys analyzed. Of 146 eligible residents, 76 returned completed surveys (52% response rate). Of these 99% of respondents owned a smartphone, with 79% running on Apple's iOS. Four general mobile uses were identified: 1) communication between members of the medical team, 2) decision support, 3) medical reference, and 4) documentation through medical photography. Communication and photography were areas where the most obvious breaches in the Canadian Personal Health Information Protection Act were noted, with 89% of respondents taking pictures of patients' radiologic studies and 75% exchanging them with Short Message System. Hospital policies had no impact on user behaviors. Smartphones are used daily by most neurosurgery residents. Identified usage patterns are associated with perceived gains in efficacy and challenges in privacy and data reliability. We believe creating and improving workflows that address these usage patterns has a greater potential to improve privacy than changing policies and enforcing regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibiotic use as a tragedy of the commons: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kieran S; Blumberg, Seth; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Ackley, Sarah; Sippl-Swezey, Nicolas; Lietman, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Many believe antibiotic use results in a tragedy of the commons, since overuse may lead to antibiotic resistance and limiting use would benefit society. In contrast, mass antibiotic treatment programs are thought to result in community-wide benefits. A survey was conducted to learn the views of infectious disease experts on the individual- and societal-level consequences of antibiotic use. The survey instrument was designed to elicit opinions on antibiotic use and resistance. It was sent via SurveyMonkey to infectious disease professionals identified through literature searches. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. A total of 1,530 responses were received for a response rate of 9.9%. Nearly all participants believed antibiotic use could result in a tragedy of the commons, at least in certain circumstances (96.0%). Most participants did not believe mass antibiotic treatment programs could produce societal benefits in an antibiotic-free society (91.4%) or in the United States (94.2%), though more believed such programs would benefit antibiotic-free societies compared to the United States (P antibiotic use can result in a tragedy of the commons and do not believe that mass treatment programs benefit individuals or society.

  14. Using Market Segmentation to Develop a Large Section, Web-Enhanced Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason; Robertson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Increasing enrollment and decreasing budgets have caused many public universities, such as San Fransisco State University (SFU), to offer mega-sections of courses to hundreds of students. Yet the needs of many students are at odds with the large enrollments, inflexible times, and inconvenient locations of these classes. Jason Cole and Bruce…

  15. Knowledge of binge eating disorder: a cross-sectional survey of physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina, Dylan; Herman, Barry K; Frye, Carla B; Shillington, Alicia C

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED)--now a designated disorder in the DSM-5--is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED), affecting 2-3% of the US population. This survey of US physicians assesses how BED is diagnosed, treated and referred. Internists, family practitioners, obstetrics/gynecologist (OB/GYNs) and psychiatrists were randomly selected from a nationally-representative panel. Participants completed an online survey and reviewed case vignettes consistent with DSM-5-defined BED, then answered questions to elicit whether they would assess for psychiatric conditions including EDs. Those reporting they would screen and who correctly identified BED in vignettes received additional questions about BED diagnosis, treatment, and referral patterns. Of 278 physicians surveyed, 96% were board-certified and 87% had practiced >10 years. 23% were psychiatrists, 27% family practitioners, 31% internists and 19% OB/GYNs. 92% were 'somewhat likely' to screen for ED after reviewing DSM-5-consistent vignettes. 206 (74%) correctly identified BED. Of these, 33% and 68% reported they proactively screen eating habits for all patients and obese patients, respectively. 10% reported not screening eating habits even in the presence of ED symptoms. Fewer than half reported using DSM criteria in Diagnosing BED, and 56 (27%) did not recognize BED to be a discreet ED. Although ED awareness is improving, understanding BED as a distinct ED is lacking, which may result in low rates of screening and diagnosis. This study illustrates how taking a complete patient history (including probing BED characteristics) may be an effective first-line strategy for clinicians to facilitate optimal care for these patients.

  16. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Alvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations and for administrative procedures. The

  17. Patient safety in practical nurses' education: A cross-sectional survey of newly registered practical nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Sears, Nancy; Edge, Dana S; Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane

    2017-04-01

    Practical nurses have experienced an increasing scope of practice, including an expectation to care for complex patients and function on interdisciplinary teams. Little is known about the degree to which patient safety principles are addressed in practical nursing education. To examine self-reported patient safety competencies of practical nurses. A cross-sectional online survey (July 2014) and face-to-face interviews (June 2015). Ontario, Canada. Survey participants were practical nurses newly registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario between January 2012 and December 2013. Interview participants were faculty and students in a practical nursing program in Ontario. Survey respondents completed the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey online. Self-reported competencies in various patient safety domains were compared between classroom and clinical settings. Faculty members were interviewed about educational preparation of practical nurses and students were interviewed to provide insight into interpretation of survey questions. The survey response rate was 28.4% (n=1104/3883). Mean domain scores indicated a high level of confidence in patient safety competence (Nurses of Ontario >2years and in those who obtained their education outside of Canada. Faculty believed their approach to teaching and learning instilled a deep understanding of the limits to practical nurse autonomous practice. Practical nurses were confident in what they learned about patient safety in their educational programs. The high degree of patient safety competence may be a true reflection of practical nurses understanding of, and comfort with, the limits of their knowledge and, ultimately, the limits of their individual autonomous practice. Further exploration as to whether the questionnaire requires additional modification for use with practical nurse populations is warranted. However, this study provides the first examination of practical nurses' perspectives and

  18. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...

  19. Gender Discrimination among Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Madeeh Hashmi, Ali; Rehman, Amra; Butt, Zeeshan; Awais Aftab, Muhammad; Shahid, Aimen; Abbas Khan, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and magnitude of gender discrimination experienced by undergraduate medical students, and its repercussions on their academic performance and emotional health. Methodology: A cross sectional study of 500 medical and dental students studying at a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Majority (78%) of students reported being victims of gender discrimination. Females were the main perpetrators (70.8%).Most common forms were denied opportuniti...

  20. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Peihang Sun; Xue Zhang; Yihua Sun; Hongkun Ma; Mingli Jiao; Kai Xing; Zheng Kang; Ning Ning; Yapeng Fu; Qunhong Wu; Mei Yin

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern ...

  1. Women's and men's negative experience of child birth-A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2018-04-01

    A negative birth experience may influence both women and men and can limit their process of becoming a parent. This study aimed to analyze and describe women's and men's perceptions and experiences of childbirth. A cross-sectional study of women and their partners living in one Swedish county were recruited in mid pregnancy and followed up two months after birth. Women (n=928) and men (n=818) completed the same questionnaire that investigated new parents' birth experiences in relation to socio-demographic background and birth related variables. Women (6%) and men (3%) with a negative birth experiences, experienced longer labours and more often emergency caesarean section compared to women (94%) and men (97%) with a positive birth experience. The obstetric factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience were emergency caesarean and was found in women (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-10.8) and men (OR 4.5, Cl 95% 1.4-17.3). In addition, pain intensity and elective caesarean section were also associated with a negative birth experiences in women. Feelings during birth such as agreeing with the statement; 'It was a pain to give birth' were a strong contributing factor for both women and men. A negative birth experience is associated with obstetric factors such as emergency caesarean section and negative feelings. The content of negative feelings differed between women and men. It is important to take into account that their feelings differ in order to facilitate the processing of the negative birth experience for both partners. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-sectional survey of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women in rural Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ania; Lacour, Oriane; Scaringella, Stefano; Herinianasolo, Josea; Benski, Anne Caroline; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick; Schmidt, Nicole Christine

    2018-02-05

    Antenatal care (ANC) has the potential to identify and manage obstetric complications, educate women about risks during pregnancy and promote skilled birth attendance during childbirth. The aim of this study was to assess women's knowledge of obstetric danger signs and factors associated with this knowledge in Ambanja, Madagascar. It also sought to evaluate whether the participation in a mobile health (mHealth) project that aimed to provide comprehensive ANC to pregnant women in remote areas influenced women's knowledge of obstetric danger signs. From April to October 2015, a non-random, convenience sample of 372 women in their first year postpartum were recruited, including 161 who had participated in the mHealth project. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Knowledge of at least one danger sign varied from 80.9% of women knowing danger sign(s) in pregnancy, to 51.9%, 50.8% and 53.2% at delivery, postpartum and in the newborn, respectively. Participation in the mHealth intervention, higher household income, and receipt of information about danger signs during pregnancy were associated with knowledge of danger signs during delivery, in bivariate analysis; only higher household income and mHealth project participation were independently associated. Higher educational attainment and receipt of information about danger signs in antenatal care were associated with significantly higher odds of knowing danger sign(s) for the newborn in both bivariate and multivariate analysis. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs is low. Information provision during pregnancy and with mHealth is promising. This trial was retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register (identifier ISRCTN15798183 ; August 22, 2015).

  3. F-theory and all things rational: surveying U(1) symmetries with rational sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We study elliptic fibrations for F-theory compactifications realizing 4d and 6d supersymmetric gauge theories with abelian gauge factors. In the fibration these U(1) symmetries are realized in terms of additional rational section. We obtain a universal characterization of all the possible U(1) charges of matter fields by determining the corresponding codimension two fibers with rational sections. In view of modelling supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, one of the main examples that we analyze are U(1) symmetries for SU(5) gauge theories with 5̄ and 10 matter. We use a combination of constraints on the normal bundle of rational curves in Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds, as well as the splitting of rational curves in the fibers in codimension two, to determine the possible configurations of smooth rational sections. This analysis straightforwardly generalizes to multiple U(1)s. We study the flops of such fibers, as well as some of the Yukawa couplings in codimension three. Furthermore, we carry out a universal study of the U(1)-charged GUT singlets, including their KK-charges, and determine all realizations of singlet fibers. By giving vacuum expectation values to these singlets, we propose a systematic way to analyze the Higgsing of U(1)s to discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory.

  4. CLINICAL REABILITATION OF UPPER LIMB IN CHRONIC STROKE IN PORTUGAL A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 77% of stroke survivors have upper limb dysfunction. The scientific evidence for interventions in upper limb rehabilitation in stroke has shown variable results. To improve health care treatments in this domain it is needed to know what modalities are actually being used by physiotherapists. Methods: A national web-based survey focused in characterizing the profile of Portuguese physiotherapists working in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation was conducted in 237 health institutions (n= 462 physiotherapists. The recruitment was conducted from August to December 2014. Analytic and descriptive analysis were used. Results: A total of 179 physiotherapists from 64 different locations from Portugal answered the survey, with a rate of response of 38.7%. The average age of respondents was 29.25±6.4 years old and predominantly finished the graduation or bachelor degree between 2001 and 2010. More than half hadn´t carried out any specialization in neurologic rehabilitation area. The top 5 modalities most used in the rehabilitation of upper limb in acute stroke are Goal Oriented Tasks (93.4% n=141, Motor Learning (89.4% n=135, Passive Mobilization (88.7% n=134, Task Repetition (87.4% n=132 and Bobath/Neurodevelopmental Therapy (86.9% n=131. Conclusions: The main modalities used for physiotherapists in upper limb rehabilitation in acute stroke have sparse levels of evidence. It is important to alert teachers, formers, physiotherapists and students for interventions with supported scientific results.

  5. Paramedic Learning Style Preferences and Continuing Medical Education Activities: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staple, Louis; Carter, Alix; Jensen, Jan L; Walker, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Paramedics participate in continuing medical education (CME) to maintain their skills and knowledge. An understanding of learning styles is important for education to be effective. This study examined the preferred learning styles of ground ambulance paramedics and describes how their preferred learning styles relate to the elective CME activities these paramedics attend. All paramedics (n=1,036) employed in a provincial ground ambulance service were invited to participate in a survey containing three parts: demographics, learning style assessed by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI), and elective CME activity. 260 paramedics (25%) participated in the survey. Preferred learning styles were: assimilator, 28%; diverger, 25%; converger, 24%; and accommodator, 23%. Advanced life support (ALS) providers had a higher proportion of assimilators (36%), and basic life support (BLS) providers had a higher proportion of divergers (30%). The learning style categories of CME activities attended by paramedics were: assimilators, 25%; divergers, 26%; convergers, 25%; and accommodators, 24%. These results suggest that paramedics are a diverse group of learners, and learning style differs within their demographics. Paramedics attend CME activities that complement all learning styles. Organizations providing education opportunities to paramedics should consider paramedics a diverse learning group when designing their CME programs.

  6. What Factors are Important to Patients when Assessing Treatment Response: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Thomas, Kim S; Schmitt, Jochen; Chalmers, Joanne R; Deckert, Stefanie; Aoki, Valeria; Weisshaar, Elke; Ojo, Jumoke Ahubelem; Svensson, Åke

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the perspective of international patients on individual symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in determining treatment response. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the importance of symptoms from the patient's perspective. Patients were asked: "How important are these features in deciding whether or not a treatment is working?", and rated symptoms on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were approached via Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) collaborators and self-selected to take part in the on-line survey. Patients from 34 countries (n = 1,111) completed the survey; of these, 423 (38.3%) were parents of children with eczema. Nine items were rated as being "quite important" or "very important" by more than 80% of the respondents: itch, pain/soreness, skin feels hot or inflamed, bleeding, involvement of visible or sensitive body sites, cracks, sleep difficulties, amount of body affected, and weeping/oozing. These results may be of use in determining the face validity of scales from a cross-cultural patients' perspective.

  7. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Canutama Municipality in Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gonçalves Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease. In the northern region of Brazil, a human parasite infection has been reported through a coprological survey. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in fecal samples of 11 individuals. Knowledge of the infection in animals or the presence of snails is necessary to address the possibility of the parasite cycle occurrence in that region. The aim of this study was to describe the transmission of human fascioliasis in Canutama, Amazonas, in Western Amazonia, Brazil. Methods. Serological (ELISA and Western Blot, WB and parasitological analyses were carried out in humans. In addition, the presence of the intermediate snail host within the community was examined. Results. A total of 434 human samples were included in the study, of which 36 (8.3% were reactive by ELISA and 8 (1.8% were reactive by WB. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in one human sample. The occurrence of the intermediated host was recorded and 31/43 specimens were identified as Lymnaea columella. Conclusion. Canutama constitutes a focus of transmission of human fascioliasis. This study describes the first serological survey for human fascioliasis, as well as its simultaneous occurrence in human hosts and possible intermediates performed in northern Brazil.

  8. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. Methods: A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Results: Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Conclusions: Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects. Citation: Khoury S, Carra MC, Huynh N, Montplaisir J, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism-tooth grinding prevalence, characteristics and familial aggregation: a large cross-sectional survey and polysomnographic validation. SLEEP 2016;39(11):2049–2056. PMID:27568807

  9. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes-Solís Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of

  10. Prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedy, D K; Sidebotham, M; Gamble, J; Pallant, Julie; Fenwick, J

    2017-01-09

    The health and wellbeing of midwives are important considerations for workforce retention and quality care. The occurrence and relationships among mental health conditions such as burnout and depression have received little attention. We investigated the prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives. An online survey was conducted in September 2014. Participants were recruited through the Australian College of Midwives and professional networks. The survey sought personal and professional details. Standard measures included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) (Personal, Work and Client subscales), and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The sample was collapsed into two groups according to DASS clinical cut-offs (normal/mild versus moderate/severe/extreme). Effect size statistics were calculated and judged according to Cohen's guidelines. One thousand thirty-seven surveys were received. Respondents were predominantly female (98%), with an average age of 46.43 years, and 16.51 years of practice. Using a CBI subscale cut-off score of 50 and above (moderate and higher), 64.9% (n = 643) reported personal burnout; 43.8% (n = 428) reported work-related burnout; and 10.4% (n = 102) reported client-related burnout. All burnout subscales were significantly correlated with depression, anxiety and stress, particularly personal and work-related burnout with Spearman's rho correlations ranging from .51 to .63 (p stress (22.1%) symptoms. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significant differences between groups with depression (r = .43), anxiety (r = .41) and stress (r = 48) having a medium size effect on burnout. Prevalence of personal and work-related burnout in Australian midwives was high. The physical and psychological exhaustion associated with the different types of burnout were reflected in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Further research is needed to support the personal well-being of

  11. Unhealthy lifestyle, poor mental health, and its correlation among adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.

  12. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  13. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rovsing, HC

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present...... survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22-93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0......-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P spondylolysis (P spondylolysis in both men and women (P

  14. Cultural diversity training for UK healthcare professionals: a comprehensive nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Jovanovic, Ana; Sharma, Pankaj

    2008-10-01

    Healthcare inequalities within the UK based on patients' ethnicity have been found over the last five years in a large number of medical specialties. One possible explanation for this lies in ignorance of ethnic minority healthcare needs among professionals. Cultural diversity programmes have been shown to improve patient outcomes including compliance, yet these are not as yet requirements for any UK healthcare professionals with the exception of psychiatrists. This paper documents the frequency, regional variation, characteristics and motivations for cultural diversity training through a questionnaire survey of the educational leads of every UK medical school, postgraduate deanery and schools of nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and pharmacy. The results showed a wide variation in teaching practices between healthcare professions and geographical regions. This study provides evidence for the need for national guidelines to incorporate cultural competency training by all UK healthcare professional training bodies.

  15. Are activity limitations associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in stroke patients? A cross-sectional, clinical survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    stroke patients were invited to complete four activity limitations measurements: Barthel Index, mobility velocity, mobility distance, mobility aids and one LUTS measurement: the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire. Of 519 stroke patients, 482 subjects were eligible. Results......Objective. To assess self-reported activity limitations in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify their association with prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby...... time that activity limitations are closely related to LUTS in stroke patients and that rehabilitation should also be directed towards the treatment of LUTS....

  16. Usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopathic therapists – A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escher Max

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent years the market for homeopathic education media has increasingly diversified with old (books, seminars and new media (video-seminars, pc-programs, homeo-wiki and internet-courses. However, little is known about homeopaths’ preferences in using educational media and their requirements of this topic. Aim This survey was designed to gain a better understanding of the usage and appraisal of educational media by homeopaths. Methods 192 homeopathic practitioners (GPs and health practitioners at a educational conference were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire covering the topics “formal education and context of work” (9 items, “homeopathic practise and usage (24 items, “utilization of educational media” (9 items and “favoured attributes for educational media” (11 items. Results Out of 192 homeopaths who attended the conference, 118 completed the questionnaire (response rate 61.5%. For their continuing homeopathic education they predominantly indicated to use books (scale value from 0 = never to 2 = always: 1.72 and seminars (1.54 whereas journals (0.98 and the internet (0.65 were used less often. The most favoured attributes concerning medical education media were reliability (1.76, relevance for clinical practice (1.74 and user friendliness (1.6. Less favoured attributes were inexpensiveness (1.1, graphical material (0.92 and interactivity (0.88. Conclusions The survey illustrates the current situation of medical education media in homeopathy. Although there are parallels to earlier research conducted in conventional GPs, homeopaths are more likely to refer to classical media. New education tools should be designed according to these preferences.

  17. Cross-sectional online survey of research productivity in young Japanese nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yumiko; Fukahori, Hiroki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Narama, Miho; Kono, Ayumi; Atogami, Fumi; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Okaya, Keiko; Takamizawa, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the factors affecting the research productivity of young nursing faculty in Japan. An online survey targeting young nursing scholars (aged ≤ 39 years) who were members of the Japan Academy of Nursing Science was conducted from October to November 2012. Of 1634 potential respondents, 648 completed the survey (39.7%), and 400 full-time faculty of a baccalaureate degree program were selected for the analysis. The numbers of English-language and Japanese publications in the past 3 years were regressed onto personal characteristics, such as academic degree and type of university. The mean numbers of publications in English and Japanese in the past 3 years were 0.41 and 1.63, respectively. Holding a doctoral degree was significantly related to a higher number of publications in English and Japanese (e(β) = 5.78 and e(β) = 1.89, respectively). Working at a national university (e(β) = 2.15), having a research assistant (e(β) = 2.05), and the ability to read research articles in English (e(β) = 2.27) were significantly related to more English-language publications. Having the confidence to conduct quantitative research (e(β) = 1.67) was related to a larger number of Japanese publications. The lack of mentoring (e(β) = 0.97) and university workload (e(β) = 0.96) were associated with a lesser number of Japanese publications. The research productivity of young nursing faculty appeared to be quite low. Strategies to enhance research productivity in young nursing faculty, such as encouraging the achievement of a doctoral degree or enrichment of research resources, should be undertaken. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  18. General practitioners' views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-08

    Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as 'membership organisations' but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had 'ownership' of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  19. General practitioners’ views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Design and setting Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. Method The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. Results While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as ‘membership organisations’ but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had ‘ownership’ of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. Conclusion CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. PMID:28596217

  20. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

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    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  1. Probiotic guidelines and physician practice: a cross-sectional survey and overview of the literature.

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    Draper, K; Ley, C; Parsonnet, J

    2017-08-24

    Probiotic use by patients and physicians has dramatically increased over the last decade, although definitive evidence is often lacking for their use. We examined probiotic-prescribing practices among health care providers (HCP) at a tertiary medical centre and compared these practices to clinical guidelines. HCP at the Stanford Medical Center received a survey on probiotic prescribing practices including choice of probiotic and primary indications. A broad overview of the literature was performed. Among 2,331 HCP surveyed, 632 responded. Of the 582 of these who routinely prescribed medications, 61% had recommended probiotic foods or supplements to their patients. Women and gastroenterologists were more likely to prescribe probiotics (odds ratio (OR): 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-2.1; OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5-10.1, respectively). Among probiotic prescribers, 50% prescribed inconsistently or upon patient request, and 40% left probiotic choice to the patient. Common indications for probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus GG, were prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (79 and 66%, respectively). Probiotics were often prescribed for 'general bowel health' or at patient request (27 and 39% of responders, respectively). Most respondents (63%) thought an electronic medical record (EMR) pop-up would change probiotic prescribing patterns. However, a review of published guidelines and large trials found inconsistencies in probiotic indications, dosages and strain selection. Probiotic prescribing is common but lacks consistency, with choice of probiotic frequently left to the patient, even for indications with some strain-specific evidence. Implementation of EMR pop-ups/pocket guides may increase consistency in probiotic prescribing, although the lack of clear and consistent guidelines must first be addressed with large, well-designed clinical trials.

  2. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey.

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    Cetorelli, Valeria; Sasson, Isaac; Shabila, Nazar; Burnham, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    In August 2014, the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attacked the Yazidi religious minority living in the area of Mount Sinjar in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate the number and demographic profile of Yazidis killed and kidnapped. The survey covered the displaced Yazidi population from Sinjar residing in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Fieldwork took place between 4 November and 25 December, 2015. A systematic random sample of 1,300 in-camp households were interviewed about the current household composition and any killings and kidnappings of household members by ISIS. Of the 1,300 interviewed households, 988 were Yazidi from Sinjar. Yazidi households contained 6,572 living residents at the time of the survey; 43 killings and 83 kidnappings of household members were reported. We calculated the probability of being killed and kidnapped by dividing the number of reported killings and kidnappings by the number of sampled Yazidis at risk, adjusting for sampling design. To obtain the overall toll of killings and kidnappings, those probabilities were multiplied by the total Yazidi population living in Sinjar at the time of the ISIS attack, estimated at roughly 400,000 by the United Nations and Kurdish officials. The demographic profile of those killed and kidnapped was examined, distinguishing between children and adults and females and males. We estimated that 2.5% of the Yazidi population was either killed or kidnapped over the course of a few days in August 2014, amounting to 9,900 (95% CI 7,000-13,900) people in total. An estimated 3,100 (95% CI 2,100-4,400) Yazidis were killed, with nearly half of them executed-either shot, beheaded, or burned alive-while the rest died on Mount Sinjar from starvation, dehydration, or injuries during the ISIS siege. The estimated number kidnapped is 6,800 (95% CI 4,200-10,800). Escapees recounted the abuses they had suffered, including forced religious

  3. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey.

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    Valeria Cetorelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked the Yazidi religious minority living in the area of Mount Sinjar in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate the number and demographic profile of Yazidis killed and kidnapped.The survey covered the displaced Yazidi population from Sinjar residing in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Fieldwork took place between 4 November and 25 December, 2015. A systematic random sample of 1,300 in-camp households were interviewed about the current household composition and any killings and kidnappings of household members by ISIS. Of the 1,300 interviewed households, 988 were Yazidi from Sinjar. Yazidi households contained 6,572 living residents at the time of the survey; 43 killings and 83 kidnappings of household members were reported. We calculated the probability of being killed and kidnapped by dividing the number of reported killings and kidnappings by the number of sampled Yazidis at risk, adjusting for sampling design. To obtain the overall toll of killings and kidnappings, those probabilities were multiplied by the total Yazidi population living in Sinjar at the time of the ISIS attack, estimated at roughly 400,000 by the United Nations and Kurdish officials. The demographic profile of those killed and kidnapped was examined, distinguishing between children and adults and females and males. We estimated that 2.5% of the Yazidi population was either killed or kidnapped over the course of a few days in August 2014, amounting to 9,900 (95% CI 7,000-13,900 people in total. An estimated 3,100 (95% CI 2,100-4,400 Yazidis were killed, with nearly half of them executed-either shot, beheaded, or burned alive-while the rest died on Mount Sinjar from starvation, dehydration, or injuries during the ISIS siege. The estimated number kidnapped is 6,800 (95% CI 4,200-10,800. Escapees recounted the abuses they had suffered, including forced

  4. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with cesarean section in Lebanon - A retrospective study based on a sample of 29,270 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Sandy M; Kacim, Mohammad; Kostev, Karel

    2017-12-01

    During the last decades, there has been an alarming and dramatic increase in the number of cesarean births in both developed and undeveloped countries. This increase has not been clinically justified but, nevertheless, has raised an important number of issues. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with the high cesarean section rates in Lebanon. This study is based on a sample of 29,270 Lebanese women who were pregnant between 2000 and 2015. Among these, 14,327 gave birth by cesarean section and 14,943 gave birth vaginally. To identify the risk factors of cesarean section, logistic regression was applied as a statistical method using the SPSS statistical package. Of the 29,270 pregnant women included in the study, 49% had cesarean sections while 51% gave birth vaginally. Repeat cesarean section accounted for 23% while vaginal birth after cesarean accounted for only 0.2% of deliveries. In addition, weekdays were associated with a preference of providers to carry out more cesarean sections. According to an analysis of our data using logistic regression, the risk factors associated with the increase in cesarean section rates were advanced maternal age, elective cesarean section, malpresentation of fetus, multiple birth, prolonged pregnancy, prolonged labor, and fetal distress. Based on these results, it is recommended that a new health policy be implemented to reduce the number of unnecessary cesarean deliveries in Lebanon. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A distributional and cytological survey of the presently recognized taxa of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae.

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    F. Douglas Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.

  6. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

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    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  7. Use of tobacco and alcohol by Swiss primary care physicians: a cross-sectional survey

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    Künzi Beat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health behaviours among doctors has been suggested to be an important marker of how harmful lifestyle behaviours are perceived. In several countries, decrease in smoking among physicians was spectacular, indicating that the hazard was well known. Historical data have shown that because of their higher socio-economical status physicians take up smoking earlier. When the dangers of smoking become better known, physicians began to give up smoking at a higher rate than the general population. For alcohol consumption, the situation is quite different: prevalence is still very high among physicians and the dangers are not so well perceived. To study the situation in Switzerland, data of a national survey were analysed to determine the prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking among primary care physicians. Methods 2'756 randomly selected practitioners were surveyed to assess subjective mental and physical health and their determinants, including smoking and drinking behaviours. Physicians were categorised as never smokers, current smokers and former smokers, as well as non drinkers, drinkers (AUDIT-C Results 1'784 physicians (65% responded (men 84%, mean age 51 years. Twelve percent were current smokers and 22% former smokers. Sixty six percent were drinkers and 30% at risk drinkers. Only 4% were never smokers and non drinkers. Forty eight percent of current smokers were also at risk drinkers and 16% of at risk drinkers were also current smokers. Smoking and at risk drinking were more frequent among men, middle aged physicians and physicians living alone. When compared to a random sample of the Swiss population, primary care physicians were two to three times less likely to be active smokers (12% vs. 30%, but were more likely to be drinkers (96% vs. 78%, and twice more likely to be at risk drinkers (30% vs. 15%. Conclusion The prevalence of current smokers among Swiss primary care physicians was much lower than in the general

  8. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

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    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  9. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ola Bola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. Methods A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. Results 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively. Conclusions Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study

  10. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

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    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  11. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  12. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Bola; Crabb, Jim; Tayo, Adetokunbo; Gleadow Ware, Selena H; Dhar, Arup; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2011-11-04

    Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively). Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study demonstrated that exposure to inter personal violence within the last

  13. Factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Abbas; Soivong, Pratum; Lasuka, Duangruedee; Juntasopeepun, Phanida

    2017-12-01

    This cross-sectional design study aimed to describe quality of life and examine factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 280 older adults from ten villages in two southern districts. The results demonstrate that the majority of the participants reported an overall moderate score of quality of life. Moreover, participants' sleep problems, depression, religiosity, and activities of daily living were negatively correlated with quality of life whereas social support and health service availability were positively correlated with quality of life. Implementing intervention programs upon the significant related factors to improve older adults' quality of life is recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Suicide Ideation: Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Survey of Working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Witt, Katrina; LaMontagne, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychosocial working factors such as job control, job demands, job insecurity, supervisor support, and workplace bullying as risk factors for suicide ideation. We used a logistic analytic approach to assess risk factors for thoughts of suicide in a cross-sectional sample of working Australians. Potential predictors included psychosocial job stressors (described above); we also controlled for age, gender, occupational skill level, and psychological distress. We found that workplace bullying or harassment was associated with 1.54 greater odds of suicide ideation (95% confidence interval 1.64 to 2.05) in the model including psychological distress. Results also suggest that higher job control and security were associated with lower odds of suicide ideation. These results suggest the need for organizational level intervention to address psychosocial job stressors, including bullying.

  15. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-04-23

    Students' self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students' self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities. A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students' study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity. Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  16. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. School nurse experiences with prescription opioids in urban and rural schools: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison-Sharp, Ella; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the use of prescription opioids in schools. The current study aimed to: (1) describe the context within which school nurses encounter student opioid prescriptions; (2) assess school nurses' preferences for training and student education; and (3) explore urban-rural differences in school nurses' experiences and training preferences. A convenience sample of school nurses (n = 633) from North Carolina and South Carolina participated in a brief, anonymous, online survey. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and statistical tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) were performed to investigate urban-rural differences. Many school nurses (40.3%) had encountered a student with an opioid prescription, but only 3.6% had naloxone available in case of an overdose. Most school nurses (69.9%), especially rural school nurses, believed students would benefit from opioid education (74.9 versus 66.6%, p = 0.03). The majority of school nurses (83.9%) were interested in opioid-related training. Many school nurses encounter students with prescription opioids and would like additional opioid-related training. The potential benefits of providing naloxone access to prevent opioid-related deaths at schools should be explored.

  18. Correlates of sunscreen use among high school students: a cross-sectional survey

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    Coups Elliot J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents put themselves at risk of later skin cancer development and accelerated photo-aging due to their high rates of ultraviolet radiation exposure and low rates of skin protection. The purpose of the current study was to determine which of the Integrative Model constructs are most closely associated with sunscreen use among high school students. Methods The current study of 242 high school students involved a survey based on the Integrative Model including demographic and individual difference factors, skin protection-related beliefs and outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, self-efficacy, sunscreen cues and availability, intentions, and sunscreen use. Our analyses included multiple linear regressions and bootstrapping to test for mediation effects. Results Sunscreen use was significantly associated with female gender, greater skin sensitivity, higher perceived sunscreen benefits, higher skin protection importance, more favorable sunscreen user prototype, stronger skin protection norms, greater perceived skin protection behavioral control, and higher sunscreen self-efficacy. Intentions to use sunscreen mediated the relationships between most skin protection-related beliefs and sunscreen use. Conclusions The current study identified specific variables that can be targeted in interventions designed to increase sunscreen use among adolescents.

  19. Self-stigma by people diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression and anxiety: Cross-sectional survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abd Al-Hadi; Musleh, Mahmoud

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated self-attitudes towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. A survey was conducted with 564 people with a schizophrenia, depression and anxiety who are currently being treated at a psychiatric clinic in Amman, Jordan. The research found that stigma towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety was based around three factors: preconceived stereotypes, personal responsibility/blame and the perceived inability of a patient to recover. Schizophrenia, in particular, was linked more strongly to negative stereotypes and an inability to recover and less associated to personal responsibility/blame in comparison to depression and anxiety. Three identical stigma factors emerged for each diagnosis which reflected themes identified in previous literature. People with schizophrenia are seen as more dangerous and less likely to recover than those suffering from other mental illness. Anxiety was seen most favourably by the self; it was associated with less negative stereotypes and seen as more likely to cure. Interestingly, anxiety and depression were seen almost identically. The self-perception of mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety, have important implications for the planning of anti-stigma and awareness raising programmes. By gaining a thorough understanding of these perceptions and the rationale behind them, it may be possible to develop effective, tailor-made interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sources of Information During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-04-01

    On January 9, 2014, a faulty storage tank leaked 10,000 gallons of an industrial coal-processing liquid into the Elk River in West Virginia, contaminating the drinking water of 9 counties collectively known as the Kanawha Valley. In the context of this event, we explored the relationship between social determinants and (1) the timeliness with which residents learned about the crisis, (2) the source of information, (3) opinions on the source of information, (4) information-seeking behaviors, and (5) knowledge acquired. Between February 7 and 26, 2014, we conducted a survey of 690 adult residents of West Virginia. Descriptive statistics and multivariable statistical models were performed. Information about water contamination spread quickly, with 88% of respondents from the affected counties hearing about the incident on the same day it occurred. Most people received the information from local television news (73%); social media users had 120% increased odds of knowing about the recommended behaviors. People who had a favorable opinion of the source of information demonstrated better knowledge of recommended behaviors. The use of local television news during a crisis is important for timely dissemination of information. Information exposure across segments of the population differed on the basis of the population's background characteristics. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:196-206).

  1. Evaluating the late career nurse initiative: a cross-sectional survey of senior nurses in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Jeffs, Lianne; Rizk, Paul; Laporte, Daniel R; Chilcote, Autumn Marie; Bai, Yu Qing

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the late career nurse initiative on nurse perceptions of their work environment, workplace burnout, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to remain. The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care introduced the late career nurse initiative with the goal of improving the retention of front-line nurses aged 55 and over by implementing a 0.20 full-time equivalent reduction of physically or psychologically demanding duties, enabling nurses to engage in special projects for the improvement of their organisations and patient care. A sample of 902 nurses aged 55 and over from acute and long-term care facilities were surveyed using valid and reliable questionnaires. Nurses who had participated in the initiative did not differ significantly from those who had not in terms of workplace burnout, job satisfaction, length of service or intention to remain within their current organisation. The late career nurse initiative participants reported significantly higher perceptions of managers' ability, leadership and support and their level of participation in hospital affairs. The late career nurse initiative was associated with perceived differences in nurses' work environment but not outcomes. Leaders need to pay attention to how late career nurses are selected and matched to organisational projects. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mobile Phone Use in Psychiatry Residents in the United States: Multisite Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

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    Gipson, Shih; Torous, John; Boland, Robert; Conrad, Erich

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology ownership in the general US population and medical professionals is increasing, leading to increased use in clinical settings. However, data on use of mobile technology by psychiatry residents remain unclear. In this study, our aim was to provide data on how psychiatric residents use mobile phones in their clinical education as well as barriers relating to technology use. An anonymous, multisite survey was given to psychiatry residents in 2 regions in the United States, including New Orleans and Boston, to understand their technology use. All participants owned mobile phones, and 79% (54/68) used them to access patient information. The majority do not use mobile phones to implement pharmacotherapy (62%, 42/68) or psychotherapy plans (90%, 61/68). The top 3 barriers to using mobile technology in clinical care were privacy concerns (56%, 38/68), lack of clinical guidance (40%, 27/68), and lack of evidence (29%, 20/68). We conclude that developing a technology curriculum and engaging in research could address these barriers to using mobile phones in clinical practice. ©Shih Gipson, John Torous, Robert Boland, Erich Conrad. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 01.11.2017.

  3. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

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    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  4. International Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Health Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Cross-sectional Survey

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    Grace D. Reilly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a major cause of disability and poor quality of life (QOL. Previous studies have shown differences in MS health outcomes between countries. This study aimed to examine the associations between international regions and health outcomes in people with MS. Self-reported data were taken from the Health Outcomes and Lifestyle In a Sample of people with Multiple Sclerosis online survey collected in 2012. The 2,401 participants from 37 countries were categorized into three regions: Australasia, Europe, and North America. Differences were observed between regions in disability, physical and mental health QOL, fatigue, and depression, but most of these disappeared after adjusting for sociodemographic, disease, and lifestyle factors in multivariable regression models. However, adjusted odds for disability were higher in Europe [odds ratio (OR: 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28 to 3.67] and North America (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.51 compared to Australasia. There may be other unmeasured factors that vary between regions, including differences in access and quality of healthcare services, determining disability in MS. When assessing differences in MS health outcomes, lifestyle factors and medication use should be taken into consideration.

  5. Nurse managers' perception of night-shift napping: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Dalky, Heyam F; Raeda, AbuAlRub F; Esraa, Aldalqamouni A

    2017-10-04

    Night-shift work often results in sleep deprivation, and this in turn results in fatigue that jeopardizes both nurse and patient safety. Napping is considered a viable deterrent to fatigue, yet hospital administration has been slow to adopt napping. To identify nurse managers' knowledge and approval of napping practices for nurses on night shifts. Nurse managers at nine Jordanian hospitals (n = 129) were surveyed using an Arabic version of a questionnaire previously used in a Canadian study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe results, and a one-way ANOVA was used to determine if relationships existed among nurse manager's approval of napping and nurse demographic characteristics. The majority of nurse managers (61%) knew nurses were napping during breaks. However, the managers reported there was no written policy for napping. A majority thought there were more benefits to napping than drawbacks. Some 55% of nurse managers recognized fatigue as a cause of errors or incidents regarding patient safety, and 40% perceived fatigue to be a factor in staff injuries. This study supports an urgent need for shared responsibility among nursing administration, and bedside nurses to develop evidence-based programs to counteract the effects of nurse fatigue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physical Activity Levels Among Adults in Uganda: Findings From a Countrywide Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Guwatudde, David; Kirunda, Barbara E; Wesonga, Ronald; Mutungi, Gerald; Kajjura, Richard; Kasule, Hafisa; Muwonge, James; Bahendeka, Silver K

    2016-09-01

    Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. PA data were collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calculated the percentage of participants meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA recommendations, and the types of intense-specific duration of PA. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to identify factors associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations. Of the 3987 participants, 3758 (94.3%) met the WHO PA recommendations. Work-related PA of moderate intensity, and travel-related PA contributed most to participants' overall weekly duration of PA, each contributing 49.6% and 25.2% respectively. The median weekly duration of all moderate-intensity PA was 1470 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 540 to 2460). Weekly duration of all vigorous-intensity PA was low with a median of 0 minutes (IQR = 0 to 1080). The median daily sedentary time was 120 minutes (IQR = 60 to 240). Factors significantly associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations were body mass index and level of education. PA levels in Uganda are high, mostly achieved through travel and work-related activities of moderate intensity.

  7. The impact of an ostomy on older colorectal cancer patients: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Verweij, N M; Hamaker, M E; Zimmerman, D D E; van Loon, Y T; van den Bos, F; Pronk, A; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Schiphorst, A H W

    2017-01-01

    Ostomies are being placed in 35 % of patients after colorectal cancer surgery. As decision-making regarding colorectal surgery is challenging in the older patients, it is important to have insight in the potential impact due to ostomies. An internet-based survey was sent to all members with registered email addresses of the Dutch Ostomy Patient Association. The response rate was 49 %; 932 cases were included of whom 526 were aged Ostomy-related limitations were similar in the different age groups, just as uncertainty (8-10 %) and dependency (18-22 %) due to the ostomy. A reduced quality of life was experienced least in the oldest old group (24 % vs 37 % of the elderly and 46 % of the younger respondents, p ostomy was observed. Older ostomates do not experience more limitations or psychosocial impact due to the ostomy compared to their younger counterparts. Over the years, impact becomes less distinct. Treatment decision-making is challenging in the older colorectal cancer patients but ostomy placement should not be withheld based on age alone.

  8. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  9. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

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    Giovino, Gary A; Mirza, Sara A; Samet, Jonathan M; Gupta, Prakash C; Jarvis, Martin J; Bhala, Neeraj; Peto, Richard; Zatonski, Witold; Hsia, Jason; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna M; Asma, Samira

    2012-08-18

    Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote

  10. Reasons for discontinuation of GLP1 receptor agonists: data from a real-world cross-sectional survey of physicians and their patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Sikirica MV

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mirko V Sikirica,1 Alan A Martin,2 Robert Wood,3 Andrea Leith,3 James Piercy,3 Victoria Higgins3 1Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK; 3Diabetes, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, Cheshire, UK Aim: Nonadherence to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1 RAs is relatively common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This study sought to identify reasons why patients discontinue GLP1 RAs.Materials and methods: Retrospective data from the Adelphi Diabetes Disease Specific Programme were used. Physicians managing patients with T2DM were surveyed via face-to-face interviews, and patients treated for T2DM were surveyed via self-completed questionnaires. Patient data were stratified by current versus prior GLP1 RA use.Results: Physicians (n=443 most frequently reported inadequate blood glucose control (45.6%, nausea/vomiting (43.8%, and gastrointestinal (GI side effects (36.8% as reasons for GLP1 RA discontinuation. Patients (n=194 reported the GI-related issues “Made me feel sick” (64.4% and “Made me throw up” (45.4% as their top reasons for discontinuation. The most common problems reported (excluding cost for those currently using GLP1 RAs were “Prefer oral medication over injections” (patients 56%, physicians 32.6%, “Made me feel sick” (patients 38.1%, physicians 16.3%, and “Did not help lose weight” (patients 25.4%, physicians 18%. The most bothersome problems for patients globally (frequency reporting very/extremely bothersome (excluding cost were “Difficult to plan meals around” (55.6%, “Made me throw up” (51.6%, and “Caused weight gain” (50%.Conclusion: Both patients and physicians reported GI-related issues as a prominent factor, but disparities between patient experiences and physician perceptions were revealed, suggesting gaps in physician–patient communication. Understanding patients

  11. Poor stroke risk perception despite moderate public stroke awareness: insight from a cross-sectional national survey in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Melikoki, Vasiliki; Perifanos, George; Perlepe, Kalliopi; Gioulekas, Fotios; Karagiannaki, Anastasia; Tsantzali, Ioanna; Lazarou, Chrysanthi; Beradze, Nikolaos; Poulianiti, Evdoxia; Poulikakou, Matina; Palantzas, Theofanis; Kaditi, Stavrina; Perlepe, Fay; Sidiropoulos, George; Papageorgiou, Kyriaki; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Vemmos, Konstantinos; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Dalekos, George N

    2015-04-01

    Although stroke is the fourth cause of death in Western societies, public stroke awareness remains suboptimal. The aim of this study was to estimate stroke risk perception and stroke awareness in Greece through a cross-sectional telephone survey. A trained interview team conducted this cross-sectional telephone survey between February and April 2014 using an online structured questionnaire. Participants were selected using random digit dialing of landline and mobile telephone numbers with quota sampling weighted for geographical region based on the most recent General Population Census (2011). Between February and April 2014, 723 individuals (418 women [58%], 47.4 ± 17.8 years) agreed to respond. Among all respondents, 642 (88.8%) were able to provide at least 1 stroke risk factor; 673 respondents (93.08%) were able to provide correctly at least 1 stroke symptom or sign. When asked what would they do in case of acute onset of stroke symptoms, 497 (68.7%) responded that they would either call the ambulance or visit the closest emergency department. Only 35.3%, 18.9%, 17.2%, 20.7%, and 15.0% of respondents with atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and current smoking, respectively, considered themselves as being in high risk for stroke. Stroke risk perception in Greece is low despite moderate public stroke awareness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are People With Chronic Diseases Interested in Using Telehealth? A Cross-Sectional Postal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in telehealth—the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management—as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. Objective This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Methods Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Results Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs

  13. Are people with chronic diseases interested in using telehealth? A cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-05-08

    There is growing interest in telehealth-the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management-as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs, access difficulties, technology

  14. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim MH; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Background Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. Methods A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. Results In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Conclusions Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. PMID:29748164

  15. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

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    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  16. Nine-year comparison of presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes in Ireland: a national cross-sectional survey

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    Shelley Emer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter time to treatment is associated with lower mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. A previous (1994 survey showed substantial delays for acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Ireland. The present study compared current practice with 1994 and surveyed acute coronary syndromes as a more complete contemporary evaluation of critical cardiac care than assessing AMI alone. Methods Following ethics committee approval, all centres (N = 39 admitting acute cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care unit provided information on 1365 episodes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Results Since 1994, median hospital arrival to thrombolysis time was reduced by 41% (76 to 45 minutes. Thrombolysis was delivered more often in the emergency department in 2003 (48% vs 2%. Thrombolysis when delivered in the emergency department was achieved faster than thrombolysis delivered in intensive/coronary care (35 mins v 60 mins; z = 5.62, p Conclusions Substantial improvements in time to thrombolysis have occurred since 1994, probably relating to treatment provision in emergency departments. Patient delay pre-hospital is still the principal impediment to effective treatment of ACS. A recent change of definition of AMI may have precluded an exact comparison between 1994 and 2003 data.

  17. Nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses’ knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. Materials and methods A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. Results A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). Conclusions The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse’s knowledge level on phlebotomy. PMID:29187796

  18. Nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy in tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Dangan

    2018-02-15

    In China, phlebotomy practice is mostly executed by nurses instead of phlebotomists. Our hypothesis was that these nurses may lack of knowledge on phlebotomy, especially factors influencing quality of blood samples. This study aims to assess the overall nurses' knowledge on phlebotomy to provide reference for improving blood sampling practice in China. A survey was conducted involving nurses from 4 regions and 13 hospitals in China. A phlebotomy knowledge questionnaire was designed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute H3-A6 guidelines, combining with the situations in China. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the knowledge level and its influencing factors. A total of 3400 questionnaires were distributed and 3077 valid questionnaires were returned, with an effective return rate of 90.5%. The correct rates of patient identification, hand sanitization, patient assessment, tube mixing time, needle disposing location and tube labelling were greater than 90%. However, the correct rates of order of draw (15.5%), definition of an inversion (22.5%), time to release tourniquet (18.5%) and time to change tube (28.5%) were relatively low. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the correct rates of the aforementioned four questions were mainly related to the regional distribution of the hospitals (P < 0.001). The knowledge level on phlebotomy among Chinese nurses was found unsatisfactory in some areas. An education program on phlebotomy should be developed for Chinese nurses to improve the consistency among different regions and to enhance nurse's knowledge level on phlebotomy.

  19. Factors Affecting Learning Among Undergraduate Nursing Students: Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Linu Sara George

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing education expects the students to be competent enough to render quality care for their patients in hospital as well as community setting. To reach the level of expected competency, the students must undergo vigorous training during their undergraduate education. The learning experience of the students is influenced by many factors. Aim: To identify the factors, affecting learning as perceived by the students. Materials and Methods: This descriptive survey was conducted among 414 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in selected Nursing Colleges. Background information was collected using Demographic Proforma and the factors affecting learning were identified using Likert Scale. Factors were identified by exploratory factor analysis using extraction method of principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Results: Majority (73.7% of the samples were between 22-25 years of age, 93.2% were females, most (38.9% were studying in the fourth year of nursing, 50% of the students enrolled in the study had chosen nursing as a career due to job security in future, 58.7% students did not spent time every day for their studies and majority (89.1% had English as their medium of instruction in Pre-university college. Factor analysis identified five factors (Learning environment, Supportive services, Teacher characteristics, Learner challenges and Personal factors that affect the student learning. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that perception of students do have an influence on factors affecting learning. The study findings will help the faculty members to bring in changes for the best learning outcome.

  20. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass

  1. Attitude and Intention Regarding Pain Management among Chinese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang-Yu; Xu, Yin-Chuan; Lin, Dan-Ni; Jin, Jing-Feng; Yan, Min

    2017-08-01

    Optimal pain management is a priority in effective nursing care. Lack of sufficient pain knowledge associated with inadequate pain management has been proved. However, the intention, defined as the predictor of behavior, regarding pain management remains unknown. Therefore, the study was to determine the attitude and intention regarding pain management among Chinese nursing students and investigate the underlying determinants and their interactions in terms of intention toward pain management. The Pain Management Survey Questionnaire, comprising the key determinants of the theory of planned behavior-that is, direct attitude, belief-based intention, subjective norm, direct control, and indirect control-was used to collect data from 512 nursing students who undertook clinical rotation in an affiliated hospital of a medical college in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis, or structural equation modeling analysis. Chinese nursing students reported negative attitudes and behavioral intentions toward pain management. Direct control, subjective norm, belief-based attitude, and indirect control independently predicted nursing students' intention to treat patients with pain. Direct control was the strongest predictor. Structural equation modeling analysis further revealed 39.84% of the variance associated with intention that could be explained by determinants of the theory of planned behavior. Additionally, educational school level and previous pain management training had great effects on pain management intention. Overall, this study identified intention as an important factor in effective pain treatment. Chinese nursing students have negative attitudes and insufficient intention to pain management. Therefore, hospitals and universities in China should manage these factors to improve nursing students' practice regarding pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing

  2. Beliefs and behavior regarding e-cigarettes in a large cross-sectional survey

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    Sébastien Couraud

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although e-cigarette use is increasing dramatically, numerous concerns persist regarding toxicity and their role in smoking cessation. We assessed beliefs and behavior regarding e-cigarettes in an adult French population.The 4th French nationwide observational survey, EDIFICE 4, was conducted among representative samples of 1602 laypersons (age, 40–75 years from 12 June-10 July 2014, using the quota method. Profile, beliefs and behavior were assessed by phone interviews of the participating lay population with no history of cancer (N = 1463. Tobacco use, nicotine dependence (Fagerström test and e-cigarette use were assessed.E-cigarette users represented 6% of the study lay population. E-cigarette users regarded e-cigarettes as helpful for quitting tobacco smoking and reducing the risk of lung cancer. Current dual users (e-cigarettes + cigarettes were more likely to attempt to quit than current exclusively cigarette smokers (odds ratio, 3.15 [1.74–5.70], and to consider themselves at higher risk for lung cancer (OR 3.85 [2.47–5.99]. They also considered e-cigarette vapor to be less toxic than tobacco smoke in terms of both active and passive exposure.Dual users typically consider themselves at higher risk for cancer and intend to quit smoking. Physicians should be made aware of this specific sub-population for whom e-cigarettes may be a useful trigger in the smoking cessation process. Keywords: Electronic cigarettes, Smoking cessation, Tobacco use, Lung neoplasms, Pulmonary disease, Risk factors, Smoke

  3. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  4. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  5. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary

    2011-07-13

    Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

  6. Vaginal health and hygiene practices and product use in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Cunningham, Shannon; Albert, Arianne; Money, Deborah M; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-03-23

    The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions. An anonymous online survey, available in English and French, was distributed across Canada. The sample consisted of 1435 respondents, 18 years or older, living in Canada. Respondents reported engaging in diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behavioral practices, including the use of commercially manufactured products and homemade and naturopathic products and practices. Over 95% of respondents reported using at least one product in or around the vaginal area. Common products and practices included vaginal/genital moisturizers, anti-itch creams, feminine wipes, washes, suppositories, sprays, powders, and waxing and shaving pubic hair. The majority of the sample (80%) reported experiencing one or more adverse vaginal/genital symptom in their lifetime. Participants who had used any vaginal/genital product(s) had approximately three times higher odds of reporting an adverse health condition. Several notable associations between specific vaginal/genital health and hygiene products and adverse health conditions were identified. This study is the first of its kind to identify the range and prevalence of vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors in Canada. Despite a lack of credible information about the impact of these behaviors on women's health, the use of commercially manufactured and homemade products for vaginal/genital health and hygiene is common. Future research can extend the current exploratory study by identifying causal relationships between vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors and changes to the vaginal microbiome.

  7. Antibiotic overusage and resistance: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric dentists

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    Sapna Konde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most human orofacial infections originate from odontogenic infections and prescribing antibiotics has become a ubiquitous phenomenon. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the inappropriate, indiscriminate, and irrational use of antibiotics leading to antibiotic resistance as a global problem. Objective: The objective of this survey is to compare the antibiotic prescription pattern and the awareness of antibiotic resistance among Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists. Materials and methods: A hundred BDS practitioners and 100 pediatric dentists included in the study were given a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The questionnaire comprised information pertaining to antibiotic prescription for most common oral conditions, commonly prescribed antibiotics, their dosage, etc. Results: The majority of the practitioners prescribed antibiotics for managing oral diseases. On comparing the prescription patterns between the BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists, there was an overprescription in the BDS group for many conditions, which was statistically significant. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug in both the groups. In the presence of an anaerobic infection, the most preferred drug was a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid with metronidazole. With regard to the duration of antibiotic prescription, 74% BDS practitioners prescribed antibiotics as a 3-day course and 60% pediatric dentists resorted to a 5-day course, which was statistically significant. The awareness regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic resistance was found to be adequate in both the groups. However, there was a general lack of awareness with regard to the guidelines for antibiotic prescribing in both the groups. Conclusion: Practitioners should prescribe antibiotics in accordance with the guidelines to curb antibiotic resistance, an emerging public health

  8. The impact of psoriasis on work-related problems: a multicenter cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sampogna, F; Romano, G V; Merolla, R; Guida, G; Gualberti, G; Paparatti, U D L; Amerio, P; Balato, N; Potenza, C

    2014-12-01

    Psoriasis can have cumulative physical and psychosocial effects preventing sufferers from achieving their full-life potential. Few studies have addressed the impact of psoriasis on work-related characteristics. To evaluate the impact of psoriasis on education prospects and work limitations in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This study was conducted in 29 dermatology centres across Italy. Information was collected by questionnaire during office visits. A total of 787 patients (64% male, aged 50 years) completed the questionnaire. At the time of the survey, mean Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score and disease duration were 10 and 19 years respectively. Current smokers had higher PASI scores compared to non-smokers (10.8 vs. 9.4, P = 0.02). Plaque psoriasis was the most frequently described (91.2%). Fifty-five percent of patients had limited expectations of career progression. Similarly, in 42% of cases, psoriasis reduced the prospects of improvement in employment status and 35% of patients reported having reduced earning potential. Approximately 60% of patients reported that psoriasis localized to their hands or feet caused work limitations, whilst in about 25%, it caused them to quit their job. Approximately 37% of patients reported having lost between 3-10 work days in the past 3 months due to clinical assessment or treatment. Logistic regression revealed that gender, low standard of education, number of localizations, shame, anger and self-esteem were predictors significantly associated with limitations in work. Moderate-to-severe psoriasis has a profound negative impact on the employment capacity of patients in Italy. Psoriasis also contributes to days lost from work, affects job opportunity, career prospects and revenue potential. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

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    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  10. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: results of use in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-04-14

    Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the collection of information on

  11. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyörälä Satu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  12. The association of alcohol and smoking with CKD in a Japanese nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayako; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Kuragano, Takahiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria. Modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol contribute to CKD. Recent cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption attenuates the decline of the GFR and smoking has been previously shown to be associated with CKD. However, the association of smoking and alcohol consumption on CKD is not entirely clear. To examine whether there is evidence to assume that smoking is an effective modifier of the association between CKD and alcohol consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study of a population of people who presented for a health checkup under a program that targets the insured population aged ≧40 years using data from the Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan between April 2008 and March 2009. Of the 506 807 participants aged ⩾40 years, 292 013 (57.6%) were included in the present analysis. Outcomes were kidney dysfunction, as an eGFR of smoking might have modified the potential benefits of alcohol to prevent CKD.

  13. Violence against children perpetrated by peers: A cross-sectional school-based survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated with both physical and emotional violence were similar and overlapping, and included exposure to interparental violence, having an attitude supportive of violence against children from school staff, not living with biological parents, working for payment, and higher SDQ score. However, we found that younger age, sharing sleeping area with an adult and achieving a higher educational performance score, were specifically associated with physical violence. On the other hand, being female, walking to school, reporting disability and eating one meal on the previous day, were particularly associated with emotional violence. Interventions to reduce peer violence should focus on family contexts, school environments and those with poor socio-economic status may need extra support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gender Discrimination among Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeeh Hashmi, Ali; Rehman, Amra; Butt, Zeeshan; Awais Aftab, Muhammad; Shahid, Aimen; Abbas Khan, Sahar

    2013-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and magnitude of gender discrimination experienced by undergraduate medical students, and its repercussions on their academic performance and emotional health. A cross sectional study of 500 medical and dental students studying at a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Majority (78%) of students reported being victims of gender discrimination. Females were the main perpetrators (70.8%).Most common forms were denied opportunities (63%), followed by neglecting students' needs (44.3%), and unethical talk (43.6%). Most common places of gender discrimination were teachers' offices (43.7%) and lecture halls (37.2%). Most of the perpetrators were clerical staff (48%) and professors (43%).Gender discrimination did not affect the academic performance of most victims (62.6%). The most common emotional responses were anger (57.6%), frustration (46.7%) and helplessness (40.3%). 52.4% of students said that gender discrimination still continues and the majority (83.3%) did not report the problem to college authorities. RESULTS demonstrate that gender discrimination is widely prevalent in undergraduate medical education. Females are both the main victims as well as the main perpetrators. In most cases gender discrimination does not affect academic performance but does cause emotional distress.

  15. Comorbidity of headache and functional constipation in children: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Inaloo, Soror; Dehghani, Seyyed Mohsen; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi

    2014-10-01

    Constipation and headache are prevalent conditions among children worldwide. Previous studies have shown the relationship between upper gastrointestinal complaints and headache in children. However, the association with lower gastrointestinal complaints such as constipation has not been investigated until present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between headache and chronic functional constipation in children aged 4-12 years old. This cross-sectional study has evaluated the prevalence of headache in 326 children in Shiraz, Iran 2012. All the subjects and their parents were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of constipation and headache. Children with constipation were selected from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic Affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from healthy children attending Shiraz schools. Diagnosis of headache and constipation were made based on the second Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) and ROME III criteria, respectively. Headache prevalence among children with constipation was significantly higher (19.8%) than that of the control group (5.6%) [Odds ratio (OR) 4.192, pheadache subtypes (15.1% vs 2.8%, OR 25, pheadache subtypes of different severity (mild, moderate, severe), only mild headache was significantly more prevalent in constipated children (14.9% vs. 1.4%, in the control group, respectively, pheadache and chronic functional constipation, which can result from the effect of these comorbid conditions with emotional stress, depression, and anxiety.

  16. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peihang; Zhang, Xue; Sun, Yihua; Ma, Hongkun; Jiao, Mingli; Xing, Kai; Kang, Zheng; Ning, Ning; Fu, Yapeng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2017-01-19

    This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence ( p gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals.

  17. Workplace Violence against Health Care Workers in North Chinese Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV against healthcare workers, explore the frequency distribution of violence in different occupational groups, and determine which healthcare occupation suffers from WPV most frequently. Furthermore, the current study aimed to compare risk factors affecting different types of WPV in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 1899 healthcare workers from Heilongjiang, a province in Northeastern China, completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83.3% reported exposure to workplace violence, and 68.9% reported non-physical violence. Gender, education, shift work, anxiety level, and occupation were significantly correlated with physical violence (p < 0.05 for all correlations. Additionally, age, professional title, and occupation were correlated with non-physical violence, which critically affected doctors. Thus, gender, age, profession, anxiety, and shift work were predictive of workplace violence toward healthcare workers. Doctors appeared to experience non-physical workplace violence with particularly higher frequency when compared to nurses and other workers in hospitals. For healthcare workers, interventions aimed at WPV reduction should be enacted according to the types of violence, profession, and other factors underlying the various types of WPV in hospitals.

  18. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73) who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40) of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively) of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62), whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20). Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the importance of that some healthy

  19. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

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    East Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with

  20. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straten Annemieke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between general happiness and these variables in a Latin American sample. Methods We conducted a survey to examine the status of 3461 students aged between 17 and 24 years old (mean age = 19.89; SD = 1.73 who attended University of Santiago de Chile during 2009. The healthy behaviours indexes assessed were the frequency of daily physical exercise, fruits/vegetables intake, breakfast and lunch intake, smoking, alcohol and other drugs consumption. We also included the assessment of perceived stress and Body Mass Index. All of them were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Results The univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female and younger was related to a higher happiness, as well as that people self-reporting daily physical activity, having lunch and fruits and vegetables each day had a higher likelihood (OR between 1.33 and 1.40 of being classified as "very happy". Those who informed felt stressed in normal circumstances and during tests situations showed a lower likelihood (0.73 and 0.82, respectively of being considered "very happy". Regarding drug consumption, taking tranquilizers under prescription was negative related to "subjective happiness" (OR = 0.62, whereas smoking was positive associated (OR = 1.20. Conclusions The findings of this study mainly support the relationship between happiness and health outcomes through the two pathways previously mentioned. They also underscore the

  1. Nurse perceptions of safety climate in Australian acute hospitals: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Soh, Sze-Ee; Morello, Renata; Rifat, Sheral; Brand, Caroline; Barker, Anna

    2017-03-16

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to explore nurse perceptions of safety climate in acute Australian hospitals. Methods Participants included 420 nurses who have worked on 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) Short Form was used to quantify nurse perceptions of safety climate and benchmarked against international data. Generalised linear mixed models were used to explore factors that may influence safety climate. Results On average, 53.5% of nurses held positive attitudes towards job satisfaction followed by teamwork climate (50.5%). There was variability in SAQ domain scores across hospitals. The safety climate and perceptions of hospital management domains also varied across wards within a hospital. Nurses who had worked longer at a hospital were more likely to have poorer perceptions of hospital management (β=-5.2; P=0.014). Overall, nurse perceptions of safety climate appeared higher than international data. Conclusions The perceptions of nurses working in acute Victorian and New South Wales hospitals varied between hospitals as well as across wards within each hospital. This highlights the importance of surveying all hospital wards and examining the results at the ward level when implementing strategies to improve patient safety and the culture of safety in organisations. What is known about the topic? Prior studies in American nursing samples have shown that hospitals with higher levels of safety climate have a lower relative incidence of preventable patient complications and adverse events. Developing a culture of safety in hospitals may be useful in targeting efforts to improve patient safety. What does this paper add? This paper has shown that the perceptions of safety climate among nurses working in acute Australian hospitals varied between hospitals and across wards within a hospital. Only half the nurses also reported positive attitudes towards job satisfaction and teamwork climate. What are

  2. A lack of information engagement among colorectal cancer screening non-attenders: cross-sectional survey

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    Lindsay C. Kobayashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NHS Cancer Screening Programmes in England now operate a policy of ‘informed choice’ about participation in cancer screening. Engagement with written information about screening is important to facilitate informed choice, although the degree to which the screening-eligible public engages with the available information is unknown. We examined the association between reading of the standard informational booklet (‘Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' and participation in the nationally organised NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1307 adults who were age-eligible for nationally organised colorectal cancer (CRC; also called bowel cancer in a population-based survey in England in 2014. Respondents were shown an image of ‘The Facts’ booklet and were asked how much of it they had read when they received their screening invitation (‘none’, ‘a little’, ‘some’, ‘most’, ‘almost all’, or ‘all’. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between screening uptake status (‘never’ vs. ‘ever’ and self-reported reading of ‘The Facts’ booklet (dichotomised to ‘none vs. ‘any’, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation-based social grade. Results Overall, 69 % of the sample (908/1307 had participated in CRC screening at least once (‘ever’ screeners. One-fifth of the sample reported that they had read ‘none’ of ‘The Facts’ booklet (22 %; 287/1307, while half reported having read ‘all’ of it (52 %; 680/1307. Reading of the booklet was strongly differential according to screening uptake status: nearly two-thirds of ‘never’ screeners had read none of ‘The Facts’ booklet (63 %; 251/399, compared to less than one in twenty ‘ever’ screeners (4 %; 36/908; adjusted OR = 39.0; 95 % CI: 26.2-58.1 for reading ‘none’ in ‘never’ vs.

  3. Congenital cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and enterovirus infection in Mozambican newborns at birth: A cross-sectional survey

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    Varo, Rosauro; Maculuve, Sonia; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Calderón, Enrique J.; Esteva, Cristina; Carrilho, Carla; Ismail, Mamudo; Vieites, Begoña; Friaza, Vicente; Lozano-Dominguez, María del Carmen; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique

    2018-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers attending Manhiça District Hospital upon delivery. Information on maternal risk factors was ascertained. Dried umbilical cord (DUC) samples were collected in filter paper for CMV, B19V and EV detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) to test for CMV by RT-PCR. Maternal blood samples and placental biopsy samples were also obtained to investigate CMV maternal serology, HIV status and immunopathology. Results From September 2014 to January 2015, 118 mothers/newborn pairs were recruited. Prevalence of maternal HIV infection was 31.4% (37/118). CMV RT-PCR was positive in 3/115 (2.6%) of DUC samples and in 3/96 (6.3%) of NPA samples obtained from neonates. The concordance of the RT-PCR assay through DUC with their correspondent NPA sample was moderate (Kappa = 0.42 and pCMV IgG. RT-PCR of EV and B19V in DUC were both negative in all screened cases. No histological specific findings were found in placental tissues. No risk factors associated to vertical transmission of these viral infections were found. Conclusions This study indicates the significant occurrence of vertical transmission of CMV in southern Mozambique. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the true burden, clinical relevance and consequences of congenital infections with such pathogens in resource-constrained settings. PMID:29538464

  4. Educational and economic determinants of food intake in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional survey

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    Padrão Patricia D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences of educational and economic variables on food consumption may be useful to explain food behaviour and nutrition policymaking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of educational and economic factors in determining food pattern in Portuguese adults. Methods A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of Portuguese adults (20977 women and 18663 men. Participants were distributed in four categories according to years of education (≤4, 5–9, 10–12, and >12 and income (≤314 euros, 315–547 euros, 548–815 euros, and >815 euros. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the magnitude of the association between food groups and education/income, adjusting for confounders. Results In both genders, the odds favouring milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption, increased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years; the odds favouring wine, and spirits consumption decreased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years. In males, the odds favouring starchy foods and meat consumption decreased significantly with income, while for milk, the odds increased with higher income (those having >815 euros compared to those with ≤314 euros. Conclusions The low and high income groups are or tend to be similar in regard to several food groups consumption, and access to education/information appears to be the key element to a better food pattern as indicated by higher frequency of milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption.

  5. Perceptions and Practices in Parents of Saudi Children with Asthma: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Abu-Shaheen, Amani; AlFayyad, Isamme; Nofal, Abdullah; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; AlMadaney, May; Heena, Humariya

    2018-02-21

    To acquire more precise data on perceptions and practices adopted by Saudi parents of asthmatic children regarding asthma and its management. A cross-sectional study was conducted through 2015 on 292 parents of children (aged 3-15 years) with asthma visiting the outpatient clinics and the emergency departments (ED) of two tertiary care medical centers in Riyadh city, using a self-administered questionnaire. Out of 292 parents who participated in this study, 60.2% reported that their children had previously difficulty in sleeping at night due to an asthma attack. The majority (70.4%) of parents was worried about adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids, and 58.8% of participants were worried about other inhaler adverse effects, whereas 29.0% believed that their child would develop a dependency on asthma medications. Around 82% reported visiting the pediatric emergency department for asthma treatment and 61.2% of participants reported going to the routine physician follow-up visits. Family income was significantly associated with parental concerns about the adverse effects of inhaled medications and corticosteroids as well as drug dependency (p = 0.044, p = 0.033, and p = 0.001, respectively). One hundred and seventy (57%) of the children used inhaled β-agonists while only 39 (13.3%) were using inhaled corticosteroids. Participated parents had misperceptions regarding the use of asthma medications and thus adopted ineffectual practices in its management. Therefore, to enhance asthma care and compliance in children, it is essential to develop different comprehensive parental education programs.

  6. Work aggravated asthma in Great Britain: a cross-sectional postal survey.

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    Bradshaw, Lisa; Sumner, Jade; Delic, Julian; Henneberger, Paul; Fishwick, David

    2018-04-12

    Work aggravated asthma (WAA), asthma made worse by but not caused by workplace exposures, can have a negative impact on personal, social, financial and societal costs. There is limited data on prevalence levels of WAA in Great Britain (GB). The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WAA in GB, and to assess its potential causes.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional postal questionnaire study was carried out. A total of 1620 questionnaires were sent to three populations of adults with asthma. The questionnaire recorded; demographic details, current job, self-reported health status, presence of asthma and respiratory symptoms, duration and severity of symptoms and medication requirements. Questions relating to work environment and employers' actions were included, and each participant completed an assessment of health-related quality of life using the EuroQol Research Foundation EQ-5D. There were 207 completed questionnaires; response rates were 6% primary care, 45% secondary care and 71% Asthma UK. This represented a 13% overall response rate. Self-reported prevalence of WAA was 33% (95% CI 24.4-41.6%). In all, 19% of workers had changed their job because of breathing problems. Workers with WAA reported higher levels of work-related stress. Quality of life using the EQ-5D utility index was lower in those with WAA. WAA is a common problem in asthmatics in GB. This result is in keeping with international prevalence rates. Further research could assist the understanding of the most significant aggravants to asthma at work and help define appropriate interventions by workplaces.

  7. Medical Students' Opinions About the Commercialization of Healthcare: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Civaner, M Murat; Balcioglu, Harun; Vatansever, Kevser

    2016-06-01

    There are serious concerns about the commercialization of healthcare and adoption of the business approach in medicine. As market dynamics endanger established professional values, healthcare workers face more complicated ethical dilemmas in their daily practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of medical students to accept the assertions of commercialized healthcare and the factors affecting their level of agreement, factors which could influence their moral stance when market demands conflict with professional values. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three medical schools in Turkey. The study population consisted of first-, third-, and sixth-year students, and 1,781 students participated in total. Students were asked to state if they agreed with the assertions of commercialized healthcare. Of all students, 87.2 per cent agreed with at least one of the assertions, and one-fifth (20.8 per cent) of them agreed with more than half of the assertions. First-year students significantly agreed more with some assertions than third- and sixth-year students. Being female, having mid-level family income, choosing medicine due to idealistic reasons, and being in the third or sixth years of medical study increased the probability of disagreement. Also, studying in a medical school that included integrated lectures on health policies, rights related to health, and health inequities, along with early field visits, increased the probability of disagreement. This study suggests that agreement with the assertions of commercialized healthcare might be prevalent among students at a considerable level. We argue that this level of agreement is not compatible with best practice in professional ethics and indicates the need for an educational intervention in order to have physicians who give priority to patients' best interests in the face of market demands.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of quality of life in colostomates: a report from Iran

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    Mahjoubi Bahar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the complications that colostomies may cause, patient self-assessments of their social, emotional, physical, sexual and functional conditions may help their surgeons to evaluate the impact of their interventions or use supplementary methods to maintain patient functional status or decrease its loss to the minimum level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Quality of Life in Iranian patients with colostomies and to compare the age and gender differences among them. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 to evaluate the quality of life of 96 patients who had undergone surgery for rectal cancer and had permanent colostomies. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancers Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-CR38 were used to assess patient Quality of Life. Results The mean scores for the functional subscales were as follows: Physical Function, 70.9 (±2.2; Role Function, 68.4 (±2.6; Emotional Function, 56.9 (±2.7; Cognitive Function, 68.7 (± 2.6; and Social Function, 64.2 (±3.3. The EORTC questionnaires showed significant differences between males and females. Males had better body image scores. Sexual Function and Sexual Enjoyment were impaired in both males and females, but males had significantly higher scores and better roles in Physical and Sexual Functions. More sexual enjoyment problems in older ages were observed in both males and females. Conclusion Having a colostomy was associated with a high level of emotional and sexual function impairment. The differing challenges between males and females should encourage us to design sex-specific interventions that improve the quality of life in this group of patients.

  9. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania

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    Starkuviene Skirmante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. Methods The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. Results The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 ± 8.8 and 14.2 ± 9.5 respectively, p Conclusion The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long-term unemployed. This leads to arguing for common efforts in providing needed social support and health care to reduce the effects of unemployment on mental health.

  10. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

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    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  11. Pregabalin Use Among Users of Illicit Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southern Germany.

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    Snellgrove, Brendan J; Steinert, Tilman; Jaeger, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    The antiepileptic drug pregabalin is one of the best-selling pharmaceutical products worldwide. There are increasing concerns about its potential for misuse and dependence especially among patients with former or current substance use disorders (SUDs). Our objective was to clarify the extent and pattern of pregabalin use as well as motives and predictors in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with patients on a detoxification ward for illicit drugs at the Center for Psychiatry, Südwürttemberg, Ravensburg in southern Germany from August 2012 until July 2013. We used an extensive questionnaire, part of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and urine samples. Of the 253 participating patients, 56% had used pregabalin at least once. Of these, 92% had acquired it at least in part from illegal sources. The main motives for the use of pregabalin were the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms, the augmentation of other psychotropic substances, and the psychotropic effects of pregabalin itself. Predictors for pregabalin use were opioid and sedative use as well as younger age. The criteria of dependency according to DSM-IV was met by 11% of pregabalin users and 13% of urine samples were positive for pregabalin. Use of pregabalin is common among users of illicit drugs in large parts of southern Germany, with motives for use, acquisition, and mode of use suggesting misuse. The mode of use, especially intake of high doses and concomitant use of other drugs, poses a serious risk to this population, including the development of dependency.

  12. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey.

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    Torloni, M R; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, A P

    2014-04-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Systematic review. Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Articles with any information on CS. Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Organisational and individual support for nurses' ethical competence: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Poikkeus, Tarja; Suhonen, Riitta; Katajisto, Jouko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2018-05-01

    Nurses' ethical competence has been identified as a significant factor governing high quality of care. However, nurses lack support in dealing with ethical problems, and therefore managerial support for nurses' ethical competence is needed. This study aimed to analyse, from the perspective of nurse and nurse leaders, the level of nurses' and nurse leaders' ethical competence, perceptions of support for nurses' ethical competence at the organisational and individual levels and background factors associated with this support. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was employed. The Ethical Competence and Ethical Competence Support questionnaires were used to measure the main components. Descriptive statistics and multifactor analysis of variance were used for data analysis. The participants were 298 nurses and 193 nurse leaders working in specialised (48%/52%), primary (43%/36%) or private healthcare (5%/7%) in Finland. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. Nurses estimated their own ethical competence to be at an average level, whereas nurse leaders estimated their own competence at a high level. Nurses' and nurse leaders' perceptions of provided support for nurses' ethical competence was not at a high level. The positive agreement percentage related to organisational support was 44% among nurses and 51% among nurse leaders. The positive agreement percentage related to individual support was lower, that is, 38% among nurses and 61% among nurse leaders. University education had a positive association with some items of individual support. Despite the findings that ethical competence was estimated at a high level among nurse leaders, perceptions of support for nurses' ethical competence were not at a satisfactory level. At the organisational level, nurse leaders need to inform of ethical procedures and practices in orientation; encourage multidisciplinary ethics discussions and collaboration; and support

  14. A cross-sectional survey on nursing students' attitude towards research

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    Samia Saud Al Furaikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing research promotes optimum care for patients through evidence-based nursing practice. Students' attitude towards research motivates them to engage in research, develop research skills and apply research findings in clinical settings to promote positive patient outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards research component in order to discover implications for the best practices in teaching/learning process. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional investigation was carried out with purposively selected n = 186, level 5–8 students at the College of Nursing-A, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Al-Ahsa from 2016 to 2107. With informed, voluntary consent, data on students' attitudes towards research were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 32 items on a Likert scale of strongly agree (4 to strongly disagree (1 with the scores ranging from 32 to 128. Analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Results: The overall attitude towards research was positive with a mean score (68.4 ± 6.580. Most of the students (78% regarded that research is useful for the nursing profession. Positive attitude towards research was demonstrated by 68% of the nursing students, 61% reported that research plays an important role in professional and personal life, whereas the highest proportion of students (71% perceived research as a difficult, complicated, stressful subject and 64% reported statistical difficulty. Conclusion: Although many of the students have a favourable attitude towards the research process and acknowledge its usefulness and benefit to the nursing profession, many of them perceived their research course as stressful. Most of them reported having negative feelings and anxiety towards the research process. Incorporating research course(s into the curriculum at the pre-university level and

  15. Association between Menopausal Symptoms and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey in China.

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    Lingping Zhu

    Full Text Available The association between menopause and overactive bladder is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between menopausal symptoms and overactive bladder, and identify the risk factors for overactive bladder.A cross-sectional study was performed. The study included 403 women aged 36-76 years who visited the menopause clinic at Peking University First Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index questionnaires were used. Differences were assessed using descriptive statistics to determine any association between the overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index score, and to evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder.A total of 304 women were finally enrolled. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 9.43%, and the modified Kupperman index score; number of sexual problems; and frequency of urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings were significantly higher in patients with overactive bladder than in the patients without overactive bladder (p < 0.05. Menopausal symptoms (modified Kupperman index score ≥ 15 (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.095, p = 0.025 and a low frequency of sexual intercourse in the last 6 months (odds ratio: 2.580, 95% confidence interval: 1.228-5.422, p = 0.012 were identified as independent risk factors for overactive bladder. The frequency of sexual intercourse was found to decrease with an increase in the severity of overactive bladder (p = 0.004, linear-by-linear association = 0.001.Menopausal symptoms may be closely associated with overactive bladder, and sexual activity may be associated with the severity of overactive bladder. Moreover, sexual problems, urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings may be associated with overactive bladder.

  16. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

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    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  17. Exploring the missing link - Empathy among dental students: An institutional cross-sectional survey

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    Vikram Pal Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empathy plays an important role in healthy dentist and patient relationship. Hence, the aim of the study is to (a to measure the self-reported empathy levels among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. (b To review the trend of changes in empathy level with experience, age, and gender among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out in two private dental institutions situated in Sri Ganganagar, India, with a sample size of 978. Data were obtained from the 1 st to final year (BDS, interns, and postgraduate students from January to March 2015. An empathy level of students was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Health Profession Students Version Questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis using Kaiser′s criteria was undertaken to appraise the construct validity and dimensionality. Based on the results of the factor analysis, three factors were selected; labeled as "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "standing in patient′s shoes." Results: The majority of the students was female in a equivalent  ratio of 1338:618. There were significant differences in empathy scores by gender and age (P < 0.01. The lowest and highest mean empathy scores were found in postgraduate (mean = 108.77, standard deviation [SD] =9.12 and 1 st year (mean = 117.23, SD = 14.19 dental students, respectively. Conclusion: Dental educators should consider the likely decline in empathy among students as early as possible and adopt communication teaching strategies to promote the development of empathy and reduce the risk of further decline.

  18. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

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    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P; van den Broek, Nynke R

    2015-01-01

    For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  19. 'Do as we say, not as we do:' a cross-sectional survey of injuries in injury prevention professionals.

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    Ezzat, Allison; Brussoni, Mariana; Schneeberg, Amy; Jones, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    As the leading cause of death and among the top causes of hospitalisation in Canadians aged 1-44 years, injury is a major public health concern. Little is known about whether knowledge, training and understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms of injury would help with one's own prevention efforts. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we hypothesised that injury prevention professionals would experience fewer injuries than the general population. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed to Canadian injury prevention practitioners, researchers and policy makers to collect information on medically attended injuries. Relative risk of injury in the past 12 months was calculated by comparing the survey data with injury incidence reported by a comparable subgroup of adults from the (Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)) from 2009 to 2010. We had 408 injury prevention professionals complete the survey: 344 (84.5%) women and 63 (15.5%) men. In the previous 12 months, 86 individuals reported experiencing at least one medically attended injury (21,235 people per 100,000 people); with sports being the most common mechanism (41, 33.6%). Fully 84.8% individuals from our sample believed that working in the field had made them more careful. After accounting for age distribution, education level and employment status, injury prevention professionals were 1.69 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.03) times more likely to be injured in the past year. Despite their convictions of increasing their own safety behaviour and that of others, injury prevention professionals' knowledge and training did not help them prevent their own injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage

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    Raveesha R. Mugali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. Methods The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12–23 months. Results Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%, not aware of the need of vaccination (17%, no faith in vaccination (16%, mother was too busy (15%, and fear of side effects (11%. Conclusion The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  1. Health facility service availability and readiness for intrapartum and immediate postpartum care in Malawi: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Naoko Kozuki

    Full Text Available This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care. The survey collected data on availability of equipment, supplies, and medications, and health worker knowledge and performance scores on intrapartum care simulation and actual management of real clients at a subset of facilities. We ran linear regression models to identify predictors of high simulation performance of routine delivery care and management of asphyxiated newborns across all facilities surveyed. Key supplies for infection prevention and thermal care of the newborn were found to be missing in many of the surveyed facilities. At the health center level, 75% had no clinician trained in basic emergency obstetric care or newborn care and 39% had no midwife trained in the same. We observed that there were no proportional increases in available transport and staff at a facility as catchment population increased. In simulations of management of newborns with breathing problems, health workers were able to complete a median of 10 out of 16 tasks for a full-term birth case scenario and 20 out of 30 tasks for a preterm birth case scenario. Health workers who had more years of experience appeared to perform worse. Our study provides a benchmark and highlights gaps for future evaluations and studies as Malawi continues to make strides in improving facility-based care. Further progress in reducing the burden of neonatal and fetal death in Malawi will be partly predicated on guaranteeing

  2. Health facility service availability and readiness for intrapartum and immediate postpartum care in Malawi: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Oseni, Lolade; Mtimuni, Angella; Sethi, Reena; Rashidi, Tambudzai; Kachale, Fannie; Rawlins, Barbara; Gupta, Shivam

    2017-01-01

    This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care. The survey collected data on availability of equipment, supplies, and medications, and health worker knowledge and performance scores on intrapartum care simulation and actual management of real clients at a subset of facilities. We ran linear regression models to identify predictors of high simulation performance of routine delivery care and management of asphyxiated newborns across all facilities surveyed. Key supplies for infection prevention and thermal care of the newborn were found to be missing in many of the surveyed facilities. At the health center level, 75% had no clinician trained in basic emergency obstetric care or newborn care and 39% had no midwife trained in the same. We observed that there were no proportional increases in available transport and staff at a facility as catchment population increased. In simulations of management of newborns with breathing problems, health workers were able to complete a median of 10 out of 16 tasks for a full-term birth case scenario and 20 out of 30 tasks for a preterm birth case scenario. Health workers who had more years of experience appeared to perform worse. Our study provides a benchmark and highlights gaps for future evaluations and studies as Malawi continues to make strides in improving facility-based care. Further progress in reducing the burden of neonatal and fetal death in Malawi will be partly predicated on guaranteeing properly equipped and

  3. Antiretroviral Drug Use in a Cross-Sectional Population Survey in Africa: NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica M; Clarke, William; Kulich, Michal; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Breaud, Autumn; Olson, Matthew T; Marzinke, Mark A; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J; Eshleman, Susan H

    2017-02-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment benefits the treated individual and can prevent HIV transmission. We assessed ARV drug use in a community-randomized trial that evaluated the impact of behavioral interventions on HIV incidence. Samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey after a 3-year intervention period. ARV drug testing was performed using samples from HIV-infected adults at 4 study sites (Zimbabwe; Tanzania; KwaZulu-Natal and Soweto, South Africa; survey period 2009-2011) using an assay that detects 20 ARV drugs (6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 3 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 9 protease inhibitors; maraviroc; raltegravir). ARV drugs were detected in 2011 (27.4%) of 7347 samples; 88.1% had 1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± 1-2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. ARV drug detection was associated with sex (women>men), pregnancy, older age (>24 years), and study site (P < 0.0001 for all 4 variables). ARV drugs were also more frequently detected in adults who were widowed (P = 0.006) or unemployed (P = 0.02). ARV drug use was more frequent in intervention versus control communities early in the survey (P = 0.01), with a significant increase in control (P = 0.004) but not in intervention communities during the survey period. In KwaZulu-Natal, a 1% increase in ARV drug use was associated with a 0.14% absolute decrease in HIV incidence (P = 0.018). This study used an objective, biomedical approach to assess ARV drug use on a population level. This analysis identified factors associated with ARV drug use and provided information on ARV drug use over time. ARV drug use was associated with lower HIV incidence at 1 study site.

  4. Contributions to a shallow aquifer study by reprocessed seismic sections from petroleum exploration surveys, eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Drilling Company of Abu Dhabi, is conducting a 4-year study of the fresh and slightly saline groundwater resources of the eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate. Most of this water occurs in a shallow aquifer, generally less than 150 m deep, in the Al Ain area. A critical part of the Al Ain area coincides with a former petroleum concession area where about 2780 km of vibroseis data were collected along 94 seismic lines during 1981-1983. Field methods, acquistion parameters, and section processing were originally designed to enhance reflections expected at depths ranging from 5000 to 6000 m, and subsurface features directly associated with the shallow aquifer system were deleted from the original seismic sections. The original field tapes from the vibroseis survey were reprocessed in an attempt to extract shallow subsurface information (depths less than 550 m) for investigating the shallow aquifer. A unique sequence of reproccessing parameters was established after reviewing the results from many experimental tests. Many enhancements to the resolution of shallow seismic reflections resulted from: (1) application of a 20-Hz, low-cut filter; (2) recomputation of static corrections to a datum nearer the land surface; (3) intensive velocity analyses; and (4) near-trace muting analyses. The number, resolution, and lateral continuity of shallow reflections were greatly enhanced on the reprocessed sections, as was the delineation of shallow, major faults. Reflections on a synthetic seismogram, created from a borehole drilled to a depth of 786 m on seismic line IQS-11, matcheddprecisely with shallow reflections on the reprocessed section. The 33 reprocessed sections were instrumental in preparing a map showing the major structural features that affect the shallow aquifer system. Analysis of the map provides a better understanding of the effect of these shallow features on the regional occurrence, movement, and quality of

  5. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey: survey design and characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochmann N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nana Brochmann,1 Esben Meulengracht Flachs,2 Anne Illemann Christensen,3 Christen Lykkegaard Andersen,1 Knud Juel,3 Hans Carl Hasselbalch,1 Ann-Dorthe Zwisler4 1Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, 2Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, 3National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, 4Danish Knowledge Centre for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Objective: The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL survey of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. In Denmark, all MPN patients are treated in public hospitals and treatments received are free of charge for these patients. Therefore, MPN patients receive the best available treatment to the extent of its suitability for them and if they wish to receive the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. Material and methods: Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil Registration System and Statistics Denmark provided information regarding demographics. The survey contained 120 questions: validated patient-reported outcome (PRO questionnaires and additional questions addressing lifestyle. Results: A total of 4,704 individuals were registered with MPN diagnoses in the NPR of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62% responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70–79 years old, living with

  6. Antibiotic prescribing and patient satisfaction in primary care in England: cross-sectional analysis of national patient survey data and prescribing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Mark; White, Patrick; Jongsma, Hannah; Schofield, Peter; Armstrong, David

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about adverse effects on patient satisfaction may be an important obstacle to attempts to curtail antibiotic prescribing. To determine the relationship between antibiotic prescribing in general practice and reported patient satisfaction. Retrospective cross-sectional study of general practices in England. Data were obtained from the General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS) in 2012 (2.7 million questionnaires in England; 982 999 responses; response rate 36%); the national Quality and Outcomes Framework dataset for England, 2011-2012 (8164 general practices); and general practice and demographic characteristics. Standardised measures of antibiotic prescribing volumes were obtained for each practice in England during 2012-2013, together with 12 other nationally available prescribing variables. The role of antibiotic prescribing volume was identified as a determinant of GPPS scores and adjusted for demographic and practice factors using multiple linear regression. The final dataset consisted of 7800 (95.5%) practices. A total of 33.7 million antibiotic prescriptions were issued to a registered population of 53.8 million patients. Antibiotic prescribing volume was a significant positive predictor of all 'doctor satisfaction' and 'practice satisfaction' scores in the GPPS, and was the strongest predictor of overall satisfaction out of 13 prescribing variables. A theoretical 25% reduction in antibiotic prescribing volume would be associated with 0.5-1.0% lower patient satisfaction scores, a drop of 3-6 centile points in national satisfaction ranking. Patients were less satisfied in practices with frugal antibiotic prescribing. A cautious approach to antibiotic prescribing may require a trade-off in terms of patient satisfaction. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  7. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2006-07-05

    In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate) from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 +/- 8.8 and 14.2 +/- 9.5 respectively, p unemployment and BDI score had a positive correlation (r = 0.1968, p unemployed, the risk of depression increased significantly when the person was female, had an older age and had experienced more episodes of unemployment. Among the long-term unemployed, an older age was the risk factor for development of depression. However, higher education and income were the factors that significantly decreased the risk of developing depression for-short term as well as for long-term unemployed. The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long-term unemployed. This leads to arguing for common efforts in providing needed social support and health care to reduce the

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Na; Sun, Wei; Chi, Tie-Shuang; Wu, Hui; Wang, Lie

    2010-12-01

    Doctors, the major workforce in hospitals, are doing heavy emotional and physical work which may lead to depressive symptoms. However, in China, few studies are available pertaining to the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors among Chinese doctors in public hospitals. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September/October 2008. The study population comprised of 1,890 doctors registered and working in the 20 national hospitals in Liaoning province, northeast of China. A questionnaire that comprised depressive symptoms assessed by the Chinese Version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), demographic factors, work conditions, occupational stress, and coping strategies was distributed to these doctors. A total of 1,488 effective respondents became our subjects (effective response rate 78.7%). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the factors related to depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among doctors was 65.3%. Multivariate logistic analyses showed that high role insufficiency (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.66-2.78), worse doctor-patient relationship (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.62-2.64), having a chronic disease (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.31-2.27), serious role boundary (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.21-2.00), and role overload (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.11-1.81) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; whereas adequate rational coping (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45-0.76) and social support (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.98) were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Most Chinese doctors probably have depressive symptoms. Role insufficiency, doctor-patient relationship, and rational coping seemed to be crucial in relation to depressive symptoms. Efficient interventions such as taking further education course, improving communications with patients, and improving the ability

  9. Antecedents of hospital nurses' intention to leave the organization: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea; Manganelli, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Leadership and perceived organizational support inspire trust in the leader and in the organization. Consequently, these aspects may contribute to a reduction in job burnout among nurses and, in the end, of the intention on their part to leave the hospital. It is crucial to develop models in order to simultaneously test the correlations between these relevant psychosocial variables, so that complexity of the nursing work environment may be better understood. We expected to give support to and to further corroborate results in the literature linking perceived leadership style – and particularly servant leadership – perceived organizational support, trust in the leader and in the organization, job burnout among nurses and their subsequent intention to leave the hospital. Cross-sectional study. Two Italian large size public hospitals. Two samples including both graduates and non-graduates members of the nursing staff. Overall mean age was equal to 42.06 years while the general mean for tenure was 12.99 years. Data were collected in 2012. A regression model with latent variables was tested via structural equation modeling using LISREL. The multi-sample procedure was also applied in order to test invariance of results between the two samples. Servant leadership was positively associated with trust in the leader and perceived organizational support was positively associated with trust in the organization. Trust in the leader and trust in the organization displayed a negative correlation with the emotional exhaustion and cynicism factors of job burnout, and a positive correlation with the professional efficacy factor. Furthermore, trust scores mediated the effects of servant leadership and perceived organizational support on job burnout factors. The cynicism factor was negatively associated with intention to leave the organization and it also mediated the effects of both trust in the leader and servant leadership on intention to leave. On the other hand, trust in the

  10. Postnatal care utilization among urban women in northern Ethiopia: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Genet; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Gidey, Gebreamlak; Abrha, Kidan

    2018-05-30

    Postnatal care service enables health professionals to identify post-delivery problems including potential complications for the mother with her baby and to provide treatments promptly. In Ethiopia, postnatal care service is made accessible to all women for free however the utilization of the service is very low. This study assessed the utilization of postnatal care services of urban women and the factors associated in public health facilities in Mekelle city, Tigrai Region, Northern Ethiopia. A facility based cross sectional study design was used to assess post natal service utilization. Using simple random sampling 367 women who visited maternal and child health clinics in Mekelle city for postnatal care services during January 27 to April 2014 were selected. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. A binary and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the outcome variables. P-value less than 0.05 is used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of women who utilized postnatal care service was low (32.2%). Women who were private employees and business women were more likely to utilize postnatal care services (AOR = 6.46, 95% CI: 1.91-21.86) and (3.35, 95% CI: 1.10-10.19) respectively compared to house wives., Women who had history of one pregnancy were more likely to utilize the service (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.06-9.57) compared to women who had history of four and above pregnancies. Women who had knowledge of postnatal care service were also more likely to utilize postnatal care service (AOR = 14.46, 95% CI: 7.55-27.75) than women who lacked knowledge about the services. Postnatal care utilization in the study area is low. Knowledge on postnatal care services and occupation of women had positive impact on postnatal care service utilization. The Mekelle city administration health office and other stakeholders should support and encourage urban health extension workers and

  11. Role of the private sector in childbirth care: cross-sectional survey evidence from 57 low- and middle-income countries using Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Footman, Katharine; Cavallaro, Francesca; Lynch, Caroline A; Campbell, Oona M R

    2015-12-01

    Maternal mortality rates have decreased globally but remain off track for Millennium Development Goals. Good-quality delivery care is one recognised strategy to address this gap. This study examines the role of the private (non-public) sector in providing delivery care and compares the equity and quality of the sectors. The most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2000-2013) for 57 countries was used to analyse delivery care for most recent birth among >330 000 women. Wealth quintiles were used for equity analysis; skilled birth attendant (SBA) and Caesarean section rates served as proxies for quality of care in cross-sectoral comparisons. The proportion of women who used appropriate delivery care (non-facility with a SBA or facility-based births) varied across regions (49-84%), but wealth-related inequalities were seen in both sectors in all regions. One-fifth of all deliveries occurred in the private sector. Overall, 36% of deliveries with appropriate care occurred in the private sector, ranging from 9% to 46% across regions. The presence of a SBA was comparable between sectors (≥93%) in all regions. In every region, Caesarean section rate was higher in the private compared to public sector. The private sector provided between 13% (Latin America) and 66% (Asia) of Caesarean section deliveries. This study is the most comprehensive assessment to date of coverage, equity and quality indicators of delivery care by sector. The private sector provided a substantial proportion of delivery care in low- and middle-income countries. Further research is necessary to better understand this heterogeneous group of providers and their potential to equitably increase the coverage of good-quality intrapartum care. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Factors Associated with Utilization of Dipeptidyl-4 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasniza Zaman Huri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are oral antidiabetic agents recently introduced to Malaysia. Thus, limited data is available on their utilization patterns and factors associated with their use. This study aims to analyse the utilization patterns of DPP-4 inhibitors, factors that influenced the choice of agent, and the rationale for treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted to address the utilization pattern of DPP-4 inhibitors and factors that influence choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 299 subjects taking either sitagliptin or vildagliptin from September 2008 to September 2012 were included in the study. Sitagliptin was more frequently prescribed than vildagliptin. Of the patients prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors, 95% received combinations of these and other agents, whereas only 5% were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors as monotherapy. Factors affecting the utilization of DPP-4 inhibitors included age (P=0.049 and concomitant use of beta blockers (P=0.045 and aspirin (P=0.008. Early identification of factors associated with DPP-4 inhibitors is essential to enhance quality use of the drugs.

  13. Evolution of Facial Aesthetic Treatment Over Five or More Years: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Analysis of Continuous OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Alastair; Sadick, Neil; Brandt, Frederic; Trindade de Almeida, Ada Regina; Fagien, Steve; Goodman, Greg J; Raspaldo, Herve; Smith, Kevin; Darmody, Sarah; Gallagher, Conor J; Street, James; Romagnano, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Little information exists on how facial aesthetic treatments are incorporated into aesthetic regimens. Assess the evolution of facial aesthetic treatments in patients receiving long-term continuous onabotulinumtoxinA treatment. This international retrospective chart review included patients with ≥5 years of continuous onabotulinumtoxinA treatments including ≥1 glabellar lines treatment/year. Charts were reviewed for facial areas treated, number of treatments, doses/treatment visit, concomitant aesthetic procedures, and onabotulinumtoxinA-related adverse events. Data were collected from 5,112 onabotulinumtoxinA treatment sessions for 194 patients over an average of 9.1 years. Dosing was relatively stable over time; however, interinjection intervals increased. Glabellar lines' treatment temporally preceded crow's feet lines and forehead lines' treatment. A majority of patients (85%) also received treatment with fillers. Cumulative increases in onabotulinumtoxinA treatments occurred over time and by facial area corresponding with increases in treatments with injectable fillers, energy-based devices, and prescription topical creams. The longer the patients were treated, the younger they perceived themselves to look. Rates of adverse events were low. OnabotulinumtoxinA treatment evolved over time, coinciding with growth of the facial aesthetics market. Additional treatment modalities were added as complements to onabotulinumtoxinA. Long-term continuous onabotulinumtoxinA injections are an important component of contemporary facial aesthetic treatment regimens.

  14. Extrapulmonary Conditions, Concomitant of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, in Babies of the First 3 Years of Life: Results of a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kazakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few data on co-occurring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia diseases but there is no single point of view on their mutual effect.Objective: Our aim was to learn the structure and frequency of extrapulmonary disease, concomitant of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, in children aged up to 3 years.Methods. A retrospective analysis of histories of 93 children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia with an analysis of the consequences of perinatal pathology structure was carried out.Results. On average, each patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia accounted for 5 comorbidities. The most common (89; 96% were perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences. In children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia at the age of 3 years there was a relatively low incidence of hydrocephalus and, on the contrary, high — of infantile cerebral palsy. Violations of the organs of vision were found in 58 (62% children, malnutrition and other violations of physical development — in 58 (62% and 27 (29%, respectively, and the cardiovascular system pathology — in 59 (63%.Conclusion. The most commonly, extrapulmonary pathology, co-occuring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, includes neurological deficit with psychomotor retardation, violations of organs of vision, pathology of the cardiovascular system, malnutrition/delay in physical development.

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels derived from legal descriptions and surveys. Tied to section monuments with coordinates derived from traditional survey and GPS., Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2013. Parcels derived from legal descriptions and surveys. Tied to section monuments with coordinates derived from...

  16. Factors affecting cataract surgical coverage and outcomes: a retrospective cross-sectional study of eye health systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Susan; Schmidt, Elena; Jolley, Emma; Lindfield, Robert; Dean, William H; Cook, Colin; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Courtright, Paul

    2015-06-30

    Recently there has been a great deal of new population based evidence on visual impairment generated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), thanks to the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey methodology. The survey provides information on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment for planning services and measuring their impact on eye health in administrative "districts" of 0.5-5 million people. The survey results describing the quantity and quality of cataract surgeries vary widely between study sites, often with no obvious explanation. The purpose of this study was to examine health system characteristics that may be associated with cataract surgical coverage and outcomes in SSA in order to better understand the determinants of reducing the burden of avoidable blindness due to cataract. This was a descriptive study using secondary and primary data. The outcome variables were collected from existing surveys. Data on potential district level predictor variables were collected through a semi-structured tool using routine data and key informants where appropriate. Once collected the data were coded and analysed using statistical methods including t-tests, ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. Higher cataract surgical coverage was positively associated with having at least one fixed surgical facility in the area; availability of a dedicated operating theatre; the number of surgeons per million population; and having an eye department manager in the facility. Variables that were associated with better outcomes included having biometry and having an eye department manager in the facility. There are a number of health system factors at the district level that seem to be associated with both cataract surgical coverage and post-operative visual acuity outcomes. This study highlights the needs for better indicators and tools by which to measure and monitor the performance of eye health systems at the district level. It is unlikely that

  17. Airplane pilot mental health and suicidal thoughts: a cross-sectional descriptive study via anonymous web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alexander C; Donnelly-McLay, Deborah; Weisskopf, Marc G; McNeely, Eileen; Betancourt, Theresa S; Allen, Joseph G

    2016-12-15

    The Germanwings Flight 9525 crash has brought the sensitive subject of airline pilot mental health to the forefront in aviation. Globally, 350 million people suffer from depression-a common mental disorder. This study provides further information on this important topic regarding mental health especially among female airline pilots. This is the first study to describe airline pilot mental health-with a focus on depression and suicidal thoughts-outside of the information derived from aircraft accident investigations, regulated health examinations, or identifiable self-reports, which are records protected by civil aviation authorities and airline companies. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study via an anonymous web-based survey administered between April and December 2015. Pilots were recruited from unions, airline companies, and airports via convenience sampling. Data analysis included calculating absolute number and prevalence of health characteristics and depression scores. One thousand eight hundred thirty seven (52.7%) of the 3485 surveyed pilots completed the survey, with 1866 (53.5%) completing at least half of the survey. 233 (12.6%) of 1848 airline pilots responding to the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), and 193 (13.5%) of 1430 pilots who reported working as an airline pilot in the last seven days at time of survey, met depression threshold-PHQ-9 total score ≥ 10. Seventy-five participants (4.1%) reported having suicidal thoughts within the past two weeks. We found a significant trend in proportions of depression at higher levels of use of sleep-aid medication (trend test z = 6.74, p sexual harassment (z = 3.18, p = 0.001) or verbal harassment (z = 6.13, p < 0.001). Hundreds of pilots currently flying are managing depressive symptoms perhaps without the possibility of treatment due to the fear of negative career impacts. This study found 233 (12.6%) airline pilots meeting depression threshold and 75 (4.1%) pilots

  18. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY AMBROSIA LAKE, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 10, Part 40, Appendix A. The DP presents the geographical site, pertinent background information and the design for surface reclamation of the Section 4 evaporation ponds sediment material which is considered byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. As per the CFR requirements, the DP addresses the disposal of the uranium mill tailings in a manner as to protect human health and the environment (NRC 2006). At the request of the NRC's Headquarters and Region IV Offices, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performed confirmatory radiological surveys of the Section 4 Area evaporation ponds at the RAM Ambrosia Lake facility in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to verify that remedial actions were effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately described the final radiological conditions of the RAM Ambrosia Lake, Section 4 Areas.

  19. A cross-sectional survey to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the oral hygiene habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Oberoi, Avneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to October 2014 to assess the effect of SES on the oral hygiene habits. The questionnaire included the questions related to the demographic profile and assessment of the oral hygiene habits of the study population. Results: Toothbrush and toothpaste were being used significantly (P oral hygiene practices of the patients from upper and lower middle class was found to be satisfactory whereas it was poor among patients belonging to lower and upper lower class. PMID:29242690

  20. A cross-sectional survey to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the oral hygiene habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Oberoi, Avneet

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to October 2014 to assess the effect of SES on the oral hygiene habits. The questionnaire included the questions related to the demographic profile and assessment of the oral hygiene habits of the study population. Toothbrush and toothpaste were being used significantly ( P oral hygiene practices of the patients from upper and lower middle class was found to be satisfactory whereas it was poor among patients belonging to lower and upper lower class.

  1. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  2. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  3. Quality of life and well-being of people receiving haemodialysis treatment in Scotland: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshraifeen, Ali; McCreaddie, May; Evans, Josie M M

    2014-10-01

    End-stage renal disease is a complex, progressive and debilitating illness that affects patients' quality of life, physical and mental health, well-being, social functioning and emotional health. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in renal dialysis centres in Scotland to assess patients' health status and the impact of haemodialysis treatment on quality of life and well-being. Participants scored considerably lower than the UK general population in all domains of health-related quality of life, although mental health components were nearer to general population norms than physical health components. However, nearly half of the participants achieved a score on a general well-being questionnaire that was indicative of stress and anxiety. Increasing age was associated with better overall mental health but worse physical functioning. Increasing levels of hope and support were associated with improved general well-being. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Ana; García, Juan; de Mendoza, Carmen; Benito, Rafael; Aguilera, Antonio; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raul; Ramos, José M; Trigo, Matilde; Eirós, Jose M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Torres, Alvaro; Calderón, Enrique; Hernandez, Araceli; Gomez, Cesar; Marcaida, Goizane; Soriano, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 was examined in 5742 sera belonging to consecutive adult outpatients attended during June 2008 at 13 different hospitals across Spain. Overall, 58.8% were female. Foreigners represented 8% of the study population. Seven individuals were seropositive for HTLV-2 (overall prevalence 0.12%). No cases of HTLV-1 infection were found. All HTLV-2(+) subjects were Spanish natives, of whom six were coinfected with HIV-1 and five with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, all but one of the HTLV-2(+) subjects had been intravenous drug users. In summary, this cross-sectional survey suggests that the rate of HTLV infection in Spain is low, and is mostly represented by HTLV-2. Infected individuals are generally Spanish natives with a prior history of intravenous drug use and are coinfected with HIV-1 and/or HCV.

  5. REXIC project: retrospective cross-sectional study of documentation of informed consent for research biobanking in a public research and teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nobile

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Center for Transfusion Medicine, Cell Therapy and Cryobiology, Milan, Northern Italy, is the headquarter of the POLI-MI biobank. It co-ordinates the biobank activities of the Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan. Such activities require specific safeguarding of donors’ rights and protection of sensitive and genetic data. The Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico has set up a project on informed consent with the aim of developing awareness and understanding of this issue. Within this project, it has been decided to evaluate how consent for biobanking material is expressed. Design and methods. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and completeness of consent to biobanking in the POLI-MI biobank. This was a retrospective study carried out in 2012 on samples of consent declarations collected by biobank units in 2011. Some units used a single, standard consent model available from a previous POLI-MI biobank workgroup. Other units used models which had been previouly formulated. Evaluation was made using a form that indicated the essential elements of consent. Results. A total of 48 consent declarations were collected using the single, standard model and 84 were collected using other models. The consent declarations that used the single, standard model were found to be the most complete and were filled in better than other models. Conclusions. Progressive adoption of a simple, standard consent model is expected to improve the quality of consent acquisition. Regular audit of the compliance of consent practices with ethical and legal requirements is mandatory to improve the quality of research biobanking.

  6. Characteristics of spondylotic myelopathy on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhadi, Mike A; Perno, Joseph R; Melhem, Elias R; Nucifora, Paolo G P

    2014-01-01

    In patients with spinal stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine can be improved by using 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences to provide a high-resolution assessment of osseous and ligamentous structures. However, it is not yet clear whether 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences adequately evaluate the spinal cord itself. As a result, they are generally supplemented by additional 2D fast spin echo sequences, adding time to the examination and potential discomfort to the patient. Here we investigate the hypothesis that in patients with spinal stenosis and spondylotic myelopathy, 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences can characterize cord lesions equally well as 2D fast spin echo sequences. We performed a retrospective analysis of 30 adult patients with spondylotic myelopathy who had been examined with both 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences and 2D fast spin echo sequences at the same scanning session. The two sequences were inspected separately for each patient, and visible cord lesions were manually traced. We found no significant differences between 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo sequences in the mean number, mean area, or mean transverse dimensions of spondylotic cord lesions. Nevertheless, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of cord lesions was decreased on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences compared to 2D fast spin echo sequences. These findings suggest that 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences do not need supplemental 2D fast spin echo sequences for the diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy, but they may be less well suited for quantitative signal measurements in the spinal cord.

  7. Awareness about medical research among resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatray B Pawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Every medical practitioner should strive to contribute to the generation of evidence by conducting research. For carrying out research, adequate knowledge, practical skills, and development of the right attitude are crucial. A literature review shows that data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices toward medical research, among resident doctors in India, is lacking. Aims: This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among resident doctors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, structured, and pre-validated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: With approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee and a verbal consent, a cross-sectional survey among 100 resident doctors pursuing their second and third years in the MD and MS courses was conducted using a structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: The concept of research hypothesis was known to 58% of the residents. Ninety-eight percent of the residents were aware of the procedure to obtain informed consent. Seventy-six percent agreed that research training should be mandatory. Although 88% of the residents were interested in conducting research in future, 50% had participated in research other than a dissertation project, 28% had made scientific presentations, and only 4% had publications. Lack of time (74%, lack of research curriculum (42%, and inadequate facilities (38% were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusions: Although resident doctors demonstrated a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude toward research, it did not translate into practice for most of them. There is a need to improve the existing medical education system to foster research culture among resident doctors

  8. Mammographic surveillance in the follow up of early primary breast cancer in England: A cross-sectional survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood-Haigh, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine current practice in the clinical setting at national and regional level of the use of mammographic surveillance in the follow up of patients surgically treated for early breast cancer. Method: A cross-sectional survey method was employed. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to a random selection of symptomatic breast imaging units representing all the cancer networks in England nationally, and all symptomatic breast imaging units in one cancer network regionally. Questions were designed to determine frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance for patients aged < 50 years and ≥50 years surgically treated by mastectomy or breast conserving surgery and the number of units with protocols based on the risk of local recurrence or development of a new primary breast cancer. Results: The protocols demonstrated a striking diversity in both the frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance; however the variation was less marked regionally. The duration of mammography for patient's aged ≥70 years surgically treated by mastectomy, demonstrated the greatest diversity (range: 0-15 years). Four protocols had regimes tailored to risk. Conclusion: The introduction of protocols based on risk of development of a local recurrence or new primary could prove cost effective by targeting mammographic surveillance to those who would benefit the most. The survey has demonstrated that a 'post-code lottery' exists for both the frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance in this patient group indicating an urgent need for evidence based national guidance.

  9. High rate of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals: Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenović, Miodrag; Matejić, Bojana; Vasić, Vladimir; Frost, Elizabeth; Petrović, Nataša; Simić, Dušica

    2016-03-01

    Decisions by anaesthesiologists directly impact the treatment, safety, recovery and quality of life of patients. Physical or mental collapse due to overwork or stress (burnout) in anaesthesiologists may, therefore, be expected to negatively affect patients, departments, healthcare facilities and families. To evaluate the prevalence of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade public teaching hospitals. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists in 10 Belgrade teaching hospitals. Burnout was assessed using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. The response rate was 76.2% (205/272) with the majority of respondents women (70.7%). The prevalence of total burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals was 6.34%. Measured level of burnout as assessed by high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment was 52.7, 12.2 and 28.8%, respectively. More than a quarter of the studied population responded in each category with symptoms of moderate burnout. We detected that sex, additional academic education, marital status and working conditions were risk factors for emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Ageing increased the likelihood of burnout by 21.3% with each additional year. Shorter professional experience and increased educational accomplishment increased the risk of total burnout by 272%. Burnout rates in Belgrade teaching hospitals among anaesthesiologists are higher than in foreign hospitals. Emotional and/or physical breakdowns can have serious effects when these individuals care for patients in extremely stressed situations that may occur perioperatively. Causes for burnout should be examined more closely and means implemented to reverse this process.

  10. Socio-demographic and clinical features of Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrete sub-group of iatrogenically-acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals exists in the Irish population on whom limited current research data is available. The aim of this study was to establish a current profile of the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C population and to determine factors predicting symptoms experienced. METHODS: An anonymous, national, cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore this populations\\' self-reported health and social attributes. Data were collected on 290 respondents. RESULTS: Mean time since infection was 26 years. Eighty-four percent (n = 237) of respondents were female (mean age = 55.9 +\\/- 9.6 years). Hepatic and extra-hepatic symptoms were common (62% and 99% respectively). Fatigue and pain were frequent complaints while 89% reported diagnosed co-morbid disease. On logistic regression, female gender, age and co-morbid disease emerged as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study describes the current status of the iatrogenically infected patient cohort in Ireland, adding to existing knowledge regarding the clinical course and consequences of HCV infection. Changing healthcare needs were shown by comparison with earlier surveys in this same population, in terms of disease progression, development of co-morbid disease and ageing.

  11. Specialty satisfaction, positive psychological capital, and nursing professional values in nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chung Hee; Park, Ju Young

    2017-10-01

    Ideally, college majors should be chosen to achieve self-realization and correspond to self-concept. However, some students select a major based on extrinsic factors, rather than aptitude or interests, because of a lack of employment opportunities. If they have negative college experiences with an unsatisfactory major, they might not engage fully in their occupation following gra