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Sample records for secondary neutrons m-band

  1. The secondary neutron sources for generation of particular neutron fluxes

    Tracz, G.

    2007-07-01

    The foregoing paper presents the doctor's thesis entitled '' The secondary neutron sources for generation of particular neutron fluxes ''. Two secondary neutron sources have been designed, which exploit already existing primary sources emitting neutrons of energies different from the desired ones. The first source is devoted to boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The research reactor MARIA at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk (Poland) is the primary source of the reactor thermal neutrons, while the secondary source should supply epithermal neutrons. The other secondary source is the pulsed source of thermal neutrons that uses fast 14 MeV neutrons from a pulsed generator at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN in Krakow (Poland). The physical problems to be solved in the two mentioned cases are different. Namely, in order to devise the BNCT source the initial energy of particles ought to be increased, whilst in the other case the fast neutrons have to be moderated. Slowing down of neutrons is relatively easy since these particles lose energy when they scatter in media; the most effective moderators are the materials which contain light elements (mostly hydrogen). In order to increase the energy of neutrons from thermal to epithermal (the BNCT case) the so-called neutron converter should be exploited. It contains a fissile material, 235 U. The thermal neutrons from the reactor cause fission of uranium and fast neutrons are emitted from the converter. Then fissile neutrons of energy of a few MeV are slowed down to the required epithermal energy range. The design of both secondary sources have been conducted by means of Monte Carlo simulations, which have been carried out using the MCNP code. In the case of the secondary pulsed thermal neutron source, some of the calculated results have been verified experimentally. (author)

  2. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    Brainard, John P.; McCollister, Daryl R.

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  3. Development of a Secondary Neutron Fluence Standard at GELINA

    Heyse, Jan; Eykens, Roger; Moens, Andre; Plompen, Arjan J.M.; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Wynants, Ruud; Anastasiou, Maria

    2013-06-01

    The MetroFission project, a Joint Research Project within the European Metrology Research Program, aims at addressing a number of metrological problems involved in the design of proposed Generation IV nuclear reactors. One of the objectives of this multidisciplinary project is the improvement of neutron cross section measurement techniques in order to arrive at uncertainties as required for the design and safety assessment of new generation power plants and fuel cycles. This objective is in line with the 'Uncertainty and target accuracy assessment for innovative systems using recent covariance data evaluations' published by a working party of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 2008. These requests are often very challenging, being at or beyond the state-of-the-art in neutron measurements, which is set by self-normalizing methods and the neutron data standards used at laboratories where the data are measured. A secondary neutron fluence standard has been developed and calibrated at the neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA of the JRC's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). It consists of a flux monitor, a reference ionization chamber containing a 10 B layer and a 235 U layer, and a parallel plate ionization chamber with 8 well characterized 235 U deposits. These devices are used to determine the neutron fluence, based on the well-known neutron induced fission reaction on 235 U. All deposits have been prepared and characterized at the IRMM target preparation lab. The secondary fluence standard at the GELINA facility can be used for reliable determination of the efficiency of fluence measurement devices used in neutron data measurements at IRMM and elsewhere. It is an essential tool to reliably calibrate fluence normalization devices used in neutron time-of-flight cross section measurements. (authors)

  4. Estimation dose of secondary neutrons in proton therapy

    Urban, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most of proton therapy centers for cancer treatment are still based on the passive scattering, in some of them there is system of the active scanning installed as well. The aim of this study is to compare secondary neutron doses in and around target volumes in proton therapy for both treatment techniques and for different energies and profile of incident proton beam. The proton induced neutrons have been simulated in the very simple geometry of tissue equivalent phantom (imitate the patient) and scattering and scanning nozzle, respectively. In simulations of the scattering nozzle, different types of scattering filters and brass collimators have been used as well. 3D map of neutron doses in and around the chosen/potential target volume in the phantom/patient have been evaluated and compared in the context of the dose deposited in the target volume. Finally, the simulation results have been compared with published data. (author)

  5. Assessment of doses due to secondary neutrons received by patient treated by proton therapy

    Sayah, R.; Martinetti, F.; Donadille, L.; Clairand, I.; Delacroix, S.; De Oliveira, A.; Herault, J.

    2010-01-01

    Proton therapy is a specific technique of radiotherapy which aims at destroying cancerous cells by irradiating them with a proton beam. Nuclear reactions in the device and in the patient himself induce secondary radiations involving mainly neutrons which contribute to an additional dose for the patient. The author reports a study aimed at the assessment of these doses due to secondary neutrons in the case of ophthalmological and intra-cranial treatments. He presents a Monte Carlo simulation of the room and of the apparatus, reports the experimental validation of the model (dose deposited by protons in a water phantom, ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons in the treatment room, absorbed dose due to secondary particles in an anthropomorphic phantom), and the assessment with a mathematical phantom of doses dues to secondary neutrons received by organs during an ophthalmological treatment. He finally evokes current works of calculation of doses due to secondary neutrons in the case of intra-cranial treatments

  6. Forward to all-around survey of environmental neutrons from cosmic ray secondary neutron measurements. History and prospects

    Aratani, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the present stage of our civilization, environmental neutrons come from not only cosmic ray but also the various kinds of nuclear facilities where uranium, plutonium, californium-252, and other transuranium elements are treated in a large scale. To be regret, those neutron-emitting elements have already been released into the environment by experiments with the military purpose, and been distributed among atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere in further larger scale than the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Now environmental neutrons should be surveyed against the horizontal component from the nuclear facilities, upward component from soil, and downward component as secondary neutron from cosmic ray, which is to be regarded as background neutron in the environment. The third category of neutrons have long been surveyed by Y. Nishina and his group of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (IPCR) since 1970 at the Itabashi Branch (Itabashi, Tokyo) of IPCR. The BF 3 gas-filled monitors (20 cm in diameter x 200 cm) of 28 (36 at maximum) vessels were used for neutrons till Sept. of 1998, and were transferred to Yanpahchin, Tibet, China for the primary neutrons that might be preferred to secondary ones by researchers of the cosmic ray. A critical accident happened at the Tokai facilities of JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) on Sept. 30 1999, and was discussed in various contexts at home and in a severe tone abroad. A background survey of the environmental neutrons has not been made at any nuclear site or facilities concerning fission in this country. The neutron monitor which detected and recorded the neutrons from the JCO critical accidents was what had been equipped for the fusion research, but not for fission application. Radiation education on neutron has not been made in both school and social education. Basic scientists also may be responsible for the critical accident through making light of these fundamental aspects of nuclear technology. In this

  7. Secondary standard neutron detector for measuring total reaction cross sections

    Sekharan, K.K.; Laumer, H.; Gabbard, F.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron-production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 24'' diameter in which 8- 10 BF 3 counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies, from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF 3 counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr and 57 Fe(p,n) 57 Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for measurement of total neutron yields from neutron producing reactions such as 23 Na(p,n) 23 Mg are given

  8. Spectrum and H(10) of secondary neutrons around Linacs

    Ortiz H, A.; Hernandez A, B.; Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Rivera M, T.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron spectrum and ambient dose equivalent has been measured around two 10 MV linear accelerators. Accelerators are Siemens, one is a Mevatron model while another is the Primus. Main differences between those models are the beam collimator and the vault room. Here, Bonner sphere spectrometer with a passive thermal neutron detector has been utilized to measure the neutron spectrum inside the vault. Using an active detector the neutron spectrum was measured by the vaults door of both accelerators. With a neutron area monitor the dose equivalent was measured by the doors. Neutron strength, total fluence rate and ambient dose equivalent were compared, from this was found that shielding conditions are better in the Primus model. (Author)

  9. Measurement of double differential cross sections of secondary neutrons in the incident energy range 9-13 MeV

    Tang Hongqing; Qi Bujia; Zhou Zuying; Sa Jun; Ke Zunjian; Sui Qingchang; Xia Haihong; Shen Guanren

    1992-01-01

    The status and technique of double differential cross section measurement of secondary neutrons in the incident neutron energy range 9 to 13 MeV is reviewed with emphasis on the work done at CIAE. There are scarce measurements of secondary neutron double differential cross sections in this energy region up to now. A main difficulty for this is lack of an applicable monoenergetic neutron source. When monoenergetic neutron energy reaches 8 Me/v, the break-up neutrons from the d + D or p + T reaction starts to become significant. It is difficult to get a pure secondary neutron spectrum induced only by monoenergetic neutrons. To solve this problem an abnormal fast neutron TOF facility was designed and tested. Double differential neutron emission cross sections of 238 U and 209 Bi at 10 MeV were obtained by combining the data measured by both normal and abnormal TOF spectrometers and a good agreement between measurement and calculation was achieved

  10. Measurements of {sup 237}Np secondary neutron spectra

    Kornilov, N.V.

    1997-03-01

    The activities carried out during the first year of the project are summarized. The main problems for Np spectra measurements arise from high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the sample and admixture of the oxygen and iron nuclei. The inelastically scattered neutrons and the fission neutrons spectra for {sup 237}Np were measured by time-of-flight spectrometer of the IPPE at incident neutron energies {approx_equal}1.5 MeV, and {approx_equal}0.5 MeV. A solid tritium target and a Li-metallic target were used as neutron sources. The neutron scattering on C sample (C(n,n) standard reaction) was measured to normalize the Np data. The experimental data should be simulated by Monte Carlo method to correct the experimental data for oxygen and iron admixture as well as for multiple scattering of the neutrons in the sample. Therefore the response function of the spectrometer, and the neutron energy distribution from the source were investigated in detail. (author)

  11. Effects of secondary interactions on the dose calculation in treatments with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Monteiro, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the secondary contributions of dose (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head head phantom.A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary contributions of dose can contribute more in the direction to raise the dose in the fabric healthy that in the tumor, thus reducing the treatment efficiency. (author)

  12. Evaluation of secondary and prompt fission neutron spectra

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    A simple model allowing to split neutron emission spectra into reaction partials is suggested. Predicted spectra of (n,n`{gamma}), (n,n`f), etc appear to be much harder than usually evaluated. (author)

  13. Slow neutrons and secondary gamma ray distributions in concrete shields followed by reflecting layers

    Makarious, A.S.; Swilem, Y.I.; Awwad, Z.; Bayomy, T.

    1993-01-01

    Slow neutrons and secondary gamma ray distributions in concrete shields with and without a reflecting layer behind layer behind the concrete shield have been investigated first in case of using a bare reactor beam and then on using a B-4 C filtered beam. The total and capture secondary gamma ray coefficient (B gamma and B gamma C ), the ratio of the reflected thermal neutron (gamma) the ratio of the secondary gamma rays caused by reflected neutrons to those caused transmitted neutrons (Th I gamma/F I gamma) and the effect of inserting a blocking layer (a B-4 C layer) between the concrete shield and the reflector on the suppression of the produced secondary gamma rays have been investigated. It was found that the presence of the reflector layer behind the concrete shield reflects some thermal neutrons back to the concrete shields and so it increases the number of thermal neutrons at the interface between the concrete shield and the reflector. Also the capture secondary gamma rays was increased at the interface between the two medii due to the capture of the reflected thermal neutrons in the concrete shields. It was shown that B-gamma is higher than and that B g amma B gamma C and I gamma T h/ I gamma i f for the different concrete types is higher in case of using the graphite reflector than that in using either water or paraffin reflectors. Putting a blocking layer (B 4 C layer) between the concrete shield and the reflector decreases the produced secondary gamma rays due to the absorption of the reflected thermal neutrons. 17 figs

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of secondary neutron dose for scanning proton therapy using FLUKA.

    Chaeyeong Lee

    Full Text Available Proton therapy is a rapidly progressing field for cancer treatment. Globally, many proton therapy facilities are being commissioned or under construction. Secondary neutrons are an important issue during the commissioning process of a proton therapy facility. The purpose of this study is to model and validate scanning nozzles of proton therapy at Samsung Medical Center (SMC by Monte Carlo simulation for beam commissioning. After the commissioning, a secondary neutron ambient dose from proton scanning nozzle (Gantry 1 was simulated and measured. This simulation was performed to evaluate beam properties such as percent depth dose curve, Bragg peak, and distal fall-off, so that they could be verified with measured data. Using the validated beam nozzle, the secondary neutron ambient dose was simulated and then compared with the measured ambient dose from Gantry 1. We calculated secondary neutron dose at several different points. We demonstrated the validity modeling a proton scanning nozzle system to evaluate various parameters using FLUKA. The measured secondary neutron ambient dose showed a similar tendency with the simulation result. This work will increase the knowledge necessary for the development of radiation safety technology in medical particle accelerators.

  15. The production of high energy neutrons by secondary reactions

    Nieschmidt, E.B.; Roney, T.J.; Staples, D.R.; Harmon, J.F.; Burkhart, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of using binary reactions in targets containing Be is discussed. Data are presented from the use of Be and BeF 2 targets bombarded with 1.5, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 MeV protons. Neutron production is enhanced by the presence of the F by factors of ∼4

  16. Secondary neutron double differential cross sections from 209Bi at 14.2 MeV

    Shen Guanren; Xia Haihong; Tang Hongqing

    1992-01-01

    The secondary neutron double differential cross sections from 209 Bi at 14.2 MeV have been measured at 6 angles between 25 degree-150 degree using an associated particle TOF spectrometer. Flight path was 2.7 m. The neutron detector was biased at 1.3 MeV. The time resolution was about 1.2 ns. The data were compared with existing data and theoretical calculated results. Good agreement is achieved

  17. Secondary standards (non-activation) for neutron data measurements above 20 MeV

    Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to H(n,p) scattering and 235,238 U(n,f) reactions, secondary standards for neutron flux determination may be useful for neutron energies above 20 MeV. For experiments where gamma rays are detected, reference gamma-ray production cross sections are relevant. For neutron-induced charged particle production, standard (n,p) and (n,alpha) cross sections would be helpful. Total cross section standards would serve to check the accuracy of these measurements. These secondary standards are desirable because they can be used with the same detector systems employed in measuring the quantities of interest. Uncertainties due to detector efficiency, geometrical effects, timing and length of flight paths can therefore be significantly reduced. Several secondary standards that do not depend on activation techniques are proposed. 14 refs

  18. Estimate of neutron secondary doses received by patients in proton therapy: cases of ophthalmologic treatments

    Martinetti, F.

    2009-12-01

    This research thesis aims at assessing doses due to secondary neutrons and received by the organs of a patient which are located outside of the treatment field. The study focused on ophthalmological treatments performed at the Orsay proton therapy centre. A 75 eV beam line model has first been developed with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Several experimental validations of this model have been performed: proton dose distribution in a water phantom, ambient equivalent dose due to secondary neutrons and neutron spectra in the treatment room, and doses deposited by secondary neutrons in an anthropomorphous phantom. Simulations and measurements are in correct agreement. Then, a numeric assessment of secondary doses received by the patient's organs has been performed by using a MIRD-type mathematical phantom. These doses have been computed for several organs: the non-treated eye, the brain, the thyroid, and other parts of the body situated either in the front part of the body (the one directly exposed to neutrons generated in the treatment line) or deeper and further from the treatment field

  19. 4π-spectrometer technique for measurements of secondary neutron average number in nuclear fission by 252Cf neutrons

    Vasil'ev, Yu.A.; Barashkov, Yu.A.; Golovanov, O.A.; Sidorov, L.V.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the average number of secondary neutrons anti ν produced in nuclear fission by the neutrons of the 252 Cf fission spectra by means of a 4π time-of-flight spectrometer is described. Layers of 252 Cf and an isotope studied are placed close to each other; if the isotope layer density is 1 mg/cm 2 probability of its fission is about 10 -5 per one spontaneous fission of californium. Fission fragments of 252 Cf and the isotope investigated have been detected by two surface-barrier counters with an efficiency close to 100%. The layers and the counters are situated in a measuring chamber placed in the center of the 4π time-of-flight spectrometer. The latter is utilized as a neutron counter because of its fast response. The method has been verified by carrying out measurements for 235 U and 239 Pu. A comparison of the experimental and calculated results shows that the method suggested can apply to determine the number of secondary neutrons in fission of isotopes that have not been investigated yet

  20. Measurement of secondary neutrons and gamma rays produced by neutron interactions in aluminum over the incident energy range 1 to 20 MeV

    Morgan, G.L.

    1975-11-01

    The spectra of secondary neutrons and gamma rays produced by neutron interaction in a thin sample (approximately 1/6 mean free path) of aluminum have been measured as a function of the incident neutron energy over the range 1 to 20 MeV. Data were taken at an angle of 125 0 . A linac (ORELA) was used as a neutron source with a 47-m flight path. Incident energy was determined by time-of-flight, while secondary spectra were determined by pulse-height unfolding techniques. The results of the measurements are presented in forms suitable for comparison to calculations based on the evaluated data files. (6 tables, 4 figures)

  1. Antiproton Radiotherapy Peripheral Dose from Secondary Neutrons produced in the Annihilation of Antiprotons in the Target

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Keyes, Roy; Bassler, Niels; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Zankl, Maria; Holzscheiter, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The AD-4/ACE collaboration studies the biological effects of antiprotons with respect to a possible use of antiprotons in cancer therapy. In vitro experiments performed by the collaboration have shown an enhanced biological effectiveness for antiprotons relative to protons. One concern is the normal tissue dose resulting from secondary neutrons produced in the annihilation of antiprotons on the nucleons of the target atoms. Here we present the first organ specific Monte Carlo calculations of normal tissue equivalent neutron dose in antiproton therapy through the use of a segmented CT-based human phantom. The MCNPX Monte Carlo code was employed to quantify the peripheral dose for a cylindrical spread out Bragg peak representing a treatment volume of 1 cm diameter and 1 cm length in the frontal lobe of a segmented whole-body phantom of a 38 year old male. The secondary neutron organ dose was tallied as a function of energy and organ.

  2. The effect of experimental resolution on crystal reflectivity and secondary extinction in neutron diffraction

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1965-01-01

    The reflectivity for neutrons of a plane slab crystal is calculated in the transmission case when the crystal is placed between two Seller collimators. The calculations indicate that the crystal reflectivity, as well as the secondary extinction coefficient, depends signicantly on the angular...... resolution of the collimators. Curves are given for the extinction of the crystal with different crystal and collimator parameters....

  3. Neutron secondary-particle production cross sections and their incorporation into Monte-Carlo transport codes

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.; Little, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Realistic simulations of the passage of fast neutrons through tissue require a large quantity of cross-sectional data. What are needed are differential (in particle type, energy and angle) cross sections. A computer code is described which produces such spectra for neutrons above ∼14 MeV incident on light nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. Comparisons have been made with experimental measurements of double-differential secondary charged-particle production on carbon and oxygen at energies from 27 to 60 MeV; they indicate that the model is adequate in this energy range. In order to utilize fully the results of these calculations, they should be incorporated into a neutron transport code. This requires defining a generalized format for describing charged-particle production, putting the calculated results in this format, interfacing the neutron transport code with these data, and charged-particle transport. The design and development of such a program is described. 13 refs., 3 figs

  4. Secondary neutron doses received by patients of different ages during intracranial proton therapy treatments

    Sayah, R.

    2012-01-01

    Proton therapy is an advanced radiation therapy technique that allows delivering high doses to the tumor while saving the healthy surrounding tissues due to the protons' ballistic properties. However, secondary particles, especially neutrons, are created during protons' nuclear reactions in the beam-line and the treatment room components, as well as inside the patient. Those secondary neutrons lead to unwanted dose deposition to the healthy tissues located at distance from the target, which may increase the secondary cancer risks to the patients, especially the pediatric ones. The aim of this work was to calculate the neutron secondary doses received by patients of different ages treated at the Institut Curie-centre de Protontherapie d'Orsay (ICPO) for intracranial tumors, using a 178 MeV proton beam. The treatments are undertaken at the new ICPO room equipped with an IBA gantry. The treatment room and the beam-line components, as well as the proton source were modeled using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The obtained model was then validated by a series of comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements. The comparisons concerned: a) depth and lateral proton dose distributions in a water phantom, b) neutron spectrometry at one position in the treatment room, c) ambient dose equivalents at different positions in the treatment room and d) secondary absorbed doses inside a physical anthropomorphic phantom. A general good agreement was found between calculations and measurements, thus our model was considered as validated. The University of Florida hybrid voxelized phantoms of different ages were introduced into the MCNPX validated model, and secondary neutron doses were calculated to many of these phantoms' organs. The calculated doses were found to decrease as the organ's distance to the treatment field increases and as the patient's age increases. The secondary doses received by a one year-old patient may be two times higher than the doses

  5. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  6. Shielding implications for secondary neutrons and photons produced within the patient during IMPT

    DeMarco, J.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A.; Low, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) uses a combination of computer controlled spot scanning and spot-weight optimized planning to irradiate the tumor volume uniformly. In contrast to passive scattering systems, secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions within the patient represent the major source of emitted radiation during IMPT delivery. Various published studies evaluated the shielding considerations for passive scattering systems but did not directly address secondary neutron production from IMPT and the ambient dose equivalent on surrounding occupational and nonoccupational work areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons and photons following inelastic proton interactions within a tissue-equivalent phantom for incident proton spot energies between 70 and 250 MeV.Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to calculate the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions in a tissue-equivalent phantom. The angular distribution of emitted neutrons and photons were scored as a function of incident proton energy throughout a spherical annulus at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 m from the phantom center. Appropriate dose equivalent conversion factors were applied to estimate the total ambient dose equivalent from secondary neutrons and photons.Results: A reference distance of 1 m from the center of the patient was used to evaluate the mean energy distribution of secondary neutrons and photons and the resulting ambient dose equivalent. For an incident proton spot energy of 250 MeV, the total ambient dose equivalent (3.6 × 10 −3 mSv per proton Gy) was greatest along the direction of the incident proton spot (0°–10°) with a mean secondary neutron energy of 71.3 MeV. The dose equivalent decreased by a factor of 5 in the backward direction (170°–180°) with a mean

  7. Shielding implications for secondary neutrons and photons produced within the patient during IMPT

    DeMarco, J.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A.; Low, D. [UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) uses a combination of computer controlled spot scanning and spot-weight optimized planning to irradiate the tumor volume uniformly. In contrast to passive scattering systems, secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions within the patient represent the major source of emitted radiation during IMPT delivery. Various published studies evaluated the shielding considerations for passive scattering systems but did not directly address secondary neutron production from IMPT and the ambient dose equivalent on surrounding occupational and nonoccupational work areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons and photons following inelastic proton interactions within a tissue-equivalent phantom for incident proton spot energies between 70 and 250 MeV.Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to calculate the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions in a tissue-equivalent phantom. The angular distribution of emitted neutrons and photons were scored as a function of incident proton energy throughout a spherical annulus at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 m from the phantom center. Appropriate dose equivalent conversion factors were applied to estimate the total ambient dose equivalent from secondary neutrons and photons.Results: A reference distance of 1 m from the center of the patient was used to evaluate the mean energy distribution of secondary neutrons and photons and the resulting ambient dose equivalent. For an incident proton spot energy of 250 MeV, the total ambient dose equivalent (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mSv per proton Gy) was greatest along the direction of the incident proton spot (0 Degree-Sign -10 Degree-Sign ) with a mean secondary neutron energy of 71.3 MeV. The dose equivalent decreased by a factor of 5 in the

  8. Ion conducting behavior in secondary battery materials detected by quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements

    Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Ionic conducting behaviors in secondary battery materials, i.e. cathode and solid electrolyte, were studied with quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements. Although the incoherent scattering length for Li and Na is lower by two orders of magnitude than that for H, the QENS spectra were clearly detected using the combination of an intense neutron source and a low background spectrometer. The fundamental parameters, such as, the activation energy, the jump distance, and the diffusion coefficient were obtained by analyzing QENS spectra. These parameters are consistent with the previous results estimated by muon-spin relaxation (μSR) measurements and first principles calculations. (author)

  9. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  10. Secondary extinction in cylindrical and spherical crystals for X-ray and neutron diffraction

    Hu Huachen; Li Zhaohuan; Yang Bin; Shen Caiwan

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of the reflection power ratio for a neutron or x-ray diffracted from a cylindrical crystal immersed in an homogenous incident beam is obtained by the numerical solution of the transfer equations for the first time. The profile well reflects all the physical properties of the absorption and extinction behaviour in the crystals. A systematic investigation of the secondary extinction for cylindrical and spherical crystals was carried out based on these results

  11. MONDO: A tracker for the characterization of secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons emitted in particle therapy

    Mirabelli, R.; Battistoni, G.; Giacometti, V.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Traini, G.; Marafini, M.

    2018-01-01

    In Particle Therapy (PT) accelerated charged particles and light ions are used for treating tumors. One of the main limitation to the precision of PT is the emission of secondary particles due to the beam interaction with the patient: secondary emitted neutrons can release a significant dose far from the tumor. Therefore, a precise characterization of their flux, production energy and angle distribution is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) codes. The principal aim of the MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project is the development of a tracking device optimized for the detection of fast and ultra-fast secondary neutrons emitted in PT. The detector consists of a matrix of scintillating square fibres coupled with a CMOS-based readout. Here, we present the characterization of the detector tracker prototype and CMOS-based digital SPAD (Single Photon Avalanche Diode) array sensor tested with protons at the Beam Test Facility (Frascati, Italy) and at the Proton Therapy Centre (Trento, Italy), respectively.

  12. Neutron flux density and secondary-particle energy spectra at the 184-inch synchrocyclotron medical facility

    Smith, A.R.; Schimmerling, W.; Henson, A.M.; Kanstein, L.L.; McCaslin, J.B.; Stephens, L.D.; Thomas, R.H.; Ozawa, J.; Yeater, F.W.

    1978-07-01

    Helium ions, with an energy of 920 MeV, produced by the 184-inch synchrocyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are now being used in a pilot series to determine their efficacy in the treatment of tumors of large volume. The techniques for production of the large uniform radiation fields required for these treatments involve the use of beam-limiting collimators and energy degraders. Interaction of the primary beam with these beam components produces secondary charged particles and neutrons. The sources of neutron production in the beam transport system of the alpha-particle beam have been identified and their magnitudes have been determined. Measurements with activation detectors and pulse counters of differing energy responses have been used to determine secondary particle spectra at various locations on the patient table. These spectra are compared to a calculation of neutron production based on best estimates derived from published cross sections. Agreement between the calculated spectra and those derived from experimental measurements is obtained (at the 10 to 20% level) when the presence of charged particles is taken into account. The adsorbed dose in soft tissue is not very sensitive to the shape of the incident neutron energy spectrum, and the values obtained from unfolding the experimental measurements agree with the values obtained from the calculated spectra within the estimated uncertainty of +-25%. These values are about 3 x 10 -3 rad on the beam axis and about 1 x 10 -3 rad at 20 cm or more from the beam axis, per rad deposited by the incident alpha-particle beam. Estimates of upper limit dose to the lens of the eye and red bone marrow are approximately 10 rad and approximately 1 rad, respectively, for a typical treatment plan. The absorbed dose to the lens of the eye is thus well below the threshold value for cataractogenesis estimated for fission neutrons. An upper limit for the risk of leukemia is estimated to be approximately 0.04%

  13. Neutron irradiation of bacteria in the presence and absence of secondary charged-particle equilibrium

    Lunec, J.; Cramp, W.A.; Hornsey, S.

    1980-01-01

    The survival rate of Shigella flexneri has been measured for irradiation with 7-MeV neutrons in the presence and absence of secondary charged-particle equilibrium. The data were analyzed to assess the separate response of the cells to the knock-on proton and α-particle plus heavy-recoil components. A detailed consideration of the frequency of α-particle and heavy-recoil traversals of the cell has been made to explain our results, and in addition we have applied this approach to analyze the earlier results obtained with mammalian cells. We conclude that of the secondary charged-particles produced by the Hammersmith neutron beam, the highest LET particles, the heavy-recoil nuclei, contribute a minor proportion of damage to bacteria but form a major contribution of damage in mammalian cells. The reduction in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) with neutrons compared with low LET radiation for mammalian cells is due almost entirely to the influence of the heavy recoils and the contribution of the α-particle and knock-on protons to the reduction of the OER is relatively minor. For Shigella flexneri the α particles and heavy recoils make approximately equal contributions to the reduction in OER

  14. Implementation of Texture Based Image Retrieval Using M-band Wavelet Transform

    LiaoYa-li; Yangyan; CaoYang

    2003-01-01

    Wavelet transform has attracted attention because it is a very useful tool for signal analyzing. As a fundamental characteristic of an image, texture traits play an important role in the human vision system for recognition and interpretation of images. The paper presents an approach to implement texture-based image retrieval using M-band wavelet transform. Firstly the traditional 2-band wavelet is extended to M-band wavelet transform. Then the wavelet moments are computed by M-band wavelet coefficients in the wavelet domain. The set of wavelet moments forms the feature vector related to the texture distribution of each wavelet images. The distances between the feature vectors describe the similarities of different images. The experimental result shows that the M-band wavelet moment features of the images are effective for image indexing.The retrieval method has lower computational complexity, yet it is capable of giving better retrieval performance for a given medical image database.

  15. Measurement of secondary neutron emission double-differential cross sections for {sup 9}Be induced by 21.65 ± 0.07 MeV neutrons

    Lan, Changlin [School of Nuclear Science & Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ruan, Xichao; Chen, Guochang; Nie, Yangbo; Huang, Hanxiong; Bao, Jie; Zhou, Zuying; Tang, Hongqing [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Kong, Xiangzhong; Peng, Meng [School of Nuclear Science & Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The neutron emission double-differential cross sections (DDX) of {sup 9}Be was measured at an incident neutron energy of 21.65 MeV, using the multi-detector fast neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer on HI-13 Tandem Accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The data were deduced by comparing the measured TOF spectra with the calculated ones using a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. The DDX were normalized to n–p scattering cross sections which are a neutron scattering standard. The results of the elastic scattering angular distributions (DX) and the secondary neutron emission DDX at 25 different angles from 15 deg to 145 deg were presented. Meanwhile, a theoretical model based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model for light nuclei was used to describe the double-differential cross sections of n+{sup 9}Be, and the theoretical calculation results were compared with the measured cross sections.

  16. Evaluating secondary neutron doses of a refined shielded design for a medical cyclotron using the TLD approach

    Lin, Jye-Bin; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Liu, Wen-Shan; Lin, Ding-Bang; Hsieh, Teng-San; Chen, Chien-Yi

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of cyclotrons at medical centers in Taiwan have been installed to generate radiopharmaceutical products. An operating cyclotron generates immense amounts of secondary neutrons from reactions such the 18 O(p, n) 18 F, used in the production of FDG. This intense radiation can be hazardous to public health, particularly to medical personnel. To increase the yield of 18 F-FDG from 4200 GBq in 2005 to 48,600 GBq in 2011, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (CSMUH) has prolonged irradiation time without changing the target or target current to meet requirements regarding the production 18 F. The CSMUH has redesigned the CTI Radioisotope Delivery System shield. The lack of data for a possible secondary neutron doses has increased due to newly designed cyclotron rooms. This work aims to evaluate secondary neutron doses at a CTI cyclotron center using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-600). Two-dimensional neutron doses were mapped and indicated that neutron doses were high as neutrons leaked through self-shielded blocks and through the L-shaped concrete shield in vault rooms. These neutron doses varied markedly among locations close to the H 2 18 O target. The Monte Carlo simulation and minimum detectable dose are also discussed and demonstrated the reliability of using the TLD-600 approach. Findings can be adopted by medical centers to identify radioactive hot spots and develop radiation protection. - Highlights: • Neutron doses were verified using TLD approach. • Neutron doses were increased at cyclotron centers. • Revised L-shaped shield suppresses effectively the neutrons. • Neutron dose can be attenuated to 1.13×10 6 %

  17. Secondary gamma-ray skyshine from 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility (OKTAVIAN). Comparison of measurement with its simulation

    Morotomi, Ryutaro; Kondo, Tetsuo; Murata, Isao; Yoshida, Shigeo; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Department of Nuclear Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Radio Isotope Research Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Measurement of secondary gamma-ray skyshine was performed at the Intense 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility (OKTAVIAN) of Osaka University with NaI and Hp-Ge detectors. From the result of measurements, some mechanism of secondary gamma-ray skyshine from 14 MeV neutron source facility was found out. The analysis of the measured result were carried out with MCNP-4B for four nuclear data files of JENDL-3.2, JENDL-F.F., FENDL-2, and ENDF/B-VI. It was confirmed that all the nuclear data are fairly reliable for calculations of secondary gamma-ray skyshine. (author)

  18. Comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution uncertainty analysis for a fusion reactor

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; LaBauve, R.J.; Young, P.G.

    1980-05-01

    On the example of General Atomic's well-documented Power Generating Fusion Reactor (PGFR) design, this report exercises a comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainty analysis. The LASL sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code SENSIT is used to calculate reaction cross-section sensitivity profiles and integral SED sensitivity coefficients. These are then folded with covariance matrices and integral SED uncertainties to obtain the resulting uncertainties of three calculated neutronics design parameters: two critical radiation damage rates and a nuclear heating rate. The report documents the first sensitivity-based data uncertainty analysis, which incorporates a quantitative treatment of the effects of SED uncertainties. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ENDF/B-V cross-section data files for C, H, and O, including their SED data, are fully adequate for this design application, while the data for Fe and Ni are at best marginally adequate because they give rise to response uncertainties up to 25%. Much higher response uncertainties are caused by cross-section and SED data uncertainties in Cu (26 to 45%), tungsten (24 to 54%), and Cr (up to 98%). Specific recommendations are given for re-evaluations of certain reaction cross-sections, secondary energy distributions, and uncertainty estimates

  19. Electrochemical lithiation of silicon electrodes. Neutron reflectometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry investigations

    Jerliu, Bujar; Doerrer, Lars; Hueger, Erwin [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). AG Mikrokinetik; Seidlhofer, Beatrix-Kamelia; Steitz, Roland [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Borchardt, Guenter; Schmidt, Harald [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). AG Mikrokinetik; Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik (CZM), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    In-situ neutron reflectometry and ex-situ secondary ion mass spectrometry in combination with electrochemical methods were used to study the lithiation of amorphous silicon electrodes. For that purpose specially designed closed three-electrode electrochemical cells with thin silicon films as the working electrode and lithium as counter and reference electrodes were used. The neutron reflectometry results obtained in-situ during galvanostatic cycling show that the incorporation, redistribution and removal of Li in amorphous silicon during a lithiation cycle can be monitored. It was possible to measure the volume modification during lithiation, which is found to be rather independent of cycle number, current density and film thickness and in good agreement with first-principles calculations as given in literature. Indications for an inhomogeneous lithiation mechanism were found by secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. Lithium tracer diffusion experiments indicate that the diffusivities inside the lithiated region (D > 10{sup -15} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}) are considerably higher than in pure amorphous silicon as known from literature. This suggests a kinetics based explanation for the occurrence of an inhomogeneous lithiation mechanism.

  20. A point-kernel shielding code for calculations of neutron and secondary gamma-ray 1cm dose equivalents: PKN

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1991-09-01

    A point-kernel integral technique code, PKN, and the related data library have been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray dose equivalents in water, concrete and iron shields for neutron sources in 3-dimensional geometry. The comparison between calculational results of the present code and those of the 1-dimensional transport code ANISN = JR, and the 2-dimensional transport code DOT4.2 showed a sufficient accuracy, and the availability of the PKN code has been confirmed. (author)

  1. Transmutation studies using SSNTD and radiochemistry and the associated production of secondary neutrons

    Brandt, R; Wan, J S; Schmidt, T; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Adam, J; Bamblevski, V P; Bradnova, V; Gelovani, L K; Kalinnikov, V K; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Philippen, P W; Adloff, J C; Pape, F; Debeauvais, M; Zamani-Valassiadou, M; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Dwivedi, K K; Guo Shi Lun; Li, L; Wang, Y L; Wilson, B

    1999-01-01

    Experiments using 1.5 GeV, 3.7 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons from the Synchrophasotron, LHE, JINR, Dubna, Russia, on extended Pb- and U- targets were carried out using SSNTD and radiochemical sensors for the study of secondary neutron $9 fluences. We also carried out first transmutation studies on the long-lived radwaste nuclei /sup 129/I and /sup 237/Np. In addition, we carried out computer code simulation studies on these systems using LAHET and DCM/CEM codes. We $9 have difficulties to understand rather large transmutation rates observed experimentally when they are compared with computer simulations. There seems to be a rather fundamental problem understanding the large transmutation rates as $9 observed experimentally in Dubna and CERN, as compared to those theoretical computer simulations mentioned above. (10 refs).

  2. An assessment of the secondary neutron dose in the passive scattering proton beam facility of the national cancer center

    Han, Sang Eun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the additional neutron effective dose during passive scattering proton therapy. Monte Carlo code (Monte Carlo N-Particle 6) simulation was conducted based on a precise modeling of the National Cancer Center's proton therapy facility. A three-dimensional neutron effective dose profile of the interior of the treatment room was acquired via a computer simulation of the 217.8-MeV proton beam. Measurements were taken with a 3He neutron detector to support the simulation results, which were lower than the simulation results by 16% on average. The secondary photon dose was about 0.8% of the neutron dose. The dominant neutron source was deduced based on flux calculation. The secondary neutron effective dose per proton absorbed dose ranged from 4.942 ± 0.031 mSv/Gy at the end of the field to 0.324 ± 0.006 mSv/Gy at 150 cm in axial distance.

  3. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of vanadium induced by D-T neutrons

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    1999-01-01

    The secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of vanadium induced by D-T neutrons have been measured. The experimental values were compared with the theoretical calculation results by SINCROS-II and the evaluation result based on experimental data compiled by Simakov. The calculation results supported our data, while Simakov's evaluation did not agree with the present result very well. (author)

  4. Comparison and Validation of FLUKA and HZETRN as Tools for Investigating the Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals are focused on deep space travel and Mars surface operations. To accomplish these goals, large structures will be necessary to transport crew and logistics in the initial stages, and NASA will need to keep the crew and the vehicle safe during transport and any surface activities. One of the major challenges of deep space travel is the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, the electronics, and the vehicle materials. The primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle. These interactions lead to some of the primary radiation being absorbed, being modified, or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles that have large shielding masses, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, and this secondary radiation can be significant enough to cause concern. When considering surface operations, there is also a secondary radiation source from the surface of the planet, known as albedo, with neutrons being one of the most significant species. Given new vehicle designs for deep space and Mars missions, the secondary radiation environment and the implications of that environment is currently not well understood. Thus, several studies are necessary to fill the knowledge gaps of this secondary radiation environment. In this paper, we put forth the initial steps to increasing our understanding of neutron production from large vehicles by comparing the neutron production resulting from our radiation transport codes and providing a preliminary validation of our results against flight data. This paper will review the details of these results and discuss the finer points of the analysis.

  5. Off-axis dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons from uniform scanning proton beams during proton radiotherapy

    Islam, M. R.; Collums, T. L.; Zheng, Y.; Monson, J.; Benton, E. R.

    2013-11-01

    The production of secondary neutrons is an undesirable byproduct of proton therapy and it is important to quantify the contribution from secondary neutrons to patient dose received outside the treatment volume. The purpose of this study is to investigate the off-axis dose equivalent from secondary neutrons experimentally using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) at ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK. In this experiment, we placed several layers of CR-39 PNTD laterally outside the treatment volume inside a phantom and in air at various depths and angles with respect to the primary beam axis. Three different proton beams with max energies of 78, 162 and 226 MeV and 4 cm modulation width, a 5 cm diameter brass aperture, and a small snout located 38 cm from isocenter were used for the entire experiment. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed based on the experimental setup using a simplified snout configuration and the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The measured ratio of secondary neutron dose equivalent to therapeutic primary proton dose (H/D) ranged from 0.3 ± 0.08 mSv Gy-1 for 78 MeV proton beam to 37.4 ± 2.42 mSv Gy-1 for 226 MeV proton beam. Both experiment and simulation showed a similar decreasing trend in dose equivalent with distance to the central axis and the magnitude varied by a factor of about 2 in most locations. H/D was found to increase as the energy of the primary proton beam increased and higher H/D was observed at 135° compared to 45° and 90°. The overall higher H/D in air indicates the predominance of external neutrons produced in the nozzle rather than inside the body.

  6. Off-axis dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons from uniform scanning proton beams during proton radiotherapy

    Islam, M R; Collums, T L; Monson, J; Benton, E R; Zheng, Y

    2013-01-01

    The production of secondary neutrons is an undesirable byproduct of proton therapy and it is important to quantify the contribution from secondary neutrons to patient dose received outside the treatment volume. The purpose of this study is to investigate the off-axis dose equivalent from secondary neutrons experimentally using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) at ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK. In this experiment, we placed several layers of CR-39 PNTD laterally outside the treatment volume inside a phantom and in air at various depths and angles with respect to the primary beam axis. Three different proton beams with max energies of 78, 162 and 226 MeV and 4 cm modulation width, a 5 cm diameter brass aperture, and a small snout located 38 cm from isocenter were used for the entire experiment. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed based on the experimental setup using a simplified snout configuration and the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The measured ratio of secondary neutron dose equivalent to therapeutic primary proton dose (H/D) ranged from 0.3 ± 0.08 mSv Gy −1  for 78 MeV proton beam to 37.4 ± 2.42 mSv Gy −1  for 226 MeV proton beam. Both experiment and simulation showed a similar decreasing trend in dose equivalent with distance to the central axis and the magnitude varied by a factor of about 2 in most locations. H/D was found to increase as the energy of the primary proton beam increased and higher H/D was observed at 135° compared to 45° and 90°. The overall higher H/D in air indicates the predominance of external neutrons produced in the nozzle rather than inside the body. (paper)

  7. Secondary neutron production from thick Pb target by light particle irradiation

    Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Fernández, F; Krivopustov, M; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A; Zamani, M

    1999-01-01

    Neutron multiplicities from spallation neutron sources were measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Light particles as protons, deuterons and alphas in the GeV range were used on Pb targets. For neutron thermalization the targets were covered by 6 cm paraffin moderator. Neutron multiplicity distributions were studied inside and on the moderator surface. Comparison of SSNTDs results were made for thermal-epithermal neutrons with sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La activation method as well as with Dubna DCM/CEM code. Discussion including previous sup 1 sup 2 C results are given.

  8. Simulation of the Production of Secondary Particles from a Neutron Beam on Polyethylene Targets using the GEANT4 Simulation Tool

    Ilgner, C

    2003-01-01

    In view of a beam test of RadFET semiconductor detectors and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors as on-line dosimeters for radiation monitoring purposes in the caverns of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, a simulation on the production of secondary particles from a neutron beam on a polyethylene target was carried out. We describe the yield of recoil protons, scattered neutrons as well as electrons, positrons and photons, when neutrons of an average energy of 20 MeV hit polyethylene targets of several thicknesses. The simulation was carried out using the latest release 5.2 of the GEANT4 detector description and simulation tool, including advanced hadron interaction models.

  9. SU-E-T-479: Development and Validation of Analytical Models Predicting Secondary Neutron Radiation in Proton Therapy Applications

    Farah, J; Bonfrate, A; Donadille, L; Martinetti, F; Trompier, F; Clairand, I; De Olivera, A; Delacroix, S; Herault, J; Piau, S; Vabre, I

    2014-01-01

    : Analytical models predicting secondary neutrons in proton therapy represent a promising solution that substitute for time-consuming MC calculations

  10. Multigroup and coupled forward-adjoint Monte Carlo calculation efficiencies for secondary neutron doses from proton beams

    Kelsey IV, Charles T.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the Monte Carlo calculation efficiency for multigroup transport relative to continuous energy transport using the MCNPX code system to evaluate secondary neutron doses from a proton beam. We consider both fully forward simulation and application of a midway forward adjoint coupling method to the problem. Previously we developed tools for building coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries and showed consistent results for continuous energy and multigroup proton/neutron transport calculations. We observed that forward multigroup transport could be more efficient than continuous energy. Here we quantify solution efficiency differences for a secondary radiation dose problem characteristic of proton beam therapy problems. We begin by comparing figures of merit for forward multigroup and continuous energy MCNPX transport and find that multigroup is 30 times more efficient. Next we evaluate efficiency gains for coupling out-of-beam adjoint solutions with forward in-beam solutions. We use a variation of a midway forward-adjoint coupling method developed by others for neutral particle transport. Our implementation makes use of the surface source feature in MCNPX and we use spherical harmonic expansions for coupling in angle rather than solid angle binning. The adjoint out-of-beam transport for organs of concern in a phantom or patient can be coupled with numerous forward, continuous energy or multigroup, in-beam perturbations of a therapy beam line configuration. Out-of-beam dose solutions are provided without repeating out-of-beam transport. (author)

  11. P2 Asymmetry of Au's M-band Flux and its smoothing effect due to high-Z ablator dopants

    Li, Yongsheng; Zhai, Chuanlei; Ren, Guoli; Gu, Jianfa; Huo, Wenyi; Meng, Xujun; Ye, Wenhua; Lan, Ke; Zhang, Weiyan

    2017-10-01

    X-ray drive asymmetry is one of the main seeds of low-mode implosion asymmetry that blocks further improvement of the nuclear performance of ``high-foot'' experiments on the National Ignition Facility. More particularly, the P2 asymmetry of Au's M-band flux can also severely influence the implosion performance. Here we study the smoothing effect of mid- and/or high-Z dopants in ablator on M-band flux asymmetries, by modeling and comparing the implosion processes of a Ge-doped and a Si-doped ignition capsule driven by x-ray sources with asymmetric M-band flux. As the results, (1) mid- or high-Z dopants absorb M-band flux and re-emit isotropically, helping to smooth M-band flux arriving at the ablation front, therefore reducing the P2 asymmetries of the imploding shell and hot spot; (2) the smoothing effect of Ge-dopant is more remarkable than Si-dopant due to its higher opacity than the latter in Au's M-band; and (3) placing the doped layer at a larger radius in ablator is more efficient. Applying this effect may not be a main measure to reduce the low-mode implosion asymmetry, but might be of significance in some critical situations such as Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments very near the performance cliffs of asymmetric x-ray drives.

  12. Preliminary test of the MONDO project secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons tracker response using protons and MIP particles

    Traini, G.; Battistoni, G.; Giacometti, V.; Gioscio, E.; Marafini, M.; Mirabelli, R.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Patera, V.

    2018-04-01

    The risk of developing a second malignant cancer as a late time consequence of undergoing a treatment, is one of the main concerns in particle therapy (PT). Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, a precise characterisation of their production point, kinetic energy and abundance is eagerly needed. The treatment planning system (TPS) software that predicts the normal tissue toxicity in the target region and the risk of late complications in the whole body is currently based on the poorly known production cross-sections and will greatly benefit from improved precision double differential measurements. The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims to build an ultrafast neutron tracker that could be used to characterise the production of secondary neutrons with energies in the 20–400 MeV range. The neutron tracking will proceed via the detection of recoil protons produced in two consecutive (n, p) elastic scattering interactions. The MONDO detector consists of a 10 × 10 × 20 cm3 matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in orthogonally oriented layers. A compact read-out sensor with single photon detection capabilities employing the CMOS SPAD technology has been developed in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The detector will be completed by the end of 2018. A 4 × 4 × 4.8 cm3 prototype has been built using 250 μ m thick scintillating fibres of squared section and was tested using a proton beam and minimum ionising particles. In this contribution we present the experimental results related to the prototype test performed with a proton beam at the Proton Therapy Centre of the Trento Hospital (PTC) in May 2017. The results are compared with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation performed with the FLUKA software.

  13. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray skyshine and groundshine from intense 14 MeV neutron source facility

    Yoshida, Shigeo; Morotomi, Ryutaro; Kondo, Tetsuo; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    Secondary gamma-ray skyshine and groundshine, including the direct contribution from the facility building, have been measured with an Hp-Ge detector and an NaI(Tl) detector at the Intense 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. The mechanism of secondary gamma-rays propagation were analyzed with the measured spectrum with the Hp-Ge detector. The contribution of the skyshine was shown to be a continuum spectrum that was composed of mainly Compton scattered high energy secondary gamma-rays generated in the facility building created by (n, {gamma}) reaction. The contribution of the groundshine considerably contained secondary gamma-rays generated by {sup nat}Si (n, {gamma}) reaction in soil, including the albedo contribution from the ground. And the total contribution contained capture gamma-rays from iron (Fe) and other nuclides. The measurements with the NaI(Tl) detector as well as the Hp-Ge detector were carried out to investigate the dependence of gamma-ray dose as a function of distance from the neutron source up to hundreds meters. Consequently, it was found that the dependence could be fitted with the function of const.{center_dot}exp(-r/{lambda})/r{sup n}, where n values were around 2 except for the skyshine (n {approx} 1). It was thus indicated that the contribution of the skyshine could be propagated farther downfield than the direct contribution from the facility. The measured ratios of the three contributions (skyshine, groundshine, and direct contributions) and the distance dependence in each path were shown to be in good agreement with calculated results by the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4A. And the total contributions for the two detectors of NaI(Tl) and Hp-Ge agree excellently with each other. (author)

  14. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  15. P2 asymmetry of Au's M-band flux and its smoothing effect due to high-Z ablator dopants

    Yongsheng Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available X-ray drive asymmetry is one of the main seeds of low-mode implosion asymmetry that blocks further improvement of the nuclear performance of “high-foot” experiments on the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004]. More particularly, the P2 asymmetry of Au's M-band flux can also severely influence the implosion performance of ignition capsules [Li et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 072705 (2016]. Here we study the smoothing effect of mid- and/or high-Z dopants in ablator on Au's M-band flux asymmetries, by modeling and comparing the implosion processes of a Ge-doped ignition capsule and a Si-doped one driven by X-ray sources with P2 M-band flux asymmetry. As the results, (1 mid- or high-Z dopants absorb hard X-rays (M-band flux and re-emit isotropically, which helps to smooth the asymmetric M-band flux arriving at the ablation front, therefore reducing the P2 asymmetries of the imploding shell and hot spot; (2 the smoothing effect of Ge-dopant is more remarkable than Si-dopant because its opacity in Au's M-band is higher than the latter's; and (3 placing the doped layer at a larger radius in ablator is more efficient. Applying this effect may not be a main measure to reduce the low-mode implosion asymmetry, but might be of significance in some critical situations such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments very near the performance cliffs of asymmetric X-ray drives.

  16. Note: Self-biased voltage to suppress secondary electrons by a ZnO varistor in a compact pulsed neutron generator

    Yang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, J.; Long, J. D.; Lan, C. H.; Wang, T.; Dong, P.; He, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    A large amount of back streaming electrons will bring about a part of current drain on power supply, cause sparking or high-voltage breakdowns, and affect the neutron yield and waveform for a compact sealed-tube pulsed neutron generator. A novel idea which uses a ZnO varistor to provide a constant self-biased voltage to suppress the secondary electrons is introduced. The I-V curve for the ZnO varistor was measured in the experiment. The effects of suppressing the secondary electrons were investigated using a ZnO varistor, linear resistors, and an independent power supply, respectively. The results show that the secondary electrons are suppressed effectively by the compact ZnO varistor, while not increasing the size and the component of the device. It is a promising design for compact sealed-tube neutron generators.

  17. Tracing Of Scaling Elements In Secondary Cooling System Of GA Siwabessy Reactor By Neutron Activation Analysis

    Lestari, Diyah Erlina

    2000-01-01

    Determination of content of chemical elements and scale formed in the secondary cooling water has been carried out by means of AAN method. The counting was performed using a gamma spectrometer equipped with high resolution HPGe gamma detector. Result of counting show the elements contained in the scale are: Na, Br, Fe, Ci, Mg and Co which are also found in the secondary cooling water. The main scaling element cannot yet be detected

  18. A station blackout simulation for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor using the integrated primary and secondary system model

    Schneider, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper deals with thermal-hydraulic analysis of ANSR's cooling systems during nominal and transient conditions, with the major effort focusing upon the construction and testing of computer models of the reactor's primary, secondary and reflector vessel cooling systems. The code RELAP5 was used to simulate transients, such as loss of coolant accidents and loss of off-site power, as well as to model the behavior of the reactor in steady state. Three stages are involved in constructing and using a RELAP5 model: (1) construction and encoding of the desired model, (2) testing and adjustment of the model until a satisfactory steady state is achieved, and (3) running actual transients using the steady-state results obtained earlier as initial conditions. By use of the ANSR design specifications, a model of the reactor's primary and secondary cooling systems has been constructed to run a transient simulating a loss of off-site power. This incident assumes a pump coastdown in both the primary and secondary loops. The results determine whether the reactor can survive the transition from forced convection to natural circulation

  19. M-BAND IMAGING OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM USING AN INNOVATIVE LOCI-BASED BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION TECHNIQUE

    Galicher, Raphael; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn; Barman, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Multi-wavelength observations/spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres are the basis of the emerging exciting field of comparative exoplanetology. The HR 8799 planetary system is an ideal laboratory to study our current knowledge gap between massive field brown dwarfs and the cold 5 Gyr old solar system planets. The HR 8799 planets have so far been imaged at J- to L-band, with only upper limits available at M-band. We present here deep high-contrast Keck II adaptive optics M-band observations that show the imaging detection of three of the four currently known HR 8799 planets. Such detections were made possible due to the development of an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction scheme that is three times more efficient than a classical median background subtraction for Keck II AO data, representing a gain in telescope time of up to a factor of nine. These M-band detections extend the broadband photometric coverage out to ∼5 μm and provide access to the strong CO fundamental absorption band at 4.5 μm. The new M-band photometry shows that the HR 8799 planets are located near the L/T-type dwarf transition, similar to what was found by other studies. We also confirm that the best atmospheric fits are consistent with low surface gravity, dusty, and non-equilibrium CO/CH 4 chemistry models.

  20. Secondary relaxation in two engineering thermoplastics by neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy

    Arrese, S; Alegria, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    We present a preliminary investigation of the dynamics of glassy polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. Whereas the consideration of pure phenylene ring pi-flips is enough to explain the momentum-transfer (Q) dependence of the inelastic intensity measured for PSF, in the case of PC the Q dependence of both the coherent and the incoherent scattering functions reveal the existence in this polymer of some more complex motion of the phenylene ring. On the other hand, the similarity of the energy landscapes deduced from the different techniques points to a closely related molecular origin for all the relaxation/motions observed. (orig.)

  1. Secondary relaxation in two engineering thermoplastics by neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy

    Arrese-Igor, S.; Arbe, A.; Alegria, A.; Colmenero, J.; Frick, B.

    2002-01-01

    We present a preliminary investigation of the dynamics of glassy polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. Whereas the consideration of pure phenylene ring π-flips is enough to explain the momentum-transfer (Q) dependence of the inelastic intensity measured for PSF, in the case of PC the Q dependence of both the coherent and the incoherent scattering functions reveal the existence in this polymer of some more complex motion of the phenylene ring. On the other hand, the similarity of the energy landscapes deduced from the different techniques points to a closely related molecular origin for all the relaxation/motions observed. (orig.)

  2. Resolution function normalisation and secondary extinction in neutron triple-axis spectrometry

    Tindle, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of resolution correction in triple-axis spectrometry is developed from first principles. It is demonstrated that for ideally imperfect thin crystals the formulation coincides with that introduced initially by Cooper and Nathans and subsequently considered by Dorner. The predicted energy variation of peak Bragg reflectivities of monochromator and analyser crystals in Bragg case scattering is such as to confirm experimental data. In the Laue case to obtain results compatible with experiment one has to invoke theories of secondary extinction. In an attempt to accommodate these observations a new finite threshold model of secondary extinction is proposed which interpolates thin crystals formulas and conventional secondary extinction formulas obtained in the zero threshold limit. (orig.)

  3. SB2. Experiment on secondary gamma-ray production cross sections arising from thermal-neutron capture in each of 14 different elements plus a stainless steel

    Maerker, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental and calculational details for a CSEWG integral data testing shielding experiment are presented. This particular experiment measured the secondary gamma-ray production cross sections arising from thermal-neutron capture in iron, nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, copper, titanium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, silicon, ickel, zinc, barium, sulfur and a type 321 stainless steel. 1 figure, 30 tables

  4. The secondary neutrons spectra of 235U, 238U for incident energy range 1-2.5 MeV

    Kornilov, N.V.; Kagalenko, A.B.; Balitsky, A.V.; Baryba, V.Ja.; Androsenko, P.A.; Androsenko, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra of inelastic scattered neutrons and fission neutrons were measured with neutron time of flight spectrometer. The solid tritium target was used as a neutron source. The energy distribution of neutrons on the sample was calculated with Monte-Carlo code, taking into account interaction income protons inside target and reaction kinematics. The detector efficiency was determined with 252 Cf source. The multiple scattering and absorption corrections were calculated with codes packet BRAND. Our results confirm ENDF/B-6 data library. (author)

  5. The M-band transmission flux of the plastic foil with a coated layer of silicon or germanium

    Li, Liling; Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Shaoen; Guo, Liang; Qing, Bo; Li, Zhichao; Zhang, Jiyan; Yang, Jiamin; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) can be used as the dopant in the ablator material for the purpose of reducing preheating in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Their performances in reducing preheating are quite different. A method to evaluate the difference of these two kinds of dopants has been presented in this letter. In the Shenguang-II high power laser facility, the M-band (1.6–4.4 keV) transmission flux of Si-coated plastic (CH) and Ge-coated plastic (CH) has been measured by using the M-band x-ray diode. In the experiment, we find that the Si-coated CH can absorb more M-band x-rays and thus reduce the preheating of the fuel in our experiment condition. By using the radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI-1D, we got the simulation result which was well suited for the experiment. The comparison of their opacities (T e = 60–100 eV and ρ = 0.1–0.5 g/cm 3 ) also shows that the opacity of Si is higher than that of Ge almost in the whole range of 1.6–4.4 keV

  6. Characterization of the secondary neutron field produced during treatment of an anthropomorphic phantom with x-rays, protons and carbon ions

    La Tessa, C.; Berger, T.; Kaderka, R.; Schardt, D.; Burmeister, S.; Labrenz, J.; Reitz, G.; Durante, M.

    2014-04-01

    Short- and long-term side effects following the treatment of cancer with radiation are strongly related to the amount of dose deposited to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The characterization of the radiation field outside the planned target volume is the first step for estimating health risks, such as developing a secondary radioinduced malignancy. In ion and high-energy photon treatments, the major contribution to the dose deposited in the far-out-of-field region is given by neutrons, which are produced by nuclear interaction of the primary radiation with the beam line components and the patient’s body. Measurements of the secondary neutron field and its contribution to the absorbed dose and equivalent dose for different radiotherapy technologies are presented in this work. An anthropomorphic RANDO phantom was irradiated with a treatment plan designed for a simulated 5 × 2 × 5 cm3 cancer volume located in the center of the head. The experiment was repeated with 25 MV IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy) photons and charged particles (protons and carbon ions) delivered with both passive modulation and spot scanning in different facilities. The measurements were performed with active (silicon-scintillation) and passive (bubble, thermoluminescence 6LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-600) and 7LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-700)) detectors to investigate the production of neutral particles both inside and outside the phantom. These techniques provided the whole energy spectrum (E ⩽ 20 MeV) and corresponding absorbed dose and dose equivalent of photo neutrons produced by x-rays, the fluence of thermal neutrons for all irradiation types and the absorbed dose deposited by neutrons with 0.8 energy x-rays, the contribution of secondary neutrons to the dose equivalent is of the same order of magnitude as the primary radiation. In carbon therapy delivered with raster scanning, the absorbed dose deposited by neutrons in the energy region between 0.8 and 10 MeV is almost two orders of

  7. SU-E-T-521: Investigation of the Uncertainties Involved in Secondary Neutron/gamma Production in Geant4/MCNP6 Monte Carlo Codes for Proton Therapy Application

    Mirzakhanian, L; Enger, S; Giusti, V

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A major concern in proton therapy is the production of secondary neutrons causing secondary cancers, especially in young adults and children. Most utilized Monte Carlo codes in proton therapy are Geant4 and MCNP. However, the default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 do not have suitable cross sections or physical models to properly handle secondary particle production in proton energy ranges used for therapy. In this study, default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 were modified to better handle production of secondaries by adding the TENDL-2012 cross-section library. Methods: In-water proton depth-dose was measured at the “The Svedberg Laboratory” in Uppsala (Sweden). The proton beam was mono-energetic with mean energy of 178.25±0.2 MeV. The measurement set-up was simulated by Geant4 version 10.00 (default and modified version) and MCNP6. Proton depth-dose, primary and secondary particle fluence and neutron equivalent dose were calculated. In case of Geant4, the secondary particle fluence was filtered by all the physics processes to identify the main process responsible for the difference between the default and modified version. Results: The proton depth-dose curves and primary proton fluence show a good agreement between both Geant4 versions and MCNP6. With respect to the modified version, default Geant4 underestimates the production of secondary neutrons while overestimates that of gammas. The “ProtonInElastic” process was identified as the main responsible process for the difference between the two versions. MCNP6 shows higher neutron production and lower gamma production than both Geant4 versions. Conclusion: Despite the good agreement on the proton depth dose curve and primary proton fluence, there is a significant discrepancy on secondary neutron production between MCNP6 and both versions of Geant4. Further studies are thus in order to find the possible cause of this discrepancy or more accurate cross-sections/models to handle the nuclear

  8. Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation

    Taddei, Phillip J; Mirkovic, Dragan; Zhang Rui; Giebeler, Annelise; Harvey, Mark; Newhauser, Wayne D; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Woo, Shiao

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

  9. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit.

    El-Jaby, Samy; Richardson, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposures from ionizing radiation are currently regulated for airline travel (Earth orbit (∼300-400 km). Aircrew typically receive between 1 and 6 mSv of occupational dose annually, while aboard the International Space Station, the area radiation dose equivalent measured over just 168 days was 106 mSv at solar minimum conditions. It is anticipated that space tourism vehicles will reach suborbital altitudes of approximately 100 km and, therefore, the annual occupational dose to flight crew during repeated transits is expected to fall somewhere between those observed for aircrew and astronauts. Unfortunately, measurements of the radiation environment at the high altitudes reached by suborbital vehicles are sparse, and modelling efforts have been similarly limited. In this paper, preliminary MCNPX radiation transport code simulations are developed of the secondary neutron flux profile in air from surface altitudes up to low Earth orbit at solar minimum conditions and excluding the effects of spacecraft shielding. These secondary neutrons are produced by galactic cosmic radiation interacting with Earth's atmosphere and are among the sources of radiation that can pose a health risk. Associated estimates of the operational neutron ambient dose equivalent, used for radiation protection purposes, and the neutron effective dose equivalent that is typically used for estimates of stochastic health risks, are provided in air. Simulations show that the neutron radiation dose rates received at suborbital altitudes are comparable to those experienced by aircrew flying at 7 to 14 km. We also show that the total neutron dose rate tails off beyond the Pfotzer maximum on ascension from surface up to low Earth orbit. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SB3. Experiment on secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for each of 13 different elements plus a stainless steel

    Maerker, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental and calculational details for a CSEWG integral data testing shielding experiment are presented. This particular experiment measured the secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for iron, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, copper, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon, nickel, zinc, barium, sulfur, and a type 321 stainless steel. The gamma-ray production cross sections were binned into 0.5-MeV wide gamma-ray energy intervals. 29 tables, 1 figure

  12. High resolution studies by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of the spatial distribution of tritium in neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Rabaglino, E.; Tamborini, G.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Betti, M.

    2006-01-01

    A key issue of beryllium as a neutron multiplier in the blanket of future fusion reactors is tritium retention. Models are under development in order to predict tritium release kinetics in the typical operating conditions of the material in the blanket: the absence of experimental data in this range imposes an extrapolation of the models, therefore a detailed characterization and understanding of microscopic diffusion phenomena related to macroscopic tritium release is necessary. It has been recently shown, that the availability of evidence on such phenomena at a scale of 1 micron down to tens of nanometers enables a relevant progress in the effectiveness of model validation: therefore the need for applying and developing advanced analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry at this scale. A study of tritium spatial distribution in neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles (2 mm diameter, 480 appm 4 He, 7 appm 3 H) by means of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is presented. Samples in different conditions (non-irradiated, at end of irradiation and at different temperatures during thermal ramp annealing) are examined by an oxygen ion primary beam with a spatial resolution of 1 micron along a diameter. The sample preparation is optimized in order to enable a quantitative comparison among the different conditions. Under an oxygen ion beam tritium is detected in the irradiated samples in a molecular form (3H 2 ), with a continuous distribution inside the grains, which suggests the presence of small clusters in agreement with TEM analyses, and in the form of peaks at grain boundaries, corresponding to large grain boundary bubbles. The evolving of molecular tritium distribution measured by SIMS during a typical thermal ramp release experiment shows precisely tritium diffusion from the centre of the grain to grain boundaries as the temperature increases: at the same time the remaining intragranular tritium inventory, given by the integral of the distribution

  13. mBAND analysis for high- and low-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations: A review

    Hada, Megumi, E-mail: megumi.hada-1@nasa.gov [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Wu Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    During long-term space travel or cancer therapy, humans are exposed to high linear energy transfer (LET) energetic heavy ions. High-LET radiation is much more effective than low-LET radiation in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, and cytogenetic damage can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Epidemiological data, mainly from survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan, have enabled risk estimation from low-LET radiation exposures. The identification of a cytogenetic signature that distinguishes high- from low-LET exposure remains a long-term goal in radiobiology. Recently developed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-painting methodologies have revealed unique endpoints related to radiation quality. Heavy-ions induce a high fraction of complex-type exchanges, and possibly unique chromosome rearrangements. This review will concentrate on recent data obtained with multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) methods in mammalian cells exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. Chromosome analysis with mBAND technique allows detection of both inter- and intrachromosomal exchanges, and also distribution of the breakpoints of aberrations.

  14. Methodology and analysis for effects of energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons in fusion blankets and application to integral beryllium experiments

    Song, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the US/JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) collaborative experiment program on Fusion Breeder Neutronics is to estimate the uncertainties involved in predicting the TBR in Li 2 O. Beryllium has been used as a neutron multiplier in several experiments performed in that program. The shape of the C/E values (calculation/experiment) for the tritium production rate (TPR) from 6 Li, T 6 observed in these experiments indicate that there is underestimation in T 6 just behind the Be layer. This feature could be related to the Be cross-sections, especially in secondary energy (SED) and angular distribution (SAD) of emitted neutrons from reaction. These SED and SAD of the 9 Be(n,2n) cross-sections are subject to large uncertainties because of inadequate representation of the energy/angle distribution of the emitted neutrons. To access the uncertainty in predicting TPR that results from the current uncertainties in the cross-section data and SED/SAD of emitted neutrons, an extensive two-dimensional sensitivity/uncertainty analysis was performed with the current FORSS module, and new codes, JULIX, VARIX, and UNGSS which were specifically developed to incorporate the new methodology of the present work in treating SED/SAD sensitivity analyses. When analyses were performed, it was found that the local standard deviation in T 6 is 2.1 to 9.3% in the integrated cross-section, 5.2 to 11.2% in the SED (direct variation with the ENDF/BLANL), and 0.14% to 1.37% in the SAD, respectively, with largest uncertainties occurring inside the beryllium layer. The uncertainty in T 6 is mainly attributed to the current uncertainties in 9 Be(n,elastic), 16 O and 7 Li data

  15. Reduction of the secondary neutron dose in passively scattered proton radiotherapy, using an optimized pre-collimator/collimator

    Brenner, David J; Elliston, Carl D; Hall, Eric J; Paganetti, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy represents a potential major advance in cancer therapy. Most current proton beams are spread out to cover the tumor using passive scattering and collimation, resulting in an extra whole-body high-energy neutron dose, primarily from proton interactions with the final collimator. There is considerable uncertainty as to the carcinogenic potential of low doses of high-energy neutrons, and thus we investigate whether this neutron dose can be significantly reduced without major modifications to passively scattered proton beam lines. Our goal is to optimize the design features of a patient-specific collimator or pre-collimator/collimator assembly. There are a number of often contradictory design features, in terms of geometry and material, involved in an optimal design. For example, plastic or hybrid plastic/metal collimators have a number of advantages. We quantify these design issues, and investigate the practical balances that can be achieved to significantly reduce the neutron dose without major alterations to the beamline design or function. Given that the majority of proton therapy treatments, at least for the next few years, will use passive scattering techniques, reducing the associated neutron-related risks by simple modifications of the collimator assembly design is a desirable goal.

  16. Fluorescence imaging as a diagnostic of M-band x-ray drive condition in hohlraum with fluorescent Si targets

    Li, Qi; Hu, Zhimin; Yao, Li; Huang, Chengwu; Yuan, Zheng; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Gang; Qing, Bo; Lv, Min; Zhu, Tuo; Deng, Bo; Li, Jin; Wei, Minxi; Zhan, Xiayu; Li, Jun; Yang, Yimeng; Su, Chunxiao; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Li, Sanwei

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of surrogate Si-doped CH targets has been used to provide a measurement for drive condition of high-energy x-ray (i.e. M-band x-ray) drive symmetry upon the capsule in hohlraum on Shenguang-II laser facility. A series of experiments dedicated to the study of photo-pumping and fluorescence effect in Si-plasma are presented. To investigate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging in Si-plasma, an silicon plasma in Si-foil target is pre-formed at ground state by the soft x-ray from a half-hohlraum, which is then photo-pumped by the K-shell lines from a spatially distinct laser-produced Si-plasma. The resonant Si photon pump is used to improve the fluorescence signal and cause visible image in the Si-foil. Preliminary fluorescence imaging of Si-ball target is performed in both Si-doped and pure Au hohlraum. The usual capsule at the center of the hohlraum is replaced with a solid Si-doped CH-ball (Si-ball). Since the fluorescence is proportional to the photon pump upon the Si-plasma, high-energy x-ray drive symmetry is equal to the fluorescence distribution of the Si-ball. (paper)

  17. Characterization of highly stacked InAs quantum dot layers on InP substrate for a planar saturable absorber at 1.5 μm band

    Inoue, Jun; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Isu, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    We examined the absorption saturation properties in the 1.5 μm band of novel highly stacked InAs quantum dot layers. The transmission change at vertical incidence based on the saturable absorption of the quantum dots was more than 1%. This value is as large as the reflection changes of previously reported 1-μm-band quantum dot saturable absorber with interference enhancement. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Excitation of the 4.3-μm bands of CO2 by low-energy electrons

    Bulos, R.R.; Phelps, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the excitation of the 4.3-μm bands of CO 2 by low-energy electrons in CO 2 have been measured using a drift-tube technique. The CO 2 density [(1.5 to 7) x 10 17 molecules/cm 3 ] was chosen to maximize the radiation reaching the detector. Line-by-line transmission calculations were used to take into account the absorption of 4.3-μm radiation. A small fraction of the approximately 10 -8 W of the 4.3-μm radiation produced by the approximately 10 -7 -A electron current was incident on an InSb photovoltaic detector. The detector calibration and absorption calculations were checked by measuring the readily calculated excitation coefficients for vibrational excitation of N 2 containing a small concentration of CO 2 . For pure CO 2 the number of molecules capable of emitting 4.3-μm radiation produced per cm of electron drift and per CO 2 molecule varied from 10 -17 cm -2 at E/N = 6 x 10 -17 V cm 2 to 5.4 x 10 -16 cm -2 at E/N = 4 x 10 -16 V cm 2 . Here E is the electric field and N is total gas density. The excitation coefficients at lower E/N are much larger than estimated previously. A set of vibrational excitation cross sections is obtained for CO 2 which is consistent with the excitation coefficient data and with most of the published electron-beam data

  19. Experimental characterization of a prototype secondary spectrometer for vertically scattering multiple energy analysis at cold-neutron triple axis spectrometers

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Groitl, Felix; Kure, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    A thorough experimental characterization of a multiplexing backend with multiple energy analysis on a cold-neutron triple axis spectrometer (cTAS) is presented. The prototype employs two angular segments (2 theta-segments) each containing five vertically scattering analyzers (energy channels...... to the energy resolution of a standard cTAS. The dispersion relation of the antiferromagnetic excitations in MnF2 has been mapped out by performing constant energy transfer maps. These results show that the tested setup is virtually spurion free. In addition, focusing effects due to (mis...

  20. Binding of Myomesin to Obscurin-Like-1 at the Muscle M-Band Provides a Strategy for Isoform-Specific Mechanical Protection.

    Pernigo, Stefano; Fukuzawa, Atsushi; Beedle, Amy E M; Holt, Mark; Round, Adam; Pandini, Alessandro; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Gautel, Mathias; Steiner, Roberto A

    2017-01-03

    The sarcomeric cytoskeleton is a network of modular proteins that integrate mechanical and signaling roles. Obscurin, or its homolog obscurin-like-1, bridges the giant ruler titin and the myosin crosslinker myomesin at the M-band. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying the physical obscurin(-like-1):myomesin connection, important for mechanical integrity of the M-band, remained elusive. Here, using a combination of structural, cellular, and single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques, we decode the architectural and functional determinants defining the obscurin(-like-1):myomesin complex. The crystal structure reveals a trans-complementation mechanism whereby an incomplete immunoglobulin-like domain assimilates an isoform-specific myomesin interdomain sequence. Crucially, this unconventional architecture provides mechanical stability up to forces of ∼135 pN. A cellular competition assay in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes validates the complex and provides the rationale for the isoform specificity of the interaction. Altogether, our results reveal a novel binding strategy in sarcomere assembly, which might have implications on muscle nanomechanics and overall M-band organization. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass with silver nanoparticles for 1.85 μm band laser material

    Huang, Bo; Zhou, Yaxun; Cheng, Pan; Zhou, Zizhong; Li, Jun; Jin, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses with different silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) concentrations were prepared using the conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized by the UV/Vis/NIR absorption spectra, 1.85 μm band fluorescence emission spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns to investigate the effects of Ag NPs on the 1.85 μm band spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ ions, thermal stability and structural nature of glass hosts. Under the excitation of 980 nm laser diode (LD), the 1.85 μm band fluorescence emission of Tm3+ ions enhances significantly in the presence of Ag NPs with average diameter of ∼8 nm and local surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of ∼590 nm, which is mainly attributed to the increased local electric field induced by Ag NPs at the proximity of doped rare-earth ions on the basis of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+ ions. An improvement by about 110% of fluorescence intensity is observed in the Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass containing 0.5 mol% amount of AgNO3 while the prepared glass samples possess good thermal stability and amorphous structural nature. Meanwhile, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2,4,6), spontaneous radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes of relevant excited levels of Tm3+ ions were determined based on the Judd-Ofelt theory to reveal the enhanced effects of Ag NPs on the 1.85 μm band spectroscopic properties, and the energy transfer micro-parameters and phonon contribution ratios were calculated based on the non-resonant energy transfer theory to elucidate the energy transfer mechanism between Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions. The present results indicate that the prepared Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass with an appropriate amount of Ag NPs is a promising lasing media applied for 1.85 μm band solid-state lasers and amplifiers.

  2. Computed secondary-particle energy spectra following nonelastic neutron interactions with 12C for En between 15 and 60 MeV: Comparisons of results from two calculational methods

    Dickens, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    The organic scintillation detector response code SCINFUL has been used to compute secondary-particle energy spectra, dσ/dE, following nonelastic neutron interactions with 12 C for incident neutron energies between 15 and 60 MeV. The resulting spectra are compared with published similar spectra computed by Brenner and Prael who used an intranuclear cascade code, including alpha clustering, a particle pickup mechanism, and a theoretical approach to sequential decay via intermediate particle-unstable states. The similarities of and the differences between the results of the two approaches are discussed. 16 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs

  3. A combination method for simulation of secondary knock-on atoms of boron carbide induced by neutron irradiation in SPRR-300

    Wu, Jian-Chun; Feng, Qi-Jie; Liu, Xian-Kun; Zhan, Chang-Yong; Zou, Yu; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A multiscale sequence of simulation should be used to predict properties of materials under irradiation. Binary collision theory and molecular dynamics (MDs) method are commonly used to characterize the displacement cascades induced by neutrons in a material. In order to reduce the clock time spent for the MD simulation of damages induced by high-energy primary knock-on atoms (PKAs), the damage zones were split into sub-cascade according to the sub-cascade formation criteria. Two well-known codes, Geant4 and TRIM, were used to simulate high-energy PKA-induced cascades in B_4C and then produce the secondary knock-on atom (SKA) energy spectrum. It has been found that both high-energy primary knock-on B and C atoms move a long range in the boron carbide. These atoms produce sub-cascades at the tip of trajectory. The energy received by most of the SKAs is <10 keV, which can be used as input to reduce the clock time spent for MD simulation.

  4. Neutron stars

    Irvine, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  5. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  6. The Exciton-Polariton Dispersion Law under the Action of Strong Pumping in the Region of the M-Band of Luminescence

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Nad'kin, L. Yu.; Markov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    The double-pulse interaction with excitons and biexcitons in semiconductors is studied theoretically. It is shown that the dispersion law of carrier wave has three branches under the action of a powerful pumping in the region of the M-band of luminescence. Values of parameters at which the dispersion law branches can intersect due to the degeneration of the exciton level energy have been found. The effect of a significant change in the force of coupling between the exciton and photon of a weak pulse with a change in the pumping intensity is predicted.

  7. Potential energy surface, dipole moment surface and the intensity calculations for the 10 μm, 5 μm and 3 μm bands of ozone

    Polyansky, Oleg L.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Mizus, Irina I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring ozone concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere using spectroscopic methods is a major activity which undertaken both from the ground and from space. However there are long-running issues of consistency between measurements made at infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. In addition, key O3 IR bands at 10 μm, 5 μm and 3 μm also yield results which differ by a few percent when used for retrievals. These problems stem from the underlying laboratory measurements of the line intensities. Here we use quantum chemical techniques, first principles electronic structure and variational nuclear-motion calculations, to address this problem. A new high-accuracy ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS) is computed. Several spectroscopically-determined potential energy surfaces (PESs) are constructed by fitting to empirical energy levels in the region below 7000 cm-1 starting from an ab initio PES. Nuclear motion calculations using these new surfaces allow the unambiguous determination of the intensities of 10 μm band transitions, and the computation of the intensities of 10 μm and 5 μm bands within their experimental error. A decrease in intensities within the 3 μm is predicted which appears consistent with atmospheric retrievals. The PES and DMS form a suitable starting point both for the computation of comprehensive ozone line lists and for future calculations of electronic transition intensities.

  8. SPATIALLY RESOLVED M-BAND EMISSION FROM IO’S LOKI PATERA–FIZEAU IMAGING AT THE 22.8 m LBT

    Conrad, Albert; Veillet, Christian [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kleer, Katherine de; Pater, Imke de [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip; Skemer, Andy [University of Arizona, 1428 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Camera, Andrea La; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia [DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 35, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Arcidiacono, Carmelo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kürster, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rathbun, Julie [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Spencer, John [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Ste. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Woodward, Charles E., E-mail: aconrad@lbto.org [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer mid-infrared camera, LMIRcam, imaged Io on the night of 2013 December 24 UT and detected strong M-band (4.8 μm) thermal emission arising from Loki Patera. The 22.8 m baseline of the Large Binocular Telescope provides an angular resolution of ∼32 mas (∼100 km at Io) resolving the Loki Patera emission into two distinct maxima originating from different regions within Loki’s horseshoe lava lake. This observation is consistent with the presence of a high-temperature source observed in previous studies combined with an independent peak arising from cooling crust from recent resurfacing. The deconvolved images also reveal 15 other emission sites on the visible hemisphere of Io including two previously unidentified hot spots.

  9. Effects of the P2 M-band flux asymmetry of laser-driven gold Hohlraums on the implosion of ICF ignition capsule

    Li, Yongsheng [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Graduate School, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Gu, Jianfa; Wu, Changshu; Song, Peng; Dai, Zhensheng; Li, Shuanggui; Li, Xin; Kang, Dongguo; Gu, Peijun; Zheng, Wudi; Zou, Shiyang [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lan, Ke; Ye, Wenhua, E-mail: ye-wenhua@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Weiyan [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Low-mode asymmetries in the laser-indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] are deemed the main obstacles hindering further improvement of the nuclear performance of deuterium-tritium-layered capsules. The dominant seeds of these asymmetries include the P2 and P4 asymmetries of x-ray drives and P2 asymmetry introduced by the supporting “tent.” Here, we explore the effects of another possible seed that can lead to low-mode asymmetric implosions, i.e., the M-band flux asymmetry (MFA) in laser-driven cylindrical gold Hohlraums. It is shown that the M-band flux facilitates the ablation and acceleration of the shell, and that positive P2 MFAs can result in negative P2 asymmetries of hot spots and positive P2 asymmetries of shell's ρR. An oblate or toroidal hot spot, depending on the P2 amplitude of MFA, forms at stagnation. The energy loss of such a hot spot via electron thermal conduction is seriously aggravated not only due to the enlarged hot spot surface but also due to the vortices that develop and help transferring thermal energy from the hotter center to the colder margin of such a hot spot. The cliffs of nuclear performance for the two methodologies of applying MFA (i.e., symmetric flux in the presence of MFA and MFA added for symmetric soft x-ray flux) are obtained locating at 9.5% and 5.0% of P2/P0 amplitudes, respectively.

  10. Effects of the P2 M-band flux asymmetry of laser-driven gold Hohlraums on the implosion of ICF ignition capsule

    Li, Yongsheng; Gu, Jianfa; Wu, Changshu; Song, Peng; Dai, Zhensheng; Li, Shuanggui; Li, Xin; Kang, Dongguo; Gu, Peijun; Zheng, Wudi; Zou, Shiyang; Ding, Yongkun; Lan, Ke; Ye, Wenhua; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-01

    Low-mode asymmetries in the laser-indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] are deemed the main obstacles hindering further improvement of the nuclear performance of deuterium-tritium-layered capsules. The dominant seeds of these asymmetries include the P2 and P4 asymmetries of x-ray drives and P2 asymmetry introduced by the supporting "tent." Here, we explore the effects of another possible seed that can lead to low-mode asymmetric implosions, i.e., the M-band flux asymmetry (MFA) in laser-driven cylindrical gold Hohlraums. It is shown that the M-band flux facilitates the ablation and acceleration of the shell, and that positive P2 MFAs can result in negative P2 asymmetries of hot spots and positive P2 asymmetries of shell's ρR. An oblate or toroidal hot spot, depending on the P2 amplitude of MFA, forms at stagnation. The energy loss of such a hot spot via electron thermal conduction is seriously aggravated not only due to the enlarged hot spot surface but also due to the vortices that develop and help transferring thermal energy from the hotter center to the colder margin of such a hot spot. The cliffs of nuclear performance for the two methodologies of applying MFA (i.e., symmetric flux in the presence of MFA and MFA added for symmetric soft x-ray flux) are obtained locating at 9.5% and 5.0% of P2/P0 amplitudes, respectively.

  11. Effects of the P2 M-band flux asymmetry of laser-driven gold Hohlraums on the implosion of ICF ignition capsule

    Li, Yongsheng; Gu, Jianfa; Wu, Changshu; Song, Peng; Dai, Zhensheng; Li, Shuanggui; Li, Xin; Kang, Dongguo; Gu, Peijun; Zheng, Wudi; Zou, Shiyang; Ding, Yongkun; Lan, Ke; Ye, Wenhua; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    Low-mode asymmetries in the laser-indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] are deemed the main obstacles hindering further improvement of the nuclear performance of deuterium-tritium-layered capsules. The dominant seeds of these asymmetries include the P2 and P4 asymmetries of x-ray drives and P2 asymmetry introduced by the supporting “tent.” Here, we explore the effects of another possible seed that can lead to low-mode asymmetric implosions, i.e., the M-band flux asymmetry (MFA) in laser-driven cylindrical gold Hohlraums. It is shown that the M-band flux facilitates the ablation and acceleration of the shell, and that positive P2 MFAs can result in negative P2 asymmetries of hot spots and positive P2 asymmetries of shell's ρR. An oblate or toroidal hot spot, depending on the P2 amplitude of MFA, forms at stagnation. The energy loss of such a hot spot via electron thermal conduction is seriously aggravated not only due to the enlarged hot spot surface but also due to the vortices that develop and help transferring thermal energy from the hotter center to the colder margin of such a hot spot. The cliffs of nuclear performance for the two methodologies of applying MFA (i.e., symmetric flux in the presence of MFA and MFA added for symmetric soft x-ray flux) are obtained locating at 9.5% and 5.0% of P2/P0 amplitudes, respectively.

  12. Configuration and validation of an analytical model predicting secondary neutron radiation in proton therapy using Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements.

    Farah, J; Bonfrate, A; De Marzi, L; De Oliveira, A; Delacroix, S; Martinetti, F; Trompier, F; Clairand, I

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the configuration and validation of an analytical model predicting leakage neutron doses in proton therapy. Using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, a facility-specific analytical model was built to reproduce out-of-field neutron doses while separately accounting for the contribution of intra-nuclear cascade, evaporation, epithermal and thermal neutrons. This model was first trained to reproduce in-water neutron absorbed doses and in-air neutron ambient dose equivalents, H*(10), calculated using MCNPX. Its capacity in predicting out-of-field doses at any position not involved in the training phase was also checked. The model was next expanded to enable a full 3D mapping of H*(10) inside the treatment room, tested in a clinically relevant configuration and finally consolidated with experimental measurements. Following the literature approach, the work first proved that it is possible to build a facility-specific analytical model that efficiently reproduces in-water neutron doses and in-air H*(10) values with a maximum difference less than 25%. In addition, the analytical model succeeded in predicting out-of-field neutron doses in the lateral and vertical direction. Testing the analytical model in clinical configurations proved the need to separate the contribution of internal and external neutrons. The impact of modulation width on stray neutrons was found to be easily adjustable while beam collimation remains a challenging issue. Finally, the model performance agreed with experimental measurements with satisfactory results considering measurement and simulation uncertainties. Analytical models represent a promising solution that substitutes for time-consuming MC calculations when assessing doses to healthy organs. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polarized neutrons

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  14. Neutron--neutron logging

    Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A borehole logging tool includes a steady-state source of fast neutrons, two epithermal neutron detectors, and two thermal neutron detectors. A count rate meter is connected to each neutron detector. A first ratio detector provides an indication of the porosity of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two epithermal neutron detectors. A second ratio detector provides an indication of both porosity and macroscopic absorption cross section of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two thermal neutron detectors. By comparing the signals of the two ratio detectors, oil bearing zones and salt water bearing zones within the formation being logged can be distinguished and the amount of oil saturation can be determined. 6 claims, 2 figures

  15. 1.7  μm band narrow-linewidth tunable Raman fiber lasers pumped by spectrum-sliced amplified spontaneous emission.

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Du, Quanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Tianshu; Jiang, Huilin

    2017-12-10

    A 1.7 μm band tunable narrow-linewidth Raman fiber laser based on spectrally sliced amplified spontaneous emission (SS-ASE) and multiple filter structures is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this scheme, an SS-ASE source is employed as a pump source in order to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ring configuration includes a 500 m long high nonlinear optical fiber and a 10 km long dispersion shifted fiber as the gain medium. A segment of un-pumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber is used to modify the shape of the spectrum. Furthermore, a nonlinear polarization rotation scheme is applied as the wavelength selector to generate lasers. A high-finesse ring filter and a ring filter are used to narrow the linewidth of the laser, respectively. We demonstrate tuning capabilities of a single laser over 28 nm between 1652 nm and 1680 nm by adjusting the polarization controller (PC) and tunable filter. The tunable laser has a 0.023 nm effective linewidth with the high-finesse ring filter. The stable multi-wavelength laser operation of up to four wavelengths can be obtained by adjusting the PC carefully when the pump power increases.

  16. Ultracold neutrons

    Steenstrup, S.

    Briefly surveys recent developments in research work with ultracold neutrons (neutrons of very low velocity, up to 10 m/s at up to 10 -7 eV and 10 -3 K). Slow neutrons can be detected in an ionisation chamber filled with B 10 F 3 . Very slow neutrons can be used for investigations into the dipole moment of neutrons. Neutrons of large wave length have properties similar to those of light. The limit angle for total reflection is governed by the wave length and by the material. Total reflection can be used to filter ultracold neutrons out of the moderator material of a reactor. Total reflection can also be used to store ultracold neutrons but certain problems with storage have not yet been clarified. Slow neutrons can be made to lose speed in a neutron turbine, and come out as ultracold neutrons. A beam of ultracold neutrons could be used in a neutron microscope. (J.S.)

  17. Measurement of double differential cross sections of secondary neutrons from 238U, 209Bi, Fe and 9Be around 10 MeV

    Qi Bujia; Tang Hongqing; Zhou Zuying

    1995-01-01

    Double differential cross sections of 238 U, 209 Bi, Fe and 9 Be around 10 MeV are measured at 5 or 6 or 8 angles between 35 degree and 120 degree by means of both normal and abnormal TOF spectrometers using T(d,n) neutron source. The present result of 9 Be is compared with existing experimental data. The data of 238 U and 209 Bi are compared with theoretical calculations. A good agreement is achieved

  18. A time series approach to the correction for atmosphere effects and the significance of a semi-diurnal variation in corrected intensities of secondary cosmic ray neutrons and mesons (NM64 and MT64)

    Huijsmans, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this research was to distinguish as accurately as possible between two mechanisms behind a half-daily variation in detected numbers of neutrons and mesons in the secondary cosmic ray particles at sea level. These two mechanisms are due to air pressure variations at sea level and affect the number of primary particles with a certain arrival direction. The distribution among arrival directions in the ecliptic plane varies if a gradient exists in the guiding centre density of primaries in directions perpendicular to the neutral sheet. Chapter 2 is devoted to the calculation of a physically and statistically justifiable determination of the barometric coefficient for neutron measurements and air pressures. Chapter 3 deals with the estimation of atmospheric correction coefficients for the elimination of the influence of changing atmospheric conditions on the number of detected mesons. For mesons the variation of total mass, and also the variations in mass-distribution along the trajectory of the mesons are important. After correction for atmospheric variations using the resulting atmospheric correction coefficients from chapter 2 and 3, the influence of the structure of the interplanetary magnetic field near the earth is examined in chapter 4. 0inally, in chapter 5, a power spectral analysis of variations in corrected intensities of neutrons and mesons is carried out. Such an analysis distinguishes the variance of a time series into contributions within small frequency intervals. From the power spectra of variations on a yearly basis, a statistically fundamented judgement can be given as to the significance of the semi-diurnal variation during the different phases of the solar magnetic activity cycle. (Auth.)

  19. Calculated differential secondary-particle production cross sections after nonelastic neutron interactions with carbon and oxygen between 15 and 60 MeV

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated values are given for double-differential (energy/angle) cross sections for the nonelastic production of hydrogen and helium isotopes and heavier-mass recoils, after the interaction of 15- to 60-MeV neutrons with carbon and oxygen. The data are calculated with an intranuclear cascade code, including alpha clustering and particle pickup, followed by a Fermi-breakup mechanism, incorporating decay via intermediate particle-unstable states. The predictions have been extensively tested against available experimental data in this energy/mass range. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  20. Evolution of secondary-phase precipitates during annealing of the 12Kh18N9T steel irradiated with neutrons to a dose of 5 DPA

    Tsai, K. V.; Maksimkin, O. P.; Turubarova, L. G.

    2007-03-01

    The formation and evolution of thermally-induced secondary precipitates in an austenitic stainless steel 12Kh18N9T irradiated in the core of a laboratory reactor VVR-K to a dose of 5 dpa and subjected to post-radiation isochronous annealings for 1 h in a temperature range from 450 to 1050°C have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness measurements. It has been shown that the formation of stitch (secondary) titanium carbides and M 23C6 carbides at grain and twin boundaries after annealing at 1050°C is preceded by a complex evolution of fineparticles of secondary phases (titanium carbides and nitrides) precipitated at dislocation loops and dislocations during annealing at temperatures above 750°C.

  1. Non destructive testing and neutron radiography in 1994

    Bayon, G.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron radiography has been considered for a long time as a promising technique; however it plays a minor part in the world of non destructive testing today, due to the lack of suitable neutron sources and lack of new industrial applications. This paper reviews the present status of neutron sources, neutron radiography activities, especially in France (such as the neutron-capture-issued secondary radiation spectrometry), in nuclear, aerospace, aeronautical and metallurgical sectors, and the last applications of neutron dynamic imaging. 9 refs

  2. Neutron capture therapy with thermal neutrons at IRT MIFI

    Zajtsev, K.N.; Portnov, A.A.; Savkin, V.A.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.; Shejno, I.N.; Vajnson, A.A.; Kozlovskaya, N.G.; Meshcherikova, V.V.; Mitin, V.N.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Combined preclinical investigations into neutron capture therapy are conducted. Malignant melanoma was adopted as the line of investigation; boron-containing and gadolinium-containing preparations were used during the neutron capture therapy working off. Preparations produce secondary varying radiations when used in tumor. Dogs with spontaneous melanoma were used for the experiments. Procedures for the irradiation of dogs by neutron beam as the stage before use for the treatment of oncology patients were finished off; efficiency of neutron beam influence on normal tissues during the irradiation of dogs with melanoma (and without it) in antitumor and side effect sense was estimated [ru

  3. Neutron reflectometry

    Van Well, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron research where reflection, refraction, and interference play an essential role is generally referred to as 'neutron optics'. The neutron wavelength, the scattering length density and the magnetic properties of the material determine the critical angle for total reflection. The theoretical background of neutron reflection, experimental methods and the interpretation of reflection data are presented. (K.A.)

  4. ;Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu; Vandenberghe, Valérie; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane; Béchade, Jean-Luc; Raepsaet, Caroline; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Bayon, Guy; Ott, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000-4000 wt ppm and 1.0-1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant.

  5. Neutron radiography with ultracold neutrons

    Bates, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The neutron transmission factor of very thin films may be low if the neutron energy is comparable to the pseudo-potential of the film material. Surprisingly, perhaps, it is relatively easy to obtain neutrons with such low energies in sufficient numbers to produce neutron radiographs. (orig.)

  6. Survey of neutron spectra generated by the fission of heavy nuclei induced by fast neutrons

    Lovchikova, G.N.; Trufanov, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A review of neutron fission spectra measurements is presented. This review and the results of this analysis was performed with the participation of the authors. It is shown that there is a need for additional measurements of the energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons in order to improve the understanding of the neutron emission mechanism in fission. (author). 21 refs, 6 figs

  7. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  8. Neutron Dosimetry

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  9. Neutron Dosimetry

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  10. Neutron imaging plates

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  12. Neutron radiography

    Hrdlicka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a radiographic method using a neutron beam of a defined geometry. The neutron source usually consists of a research reactor, a specialized neutron radiography reactor or the 252 Cf radioisotope source. There are two types of the neutron radiography display system, viz., a system producing neutron radiography images by a photographic process or a system allowing a visual display, eg., using a television monitor. The method can be used wherever X-ray radiography is used except applications in the radiography of humans. The neutron radiography unit at UJV uses the WWR-S reactor as the neutron source and both types of the above mentioned display system. (J.P.)

  13. The neutron

    Kredov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The history of the neutron is displayed on the basis of contributions by scientists who produced outstanding results in neutron research (part 1), of summarizing discoveries and theories which led to the discovery of the neutron and the resulting development of nuclear physics (part 2), and of fundamental papers written by Rutherford, Chadwick, Iwanenko, and others (appendix). Of interest to physicists, historians, and students

  14. Neutron techniques

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  15. Secondary Hypertension

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  16. Hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1994-01-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum of a Maxwell distribution higher than the room temperature of 300 K, has been studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in a living body for a deep-seated tumor in neutron capture therapy (NCT). Simulation calculations using MCNP-V3 were carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of the hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field. From the results of simulation calculations, the following were confirmed: (i) The irradiation field of the hyper-thermal neutrons is feasible by using some scattering materials with high temperature, such as Be, BeO, C, SiC and ZrH 1.7 . Especially, ZrH 1.7 is thought to be the best material because of good characteristics of up-scattering for thermal neutrons. (ii) The ZrH 1.7 of 1200 K yields the hyper-thermal neutrons of a Maxwell-like distribution at about 2000 K and the treatable depth is about 1.5 cm larger comparing with the irradiation of the thermal neutrons of 300 K. (iii) The contamination by the secondary gamma-rays from the scattering materials can be sufficiently eliminated to the tolerance level for NCT through the bismuth layer, without the larger change of the energy spectrum of hyper-thermal neutrons. ((orig.))

  17. Neutron radiography

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  19. Neutron detector

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  20. Fusion neutronics

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  1. Neutron spectometers

    Poortmans, F.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental work in the field of low-energy neutron physics can be subdivided into two classes: 1)Study of the decay process of the compound-nucleus state as for example the study of the capture gamma rays and of the neutron induced fission process; 2)Study of the reaction mechanism, mainly by measuring the reaction cross-sections and resonance parameters. These neutron cross-sections and resonance parameters are also important data required for many technological applications especially for reactor development programmes. In general, the second class of experiments impose other requirements on the neutron spectrometer than the first class. In most cases, a better neutron energy resolution and a broader neutron energy range are required for the study of the reaction mechanism than for the study of various aspects of the decay process. (author)

  2. Study on condensed media with polarized neutrons

    Drabkin, G.M.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper are considered the results of a study of the secondary magnetic superstructure of ferromagnets in the phase transition region by means of polarized neutrons. The results obtained are compared with experimental data

  3. Neutron exposure

    Prillinger, G.; Konynenburg, R.A. van

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 6, LWR-PV neutron transport calculations and dosimetry methods and how they are combined to evaluate the neutron exposure of the steel of pressure vessels are discussed. An effort to correlate neutron exposure parameters with damage is made

  4. Atmospheric neutrons

    Preszler, A.M.; Moon, S.; White, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Additional calibrations of the University of California double-scatter neutron and additional analysis corrections lead to the slightly changed neutron fluxes reported here. The theoretical angular distributions of Merker (1975) are in general agreement with our experimental fluxes but do not give the peaks for vertical upward and downward moving neutrons. The theoretical neutron escape current J 2 /sub pi/ (Merker, 1972; Armstrong et al., 1973) is in agreement with the experimental values from 10 to 100 MeV. Our experimental fluxes agree with those of the Kanbach et al. (1974) in the overlap region from 70 to 100 MeV

  5. Neutron Albedo

    Ignatovich, V K

    2005-01-01

    A new, algebraic, method is applied to calculation of neutron albedo from substance to check the claim that use of ultradispersive fuel and moderator of an active core can help to gain in size and mass of the reactor. In a model of isotropic distribution of incident and reflected neutrons it is shown that coherent scattering on separate grains in the case of thermal neutrons increases transport cross section negligibly, however it decreases albedo from a wall of finite thickness because of decrease of substance density. A visible increase of albedo takes place only for neutrons with wave length of the order of the size of a single grain.

  6. “Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.brachet@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vandenberghe, Valérie [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service d’Etudes Mécaniques et Thermiques (SEMT), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Béchade, Jean-Luc [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique (SRMP), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Raepsaet, Caroline [LEEL, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2017-05-15

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000–4000 wt ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant. - Highlights: •More than 50% of the gaseous hydrogen produced by the inner clad oxidation absorbed and trapped into prior-β layer. •High hydrogen and oxygen local concentrations, up to 3000–4000 wt. ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt.% respectively, within the β phase. •Enhanced oxygen diffusion into hydrogen enriched prior-β layer, with locally thinner α(O) and thicker prior-β layers. •Post-quenching hardening of the prior-β structure mainly related to the (local) oxygen concentration.

  7. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of forward-angle secondary-neutron-production cross-sections for 137 and 200 MeV proton-induced reactions in carbon

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Secondary neutron-production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) have been measured from interactions of 137 MeV and 200 MeV protons in a natural carbon target. The data were measured between 0° and 25° in the laboratory. DDXs were obtained with high energy resolution in the energy region from 3 MeV up to the maximum energy. The experimental data of 137 MeV protons at 10° and 25° were in good agreement with that of 113 MeV protons at 7.5° and 30° at LANSCE/WNR in the energy region below 80 MeV. Benchmark calculations were carried out with the PHITS code using the evaluated nuclear data files of JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VII, and the theoretical models of Bertini-GEM and ISOBAR-GEM. For the 137 MeV proton incidence, calculations using JENDL/HE-2007 generally reproduced the shape and the intensity of experimental spectra well including the ground state of the 12N state produced by the 12C(p,n)12N reaction. For the 200 MeV proton incidence, all calculated results underestimated the experimental data by the factor of two except for the calculated result using ISOBAR model. ISOBAR predicts the nucleon emission to the forward angles qualitatively better than the Bertini model. These experimental data will be useful to evaluate the carbon data and as benchmark data for investigating the validity of the Monte Carlo simulation for the shielding design of accelerator facilities.

  8. Testing neutron cross-section files from the BROND-2 and ENDF/B-6 libraries in benchmark experiments on neutron transmission through spherical layers

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Blokhin, A.I.; Kulagin, N.T.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Simakov, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of angular anisotropy in inelastic secondary neutron scattering on neutron leakage spectra from the surface of spherical specimens is investigated. It is shown how inadequate representation of the cross-section structure in the neutron energy resonance region can affect the neutron leakage spectrum. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Testing neutron cross-section files from the BROND-2 and ENDF/B-6 libraries in benchmark experiments on neutron transmission through spherical layers

    Androsenko, A A; Androsenko, P A; Blokhin, A I; Kulagin, N T; Pronyaev, V G; Simakov, S P [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    The effect of angular anisotropy in inelastic secondary neutron scattering on neutron leakage spectra from the surface of spherical specimens is investigated. It is shown how inadequate representation of the cross-section structure in the neutron energy resonance region can affect the neutron leakage spectrum. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  10. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  11. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Fratin, Luciano

    1994-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  12. Neutronic reactor

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  13. Neutron polarization

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  14. Neutron holography

    Beynon, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    the paper concerns neutron holography, which allows an image to be constructed of the surfaces, as well as the interiors, of objects. The technique of neutron holography and its applications are described. Present and future use of the method is briefly outlined. (U.K.)

  15. Neutron source

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  16. Neutron transport

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  17. Numerical estimates of multiple reaction corrections in neutron cross-section measurements

    Magnusson, G.

    1979-04-01

    A method to evaluate the effect of secondary neutrons in 14-15 MeV neutron cross-section measurements is presented. The emission spectra of secondary neutrons are calculated by means of the preequilibrium and statistical models. An expression for the collision probability in a homogenous body has been utilized in the calculations. (author)

  18. Neutron therapy

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  19. Martian Neutron Energy Spectrometer (MANES)

    Maurer, R. H.; Roth, D. R.; Kinnison, J. D.; Goldsten, J. O.; Fainchtein, R.; Badhwar, G.

    2000-01-01

    High energy charged particles of extragalactic, galactic, and solar origin collide with spacecraft structures and planetary atmospheres. These primaries create a number of secondary particles inside the structures or on the surfaces of planets to produce a significant radiation environment. This radiation is a threat to long term inhabitants and travelers for interplanetary missions and produces an increased risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system (CNS) and DNA damage. Charged particles are readily detected; but, neutrons, being electrically neutral, are much more difficult to monitor. These secondary neutrons are reported to contribute 30-60% of the dose equivalent in the Shuttle and MIR station. The Martian atmosphere has an areal density of 37 g/sq cm primarily of carbon dioxide molecules. This shallow atmosphere presents fewer mean free paths to the bombarding cosmic rays and solar particles. The secondary neutrons present at the surface of Mars will have undergone fewer generations of collisions and have higher energies than at sea level on Earth. Albedo neutrons produced by collisions with the Martian surface material will also contribute to the radiation environment. The increased threat of radiation damage to humans on Mars occurs when neutrons of higher mean energy traverse the thin, dry Martian atmosphere and encounter water in the astronaut's body. Water, being hydrogeneous, efficiently moderates the high energy neutrons thereby slowing them as they penetrate deeply into the body. Consequently, greater radiation doses can be deposited in or near critical organs such as the liver or spleen than is the case on Earth. A second significant threat is the possibility of a high energy heavy ion or neutron causing a DNA double strand break in a single strike.

  20. Neutron radiography

    Alaa eldin, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The digital processing of the neutron radiography images gives the possibility for data quantification. In this case an exact relation between the measured neutron attenuation and the real macroscopic attenuation coefficient for every point of the sample is required. The assumption that the attenuation of the neutron beam through the sample is exponential is valid only in an ideal case where a monochromatic beam, non scattering sample and non background contribution are assumed. In the real case these conditions are not fulfilled and in dependence on the sample material we have more or less deviation from the exponential attenuation law. Because of the high scattering cross-sections of hydrogen (σs=80.26 barn) for thermal neutrons, the problem with the scattered neutrons at quantitative radiography investigations of hydrogenous materials (as PE, Oil, H 2 O, etc) is not trivial. For these strong scattering materials the neutron beam attenuation is no longer exponential and a dependence of the macroscopic attenuation coefficient on the material thickness and on the distance between the sample and the detector appears. When quantitative radiography (2 D) or tomography investigations (3 D) are performed, some image correction procedures for a description of the scattering effect are required. This thesis presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method uses the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the neutron radiography process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determine the scattered neutrons distribution that causes the image blur and then subtract it from the initial image to improve its quality.

  1. Neutronics codes

    Buckel, G.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives are the development, testing and cultivation of reliable, efficient and user-optimized neutron-physical calculation methods and conformity with users' requirements concerning design of power reactors, planning and analysis of experiments necessary for their protection as well as research on physical key problems. A short outline of available computing programmes for the following objectives is given: - Provision of macroscopic group constants, - Calculation of neutron flux distribution in transport theory and diffusion approximation, - Evaluation of neutron flux-distribution, - Execution of disturbance calculations for the determination reactivity coefficients, and - graphical representation of results. (orig./RW) [de

  2. On the mechanism of fission neutron emission

    Maerten, H.; Richter, D.; Seeliger, D.

    1986-01-01

    This review represents the present knowledge of the mechanism of prompt fission neutron emission. Starting with a brief fission process characterization related with neutron emission, possible emission mechanisms are discussed. It is emphasized that the experimental study of special mechanisms, i.e. scission neutron emission processes, requires a sufficiently correct description of emission probabilities on the base of the main mechanism, i.e. the evaporation from fully accelerated fragments. Adequate statistical-model approaches have to account for the complexity of nuclear fission reflected by an intricate fragment distribution. The present picture of scission neutron emission is not clarified neither experimentally nor theoretically. Deduced data are contradictory and depend on the used analysis procedures often involving rough discriptions of evaporated-neutron distributions. The contribution of two secondary mechanisms of fission neutron emission, i.e. the neutron evaporation during fragment acceleration and neutron emission due to the decay of 5 He after ternary fission, is estimated. We summarize the recent progress of the theoretical description of fission neutron spectra in the framework of statistical models considering the standard spectrum of 252 Cf(sf) neutrons especially. The main experimental basis for the study of fission neutron emission is the accurate measurement of emission probabilities as a function of emission energy and angle (at least) as well as fragment parameters (mass number ratio and kinetic energy). The present status is evaluated. (author)

  3. Dosimetry of fast neutrons

    Jahr, R.

    1975-03-01

    Following an explanation of the physical fundamentals of neutron dosimetry, the special needs in medicine and biology are gone into. It is shown that the dose equivalent used in radiation protection simplifies in an undue manner the complicated dependence of the biological effects. The reason for this is the fact that the RBE for heavy recoil nuclei, amongst others, depends on the energy and sort of particle, whereas it is approximately equal to one for electrons independent of the energy. It is thus necessary in the fields of biology and medicine to have additional information on energy spectra of the neutrons as well as of all charged secondary particles as a function of the position in the phantom. These are obtained partly by calculation and partly by special dosemeters. The accuracy achieved so far is 5%. (ORU/LH) [de

  4. Neutron reflectometry

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    of desired information. In the course, an introduction into the method and an overview on selected instruments at large scale facilities will be presented. Examples will be given that illustrate the potential of the method, mostly based on organic films. Results from the investigation of layered films......Neutron (and X-ray) reflectometry constitute complementary interfacially sensitive techniques that open access to studying the structure within thin films of both soft and hard condensed matter. Film thickness starts oxide surfaces on bulk substrates, proceeding to (pauci-)molecular layers and up...... films or films with magnetic properties. The reason is the peculiar property of neutron light since the mass of a neutron is close to the one of a proton, and since it bears a magnetic moment. The optical properties of matter, when interacting with neutrons, are described by a refractive index...

  5. Neutron scattering

    Furrer, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the text of 16 lectures given at the Summer School and the report on a panel discussion entitled ''the relative merits and complementarities of x-rays, synchrotron radiation, steady- and pulsed neutron sources''. figs., tabs., refs

  6. Neutron storage

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  7. Neutron radiography

    Bayon, G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutronography or neutron radiography, a non-destructive test method which is similar in its principle to conventional X-ray photography, presently occupies a marginal position among non-destructive test methods (NDT) (no source of suitable performance or cost). Neutron radiography associated with the ORPHEE reactor permits industrial testing; it can very quickly meet a cost requirement comparable to that of conventional test methods. In 1988, 2500 parts were tested on this unit [fr

  8. Neutron detector

    Endo, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects neutrons in a reactor container under a high temperature and reduces the noise level in an FBR type reactor. That is, the detection section comprises a high heat resistant vessel containing a scintillator therein for detecting neutrons. Neutron signals sent from the detection section are inputted to a neutron measuring section by way of a signal transmission section. The detection section is disposed at the inside of the reactor container. Further, the signal transmission section is connected optically to the detection section. With such a constitution, since the detection section comprising the high temperature resistant vessel is disposed at the inside of the reactor container, neutron fluxes can be detected and measured at high sensitivity even under a high temperature circumstance. Since the signal transmission section is optically connected to the detection section, influence of radiation rays upon transmission of the neutron detection signals can be reduced. Accordingly, the noise level can be kept low. (I.S.)

  9. Neutron Scattering

    Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron probe is a standard tool for measuring soil water content. This article provides an overview of the underlying theory, describes the methodology for its calibration and use, discusses example applications, and identifies the safety issues. Soil water makes land-based life possible by satisfying plant water requirements, serving as a medium for nutrient movement to plant roots and nutrient cycling, and controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in the soil environment. Therefore, a successful understanding of the dynamics of plant growth, nutrient cycling, and contaminant behavior in the soil requires knowledge of the soil water content as well as its spatial and temporal variability. After more than 50 years, neutron probes remain the most reliable tool available for field monitoring of soil water content. Neutron probes provide integrated measurements over relatively large volumes of soil and, with proper access, allow for repeated sampling of the subsurface at the same locations. The limitations of neutron probes include costly and time-consuming manual operation, lack of data automation, and costly regulatory requirements. As more non-radioactive systems for soil water monitoring are developed to provide automated profiling capabilities, neutron-probe usage will likely decrease. Until then, neutron probes will continue to be a standard for reliable measurements of field water contents in soils around the globe

  10. Neutron-neutron probe for uranium exploration

    Smith, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron activation probe for assaying the amount of fissionable isotopes in an ore body is described which comprises a casing which is movable through a borehole in the ore body, a neutron source and a number of delayed neutron detectors arranged colinearly in the casing below the neutron source for detecting delayed neutrons

  11. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  12. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  13. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D.; Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L.; Campi, F.; Garlati, L.; De Errico, F.; Borroni, M.; Carrara, M.; Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M.

    2014-08-01

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  14. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  15. neutron radiography

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  16. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  17. Non destructive testing and neutron radiography in 1994; Les controles non destructifs et la neutronographie en 1994

    Bayon, G.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron radiography has been considered for a long time as a promising technique; however it plays a minor part in the world of non destructive testing today, due to the lack of suitable neutron sources and lack of new industrial applications. This paper reviews the present status of neutron sources, neutron radiography activities, especially in France (such as the neutron-capture-issued secondary radiation spectrometry), in nuclear, aerospace, aeronautical and metallurgical sectors, and the last applications of neutron dynamic imaging. 9 refs.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  19. Neutron dosimeter

    Bartko, J.; Schoch, K.F. Jr.; Congedo, T.V.; Anderson, S.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor. It comprises a reactor core; a thermal shield surrounding the reactor core; a pressure vessel surrounding the thermal shield; a neutron dosimeter positioned outside of the thermal shield, the neutron dosimeter comprising a layer of fissile material and a second layer made of a material having an electrical conductivity which permanently varies as a function of its cumulative ion radiation dose; and means, outside the pressure vessel and electrically connected to the layer of second material, for measuring electrical conductivity of the layer of second material

  20. [Secondary hypertension].

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  1. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  2. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  3. Extraction of neutron-neutron scattering length from nn coincidence-geometry nd breakup data

    E. S. Konobeevski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report preliminary results of a kinematically complete experiment on measurement of nd breakup reaction yield at neutron beam RADEX of Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow, Russia. In the experiment two secondary neutrons are detected in geometry of neutron-neutron final-state interaction. Data are obtained at energy of incident neutrons En = 40 - 60 MeV for various divergence angles of two neutrons ΔΘ = 4, 6, 8º. 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length ann were determined by comparison of the experimental dependence of reaction yield on the relative energy of two secondary neutrons with results of simulation depending on ann. For En = 40 MeV and ΔΘ = 6º (the highest statistics in the experiment the value ann = -17.9 ± 1.0 fm is obtained. The further improving of accuracy of the experiment and more rigorous theoretical analysis will allow one to remove the existing difference in ann values obtained in different experiments.

  4. Neutronic reactor

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  5. Neutron reflectivity

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  6. Elements and process for recording direct image neutron radiographs

    Poignant, R.V. Jr.; Przybylowicz, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    An element is provided for recording a direct image neutron radiograph, thus eliminating the need for a transfer step (i.e., the use of a transfer screen). The element is capable of holding an electrostatic charge and comprises a first layer for absorbing neutrons and generating a current by dissipation of said electrostatic charge in proportion to the number of neutrons absorbed, and a second layer for conducting the current generated by the absorbed neutrons, said neutron absorbing layer comprising an insulative layer comprising neutron absorbing agents in a concentration of at least 10 17 atoms per cm 3 . An element for enhancing the effect of the neutron beam by utilizing the secondary emanations of neutron absorbing materials is also disclosed along with a process for using the device. (U.S.)

  7. Mechanisms of fission neutron emission

    Maerten, H.

    1991-01-01

    The time evolution in fission is the starting point for discussing not only the main mechanism of fission neutron emission, the evaporation from fully accelerated fragments, but also possible secondary ones connected with dynamical features of nuclear fission. ''Asymptotic'' conditions as relevant for describing the particle release from highly excited, rapidly moving fragments are defined. Corresponding statistical model approaches to fission neutron emission, based on the adequate consideration of the intricate fragment occurrence probability, reproduce most of the experimental data. The remarkable influence of fission modes on neutron observables is analyzed in the framework of a macroscopic-microscopic scission point model consistent with energy conservation. Finally, chances and deficiencies for solving the mechanism puzzle are summarized. (author). 87 refs, 21 figs

  8. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  9. Secondary Evaluations.

    Cook, Thomas D.

    Secondary evaluations, in which an investigator takes a body of evaluation data collected by a primary evaluation researcher and examines the data to see if the original conclusions about the program correspond with his own, are discussed. The different kinds of secondary evaluations and the advantages and disadvantages of each are pointed out,…

  10. LANSA: A large neutron scintillator array for neutron spectroscopy at Nova

    Nelson, M.B.; Cable, M.D.; Bennett, C.K.; Mant, G.

    1992-01-01

    A very sensitive neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is now in use at Nova. LANSA consists of 960 channels of a neutron sensitive liquid scintillator (10 x lO x lO cm) coupled to a photomultiplier tube followed by a discriminator, TDC and ADC to allow the measurement of neutron arrival time as well as pulse size. LANSA is capable of measuring yields as low as 2.3 x 10 5 DT neutrons (100 detected hits) with resolution of 2.3 ns (170 key for 14 MeV neutrons with 20 m flight path). Shielding and collimation provide background levels low enough to allow measurement of secondary and tertiary reaction neutrons. Details of design, testing, calibration and experimental results will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48

  11. Study on neutron beam probe. Study on the focused neutron beam

    Kotajima, Kyuya; Suzuki, K.; Fujisawa, M.; Takahashi, T.; Sakamoto, I. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Wakabayashi, T.

    1998-03-01

    A monoenergetic focused neutron beam has been produced by utilizing the endoenergetic heavy ion reactions on hydrogen. To realize this, the projectile heavy ion energy should be taken slightly above the threshold energy, so that the excess energy converted to the neutron energy should be very small. In order to improve the capability of the focused neutron beam, some hydrogen stored metal targets have also been tested. Separating the secondary heavy ions (associated particles) from the primary ions (accelerated particles) by using a dipole magnet, a rf separator, and a particle identification system, we could directly count the produced neutrons. This will leads us to the possibility of realizing the standard neutron field which had been the empty dream of many neutron-related researchers in the world. (author)

  12. Neutron stars as cosmic neutron matter laboratories

    Pines, D.

    1986-01-01

    Recent developments which have radically changed our understanding of the dynamics of neutron star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars are summarized, and the extent to which neutron stars are cosmic neutron matter laboratories is discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab

  13. Neutron-induced photon production in MCNP

    Little, R.C.; Seamon, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved method of neutron-induced photon production has been incorporated into the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. The new method makes use of all partial photon-production reaction data provided by ENDF/B evaluators including photon-production cross sections as well as energy and angular distributions of secondary photons. This faithful utilization of sophisticated ENDF/B evaluations allows more precise MCNP calculations for several classes of coupled neutron-photon problems

  14. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  16. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  17. Pulsed neutron generator

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  18. Neutron scattering

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  19. Neutron radiotherapy

    Thomas, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for the application of neutron radiation for the treatment of malignancies is well established based on radiobiological studies. These factors include the presence of tissue hypoxia, radiation response as a function of cell cycle kinetics, the repair capacity of the malignant cells and the regeneration of malignant cells during a fractionated course of radiation. Despite the constraints under which the clinical trials to date have been conducted, promising results have been obtained. Randomized trials have demonstrated that neutron therapy is the treatment of choice for inoperable salivary gland carcinomas. A randomized trial of the RTOG has demonstrated a probable advantage for neutron radiation in the treatment of advanced prostate carcinomas but is yet to be confirmed. An improvement in local control has also been observed for selected sarcomas. Equivocal or contradictory results have been obtained for squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, bronchogenic carcinomas, advanced rectal, transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and cervical carcinomas. The practical consequences of these radiobiological and clinical observations on the current generation of clinical trials is discussed

  20. Secondary Headaches

    ... in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can be caused by general medical conditions such as severe hypertension, or by conditions that affect the brain and ...

  1. Influence of non-LTE radiation ablation on imploding neutron yield

    Sheng Jiatian; Li Yunsheng; Gao Yaomin; Li Meng; Feng Tinggui; Zhang Lifa; Zeng Xiancai; Mou Wenyong; Feng Jie; Chen Jiabin

    2005-01-01

    The process of radiative ablation and neutron yields of DD-capsule with CH shell implosion driven by Plank spectrum and nonequilibrium spectrum radiation fields was numerically studied using 1-D RDMG code of multigroup-nonequilibrium radiation hydrodynamics. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The results of the simulation show that the nonequilibrium of energy spectrum distribution of the hohlraum radiation source, especially the M-band of it, will preheat DD in the capsule obviously, decrease the compressing ratio, electron and ion temperatures of DD gas, and therefore decrease the neutron yields markedly. The simulation results also show that the law of decreasing of neutron yields with increasing of the CH-sell thickness is in agreement with the experiment basically. (authors)

  2. Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model calculations and risk assessment estimates indicate that secondary neutrons, with energies ranging between 0.5 to >150 MeV, make a significant contribution...

  3. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  4. Infrared Spectra of the 10-μm Bands of 1,2-Difluoroethane and 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane: Vibrationally Mediated Torsional Tunneling in 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane

    Stone, Stephen C.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.; Andrews, A. M.; Fraser, G. T.; Pate, B. H.; Xu, Li-Hong

    1995-12-01

    The 3-MHz-resolution infrared spectra of the 10-μm bands of thegaucheconformer of 1,2-difluoroethane (HFC152) and theC1-symmetry conformer of 1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HFC143) have been measured using a molecular-beam electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer with a tunable microwave-sideband CO2laser source. For 1,2-difluoroethane, two bands have been studied, the ν17B-symmetry C-F stretch at 1077.3 cm-1and the ν13B-symmetry CH2rock at 896.6 cm-1. Both bands are well fit to a asymmetric-rotor Hamiltonian to better than 0.5 MHz. The ν13band is effectively unperturbed, while the ν17band is weakly perturbed, as shown by the large change in centrifugal distortion constants from the ground state values. Two bands have also been studied for 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, the ν11symmetric CF2stretch at 1077.2 cm-1and the ν13C-C stretch at 905.1 cm-1. One of the two bands, ν11, is unperturbed and fit to near the experimental precision. The ν13vibration, on the other hand, is weakly perturbed by an interaction with a nearby state. This perturbation leads to a doubling or splitting of the lines, due to a perturbation-induced lifting of the degeneracy of the symmetric and antisymmetric tunneling states associated with tunneling between the two equivalentC1forms. For theJ,Kastates studied, the splittings are as large as 37 MHz. Combining this observation with published low-resolution far-infrared measurements of torsional sequence-band and hot-band frequencies and calculations from an empirical torsional potential allows us to identify the perturbing state as ν17+ 6ν18. Here, ν17is the CF2twist and ν18is the torsion. The matrix element responsible for this interaction exchanges eight vibrational quanta!

  5. Spallation products induced by energetic neutrons in plastic detector material

    Grabisch, K; Enge, W; Scherzer, R

    1977-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate plastic detector sheets were irradiated with secondary neutrons of the 22 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN accelerator. He, Li and Be particles which are produced in nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the target elements C, N and O of the plastic detector material are measured. Preliminary angle and range distributions and isotropic abundances of the secondary particles are discussed. (6 refs).

  6. High energy neutron radiography

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  7. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  8. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  9. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  10. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance

  11. Calculations of neutron spectra after neutron-neutron scattering

    Crawford, B E [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Stephenson, S L [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Howell, C R [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Mitchell, G E [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Tornow, W [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Furman, W I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lychagin, E V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Muzichka, A Yu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sharapov, E I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shvetsov, V N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-01

    A direct neutron-neutron scattering length, a{sub nn}, measurement with the goal of 3% accuracy (0.5 fm) is under preparation at the aperiodic pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A direct measurement of a{sub nn} will not only help resolve conflicting results of a{sub nn} by indirect means, but also in comparison to the proton-proton scattering length, a{sub pp}, shed light on the charge-symmetry of the nuclear force. We discuss in detail the analysis of the nn-scattering data in terms of a simple analytical expression. We also discuss calibration measurements using the time-of-flight spectra of neutrons scattered on He and Ar gases and the neutron activation technique. In particular, we calculate the neutron velocity and time-of-flight spectra after scattering neutrons on neutrons and after scattering neutrons on He and Ar atoms for the proposed experimental geometry, using a realistic neutron flux spectrum-Maxwellian plus epithermal tail. The shape of the neutron spectrum after scattering is appreciably different from the initial spectrum, due to collisions between thermal-thermal and thermal-epithermal neutrons. At the same time, the integral over the Maxwellian part of the realistic scattering spectrum differs by only about 6 per cent from that of a pure Maxwellian nn-scattering spectrum.

  12. Neutron spectra of /sup 239/Pu-Be neutron sources

    Kumar, A; Nagarajan, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1977-01-01

    Neutron spectra of /sup 239/Pu-Be(..cap alpha..,n) sources have been calculated by using the most recent data on the differential cross sections and angular distributions. The contribution from the multibody break-up reaction /sup 9/Be(..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..n)/sup 8/Be has also been incorporated. Modifications to the primary spectrum due to the secondary interactions in the source such as elastic scattering with beryllium, oxygen and plutonium and the /sup 9/Be(n,2n) and /sup 239/Pu(n,f) reaction have been calculated for different strengths and geometries. The present calculation has shown that the spectrum changes considerably because of these events within the source by way of smearing of peaks and filling up of valleys and raising the low energy part of the spectrum. Increase in H/D value leads to channeling of extra neutrons into the equatorial plane at the cost of the neutrons along the axial direction. The present calculations show that inclusion of secondary interactions to the extent considered in this work does not account completely for the increased intensity in the lower energy end of the measured spectrum.

  13. Meiotic non-disjunction induced by fission neutrons relative to X-rays observed in mouse secondary spermatocytes. Pt. 1. The response of different cell stages to a single radiation dose

    Russo, A.; Pacchierotti, F.; Metalli, P. (Nuclear Energy Agency, Rome (Italy). Div. of Physics and Biomedical Sciences)

    1983-03-01

    (C57BL/CnexC3H/Cne)F/sub 1/ male mice were irradiated with 2 Gy of 250-kV X-rays or 0.56 Gy of attenuated fission spectrum neutrons, and killed at various times after treatment. Second meiotic metaphases of spermatogenetic cells irradiated in various meiotic and premeiotic stages were observed. These stages were first meiotic metaphase, diplotene, late pachytene, mid-pachytene, zygotene, pre-leptotene and spermatogonia. Cells were classified by chromosome counting, and those with 18 <=n<=22 were recorded. An index of induction of non-disjunction events was obtained by the frequency of hyper-haploid spermatocytes relative to the sum of hyper-haploid and normal haploid spreads. The frequency of hyper-haploid spermatocytes was 0.7+-0.4 in control mice. It was higher after treatment with both types of radiation at all meiotic stages tested, with a peak of induction at and shortly before metaphase I-diakinesis (16-19%). Irradiated gonial cells also yielded values higher than did controls. The difference was statistically significant after irradiation with neutrons, showing that radiation can induce non-disjunction events in stem cells.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of neutron transport calculation

    Oka, Y.; Furuta, K.; Kondo, S.

    1987-01-01

    A cross section sensitivity-uncertainty analysis code, SUSD was developed. The code calculates sensitivity coefficients for one and two-dimensional transport problems based on the first order perturbation theory. Variance and standard deviation of detector responses or design parameters can be obtained using cross section covariance matrix. The code is able to perform sensitivity-uncertainty analysis for secondary neutron angular distribution(SAD) and secondary neutron energy distribution(SED). Covariances of 6 Li and 7 Li neutron cross sections in JENDL-3PR1 were evaluated including SAD and SED. Covariances of Fe and Be were also evaluated. The uncertainty of tritium breeding ratio, fast neutron leakage flux and neutron heating was analysed on four types of blanket concepts for a commercial tokamak fusion reactor. The uncertainty of tritium breeding ratio was less than 6 percent. Contribution from SAD/SED uncertainties are significant for some parameters. Formulas to estimate the errors of numerical solution of the transport equation were derived based on the perturbation theory. This method enables us to deterministically estimate the numerical errors due to iterative solution, spacial discretization and Legendre polynomial expansion of transfer cross-sections. The calculational errors of the tritium breeding ratio and the fast neutron leakage flux of the fusion blankets were analysed. (author)

  15. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    Rykaczewski, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented

  16. Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    Stefano, Gandolfi [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Steiner, Andrew W [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  17. Directional epithermal neutron detector

    Givens, W.W.; Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A borehole tool for epithermal neutron die-away logging of subterranean formations surrounding a borehole is described which consists of: (a) a pulsed source of fast neutrons for irradiating the formations surrounding a borehole, (b) at least one neutron counter for counting epithermal neutrons returning to the borehole from the irradiated formations, (c) a neutron moderating material, (d) an outer thermal neutron shield providing a housing for the counter and the moderating material, (e) an inner thermal neutron shield dividing the housing so as to provide a first compartment bounded by the inner thermal neutron shield and a first portion of the outer thermal neutron shield and a second compartment bounded by the inner thermal neutron shield and a second portion of the outer thermal neutron shield, the counter being positioned within the first compartment and the moderating material being positioned within the second compartment, and (f) means for positioning the borehole tool against one side of the borehole wall and azimuthally orienting the borehole tool such that the first chamber is in juxtaposition with the borehole wall, the formation epithermal neutrons penetrating into the first chamber through the first portion of the outer thermal neutron shield are detected by the neutron counter for die-away measurement, thereby maximizing the directional sensitivty of the neutron counter to formation epithermal neutrons, the borehole fluid epithermal neutrons penetrating into the second chamber through the second chamber through the second portion of the outer thermal neutron shield are largely slowed down and lowered in energy by the moderating material and absorbed by the inner thermal neutron shield before penetrating into the first chamber, thereby minimizing the directional sensitivity of the neutron counter to borehole fluid epithermal neutrons

  18. Powder neutron diffractometers

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  19. Neutron dosimetry - A review

    Baum, J W

    1955-03-29

    This review summarizes information on the following subjects: (1) physical processes of importance in neutron dosimetry; (2) biological effects of neutrons; (3) neutron sources; and (4) instruments and methods used in neutron dosimetry. Also, possible improvements in dosimetry instrumentation are outlined and discussed. (author)

  20. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  1. Neutron generator control system

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  2. Genetic effect of neutrons

    Luchnik, N.V.; Sevan'kaev, A.V.; Fesenko, Eh.V.

    1984-01-01

    Gene mutations resulting from neutron effect are considered, but attention is focused on chromosome mutations. Dose curves for different energy of neutrons obtained at different objects are obtained which makes it possible to consider RBE of neutrons depending on their energy and radiation dose and to get some information on the neutron effect on heredity

  3. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  4. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    Watanabe, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, poisoning, etc are discussed, aiming at a high performance pulsed spallation source

  5. Influence of target-scattered neutrons on cross-section measurements

    Lesiecki, H.; Cosack, M.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Monoenergetic neutrons produced with accelerators are usually accompanied by degraded and secondary neutrons which arise from reactions of source neutrons in the material of the target construction. A Monte Carlo code was written which takes into account the kinematics and the angular source strength of the neutron producing reaction and the interactions of the neutrons with the material in the immediate vicinity of their production. The calculation of the spectral distribution of the neutron fluence is compared with the result of a time-of-flight measurement. (author)

  6. Time dependent worldwide distribution of atmospheric neutrons and of their products. I, II, III.

    Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Mendell, R. B.; Korff, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the experimental results obtained in a series of measurements of the fast neutron cosmic ray spectrum by means of high-altitude balloons and aircraft. These results serve as a basis for checking a Monte Carlo calculation of the entire neutron distribution and its products. A calculation of neutron production and transport in the earth's atmosphere is then discussed for the purpose of providing a detailed description of the morphology of secondary neutron components. Finally, an analysis of neutron observations during solar particle events is presented. The Monte Carlo output is used to estimate the contribution of flare particles to fluctuations in the steady state neutron distributions.

  7. Neutron shieldings

    Tarutani, Kohei

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the stresses resulted by the core bendings to the base of an entrance nozzle. Constitution: Three types of round shielding rods of different diameter are arranged in a hexagonal tube. The hexagonal tube is provided with several spacer pads receiving the loads from the core constrain mechanism at its outer circumference, a handling head for a fuel exchanger at its top and an entrance nozzle for self-holding the neutron shieldings and flowing heat-removing coolants at its bottom. The diameters for R 1 , R 2 and R 3 for the round shielding rods are designed as: 0.1 R 1 2 1 and 0.2 R 1 2 1 . Since a plurality of shielding rods of small diameter are provided, soft structure are obtained and a plurality of coolant paths are formed. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. Miscellaneous neutron techniques

    Iddings, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Attention is brought to the less often uses of neutrons in the areas of neutron radiography, well logging, and neutron gaging. Emphasis on neutron radiography points toward the isotopic sensitivity of the method versus the classical bulk applications. Also recognized is the ability of neutron radiography to produce image changes that correspond to thickness and density changes obtained in photon radiography. Similarly, neutron gaging applications center on the measurement of radiography. Similarly, neutron gaging applications center on the measurement of water, oil, or plastics in industrial samples. Well logging extends the neutron gaging to encompass many neutron properties and reactions besides thermalization and capture. Neutron gaging also gives information on organic structure and concentrations of a variety of elements or specific compounds in selected matrices

  9. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  10. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  11. Guidelines on calibration of neutron measuring devices

    Burger, G.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization have agreed to establish an IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) in order to improve accuracy in applied radiation dosimetry throughout the world. These SSDLs must be equipped with, and maintain, secondary standard instruments, which have been calibrated against primary standards, and must be nominated by their governments for membership of the network. The majority of the existing SSDLs were established primarily to work with photon radiation (X-rays and gamma rays). Neutron sources are, however, increasingly being applied in industrial processes, research, nuclear power development and radiation biology and medicine. Thus, it is desirable that the SSDLs in countries using neutron sources on a regular basis should also fulfil the minimum requirements to calibrate neutron measuring devices. It is the primary purpose of this handbook to provide guidance on calibration of instruments for radiation protection. A calibration laboratory should also be in a position to calibrate instrumentation being used for the measurement of kerma and absorbed dose and their corresponding rates. This calibration is generally done with photons. In addition, since each neutron field is usually contaminated by photons produced in the source or by scatter in the surrounding media, neutron protection instrumentation has to be tested with respect to its intrinsic photon response. The laboratory will therefore need to possess equipment for photon calibration. This publication deals primarily with methods of applying radioactive neutron sources for calibration of instrumentation, and gives an indication of the space, manpower and facilities needed to fulfil the minimum requirements of a calibration laboratory for neutron work. It is intended to serve as a guide for centres about to start on neutron dosimetry standardization and calibration. 94 refs, 8 figs, 12 tabs

  12. Studies of neutron emission from relativistic nuclear interactions

    Guo, S L; Wang, Y L; Guo, H Y; Sá Ben-Hao; Zheng, Y M; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Wan, J S; Ochs, M; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Krivopustov, M I; Butsev, V S; Bradnova, V

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the yields and spatial distributions of secondary neutrons produced in the relativistic nuclear interactions of 1.5 GeV to 14.4 GeV projectiles p, d and alpha-particles with targets Pb and U/Pb. CR-39 track detectors were used to measure the neutrons. It shows that: (1) Secondary neutrons are produced in the whole length of Pb or U targets having a thickness of 20 cm. The neutron intensities produced by proton bombardments are reduced along the proton beam direction in the targets. The higher the energy of protons, the lower the reduction rate of the neutrons. The reduction rate of neutrons in U target is higher than in Pb target for the same energy of protons. (2) The radial intensities of neutrons decrease as the distance increases from the target central line. (3) The neutron yield in U target by proton bombardments is approx 55% higher than in Pb target. (4) The ratio of neutron yield by 14.4 GeV alpha to 7.3 GeV d bombardment in Pb target is 1.74+-0.20.

  13. Designing a new type of neutron detector for neutron and gamma-ray discrimination via GEANT4

    Shan, Qing; Chu, Shengnan; Ling, Yongsheng; Cai, Pingkun; Jia, Wenbao

    2016-01-01

    Design of a new type of neutron detector, consisting of a fast neutron converter, plastic scintillator, and Cherenkov detector, to discriminate 14-MeV fast neutrons and gamma rays in a pulsed n–γ mixed field and monitor their neutron fluxes is reported in this study. Both neutrons and gamma rays can produce fluorescence in the scintillator when they are incident on the detector. However, only the secondary charged particles of the gamma rays can produce Cherenkov light in the Cherenkov detector. The neutron and gamma-ray fluxes can be calculated by measuring the fluorescence and Cherenkov light. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is used to simulate the whole process occurring in the detector, whose optimum parameters are known. Analysis of the simulation results leads to a calculation method of neutron flux. This method is verified by calculating the neutron fluxes using pulsed n–γ mixed fields with different n/γ ratios, and the results show that the relative errors of all calculations are <5%. - Highlights: • A neutron detector is developed to discriminate 14-MeV fast neutrons and gamma rays. • The GEANT4 is used to optimize the parameters of the detector. • A calculation method of neutron flux is established through the simulation. • Several n/γ mixture fields are simulated to validate of the calculation method.

  14. The representation of neutron polarization

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  15. Pulsed neutron sources for epithermal neutrons

    Windsor, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown how accelerator based neutron sources, giving a fast neutron pulse of short duration compared to the neutron moderation time, promise to open up a new field of epithermal neutron scattering. The three principal methods of fast neutron production: electrons, protons and fission boosters will be compared. Pulsed reactors are less suitable for epithermal neutrons and will only be briefly mentioned. The design principle of the target producing fast neutrons, the moderator and reflector to slow them down to epithermal energies, and the cell with its beam tubes and shielding will all be described with examples taken from the new Harwell electron linac to be commissioned in 1978. A general comparison of pulsed neutron performance with reactors is fraught with difficulties but has been attempted. Calculation of the new pulsed source fluxes and pulse widths is now being performed but we have taken the practical course of basing all comparisons on extrapolations from measurements on the old 1958 Harwell electron linac. Comparisons for time-of-flight and crystal monochromator experiments show reactors to be at their best at long wavelengths, at coarse resolution, and for experiments needing a specific incident wavelength. Even existing pulsed sources are shown to compete with the high flux reactors in experiments where the hot neutron flux and the time-of-flight methods can be best exploited. The sources under construction can open a new field of inelastic neutron scattering based on energy transfer up to an electron volt and beyond

  16. Cosmogenic Secondary Radiation from a Nearby Supernova

    Overholt, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has been found for multiple supernovae within 100 pc of the solar system. Supernovae produce large amounts of cosmic rays which upon striking Earth's atmosphere, produce a cascade of secondary particles. Among these cosmic ray secondaries are neutrons and muons, which penetrate far within the atmosphere to sea level and even below sea level. Muons and neutrons are both forms of ionizing radiation which have been linked to increases in cancer, congenital malformations, and other maladies. This work focuses on the impact of muons, as they penetrate into ocean water to impact the lowest levels of the aquatic food chain. We have used monte carlo simulations (CORSIKA, MCNPx, and FLUKA) to determine the ionizing radiation dose due to cosmic ray secondaries. This information shows that although most astrophysical events do not supply the necessary radiation flux to prove dangerous; there may be other impacts such as an increase to mutation rate.

  17. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Gennari, C; Martini, G; Nuti, R

    1998-06-01

    Generalized osteoporosis currently represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with many different causes and pathogenetic mechanisms, that often are variably associated. The term "secondary" is applied to all patients with osteoporosis in whom the identifiable causal factors are other than menopause and aging. In this heterogeneous group of conditions, produced by many different pathogenetic mechanisms, a negative bone balance may be variably associated with low, normal or increased bone remodeling states. A consistent group of secondary osteoporosis is related to endocrinological or iatrogenic causes. Exogenous hypercortisolism may be considered an important risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in the community, and probably glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common type of secondary osteoporosis. Supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids cause two abnormalities in bone metabolism: a relative increase in bone resorption, and a relative reduction in bone formation. Bone loss, mostly of trabecular bone, with its resultant fractures is the most incapacitating consequence of osteoporosis. The estimated incidence of fractures in patients prescribed corticosteroid is 30% to 50%. Osteoporosis is considered one of the potentially serious side effects of heparin therapy. The occurrence of heparin-induced osteoporosis appeared to be strictly related to the length of treatment (over 4-5 months), and the dosage (15,000 U or more daily), but the pathogenesis is poorly understood. It has been suggested that heparin could cause an increase in bone resorption by increasing the number of differentiated osteoclasts, and by enhancing the activity of individual osteoclasts. Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with loss of trabecular and cortical bone; the enhanced bone turnover that develops in thyrotoxicosis is characterized by an increase in the number of osteoclasts and resorption sites, and an increase in the ratio of resorptive to formative bone

  18. The second workshop of neutron science research program

    Yasuda, Hideshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tone, Tatsuzo [eds.

    1997-11-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) has been proposing the Neutron Science Research Program to explore a broad range of basic research and the nuclear technology including actinide transmutation with use of powerful spallation neutron sources. For this purpose, the JAERI is conducting the research and development of an intense proton linac, the development of targets, as well as the conceptual design study of experimental facilities required for applications of spallation neutrons and secondary particle beams. The Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative was established in May 1996 to promote aggressively and systematically the Neutron Science Research Program. The second workshop on neutron science research program was held at the JAERI Tokai Research Establishment on 13 and 14 March 1997 for the purpose of discussing the results obtained since the first workshop in March 1996. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Exposure potential to neutrons of the Brazilian workers

    Martins, Marcelo M.; Almeida, Carlos E. de

    1995-01-01

    Nowadays, there are 222 neutron radioactive sources registered in use in Brazil, in addition to several neutron fields, power and research reactors and neutron generators. Secondary neutron fields can also be generated in particle accelerators by nuclear reactions with its shielding, the experimental set up and the conversion target. These neutron fields are very different, not only in their spectra but also in their fluences. Around 200 radiation workers are monthly monitored since 1983 by an albedo system. Of the evaluated dosimeters 4% only have shown neutron doses, being 13 mSv the maximum measured value. Most of these doses were received by workers of the oil-well logging and research activities users of 241 Am-Be sources. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Neutron shielding properties of a borated high-density glass

    Saeed Aly Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron shielding properties of a borated high density glass system was characterized experimentally. The total removal macroscopic cross-section of fast neutrons, slow neutrons as well as the linear attenuation coefficient of total gamma rays, primary in addition to secondary, were measured experimentally under good geometric condition to characterize the attenuation properties of (75-x B2O3-1Li2O-5MgO-5ZnO-14Na2O-xBaO glassy system. Slabs of different thicknesses from the investigated glass system were exposed to a collimated beam of neutrons emitted from 252Cf and 241Am-Be neutron sources in order to measure the attenuation properties of fast and slow neutrons as well as total gamma rays. Results confirmed that barium borate glass was suitable for practical use in the field of radiation shielding.

  1. Uncertainty analysis for secondary energy distributions

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1978-01-01

    In many transport calculations the integral design parameter of interest (response) is determined mainly by secondary particles such as gamma rays from (n,γ) reactions or secondary neutrons from inelastic scattering events or (n,2n) reactions. Standard sensitivity analysis usually allows to calculate the sensitivities to the production cross sections of such secondaries, but an extended formalism is needed to also obtain the sensitivities to the energy distribution of the generated secondary particles. For a 30-group standard cross-section set 84% of all non-zero table positions pertain to the description of secondary energy distributions (SED's) and only 16% to the actual reaction cross sections. Therefore, any sensitivity/uncertainty analysis which does not consider the effects of SED's is incomplete and neglects most of the input data. This paper describes the methods of how sensitivity profiles for SED's are obtained and used to estimate the uncertainty of an integral response due to uncertainties in these SED's. The detailed theory is documented elsewhere and implemented in the LASL sensitivity code SENSIT. SED sensitivity profiles have proven particularly valuable in cross-section uncertainty analyses for fusion reactors. Even when the production cross sections for secondary neutrons were assumed to be without error, the uncertainties in the energy distribution of these secondaries produced appreciable uncertainties in the calculated tritium breeding rate. However, complete error files for SED's are presently nonexistent. Therefore, methods will be described that allow rough error estimates due to estimated SED uncertainties based on integral SED sensitivities

  2. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Boyle, I T

    1993-10-01

    Osteoporosis with attendant increased fracture risk is a common complication of many other diseases. Indeed, almost all chronic diseases make some impact on life-style, usually by restricting physical activity and hence reducing the anabolic effect of exercise and gravitational strains on the skeleton. Restricted appetite and modified gastrointestinal tract function is another commonplace finding that has an impact on bone nutrition and synthesis, as on other systems. Sex hormone status is of particular importance for the maintenance of the normal skeleton, and the postmenopausal woman is at particular risk for most causes of secondary osteoporosis. In dealing with secondary osteoporosis in the hypo-oestrogenic woman, the question of giving hormone replacement therapy in addition to other disease-specific therapy should always be considered, as, for example, in a young amenorrhoeic woman with Crohn's disease. Similarly, in hypogonadal men the administration of testosterone is useful for bone conservation. The wider availability of bone densitometry ought to make us more aware of the presence of osteoporosis in the many disease states discussed above. This is particularly important as the life span of such patients is now increased by improved management of the underlying disease process in many instances. Even in steroid-induced osteoporosis--one of the commonest and most severe forms of osteoporosis--we now have some effective therapy in the form of the bisphosphonates and other anti-bone-resorbing drug classes. The possibility of prophylaxis against secondary osteoporosis has therefore become a possibility, although the very long-term effects of such drug regimens are still unknown. In some situations, such as thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome and immobilization, spontaneous resolution of at least part of the osteoporosis is possible after cure of the underlying problem. The shorter the existence of the basic problem, the more successful the restoration of the

  3. Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse

  4. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  5. Neutron in biology

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  6. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  7. Neutron in biology

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10 2 to 10 3 times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  8. A neutron activation detector

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  9. Very slow neutrons

    Frank, A.

    1983-01-01

    The history is briefly presented of the research so far of very slow neutrons and their basic properties are explained. The methods are described of obtaining very slow neutrons and the problems of their preservation are discussed. The existence of very slow neutrons makes it possible to perform experiments which may deepen the knowledge of the fundamental properties of neutrons. Their wavelength approximates that of visible radiation. The possibilities and use are discussed of neutron optical systems (neutron microscope) which could be an effective instrument for the study of the detailed arrangement, especially of organic substances. (B.S.)

  10. Reactor neutron dosimetry

    Najzer, M.; Pauko, M.; Glumac, B.; Acquah, I.N.; Moskon, F.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of requirements and possibilities for experimental neutron spectrum determination during the reactor pressure vessel surveil lance programme is given. Fast neutron spectrum and neutron dose rate were measured in the Fast neutron irradiation facility of our TRIGA reactor. It was shown that the facility can be used for calibration of neutron dosimeters and for irradiation of samples sensitive to neutron radiation. The investigation of the unfolding algorithm ITER was continued. Based on this investigations are two specialized unfolding program packages ITERAD and ITERGS written this year. They are able to unfold data from activation detectors and NaI(T1) gamma spectrometer respectively

  11. Neutron stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons, the Boltzmann transport equation with delayed neutrons for the average flux emerges in a natural way without recourse to any approximation. From this theory a general expression is obtained for the Feynman Y-function when delayed neutrons are included. The single mode approximation for the particular case of a subcritical assembly is developed, and it is shown that Y-function reduces to the familiar expression quoted in many books, when delayed neutrons are not considered, and spatial and source effects are not included. (author)

  12. Neutron Beam Filters

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  13. Neutron anatomy

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  14. Neutron anatomy

    Bacon, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone

  15. Basics of Neutrons for First Responders

    Rees, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    These are slides from a presentation on the basics of neutrons. A few topics covered are: common origins of terrestrial neutron radiation, neutron sources, neutron energy, interactions, detecting neutrons, gammas from neutron interactions, neutron signatures in gamma-ray spectra, neutrons and NaI, neutron fluence to dose (msV), instruments' response to neutrons.

  16. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  17. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  18. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  19. Development of a new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis.

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    A new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed by Adelphi Technology for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and fast neutron radiography. The generator makes an excellent fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron source for laboratories and industrial applications that require the safe production of neutrons, a small footprint, low cost, and small regulatory burden. The generator has three major components: a Radio Frequency Induction Ion Source, a Secondary Electron Shroud, and a Diode Accelerator Structure and Target. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.5MeV) are produced with a yield of 10(10)n/s using 25-50mA of deuterium ion beam current and 125kV of acceleration voltage. The present study characterizes the performance of the neutron generator with respect to neutron yield, neutron production efficiency, and the ionic current as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. In addition the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) simulation code was used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sources of polarized neutrons

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  1. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. Neutron radiation capture

    1986-01-01

    For all stable and experimentally studied radionuclides evaluated data are presented on cross sections of thermal neutrons, on resonance integrals and medium neutron cross sections with energy of 30 KeV. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Neutron radiography in metallurgy

    Rant, J.; Ilic, R.

    1977-01-01

    The review surveys microneutronographic and neutron-induced autoradiographic techniques and their applications in metallurgy. A brief survey of applications of neutron radiography as a method of non-destructive testing to some macroscopic problems in metallurgy is included. (author)

  4. Applications of neutron irradiation

    Ito, Yasuo

    1999-01-01

    The present state of art of applications of neutron irradiation is overviewed taking neutron activation analysis, prompt gamma-ray analysis, fission/alpha track methods, boron neutron capture therapy as examples. What is common among them is that the technologies are nearly matured for wide use by non- nuclear scientists. But the environment around research reactors is not prospective. These applications should be encouraged by incorporating in the neutron science society. (author)

  5. Neutron beams for therapy

    Kuplenikov, Eh.L.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Tsymbal, V.A.; Kandybej, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    It was given the analysis and generalization of the study results carried out during some decades in many world countries on application of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons for neutron, gamma-neutron and neutron-capture therapy. The main attention is focused on the practical application possibility of the accumulated experience for the base creation for medical research and the cancer patients effective treatment.

  6. Polarimetric neutron scattering

    Tasset, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric Neutron Scattering in introduced, both by, explaining methodological issues and the corresponding instrumental developments. After a short overview of neutron spin polarization and the neutron polarization 3d-vector a pictorial approach of the microscopic theory is used to show how a polarized beam interacts with lattice and magnetic Fourier components in a crystal. Examples are given of using Spherical Neutron Polarimetry (SNP) and the corresponding Cryopad polarimeter for the investigation of non-collinear magnetic structures. (R.P.)

  7. Reactor Neutron Sources

    Aksenov, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The present status and the prospects for development of reactor neutron sources for neutron scattering research in the world are considered. The fields of application of neutron scattering relative to synchrotron radiation, the creation stages of reactors (steady state and pulsed) and their position in comparison with spallation neutron sources at present and in the foreseen future are discussed. (author). 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Properties of neutron sources

    1987-03-01

    The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: white neutron sources, primarily pulsed (6 papers); fast neutron fields (5 papers); Californium-252 prompt fission neutron spectra (14 papers); monoenergetic sources and filtered beams (11 papers); 14 MeV neutron sources (10 papers); selected special application (one paper); and a general interest session (4 papers). Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the papers

  9. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  10. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  11. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  12. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    Hoste, J.

    1988-06-01

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  13. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  14. Spallation neutron sources

    Fraser, J.S.; Bartholomew, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The principles and theory of spallation neutron sources are outlined and a comparison is given with other types of neutron source. A summary of the available accelerator types for spallation neutron sources and their advantages and disadvantages is presented. Suitable target materials are discussed for specific applications, and typical target assemblies shown. (U.K.)

  15. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  16. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Mitchell, Stephen; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production (ship effect), (a, n) reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  17. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  18. Thermal neutron polarisation

    Satya Murthy, N.S.; Madhava Rao, L.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle for the production of polarised thermal neutrons is discussed and the choice of various crystal monochromators surveyed. Brief mention of broad-spectrum polarisers is made. The application of polarised neutrons to the study of magnetisation density distributions in magnetic crystals, the dynamic concept of polarisation, principle and use of polarisation analysis, the neutron spin-echo technique are discussed. (author)

  19. Fundamental neutron physics

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  20. Neutron detection and radiography

    Bollen, R.H.; Van Esch, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method of recording neutron images is described which comprises imagewise irradiating with neutrons an intensifying screen containing a gadolinium compound that fluoresces when struck by x-rays and subjecting the fluorescent light pattern resulting from the impact of the neutrons on the screen onto a photographic material. (auth)

  1. Neutron Scattering Software

    Home Page | Facilities | Reference | Software | Conferences | Announcements | Mailing Lists Neutron Scattering Banner Neutron Scattering Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established sets KUPLOT: data plotting and fitting software ILL/TAS: Matlab probrams for analyzing triple axis data

  2. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  3. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  4. Comparison of Out-Of-Field Neutron Equivalent Doses in Scanning Carbon and Proton Therapies for Cranial Fields

    Athar, B.; Henker, K.; Jäkel, O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to compare the secondary neutron lateral doses from scanning carbon and proton beam therapies. Method and Materials: We simulated secondary neutron doses for out-of-field organs in an 11-year old male patient. Scanned carbon and proton beams were simulated...

  5. Energy spectra of neutrons accompanying the emission fission of 238U

    Smirenkin, G.N.; Lovchikova, G.N.; Trufanov, A.M.; Svirin, M.I.; Polyakov, A.V.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Dmitriev, V.D.; Boykov, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of fission neutrons emitted from 238U are measured for the first time by the time-of-flight method at incident-neutron energies of 16.0 and 17.7 MeV. Analysis of the neutron spectra shows that experimental results at incident-neutron energies of 14.7, 16.0, and 17.7 MeV (above the threshold of chance fission) differ significantly from those obtained at a neutron energy of 2.9 MeV (below the threshold of chance fission). Owing to the prefission emission of neutrons, the observed spectra of neutrons from emission fission exhibit a characteristic growth of the neutron yield in both hard and soft sections of the spectrum of secondary neutrons. This growth manifests itself as a step in the first case and as a rise in the second case, where it results in a noticeable excess of neutrons over the statistical-model predictions for E<2 MeV. The first feature in the spectra of neutrons from emission fission can be associated with the nonequilibrium decay of an excited fissile nucleus. On the contrary, the origin of the second feature has yet to be clarified. Additional measurements of angular distributions of secondary neutrons may prove helpful in this respect

  6. Design of the Mechanical Parts for the Neutron Guide System at HANARO

    Shin, J. W.; Cho, Y. G.; Cho, S. J.; Ryu, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The research reactor HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) in Korea will be equipped with a neutron guide system, in order to transport cold neutrons from the neutron source to the neutron scattering instruments in the neutron guide hall near the reactor building. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in-pile plug assembly with in-pile guides, the primary shutter with in-shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with dedicated secondary shutters, and the neutron guides connected to the instruments in the neutron guide hall. Functions of the in-pile plug assembly are to shield the reactor environment from nuclear radiation and to support the neutron guides and maintain them precisely oriented. The primary shutter is a mechanical structure to be installed just after the in-pile plug assembly, which stops neutron flux on demand. This paper describes the design of the in-pile assembly and the primary shutter for the neutron guide system at HANARO. The design of the guide shielding assembly for the primary shutter and the neutron guides is also presented

  7. Refractive neutron lens

    Petrov, P.V.; Kolchevsky, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Model of the refractive neutron lens is proposed. System of N lenses acts as one thin lens with a complex refraction index n*. The maximum number N max of individual lenses for 'thick' neutron lens is calculated. Refractive neutron lens properties (resolution, focal depth) as function of resolution factor F 0 =ρbc/μ and depth of field factor dF 0 =λF 0 =λρbc/μ are calculated. It is shown that micro resolution of the refractive neutron optics is far from the wavelength in size and its open possibilities for progress in refractive neutron optics. (authors)

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Activation neutron detector

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  10. High energy neutron dosimeter

    Rai, K.S.F.

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring dose equivalents in neutron radiation fields is described. The device includes nested symmetrical hemispheres (forming spheres) of different neutron moderating materials that allow the measurement of dose equivalents from 0.025 eV to past 1 GeV. The layers of moderating material surround a spherical neutron counter. The neutron counter is connected by an electrical cable to an electrical sensing means which interprets the signal from the neutron counter in the center of the moderating spheres. The spherical shape of the device allows for accurate measurement of dose equivalents regardless of its positioning. 2 figures

  11. Pulse neutron logging technique

    Bespalov, D.F.; Dylyuk, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    A new method of neutron-burst logging is proposed, residing in irradiating rocks with fast neutron bursts and registering the integrated flux burst of thermal and/or epithermal neutrons, from the moment of its initiation to that of full absorption. The obtaained value is representative of the rock properties (porosity, hydrogen content). The integrated flux in a burst of thermal and epithermal neutrons can be measured both by way of activation of a reference sample of a known chemical composition during the neutron burst and by recording the radiation of induced activity of the sample within an interval between two bursts. The proposed method features high informative value, accuracy and efficiency

  12. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the neutron polarization analyzer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, the small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1/-2, the very-small-angle neutron diffractometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  13. Neutron techniques in Safeguards

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An essential part of Safeguards is the ability to quantitatively and nondestructively assay those materials with special neutron-interactive properties involved in nuclear industrial or military technology. Neutron techniques have furnished most of the important ways of assaying such materials, which is no surprise since the neutronic properties are what characterizes them. The techniques employed rely on a wide selection of the many methods of neutron generation, detection, and data analysis that have been developed for neutron physics and nuclear science in general

  14. Nanosecond neutron generator

    Lobov, S.I.; Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Pukhov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    High-voltage nanosecond neutron generator for obtaining neutrons in D-T reaction is described. Yield of 6x10 6 neutron/pulse was generated in a sealed gas-filled diode with a target on the cathode by accelerating pulse voltage of approximately 0.5 MV and length at half-height of 0.5 ns and deuterium pressure of 6x10 -2 Torr. Ways of increasing neutron yield and possibilities of creating generators of nanosecond neutron pulses with great service life are considered

  15. Principles of neutron reflection

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  16. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  17. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  18. Review of microscopic integral cross section data in fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN-ΣΣ facilities; the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility; the reference neutron field at the center of the 10% enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field

  19. Review of microscopic integral cross section data in fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.

    1976-10-01

    The paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: (1) the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (2) the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (3) the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN--ΣΣ facilities; (4) the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility (CFRMF); (5) the reference neutron field at the center of the 10 percent enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; and (6) the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field

  20. Advanced Neutron Source: The designer's perspective

    Peretz, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a research facility based on a 350 MW beam reactor, to be brought into service at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the century. The primary objective is to provide high-flux neutron beams and guides, with cold, thermal, hot, and ultra-cold neutrons, for research in many fields of science. Secondary objectives include isotopes production, materials irradiation and activation analysis. The design of the ANS is strongly influenced by the historical development of research and power reactor concepts, and of the regulatory infrastructure of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Current trends in reactor safety also impact the climate for the design of such a reactor

  1. Neutron data evaluation for natural niobium

    Ma Gonggui; Zou Yiming; Wang Shiming

    1992-01-01

    The complete neutron nuclear data for natural niobium were evaluated based on both experimental data measured up to 1989 and calculated data with program MUP2 and AUJP. The present work was done for CENDL-2 and supersedes the CENDL-1 (MAT = 1411) evaluation. The following neutron data are given for Nb in the energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV (MAT = 2411): total, elastic, nonelastic, total inelastic, inelastic cross sections to 13 discrete levels, inelastic continuum, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,n'α) + (n,αn'), (n,n'p) + (n,pn'),(n,n'd) + (n,dn'), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,α) and capture cross sections. Derived data for MT = 251, 252 and 253 are also included. Angular distributions and energy spectra of secondary neutron are also given inelastic continuum,

  2. Neutron interactions with biological tissue. Final report

    1998-01-01

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of neutrons with tissue through the ejected secondary charged particles. The authors used theoretical calculations whose input includes neutron cross section data; range, stopping power, ion yield, and straggling information; and geometrical properties. Outputs are initial and slowing-down spectra of charged particles, kerma factors, average values of quality factors, microdosimetric spectra, and integral microdosimetric parameters such as bar y F , bar y D , y * . Since it has become apparent that nanometer site sizes are also relevant to radiobiological effects, the calculations of event size spectra and their parameters were extended to these smaller diameters. This information is basic to radiological physics, radiation biology, radiation protection of workers, and standards for neutron dose measurement

  3. Neutron data evaluation of {sup 238}U

    Maslov, V.M.; Porodzinskij, Y.V.; Hasegawa, Akira; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    Cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on {sup 238}U are calculated by using the Hauser-Feshbach-Moldauer theory, the coupled channel model and the double-humped fission barrier model. The direct excitation of ground state band levels is calculated with a rigid-rotator model. The direct excitation of vibrational octupole and K = 2{sup +} quadrupole bands is included using a soft (deformable) rotator model. The competition of inelastic scattering to fission reaction is shown to be sensitive to the target nucleus level density at excitations above the pairing gap. As for fission, (n,2n), (n,3n), and (n,4n) reactions, secondary neutron spectra data are consistently reproduced. Pre-equilibrium emission of first neutron is included. Shell effects in the level densities are shown to be important for estimation of energy dependence of non-emissive fission cross section. (author). 105 refs.

  4. Thermal neutron moderating device

    Takigami, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    In a thermal neutron moderating device, superconductive coils for generating magnetic fields capable of applying magnetic fields vertical to the longitudinal direction of a thermal neutron passing tube, and superconductive coils for magnetic field gradient for causing magnetic field gradient in the longitudinal direction of the thermal neutron passing tube are disposed being stacked at the outside of the thermal neutron passing tube. When magnetic field gradient is present vertically to the direction of a magnetic moment, thermal neutrons undergo forces in the direction of the magnetic field gradient in proportion to the magnetic moment. Then, the magnetic moment of the thermal neutrons is aligned with the direction vertical to the passing direction of the thermal neutrons, to cause the magnetic field gradient in the passing direction of the thermal neutrons. The speed of the thermal neutrons can be optionally selected and the wavelength can freely be changed by applying forces to the thermal neutrons and changing the extent and direction of the magnetic field gradient. Superconductive coils are used as the coils for generating magnetic fields and the magnetic field gradient in order to change extremely high energy of the thermal neutrons. (N.H.)

  5. Atlas of neutron resonances

    Mughabghab, Said

    2018-01-01

    Atlas of Neutron Resonances: Resonance Properties and Thermal Cross Sections Z= 1-60, Sixth Edition, contains an extensive list of detailed individual neutron resonance parameters for Z=1-60, as well as thermal cross sections, capture resonance integrals, average resonance parameters and a short survey of the physics of thermal and resonance neutrons. The long introduction contains: nuclear physics formulas aimed at neutron physicists; topics of special interest such as valence neutron capture, nuclear level density parameters, and s-, p-, and d-wave neutron strength functions; and various comparisons of measured quantities with the predictions of nuclear models, such as the optical model. As in the last edition, additional features have been added to appeal to a wider spectrum of users. These include: spin-dependent scattering lengths that are of interest to solid-state physicists, nuclear physicists and neutron evaluators; calculated and measured Maxwellian average 5-keV and 30-keV capture cross sections o...

  6. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  7. Methods of neutron spectrometry

    Doerschel, B.

    1981-01-01

    The different methods of neutron spectrometry are based on the direct measurement of neutron velocity or on the use of suitable energy-dependent interaction processes. In the latter case the measuring effect of a detector is connected with the searched neutron spectrum by an integral equation. The solution needs suitable unfolding procedures. The most important methods of neutron spectrometry are the time-of-flight method, the crystal spectrometry, the neutron spectrometry by use of elastic collisions with hydrogen nuclei, and neutron spectrometry with the aid of nuclear reactions, especially of the neutron-induced activation. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are contrasted considering the resolution, the measurable energy range, the sensitivity, and the experimental and computational efforts. (author)

  8. Neutrons as a probe

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  9. Neutron response study

    Endres, G.W.R.; Fix, J.J.; Thorson, M.R.; Nichols, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron response of the albedo type dosimeter is strongly dependent on the energy of the incident neutrons as well as the moderating material on the backside of the dosimeter. This study characterizes the response of the Hanford dosimeter for a variety of neutron energies for both a water and Rando phantom (a simulated human body consisting of an actual human skeleton with plastic for body muscles and certain organs). The Hanford dosimeter response to neutrons of different energies is typical of albedo type dosimeters. An approximate two orders of magnitude difference in response is observed between neutron energies of 100 keV and 10 MeV. Methods were described to compensate for the difference in dosimeter response between a laboratory neutron spectrum and the different spectra encountered at various facilities in the field. Generally, substantial field support is necessary for accurate neutron dosimetry

  10. Neutron structural biology

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in protein which play important roles in physiological functions. However, there are relatively few examples of neutron crystallography in biology since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections due to the low flux of neutrons illuminating the sample. In order to overcome the flux problem, we have successfully developed the neutron IP, where the neutron converter, {sup 6}Li or Gd, was mixed with a photostimulated luminescence material on flexible plastic support. Neutron Laue diffraction 2A data from tetragonal lysozyme were collected for 10 days with neutron imaging plates, and 960 hydrogen atoms in the molecule and 157 bound water molecules were identified. These results explain the proposed hydrolysis mechanism of the sugar by the lysozyme molecule and that lysozyme is less active at pH7.0. (author)

  11. Neutron dosimetric measurements in shuttle and MIR

    Reitz, G.

    2001-01-01

    Detector packages consisting of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions and plastic track detectors were exposed at identical positions inside MIR space station and on shuttle flights inside Spacelab and Spacehab during different phases of the solar cycle. The objectives of the investigations are to provide data on charge and energy spectra of heavy ions, and the contribution of events with low-energy deposit (protons, electrons, gamma, etc.) to the dose, as well as the contribution of secondaries, such as nuclear disintegration stars and neutrons. For neutron dosimetry 6 LiF (TLD600) and 7 LiF (TLD700) chips were used both of which have almost the same response to gamma rays but different response to neutrons. Neutrons in space are produced mainly in evaporation and knock-on processes with energies mainly of 1-10 MeV and up to several 100 MeV, respectively. The energy spectrum undergoes continuous changes toward greater depth in the attenuating material until an equilibrium is reached. In equilibrium, the spectrum is a wide continuum extending down to thermal energies to which the 6 LiF is sensitive. Based on the difference of absorbed doses in the 6 LiF and 7 LiF chips, thermal neutron fluxes from 1 to 2.3 cm -2 s -1 are calculated using the assumption that the maximum induced dose in TLD600 for 1 neutron cm -2 is 1.6x10 -10 Gy (Horrowitz and Freeman, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 157 (1978) 393). It is assumed that the flux of high-energy neutrons is at least of that quantity. Tissue doses were calculated taking as a mean ambient absorbed dose per neutron 6x10 -12 Gy cm 2 (for a 10 MeV neutron). The neutron equivalent doses for the above-mentioned fluxes are 52 μGy d -1 and 120 μGy d -1 . In recent experiments, a personal neutron dosimeter was integrated into the dosimeter packages. First results of this dosimeter which is based on nuclear track detectors with converter foils are reported. For future measurements, a scintillator counter with

  12. Removal cross section for 14 mev neutrons in constructional materials

    Vasvary, L.; Divos, F.; Peto, G.; Csikai, J.; Mumba, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Using flight time difference the direct and scattered neutrons and gammas produced in the target head and samples were separated. With this method the attenuation of primary neutrons and gammas originating from the target head has been studied. Thickness dependence of the secondary gamma yield from extended samples of Al, Fe, Pb, paraffin and reinforced concrete was also measured. Results indicate a geometry dependence of the removal cross sections

  13. Physical principles of neutron-gamma materials monitoring

    Pekarskii, G. Sh.

    1986-03-01

    The physical principles of secondary radiation methods in nondestructive testing are discussed. Among the techniques considered are: neutron activation analysis (NAA); the induced-radiation method; and quasialbedo recording of secondary gamma-radiation. Emphasis is given to the neutron-gamma method which consists of exposing test material to a neutron flux and recording the secondary gamma-radiation by means of a spectrometer. The limitations of the method in detecting local inhomogeneous defects (filled pores cracks, and inclusions) in metal layers and multicomponents materials are described, and some advantages of the method over NAA are discussed. Formulas are derived for estimating the optimum density of the gamma-ray flux which is received by the detector.

  14. Development of a compact D-D neutron generator

    Huang, Z.-W.; Wang, J.-R.; Wei, Z.; Lu, X.-L.; Ma, Z.-W.; Ran, J.-L.; Zhang, Z.-M.; Yao, Z.-E.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    A compact D-D neutron generator was developed at Lanzhou University, China. A duoplasmatron ion source was used to produce a higher-current deuteron beam. The deuteron beam could be accelerated up to 150 keV by a single accelerating gap, and bombarded on a pure molybdenum drive-in target to produce D-D fast neutron. A bias voltage between the target and the extraction-accelerating electrode was produced by a resistance to suppress the secondary electron from the target. The neutron generator has been operated for several hundred hours, and the performances were investigated. The available range of the deuteron beam current was 1.0-4.0 mA. EJ410 scintillator detector system was used to measure the fast neutron yields. D-D neutron yield could reach 2.48×108 n/s under the deuteron beam of 3 mA and 150 keV.

  15. SU-E-T-542: Measurement of Internal Neutrons for Uniform Scanning Proton Beams

    Islam, M; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Zheng, Y; Rana, S [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Collums, T [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Monsoon, J; Benton, E [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In proton radiotherapy, the production of neutrons is a wellknown problem since neutron exposure can lead to increased risk of secondary cancers later in the patient’s lifetime. The assessment of neutron exposure is, therefore, important for the overall quality of proton radiotherapy. This study investigates the secondary neutrons created inside the patient from uniform scanning proton beams. Methods: Dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons was measured outside the primary field as a function of distance from beam isocenter at three different angles, 45, 90 and 135 degree, relative to beam axis. Plastic track nuclear detector (CR-39 PNTD) was used for the measurement of neutron dose. Two experimental configurations, in-air and cylindrical-phantom, were designed. In a cylindrical-phantom configuration, a cylindrical phantom of 5.5 cm diameter and 35 cm long was placed along the beam direction and in an in-air configuration, no phantom was used. All the detectors were placed at nearly identical locations in both configurations. Three proton beams of range 5 cm, 18 cm, and 32 cm with 4 cm modulation width and a 5 cm diameter aperture were used. The contribution from internal neutrons was estimated from the differences in measured dose equivalent between in-air and cylindrical-phantom configurations at respective locations. Results: The measured ratio of neutron dose equivalent to the primary proton dose (H/D) dropped off with distance and ranged from 27 to 0.3 mSv/Gy. The contribution of internal neutrons near the treatment field edge was found to be up to 64 % of the total neutron exposure. As the distance from the field edge became larger, the external neutrons from the nozzle appear to dominate and the internal neutrons became less prominent. Conclusion: This study suggests that the contribution of internal neutrons could be significant to the total neutron dose equivalent.

  16. Neutron Research in HANARO

    Kim, Hark Rho

    2005-01-01

    HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor), which was designed and constructed by indigenous technology, is a world-class multi-purpose research reactor with a design thermal power of 30 MW, providing high neutron flux for various applications in Korea. HANARO has been operated since its first criticality in February 1995, and is now successfully utilized in such areas as neutron beam research, fuel and materials tests, radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals production, neutron activation analysis, and neutron transmutation doping, etc. A number of experimental facilities have been developed and installed since the beginning of reactor operation, and R and D activities for installing more facilities are actively under progress. Three flux traps in the core (CT, IR1, IR2), providing a high fast neutron flux, can be used for materials and fuel irradiation tests. They are also proper for production of high specific activity radioisotopes. Four vertical holes in the outer core region, abundant in epithermal neutrons, are used for fuel or material tests and radioisotope production. In the heavy water reflector region, 25 vertical holes with high quality thermal neutrons are located for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron transmutation doping and cold neutron source installation. The two largest holes named NTD1 and NTD2 are for neutron transmutation doping, CNS for the cold neutron source installation, and LH for the irradiation of large targets. The high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD) became operational in 1998, followed by the four circle diffractometer (FCD) in 1999, the residual stress instrument (RSI) in 2000, and the small angle neutron spectrometer (SANS) in 2001, respectively. HRPD and SANS became the most popular instruments these days, attracting wide range of users from academia, institutes and industries. We have made a lot of efforts during the last 10 years to develop some key components such as

  17. Using MCNP code for neutron and photon skyshine analysis

    Zharkov, V.P.; Dikareva, O.F.; Kartashev, I.A.; Kiselev, A.N.; Netecha, M.E. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nomura, Y.; Tsubosaka, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The MCNP Monte-Carlo code was used for the investigation of the sensitivity of neutron and neutron-induced secondary photon dose rate, total and thermal neutron fluxes and space-energy distributions to energy and angular distribution of radiation source, to thickness and composition of the ground, air density (including it changing with height), humidities of air and ground, thermalization effects, detector's dimension and its disposal above the ground level. The calculations were performed with the assumption that the source or released radiation into the atmosphere can be treated as a point source and the source containment structure has a negligible perturbation on the skyshine radiation field. (author)

  18. An evaluation of neutron nuclear data for natural lead

    Ma Gonggui; Zhou Yiming; Wang Shiming

    1990-04-01

    Complete neutron nuclear data for natural lead were evaluated based on both experimental data measured up to December 1985 and theoretical data calculated with program MUP2. The experimental data evaluation is mainly based on CENDL-1, except (n, 2n) cross section, for which there are newly measured data available. The data, in the neutron energy from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, contain cross section, angular distributions and energy spectra of secondary neutrons, and are in ENDF/B-4 format

  19. Analysis of a neutron scattering integral experiment on iron for neutron energies from 1 to 15 MeV

    Cramer, S.N.; Oblow, E.M.

    1976-11-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were made to analyze the results of an integral experiment with an iron sample to determine the adequacy of neutron scattering cross section data for iron. The experimental results analyzed included energy-dependent NE-213 detector count rates at a scattering angle of 90 deg and pulse-height spectra for scattered neutrons produced in an iron ring pulsed with a 1- to 20-MeV neutron source. The pulse-height data were unfolded to generate secondary neutron spectra at 90 deg as a function of incident neutron energy. Multigroup Monte Carlo calculations using the MORSE code and ENDF/B-IV cross sections were made to analyze all reported results. Discrepancies between calculated and measured responses were found for inelastic scattering reactions in the range from 1 to 4 MeV. These results were related to deficiencies in ENDF/B-IV iron cross section data

  20. Neutron transportation simulator

    Uenohara, Yuzo.

    1995-01-01

    In the present invention, problems in an existent parallelized monte carlo method is solved, and behaviors of neutrons in a large scaled system are accurately simulated at a high speed. Namely, a neutron transportation simulator according to the monte carlo method simulates movement of each of neutrons by using a parallel computer. In this case, the system to be processed is divided based on a space region and an energy region to which neutrons belong. Simulation of neutrons in the divided regions is allotted to each of performing devices of the parallel computer. Tarry data and nuclear data of the neutrons in each of the regions are memorized dispersedly to memories of each of the performing devices. A transmission means for simulating the behaviors of the neutrons in the region by each of the performing devices, as well as transmitting the information of the neutrons, when the neutrons are moved to other region, to the performing device in a transported portion are disposed to each of the performing devices. With such procedures, simulation for the neutrons in the allotted region can be conducted with small capacity of memories. (I.S.)

  1. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  2. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE EXOPLANET WASP-5b WITH WARM SPITZER

    Baskin, Nathaniel J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present secondary eclipse photometry of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera as part of the extended warm mission. By estimating the depth of the secondary eclipse in these two bands we can place constraints on the planet's atmospheric pressure-temperature profile and chemistry. We measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.197% {+-} 0.028% and 0.237% {+-} 0.024% in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, respectively. For the case of a solar-composition atmosphere and chemistry in local thermal equilibrium, our observations are best matched by models showing a hot dayside and, depending on our choice of model, a weak thermal inversion or no inversion at all. We measure a mean offset from the predicted center of eclipse of 3.7 {+-} 1.8 minutes, corresponding to ecos {omega} = 0.0025 {+-} 0.0012 and consistent with a circular orbit. We conclude that the planet's orbit is unlikely to have been perturbed by interactions with another body in the system as claimed by Fukui et al.

  3. Neutron wave optics studied with ultracold neutrons

    Steyerl, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses experiments demonstrating or utilizing the wave properties of neutrons with wavelengths of about 100 nm. In particular the 'UCN gravity diffractometer' and the gravity spectrometer NESSIE (Neutronen-Schwerkraft-Spectrometrie) are illustrated. (Auth.)

  4. Neutron Optics: Towards Applications for Hot Neutrons

    Schanzer, C; Schneider, M; Böni, P

    2016-01-01

    Supermirrors with large critical angles of reflection, i.e. large index m are an essential ingredient to transport, focus and polarise neutrons over a wide range of energy. Here we summarise the recent developments of supermirror with very large critical angles of reflection and high reflectivity that were conducted at SwissNeutronics as well as their implementation in devices. Approaching critical angles m = 8 times the critical angle of natural nickel makes new applications possible and extends the use of reflection optics towards the regime of hot and epithermal neutrons. Based on comparisons of simulations with experiment we demonstrate future possibilities of applications of large-m supermirrors towards devices for neutrons with short wavelength. (paper)

  5. A polarizing neutron periscope for neutron imaging

    Schulz, Michael; Boeni, Peter; Calzada, Elbio; Muehlbauer, Martin; Neubauer, Andreas; Schillinger, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Optical neutron polarizers like guides or benders destroy the collimation of a neutron beam due to multiple reflections or scattering. This makes them unsuitable for their use in polarized neutron radiography, because the beam collimation is essential to obtain high spatial resolution. We have developed a neutron polarizer based on the principle of an optical periscope with a zigzag double reflection on two parallel high-m supermirror polarizers. If the supermirrors are perfectly parallel and flat, the beam collimation is left unchanged by such a device. A first proof of concept version of this type of polarizer was built and tested. We expect to achieve a beam polarization of up to 99% with an improved version yet to be built.

  6. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  7. Bouncing neutrons and the neutron centrifuge

    Watson, P J S

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of the quantum state of the neutron bouncing freely under gravity allows some novel experiments. A possible method of purifying the ground state is given. We investigate two possible applications. It appears that the state could not be used to set better limits on the electric dipole moment of the neutron. However, it would be possible to use the state to set limits on modifications of gravity at short distances

  8. Neutron spectra measuring by magnetless hadron spectrometer

    Bayukov, Yu.D.; Buklej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    The energy resolution, efficiency and background conditions of neutron recording in inclusive nuclear reactions by a magnetless hadron spectrometer (MHS) in the 8-300 MeV energy range. The scheme of apparatus lay-out for measuring neutron recording efficiency is shown. For recording colliding particles with the 3 GeV/c momentum four beam scintillation counters, the latter of which of 30x40 mm dimensions and 1 mm thickness defines the working beam range in the target centre, are used. Targets of the 80 mm diameter made of C and Pb (2.08 g/cm 2 and 3.04 g/cm 2 thickness, respectively) are located at the 45 deg angle in respect to the beam direction. Secondary particles escaping at the 90 deg angle are recorded by two telescopes of the scintillation counters. For neutron and γ quanta recording the special scintillation detector of the 20 cm thickness encircled by an anticoincidence counter is used. The neutron recording efficiency is determined on the basis of comparison of the neutron production differential cross sections of the π +- 12 C 6 → nX reactions and of proton production in isotopically symmetric reactions π +- 12 C 6 → pX. The experimental data are in good agreement with the calculation data [ru

  9. Application of neutron radiography to plant research

    Nakanishi, Tomoko

    1995-01-01

    Neutron radiography was used to image plant roots in soils. Soybeans were used as experimental plants. When the length of the soybean root was 3-5 cm, the plant was transferred to an alminum foil and cultivated by adding polyvinyl alcoholic polymer (polymer A) and pulm-derived polymer (polymer B) as water absorbing polymers to soils. Plant samples were removed sequentially and irradiated with neutrons for 19 seconds at the JRR-3M neutron radiography facility. After irradiation, X-ray film images were obtained to observe water dynamics of roots and soils. Neutron images of soybean roots showed that secondary roots had grown on the side of water absorbing polymer-added soils in the case of polymer A, but on the side of non-added soils in the case of polymer B. When polymer B was added just below the soils where roots were grown, root growth was restricted only to the soil surface, and plant growth condition and dry weight were similar to those in the control plants. Thus the design of root shape may be possible by using polymer B. Similar experiment was made on 5 kinds of trees. Images of cross section of Japanese Cypress revealed that water contained in the tree is not always present along with growth ring of the tree. These findings may have an important implication for the potential application of neutron radiography in plant research. (N.K.)

  10. Thermal neutron detection by means of an organic solid-state track detector

    Doerschel, B.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal neutrons can be detected by means of organic solid-state track detectors if they are combined with radiators in which charged secondary particles are produced in neutron interaction processes. The secondary particles can produce etchable tracks in the detector material. For thermal neutron fluence determination from the track densities, the thermal neutron sensitivity was calculated for cellulose triacetate detectors with LiF radiators, taking into account energy and angular distribution of the alpha particles produced in the LiF radiator. This value is in good agreement with the sensitivity measured during irradiation in different neutron fields if corrections are considered the production of etchable or visuable tracks. Measuring range and measuring accuracy meet the requirements of thermal neutron detection in personnel dosimetry. Possibilities of extending the measuring range are discussed. (author)

  11. Analysis of the propagation of neutrons and gamma-rays from the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI

    Yoshida, Shigeo, E-mail: neutron@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Murata, Isao [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Saito, Isao [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The skyshine effect is crucial for designing appropriate shielding. To investigate the skyshine effect, the propagation of neutrons was measured and analyzed at the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI. Pulse height spectra and dose distributions of neutron and secondary gamma-ray were measured outside YAYOI, and analyzed with MCNP-5 and JENDL-3.3. Comparison with the experimental results showed good agreement. Also, a semi-empirical formula was successfully derived to describe the dose distribution. The formulae can be used to predict the skyshine effect at YAYOI, and will be useful for estimating the skyshine effect and designing the shield structure for fusion facilities.

  12. Status of spallation neutron source

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  13. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  14. Biological effects of neutrons

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  15. Neutron sources and applications

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  16. Neutron sources and applications

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  17. Evaluation of the neutron and gamma-ray production cross-sections for 55Mn

    Takahashi, H.

    1974-11-01

    The evaluation of neutron and gamma production cross sections for manganese-55 from 1.0 (10) -5 eV to 20.0 MeV for ENDF/ B-IV is summarized. Included are resonance parameters, neutron cross sections, angular and energy distribution of secondary neutrons, gamma multiplicities and transition probability array, gamma angular and energy distributions, nuclear model calculations, uncertainty estimates of cross sections, and evaluated cross sections. (U.S.)

  18. Neutron scattering and magnetism

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)

  19. The Advanced Neutron Source

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux (φ th ∼ 9·10 19 m -2 ·s -1 ) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Neutrons and Nuclear Engineering

    Ekkebus, Allen E.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted two workshops in April 2007 relevant to nuclear engineering education. In the Neutron Stress, Texture, and Phase Transformation for Industry workshop (http://neutrons.ornl.gov/workshops/nst2/), several invited speakers gave examples of neutron stress mapping for nuclear engineering applications. These included John Root of National Research Council of Canada, Mike Fitzpatrick of the UK's Open University, and Yan Gao of GE Global Research on their experiences with industrial and academic uses of neutron diffraction. Xun-Li Wang and Camden Hubbard described the new instruments at ORNL that can be used for such studies. This was preceded by the Neutrons for Materials Science and Engineering educational symposium (http://neutrons.ornl.gov/workshops/edsym2007). It was directed to the broad materials science and engineering community based in universities, industry and laboratories who wish to learn what the neutron sources in the US can provide for enhancing the understanding of materials behavior, processing and joining. Of particular interest was the presentation of Donald Brown of Los Alamos about using 'Neutron diffraction measurements of strain and texture to study mechanical behavior of structural materials.' At both workshops, the ORNL neutron scattering instruments relevant to nuclear engineering studies were described. The Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) is currently in operation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor; the VULCAN Engineering Materials Diffractometer will begin commissioning in 2008 at the Spallation Neutron Source. For characteristics of these instruments, as well as details of other workshops, meetings, capabilities, and research proposal submissions, please visit http://neutrons.ornl.gov. To submit user proposals for time on NRSF2 contact Hubbard at hubbardcratornl.gov

  1. The neutron porosity tool

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains a review of available information on neutron porosity tools with the emphasis on dual thermal-neutron-detector porosity tools and epithermal-neutron-detector porosity tools. The general principle of such tools is discussed and theoretical models are very briefly reviewed. Available data on tool designs are summarized with special regard to the source-detector distance. Tool operational data, porosity determination and correction of measurements are briefly discussed. (author) 15 refs

  2. Individual neutron dosimetry

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. The advanced neutron source

    Raman, S.; Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux (φ th ∼ 8 x 10 19 m -2 ·s -1 ) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research

  4. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  5. Neutrons for probing matter

    Torres, F. Ed.; Mazzucchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors tell the story of the French Orphee reactor located in Saclay from the decision to build it in the seventies, to its commissioning in 1980, to its upgrading in the nineties and to its today's operating life. As early as its feasibility studies Orphee has been designed as a dual-purpose reactor: scientific research for instance in crystallography and magnetism, and industrial uses like neutron radiography, silicon doping or radionuclide production. This book is divided into 4 parts: 1) the neutron: an explorer of the matter, 2) the Orphee reactor: a neutron source, 3) the adventurers of the matter: Leon Brillouin laboratory's staff, and 4) the perspectives for neutrons

  6. Spallation neutrons pulsed sources

    Carpenter, J.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the range of scientific applications which can use these pulsed neutrons sources: Studies on super fluids, measures to verify the crawling model for the polymers diffusion; these sources are also useful to study the neutron disintegration, the ultra cold neutrons. In certain applications which were not accessible by neutrons diffusion, for example, radiations damages, radionuclides production and activation analysis, the spallation sources find their use and their improvement will bring new possibilities. Among others contributions, one must notice the place at disposal of pulsed muons sources and neutrinos sources. (N.C.). 3 figs

  7. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  8. Neutrons from Antiproton Irradiation

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    the neutron spectrum. Additionally, we used a cylindrical polystyrene loaded with several pairs of thermoluminescent detectors containing Lithium-6 and Lithium-7, which effectively detects thermalized neutrons. The obtained results are compared with FLUKA imulations. Results: The results obtained...... spectrum is very low, and does not pose a problem for radiation therapy. However, the contribution from fast neutrons is much more significant. The dose equivalent contribution from neutrons originate from the patient alone and reaches levels which are found in passive moderated proton therapy. The exact...

  9. Introduction to neutron stars

    Lattimer, James M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  10. Neutron detection technique

    Oblath, N.S.; Poon, A.W.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the 252 Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a 252 Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between neutron-like events, it is possible to obtain a pure sample of neutrons for calibration study. Preliminary results of the technique applied to two calibration runs are presented

  11. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  12. Neutrons in biology

    Funahashi, Satoru; Niimura, Nobuo.

    1993-01-01

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  13. Polycapillary neutron lenses

    Mildner, D.F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of multiple mirror reflection from smooth surfaces at small grazing angles enables the transport and guiding of high intensity slow neutron beams to locations of low background for neutron scattering and absorption experiments and to provide facilities for multiple instruments. Curved guides have been widely used at cold neutron facilities to remove the unwanted radiation (fast neutrons and gamma rays) from the beam without the use of filters. A typical guide has transverse dimensions of 50 mm and, with a radius of curvature of 1 km, transmits wavelengths longer than 5 A. Much tighter curves requires narrower transverse dimensions, otherwise there is little transmission. Typical neutron benders have a number of slots with transverse dimensions of ∼5 mm. Based on the same principle but using a different technology, recent developments in glass polycapillary fibers have produced miniature versions of neutron guides. Fibers with many thousands of channels having sizes of ∼ 10 μm enable beams of long wavelength neutrons (λ > 4 A) to be transmitted efficiently in a radius of curvature as small as a fraction of 1 m. A large collection of these miniature versions of neutron guides can be used to bend the neutron trajectories such that the incident beam can be focused. (author)

  14. Neutron structural biology

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  15. Measurement of stray neutron doses inside the treatment room from a proton pencil beam scanning system

    Mojzeszek, N.; Farah, J.; Klodowska, M.; Ploc, Ondřej; Stolarczyk, L.; Waligorski, M. P. R.; Olko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2017), s. 80-84 ISSN 1120-1797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : secondary neutrons * proton therapy * pencil beam scanning systtems * out-of-field doses * stray neutron doses * TEPC Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 1.990, year: 2016

  16. Benchmark experiment on vanadium assembly with D-T neutrons. In-situ measurement

    Maekawa, Fujio; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Konno, Chikara; Wada, Masayuki; Oyama, Yukio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murata, Isao; Kokooo; Takahashi, Akito

    1998-03-01

    Fusion neutronics benchmark experimental data on vanadium were obtained for neutrons in almost entire energies as well as secondary gamma-rays. Benchmark calculations for the experiment were performed to investigate validity of recent nuclear data files, i.e., JENDL Fusion File, FENDL/E-1.0 and EFF-3. (author)

  17. JRR-3 neutron radiography facility

    Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1992-01-01

    JRR-3 neutron radiography facility consists of thermal neutron radiography facility (TNRF) and cold neutron radiography facility (CNRF). TNRF is installed in JRR-3 reactor building. CNRF is installed in the experimental beam hall adjacent to the reactor building. (author)

  18. Thermoluminescence albedo-neutron dosimetry

    Strand, T.; Storruste, A.

    1986-10-01

    The report discusses neutron detection with respect to dosimetry and compares different thermoluminescent dosimetry materials for neutron dosimetry. Construction and calibration of a thermoluminescence albedo neutron dosemeter, developed by the authors, is described

  19. Calibration of a detector by activation with a continuous neutron source used as a transfer standard for measuring pulsed neutron beams

    Moreno, Jose; Silva, Patricio; Birstein, Lipo; Soto, Leopoldo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calibrating activation detectors. These detectors will be used as transfer standard in measuring neutron fluxes produced by pulsed plasma sources. A standard neutron source is used as a secondary standard. The activation detector is being shielded in order to substantially reduce detection of gamma emission coming from the source. The detector's calibration factor is obtained by considering also the standard neutron source as a free source of gamma radiation so that the measurements can be done without quickly withdrawing the neutron source as it is usually done. This will substantially simplify the traditionally established method (JM)

  20. Measurement of radiation skyshine with D-T neutron source

    Yoshida, S.; Nishitani, T. E-mail: nisitani@naka.jaeri.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Kaneko, J.; Hori, J.; Sato, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Tanaka, R.; Nakao, M.; Wada, M.; Wakisaka, M.; Murata, I.; Kutsukake, C.; Tanaka, S.; Sawamura, T.; Takahashi, A

    2003-09-01

    The D-T neutron skyshine experiments have been carried out at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of JAERI with the neutron yield of {approx}1.7x10{sup 11} n/s. The concrete thickness of the roof and the wall of a FNS target room are 1.15 and 2 m, respectively. The FNS skyshine port with a size of 0.9x0.9 m{sup 2} was open during the experimental period. The radiation dose rate outside the target room was measured a maximum distance of 550 m from the D-T target point with a spherical rem-counter. Secondary gamma-rays were measured with high purity Ge detectors and NaI scintillation counters. The highest neutron dose was about 9x10{sup -22} Sv/(source neutron) at a distance of 30 m from the D-T target point and the dose rate was attenuated to 4x10{sup -24} Sv/(source neutron) at a distance of 550 m. The measured neutron dose distribution was analyzed with Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B and a simple line source model. The MCNP calculation overestimates the neutron dose in the distance range larger than 230 m. The line source model agrees well with the experimental results within the distance of 350 m.

  1. D-T neutron skyshine experiments at JAERI/FNS

    Nishitani, Takeo; Ochiai, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshida, Shigeo [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (JP)] (and others)

    2003-03-01

    The D-T neutron skyshine experiments have been carried out at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of JAERI with the neutron yield of {approx}1.7x10{sup 11} n/s. The concrete thickness of the roof and the wall of a FNS target room are 1.15 and 2 m, respectively. The FNS skyshine port with a size of 0.9x0.9 m{sup 2} was open during the experimental period. The radiation dose rate outside the target room was measured as far as about 550 m away from the D-T target point with a spherical rem-counter. The highest neutron dose was about 0.5 {mu}Sv/hr at a distance of 30 m from the D-T target point and the dose rate was attenuated to 0.002 {mu}Sv/hr at a distance of 550 m. The measured neutron dose distribution was analyzed with Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B and a simple line source model. The MCNP calculation overestimates the neutron dose in the distance range larger than 250 m. The neutron spectra were evaluated with a {sup 3}He detector with different thickness of polyethylene neutron moderators. Secondary gamma-rays were measured with high purity Ge detectors and NaI scintillation detectors. (author)

  2. Wide range neutron detection system

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  3. The IRK time-of-flight facility for measurements of double-differential neutron emission cross sections

    Pavlik, A.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Vonach, H.; Winkler, G.

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve the present experimental data base of energy- and angle-differential neutron emission cross sections at 14 MeV incident-neutron energy, a new time-of-flight (TOF) facility was installed at the Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik (IRK), Vienna. The set-up was particularly designed to more precisely measure the high-energy part of the secondary neutron spectra and consists of three main components: (1) a pulsed neutron generator of Cockcroft-Walton type producing primary neutrons via the T(d,n)-reaction, (2) a tube system which can be evacuated containing the neutron flight path, the sample, collimators and the sample positioning system, and (3) the neutron detectors with the data acquisition equipment. Removing the air along the neutron flight path results in a drastic suppression of background due to air-scattered neutrons in the spectrum of the secondary neutrons. For every secondary neutron detected in the main detector, the time-of-flight, the pulse-shape information and the recoil energy are recorded in list-mode via a CAMAC system connected to a PDP 11/34 on-line computer. Using a Micro VAX, the multiparameter data are sorted and reduced to double-differential cross sections

  4. Biomedical irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy at the Kyoto University Reactor

    Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K.; Ujeno, Y.; Ishida, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Physics studies related to radiation source, spectroscopy, beam quality, dosimetry, and biomedical applications using the Kyoto University Reactor Heavy Water Facility are described. Also, described are a Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube and a Super Mirror Neutron Guide Tube that are used both for the measurement of boron concentration in phantom and living tissue and for precise measurements of neutron flux in phantom in the presence of both light and heavy water. Discussed are: (1) spectrum measurements using the time of flight technique, (2) the elimination of gamma rays and fast neutrons from a thermal neutron irradiation field, (3) neutron collimation without producing secondary gamma rays, (4) precise neutron flux measurements, dose estimation, and the measurement of boron concentration in tumor and its periphery using guide tubes, (5) the dose estimation of boron-10 for the first melanoma patient, and (6) special-purpose biological irradiation equipment. Other related subjects are also described

  5. Biomedical irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy at the Kyoto University reactor

    Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K.; Ujeno, Y.; Ishida, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Physics studies related to radiation source, spectroscopy, beam quality, dosimetry, and biomedical applications using the Kyoto University Reactor Heavy Water Facility are described. Also, described are a Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube and a Super Mirror Neutron Guide Tube that are used both for the measurement of boron concentration in phantom and living tissue and for precise measurements of neutron flux in phantom in the presence of both light and heavy water. Discussed are: (1) spectrum measurements using the time of flight technique, (2) the elimination of gamma rays and fast neutrons from a thermal neutron irradiation field, (3) neutron collimation without producing secondary gamma rays, (4) precise neutron flux measurements, dose estimation, and the measurement of boron concentration in tumor and its periphery using guide tubes, (5) the dose estimation of boron-10 for the first melanoma patient, and (6) special-purpose biological irradiation equipment. Other related subjects are also described

  6. Nuclear characteristics of epoxy resin as a space environment neutron shielding

    Adeli, Ruhollah [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Central Iran Research Complex; Shirmardi, Seyed Pezhman [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application Research School; Mazinani, Saideh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2017-03-15

    In recent years many investigations have been done for choosing applicable light neutron shielding in space environmental applications. In this study, we have considered the neutron radiation-protective characteristics of neat epoxy resin, a thermoplastic polymer material and have compared it with various candidate materials in neutron radiation protection such as Al 6061 alloy and Polyethylene. The aim of this investigation is the effect of type of moderator for fast neutron, notwithstanding neutron absorbers fillers. The nuclear interactions and the effective dose at shields have been studied with the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP), using variance reductions to reduce the relative error. Among the candidates, polymer matrix showed a better performance in attenuating fast neutrons and caused a lower neutron and secondary photon effective dose.

  7. Leading neutron energy and pT distributions in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2007-02-01

    The production of energetic neutrons in ep collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The neutron energy and p T 2 distributions were measured with a forward neutron calorimeter and tracker in a 40 pb -1 sample of inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data and a 6 pb -1 sample of photoproduction data. The neutron yield in photoproduction is suppressed relative to DIS for the lower neutron energies and the neutrons have a steeper p T 2 distribution, consistent with the expectation from absorption models. The distributions are compared to HERA measurements of leading protons. The neutron energy and transverse-momentum distributions in DIS are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the predictions of particle exchange models. Models of pion exchange incorporating absorption and additional secondary meson exchanges give a good description of the data. (orig.)

  8. Salient features, response and operation of Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor

    Mufti, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Ishtiaq, P.M.; Darzi, M.A.; Mir, T.A.; Shah, G.N.

    2016-01-01

    Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor (LFGNM) provides continuous ground level intensity measurements of atmospheric secondary neutrons produced in interactions of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's constituent atmosphere. We report the LFGNM detector salient features and simulation of its energy response for 10"−"1"1 MeV to 10"4 MeV energy incident neutrons using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package. An empirical calibration of the LFGNM detector carried out with a Pu–Be neutron source for maximising its few MeV neutron counting sensitivity is also presented. As an illustration of its functionality a single representative transient solar modulation event recorded by LFGNM depicting Forbush decrease in integrated neutron data for which the geospace consequences are well known is also presented. Performance of LFGNM under actual observation conditions for effectively responding to transient solar modulation is seen to compare well with other world-wide conventional neutron monitors.

  9. Improving the neutron-to-photon discrimination capability of detectors used for neutron dosimetry in high energy photon beam radiotherapy

    Irazola, L.; Terrón, J.A.; Bedogni, R; Pola, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Sánchez-Nieto, B.; Gómez, F.; Sánchez-Doblado, F.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest of the medical community to radioinduced second malignancies due to photoneutrons in patients undergoing high-energy radiotherapy, has stimulated in recent years the study of peripheral doses, including the development of some dedicated active detectors. Although these devices are designed to respond to neutrons only, their parasitic photon response is usually not identically zero and anisotropic. The impact of these facts on measurement accuracy can be important, especially in points close to the photon field-edge. A simple method to estimate the photon contribution to detector readings is to cover it with a thermal neutron absorber with reduced secondary photon emission, such as a borated rubber. This technique was applied to the TNRD (Thermal Neutron Rate Detector), recently validated for thermal neutron measurements in high-energy photon radiotherapy. The positive results, together with the accessibility of the method, encourage its application to other detectors and different clinical scenarios. - Highlights: • Neutron-to-photon discrimination of a thermal neutron detector used in radiotherapy. • Photon and anisotropic response study with distance and beam incidence of thermal neutron detector. • Borated rubber for estimating photon contribution in any thermal neutron detector.

  10. Neutron monitoring for radiological protection

    Gibson, J.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron monitoring is a subject of increasing general interest and considerable attention is being paid to the development of improved techniques and methods for neutron monitoring. The Agency, therefore, considered it important to prepare a guide on the subject of neutron monitoring for radiation protection purposes. The present Manual is intended for those persons or authorities in Member States, particularly developing countries, who are responsible for the organization of neutron monitoring programmes and practical neutron monitoring. This Manual consequently, deals with topics such as neutron dosimetry, sources of neutrons and neutron detection as well as field instruments and operational systems used in this context

  11. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts

    Sukhovoj, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics are considered. P, T-breaking, neutron beta decay, neutron radiative capture and neutron polarizability are discussed. Reaction with fast neutrons, methodical aspect low-energy fission are considered too

  12. Development of In-pile Plug Assembly and Primary Shutter for Cold Neutron Guide System

    Shin, Jin Won; Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The HANARO, a 30 MW multi-purpose research reactor in Korea, will be equipped with a neutron guide system, in order to transport cold neutrons from the neutron source to the neutron scattering instruments in the neutron guide hall near the reactor building. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in-pile plug assembly with in-pile guides, the primary shutter with in-shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with dedicated secondary shutters, and the neutron guides connected to the instruments in the neutron guide hall. The functions of the in-pile plug assembly are to shield the reactor environment from a nuclear radiation and to support the neutron guides and maintain them precisely oriented. The primary shutter is a mechanical device to be installed just after the in-pile plug assembly, which stops neutron flux on demand. This report describes the mechanical design, fabrication, and installation procedure of the in-pile plug assembly and the primary shutter for the neutron guide system at HANARO. A special tool and procedure for a replacement of in-pile plug and guide cassette is also presented with the interface condition in the reactor hall.

  13. In-Situ Spectrometry of Neutrons

    Maurer, Richard H.

    1999-01-01

    High energy charged particles of extra-galactic, galactic and solar origin collide with spacecraft structures in Earth orbit outside the atmosphere and in interplanetary travel beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. These primaries create a number of secondary particles inside the structures that can produce a significant ionizing radiation environment. This radiation is a threat to long term inhabitants or travelers for space missions and produces an increased risk of cancer and DNA damage. The primary high energy cosmic rays and trapped protons collide with common spacecraft materials such as aluminum and silicon and create secondary particles inside structures that are mostly protons and neutrons. Charged protons are readily detected and instruments are already in existence for this task. Neutrons are electrically neutral and therefore much more difficult to measure and detect. These neutrons are reported to contribute 30-60% of the dose inside space structures and cannot be ignored. Currently there is no compact, portable and real time neutron detector instrumentation available for use inside spacecraft or on planetary surfaces where astronauts will live and work. We propose to design and build a portable, low power and robust neutron spectrometer that will measure the neutron spectrum from 10 KeV to 500 MeV with at least 10% energy resolution in the various energy intervals. This instrument will monitor the existing neutron environment both inside spacecraft structures and on planetary surfaces to determine the safest living areas, warn of high fluxes associated with solar storms and assist the NSBRI Radiation Effects Team in making an accurate assessment of increased cancer risk and DNA damage to astronauts. The instrument uses a highly efficient proportional counter Helium 3 tube at the lowest energy intervals where .equivalent damage factors for tissue are the highest (10 KeV-2 MeV). The Helium 3 tube may be shielded with a cadmium absorber to eliminate the much

  14. Laser neutron generator

    Anan'in, O.B.; Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Mints, A.Z.; Riabov, E.V.; Tsybin, A.S.; Cherkasov, Yu.; Shikanov, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented concerning devices for producing intense neutrons flows, and may be utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging of wells, in studies of the critical characteristics of nuclear reactors, for activation analysis, radiation therapy, defectoscopy, and so on

  15. Muons, neutrons and superconductivity

    Aeppli, G.; Risoe National Lab., Roskilde

    1988-01-01

    The principles of the neutron scattering and muon spin relaxation (μSR) techniques and their applications to studies of superconductors are described briefly. μSR and neutron scattering work on magnetic correlations in superconductors and materials directly related to superconductors are reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Gunsing, F.

    2005-06-01

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Lunar neutron source function

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  19. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  20. Applications of polarized neutrons

    Mezei, F.

    1993-01-01

    The additional spin degree of freedom of the neutron can be made use of in neutron scattering work in two fundamental ways: (a) directly for the identification of magnetic scattering effects and (b) indirectly as a spectroscopic tool for modulating and analysing beams. Although strong magnetic scattering contributions can often be studied by unpolarized neutrons, a fully unambiguous separation of nuclear and magnetic phenomena can only be achieved by the additional information provided by polarized neutrons, especially if one of the two kinds of contributions is weak compared to the other. In the most general case a sample with both magnetic and nuclear features can be characterized by as many as 16 independent dynamic correlation functions instead of the single well known S(q, ω) for non-magnetic nuclear scattering only. Polarization analysis in principle allows one to determine all these 16 functions. The indirect applications of polarized neutrons are also steadily gaining importance. The most widely used method of this kind, the application of Larmor precessions for high resolution energy analysis in Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy opened up a whole new domain in inelastic neutron scattering which was not accessible to any other spectroscopic method with or without neutrons before. (author)

  1. Symposium on neutron scattering

    Lehmann, M.S.; Saenger, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Dachs, H.

    1984-01-01

    Extended abstracts of the named symposium are presented. The first part of this report contains the abstracts of the lectures, the second those of the posters. Topics discussed on the symposium include neutron diffraction and neutron scattering studies in magnetism, solid state chemistry and physics, materials research. Some papers discussing instruments and methods are included too. (GSCH)

  2. filled neutron detectors

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  3. Mathematical methods in neutronics

    Planchard, J.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the mathematical theory of nuclear reactors. It applies to engineers in neutronics and applied mathematicians. After a recall of the elementary notions of neutronics and of diffusion-type partial derivative equations, the theory of reactors criticality calculation is described. (J.S.)

  4. Multidisc neutron velocity selector

    Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.

    1987-12-01

    The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. The advanced neutron source

    Hayter, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), slated for construction start in 1994, will be a multipurpose neutron research laboratory serving academic and industrial users in chemistry, biology, condensed matter physics, nuclear and fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, and many other fields. It will be centered on the world's highest flux neutron beam reactor, operating at 330 MW, with careful design integration between the neutron source and the experiment systems. Many instruments will be situated in low backgrounds at distances up to 80 m from the reactor, using neutron guides with tailored neutron optical coatings for beam transport. Apart from the many stations for neutron scattering research, specialized stations will also be provided for isotope separation on-line, experiments with liquid hydrogen targets, neutron optical techniques such as interferometry, activation analysis, depth profiling, and positron production. Careful consideration has been given to providing a good research environment for visiting scientists, including easy access to the experimental areas, while maintaining a highly secure nuclear facility. This paper will describe the reactor and experimental facilities and give some examples of the types of research for which ANS has been designed

  6. Compact neutron generator

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  7. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  8. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu 239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  9. Neutron filters for producing monoenergetic neutron beams

    Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Harvey, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements have been made on high-purity, highly-enriched samples of 58 Ni (99.9%), 60 Ni (99.7%), 64 Zn (97.9%) and 184 W (94.5%) to measure their neutron windows and to assess their potential usefulness for producing monoenergetic beams of intermediate energies from a reactor. Transmission measurements on the Los Alamos Sc filter (44.26 cm Sc and 1.0 cm Ti) have been made to determine the characteristics of the transmitted neutron beam and to measure the total cross section of Sc at the 2.0 keV minimum. When corrected for the Ti and impurities, a value of 0.35 +- 0.03 b was obtained for this minimum

  10. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  11. Fast neutrons dosimetry

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    A proton recoil technique has been developed for inducing thermoluminescence with incident fast neutrons. CaF 2 was used as the TL phosphor, and cane sugar and polyethylene were used as proton radiators. The phosphor and the hydrogeneous material powders were well mixed, encapsulated in glass tubes and exposed to Am-Be sources, resulting in recoils from incident fast neutrons of energy between 0,25 and 11,25 MeV. The intrinsic response of pure CaF 2 to fast neutrons without a hydrogeneous radiator was checked by using LiF (TLD-700). Glow curves were recorded from room temperature up to 350 0 C after different doses of neutrons and gamma rays of 60 Co. First collision dose due to fast neutrons in tissue like materials such as cane sugar and polyethylene was also calculated [pt

  12. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1981-02-01

    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  13. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  14. Simulated workplace neutron fields

    Lacoste, V.; Taylor, G.; Rottger, S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of simulated workplace neutron fields, which aim at replicating radiation fields at practical workplaces, is an alternative solution for the calibration of neutron dosemeters. They offer more appropriate calibration coefficients when the mean fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients of the simulated and practical fields are comparable. Intensive Monte Carlo modelling work has become quite indispensable for the design and/or the characterization of the produced mixed neutron/photon fields, and the use of Bonner sphere systems and proton recoil spectrometers is also mandatory for a reliable experimental determination of the neutron fluence energy distribution over the whole energy range. The establishment of a calibration capability with a simulated workplace neutron field is not an easy task; to date only few facilities are available as standard calibration fields. (authors)

  15. Irradiation temperature dependence of production efficiency of lattice defects in some neutron-irradiated oxides

    Okada, Moritami; Atobe, Kozo; Nakagawa, Masuo

    2004-01-01

    Temperature dependence of production efficiency of irradiation-induced defects in neutron-irradiated oxides has been investigated. Some oxide single crystals, MgO, α-Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) and TiO 2 (rutile), were irradiated at several controlled temperatures, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 K, using the low-temperature irradiation facility of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR-LTL), and at ambient temperature (∼370 K) in the same facility. Irradiation temperature dependence of production efficiency of a 1 μm band in TiO 2 differs greatly from that of anion vacancy (F-type centers) in MgO and α-Al 2 O 3 . Results for MgO and α-Al 2 O 3 show steep negative gradients from 10 to 370 K, whereas that for TiO 2 includes a valley between 40 and 60 K and a hump at about 130 K, and then disappear at about 200 K. In MgO and α-Al 2 O 3 , this behavior can be explained by the recombination of Frenkel pairs, which is activated at higher temperature. In TiO 2 , in addition to the recombination mechanism, a covalent bonding property is thought to be exerted strong influence, and it is suggested that a disappearance of the 1 μm band at above 200 K is due to the recombination process of Frenkel pairs which is caused by the irradiation-induced crystallization

  16. Neutron PSDs for the next generation of spallation neutron sources

    Eijk, C W

    2002-01-01

    A review of R and D for neutron PSDs to be used at anticipated new spallation neutron sources: the Time-of-Flight system facility, European Spallation Source, Spallation Neutron Source and Neutron Arena, is presented. The gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors and hybrid systems are emphasized.

  17. Fail-safe neutron shutter used for thermal neutron radiography

    Sachs, R.D.; Morris, R.A.

    1976-11-01

    A fail-safe, reliable, easy-to-use neutron shutter was designed, built, and put into operation at the Omega West Reactor, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The neutron shutter will be used primarily to perform thermal neutron radiography, but is also available for a highly collimated source of thermal neutrons [neutron flux = 3.876 x 10 6 (neutrons)/(cm 2 .s)]. Neutron collimator sizes of either 10.16 by 10.16 cm or 10.16 by 30.48 cm are available

  18. Neutron optics using transverse field neutron spin echo method

    Achiwa, Norio; Hino, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Tasaki, Seiji; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Ebisawa, Toru.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer with perpendicular magnetic field to the neutron scattering plane, using an iron yoke type electro-magnet has been developed. A combination of cold neutron guider, supermirror neutron polarizer of double reflection type and supermirror neutron analyser was adopted for the spectrometer. The first application of the NSE spectrometer to neutron optics by passing Larmor precessing neutrons through gas, solid and liquid materials of several different lengths which are inserted in one of the precession field have been examined. Preliminary NSE spectra of this sample geometry are discussed. (author)

  19. Neutron generator tube ion source control apparatus

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed neutron well logging system includes a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and an ion source control apparatus providing extremely sharply time-defined neutron pulses. A low voltage control pulse supplied to an input by timing circuits turns a power FET on via a buffer-driver whereby a 2000 volt pulse is produced in the secondary of a pulse transformer and applied to the ion source of the tube. A rapid fall in this ion source control pulse is ensured by a quenching circuit wherein a one-shot responds to the falling edge of the control pulse and produces a 3 microsecond delay to compensate for the propagation delay. A second one-shot is triggered by the falling edge of the output of the first one-shot and gives an 8 microsecond pulse to turn on the power FET which, via an isolation transformer turns on a series-connected transistor to ground the secondary of the pulse transformer and the ion source. (author)

  20. Characteristics of uranium oxide cathode for neutron streak camera

    Niki, H.; Itoga, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1986-01-01

    In laser fusion research, time-resolved neutron measurements require 20ps resolution in order to obtain the time history of the D-T burn. Uranium oxide was expected to be a sensitive material as a cathode of a neutron streak camera because of its large fission cross section. The authors report their measurements of some characteristics of the uranium oxide cathode connected to a conventional streak tube. 14 MeV neutron signal were observed as the bright spots on a TV monitor using a focus mode opration. Detection efficiency was ∼ 1 x 10 -6 for 1 μm thick cathode. Each signal consisted of more than several tens of components, which were corresponding to the secondary electrons dragged out from the cathode by a fission fragment. Time resolution is thought to be limited mainly by the transit time spread of the secondary electrons. 14ps resolution was obtained by a streak mode operation for a single fission event

  1. Neutron-to-proton ratios in pA and π+-A interactions

    Bayukov, Yu.D.; Degtyarenko, P.V.; Druzhinin, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of neutron and proton yields at 120 deg have been carried out in 7.5 GeV/c pA and in 1.4 GeV/c and 5.0 GeV/c π +- A interactions. The ratios of secondary neutrons to protons are considered in detail. The ratios depend on kinetic energy of secondary nucleons and this dependence is more pronounced for heavy nuclei. Dependence of this ratios on the incident particle charge and the asymmetry resulting from a different number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus are discussed

  2. Soil biological shield exposed to high energy neutrons; Zemlja kao bioloski stit od neutrona visokih energija

    Simovic, R; Marinkovic, N [Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1993-04-15

    Shielding efficiency of soil biological shield exposed to high energy neutrons was investigated. Dose rate equivalents for neutrons, secondary gamma and gamma radiation were computed on the surface of soil slabs having different thicknesses. Yields of primary and secondary nuclear radiation in the total dose were evaluated. Influence of the incident neutron spectrum, water content and chemical composition of the material on its shielding efficiency was examined. It was found that the soil density and the water content determine the quality of biological shield, the influence of other factors being less important. Comparison of shielding efficiencies for soil with sand, brick and ordinary concrete shields was done.

  3. Fast neutron induced increase of flowering in portulaca grandiflora linn

    Abraham, V.; Desai, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Unbranched cuttings were exposed to fast neutron doses of 71-284 rads and planted along with unirradiated controls. There was a significant increase in the numbers of flowers in the treated populations due to the increased production of primary and secondary branches. (MG) [de

  4. Evaluation of neutron cross-sections of {sup 127}I important for radiation transport calculations in large NaI detectors

    Pronayaev, V G [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    Evaluations were made of neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections with excitation of discrete levels of the residual nucleus, the (n,2n) reaction, secondary neutron emission spectra and secondary photons for reactions which contribute substantially to production of photons for {sup 127}I with the use of the theoretical model for neutrons with an initial energy of 60 keV-20 MeV. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at the Boris Kidric Institute

    Kovacevic, M.; Velickovic, D.; Vukcevic, M.

    1989-01-01

    Essential data about Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Boris Kidric Institute are stated in this paper. The description of the laboratory is given and the possibilities of X, gamma and neutron dose measurements, as well as the basic equipment (author)

  6. Neutron spectrometry with a monolithic silicon telescope.

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Fazzi, A; Para, A Foglio; Pola, A; Zotto, P

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was set-up by coupling a polyethylene converter with a monolithic silicon telescope, consisting of a DeltaE and an E stage-detector (about 2 and 500 microm thick, respectively). The detection system was irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro, Italy). The maximum detectable energy, imposed by the thickness of the E stage, is about 8 MeV for the present detector. The scatter plots of the energy deposited in the two stages were acquired using two independent electronic chains. The distributions of the recoil-protons are well-discriminated from those due to secondary electrons for energies above 0.350 MeV. The experimental spectra of the recoil-protons were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. An analytical model that takes into account the geometrical structure of the silicon telescope was developed, validated and implemented in an unfolding code. The capability of reproducing continuous neutron spectra was investigated by irradiating the detector with neutrons from a thick beryllium target bombarded with protons. The measured spectra were compared with data taken from the literature. Satisfactory agreement was found.

  7. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Faj, D.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21 o to 58 o ; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H n =5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H f =1.4 μSv/h.

  8. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Faj, D. [Clinical Hospital Osijek (Croatia); Stanic, D. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J., E-mail: planinic@ffos.h [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21{sup o} to 58{sup o}; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H{sub n}=5.9 {mu}Sv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H{sub f}=1.4 {mu}Sv/h.

  9. Neutron flux monitor

    Oda, Naotaka.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention greatly saves an analog processing section such as an analog filter and an analog processing circuit. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux detection means for detecting neutron fluxed in the reactor, (2) a digital filter means for dividing signals corresponding to the detected neutron fluxes into predetermined frequency band regions, (3) a calculation processing means for applying a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band regions to the neutron flux detection signals divided by the digital filter means. With such a constitution, since the neutron detection signals are processed by the digital filter means, the accuracy is improved and the change for the property of the filter is facilitated. Further, when a neutron flux level is obtained, a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band region can be conducted without the analog processing circuit. Accordingly, maintenance and accuracy are improved by greatly decreasing the number of parts. Further, since problems inherent to the analog circuit are solved, neutron fluxes are monitored at high reliability. (I.S.)

  10. Neutron Science 21

    Park, Sung Il; Choi, Yong Nam; Ahn, Geun Young; Lee, Hee Joo; Hong, Ji Sun; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2009-01-01

    The project aims to make the HANARO neutron beam facility a neutron research hub in the Asia-Pacific. This is a part of the effort to make the facility as productive as other neutron beam facilities in America and Europe which already operate as a hub that attracts thousands of users and produces hundreds of publications annually. The projects promotes 1) collaborative research between HANARO personnel and users, 2) internationally collaboration on various fronts of neutron science related activities. To achieve the above in an effective manner, its direction is adjusted by a series of meetings and the activities of the project are advertised to the public media. 3 domestic and 1 international collaborative research was carried out successfully in 2008 by using the HRPD. The 1st Asia-Oceania Neutron Summer School was successfully hosted in Korea. The annual report of the HANARO neutron beam facility was published. 3 advisory meetings and 6 internal meetings to promote the hub were held. Users were surveyed on their needs. The media was contacted twice in an effort to advertise the project activities. All of the above achievements are directly applicable to determining the national policy on neutron science. It is advised that the KAERI management take notice of the results to manage the facility effectively

  11. Neutrons at COSY

    Filges, D.; Freiesleben, H.

    1988-05-01

    For many years neutrons were considered important both as a useful probe in nuclear physics research and as an initiator and catalyst for fission, fusion and other applications. As a result knowledge about neutrons, especially below 20 MeV, received organized world-wide attention. Research with neutrons at medium energies, say 50 MeV to several GeV, has not consistently received attention and no systematic evaluations exist. But there is a large and considerable interest today because medium energy neutrons are very important in basic science and technology. The aim of this workshop was to provide an overview of the present status and the research which should be carried out in this field in future and which kind of experiments should be performed at the COSY facility: State-of-the-art about medium energy neutron experiments and existing facilities; planned experiments; needs for experiments doing research with neutrons at COSY (detectors, accelerator requirements, time structure etc.); what will be a first experiment to measure neutrons at COSY. The interest in this workshop is documented by a large number of participants. Copies of the viewgraphs of the talks are provided. (orig./HP)

  12. The 14 mu m band of carbon stars

    Yamamura, [No Value; de Jong, T; Waters, LBFM; Cami, J; Justtanont, K; LeBertre, T; Lebre, A; Waelkens, C

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the absorption bands around 14 mum in the spectra of 11 carbon stars with mass-loss rates ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-4) M-circle dot yr(-1), based on data obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). All stars clearly show a

  13. Estimating Coastal Turbidity using MODIS 250 m Band Observations

    Davies, James E.; Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Walker, Nan D.

    2004-01-01

    Terra MODIS 250 m observations are being applied to a Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) algorithm that is under development for coastal case 2 waters where reflectance is dominated by sediment entrained in major fluvial outflows. An atmospheric correction based on MODIS observations in the 500 m resolution 1.6 and 2.1 micron bands is used to isolate the remote sensing reflectance in the MODIS 25Om resolution 650 and 865 nanometer bands. SSC estimates from remote sensing reflectance are based on accepted inherent optical properties of sediment types known to be prevalent in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal zone. We present our findings for the Atchafalaya Bay region of the Louisiana Coast, in the form of processed imagery over the annual cycle. We also apply our algorithm to selected sites worldwide with a goal of extending the utility of our approach to the global direct broadcast community.

  14. Surface analysis of Borkron glass for neutron optics applications

    Farnoux, B.; Maaza, M.; Maaza, M.; Samuel, F.; Sella, C.

    1991-01-01

    Grazing Angle Neutron Reflectometry, Optical and Mechanical Roughness Profilometry techniques have been used to study the effects of the polishing operations on the surface of Borkron Schott glass (special borosilicate glass for neutron optics applications) as the polishing tool pressure P and the mean grain size of the polishing powder Φ. The neutron reflectivity investigations have shown that there is formation of a layer at the surface glass substrate. This layer is less dense than the bulk substrate and its thickness is around 60A. The optical and mechanical profilometry measurements have shown that both roughness and waviness decrease with P and Φ. All the experimental results show a good correlation between the neutron refractive index, the thickness and the roughness of the surface layer and the waviness of the glass surface with the two mechanical polishing parameters. The previous techniques have been completed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements

  15. Neutron and gamma-ray transport experiments in liquid air

    Farley, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Accurate estimates of neutron and gamma radiations from a nuclear explosion and their subsequent transport through the atmosphere are vital to nuclear-weapon employment studies: i.e., for determining safety radii for aircraft crews, casualty and collateral-damage risk radii for tactical weapons, and the kill range from a high-yield defensive burst for a maneuvering reentry vehicle. Radiation transport codes, such as the Laboratory's TARTNP, are used to calculate neutron and gamma fluences. Experiments have been performed to check and update these codes. Recently, a 1.3-m-radius liquid-air (21 percent oxygen) sphere, with a pulsed source of 14-MeV neutrons at its center, was used to measure the fluence and spectra of emerging neutrons and secondary gamma rays. Comparison of measured radiation dose with TARTNP showed agreement within 10 percent

  16. The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiation Czochralski-silicon

    Li Yang Xian; Niu Ping Juan; Liu Cai Chi; Xu Yue Sheng; Yang Deren; Que Duan Lin

    2002-01-01

    The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon is studied. The result shows that a denuded zone at the surface of the neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon wafer may be formed through one-step short-time annealing. The width of the denuded zone is dependent on the annealing temperature and the dose of neutron irradiation, while it is irrelated to the annealing time in case the denuded zone is formed. The authors conclude that the interaction between the defects induced by neutron irradiation and the oxygen in the silicon accelerates the oxygen precipitation in the bulk, and becomes the dominating factor of the quick formation of intrinsic gettering. It makes the effect of thermal history as the secondary factor

  17. Neutron generation in lightning bolts

    Shah, G.N.; Razdan, H.; Bhat, C.L.; Ali, Q.M.

    1985-01-01

    To ascertain neutron generation in lightning bolts, the authors have searched for neutrons from individual lightning strokes, for a time-interval comparable with the duration of the lightning stroke. 10 7 -10 10 neutrons per stroke were found, thus providing the first experimental evidence that neutrons are generated in lightning discharges. (U.K.)

  18. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiments

    Peng, Jen-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) provides unique information on CP violation and physics beyond the Standard Model. We first review the history of experimental searches for neutron electric dipole moment. The status of future neutron EDM experiments, including experiments using ultra-cold neutrons produced in superfluid helium, will then be presented.

  19. Basic research of neutron radiography using cold neutron beam

    Oda, Masahiro; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Tasaka, Kanji

    1995-01-01

    As the result of demanding high quality images, now the nuclear reactors which can supply stably intense neutron beam have become the most general neutron source for radiography. For the purpose, mostly thermal neutrons have been used, but it is indispensable to use other neutrons than thermal neutrons for advancing neutron radiography technology and expanding the application fields. The radiography using cold neutrons is most behind in the development because the suitable neutron source was not available in Japan. The neutron sources for exclusively obtaining intense cold neutron beam were installed in the Kyoto University reactor in 1986 and in the JRR-3M of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1991. Basically as neutron energy lowers, the cross section of substances increases. In certain crystalline substances, the Bragg cutoff arises. The removal of scattered neutrons, the measurement of parallelism of beam and the relation of the thickness of objects with the transmissivity of cold neutrons are described. The imaging by TV method and the cold neutron CT in the CNRF and the simplified neutron CT by film method are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Double beam neutron radiography facility

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-09-01

    The DR1 reactor at Risoe is used as a neutron source for neutron radiography. In the double-beam neutron radiography facility a neutron flux of an intensity of 1.4 and 1.8 x 10 6 n. cm -2 . s -1 reaches the object to be radiographed. The transport and exposure container used for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel rods is described, and the exposure technique and procedure are reviewed. The mode by which single neutron radiographs are assembled and assessed is described. This report will be published in the ''Neutron Radiography Newsletter''. (author)

  1. Thermal neutron source study

    Holden, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    The value of intense neutron beams for condensed matter research is discussed with emphasis on the complementary nature of steady state and pulsed neutron sources. A large body of information on neutron sources, both existing and planned, is then summarized under four major headings: fission reactors, electron accelerators with heavy metal targets, pulsed spallation sources and 'steady state' spallation sources. Although the cost of a spallation source is expected to exceed that of a fission reactor of the same flux by a factor of two, there are significant advantages for a spallation device such as the proposed Electronuclear Materials Test Facility (EMTF)

  2. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  3. Fruits of neutron research

    Krause, C.

    1994-01-01

    Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources

  4. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  5. Coupled moderator neutronics

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Optimizing the neutronic performance of a coupled-moderator system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source is a new and challenging area for the spallation target-system designer. For optimal performance of a neutron source, it is essential to have good communication with instrument scientists to obtain proper design criteria and continued interaction with mechanical, thermal-hydraulic, and materials engineers to attain a practical design. A good comprehension of the basics of coupled-moderator neutronics will aid in the proper design of a target system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source

  6. Fission neutron multiplicity calculations

    Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs

  7. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  8. Advanced neutron source project

    Gorynina, L.V.; Proskuryakov, S.F.; Tishchenko, V.A.; Uzhanova, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The project of the ANS improved neutron source intended for fundamental researches in nuclear physics and materials testing is considered. New superhigh-flux heavy-water 350 MW reactor is used for the source creation. The standard fuel is uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ). Reactor core volume equals 67.4 l and average power density is 4.9 MW/l. Neutron flux density is 10 16 neutron/(cm 2 xs). The facility construction begin is planned for 1996. The first experiments should be accomplished in 2000

  9. A newly developed technique of wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides of cold neutron research facilities at HANARO

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In

    2012-01-01

    KAERI developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron research facilities at HANARO from 2003 to 2010. In 2008, the old plug shutter and instruments were removed, and a new plug and primary shutter were installed as the first cold neutron delivery system at HANARO. At the beginning of 2010, all the neutron guides and accessories had been successfully installed as well. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in pile plug assembly with in pile guides, the primary shutter with in shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with secondary shutter, and the neutron guides in the neutron guide hall. Three kinds of glass materials were selected with optimum lengths by considering their lifetime, shielding, maintainability and cost as well. Radiation damage of the guides can occur on the coating and glass by neutron capturing in the glass. It is a big challenge to inspect a guide failure because of the difficult surrounding environment, such as high level radiation, limited working space, and massive hard work for removing and reinstalling the shielding blocks as shown in Fig 1. Therefore, KAERI has developed a wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides using an infrared light camera mounted on the vehicle moving in the guide

  10. Production of Medical isotope Technecium-99 from DT Fusion neutrons

    Boguski, John; Gentile, Charles; Ascione, George

    2011-10-01

    High energy neutrons produced in DT fusion reactors have a secondary application for use in the synthesis of valuable man-made isotopes utilized in industry today. One such isotope is metastable Technecium-99 (Tc99m), a low energy gamma emitter used in ~ 85% of all medical imaging diagnostics. Tc99m is created through beta decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo99), which itself has only a 66 hour half-life and must be created from a neutron capture by the widely available and stable isotope Molydenum-98. Current worldwide production of Tc99m occurs in just five locations and relies on obtaining the fission byproduct Mo99 from highly enriched Uranium reactors. A Tc99m generator using DT fusion neutrons, however, could potentially be operated at individual hospitals and medical facilities without the use of any fissile material. The neutron interaction of the DT neutrons with Molybdenum in a potential device geometry was modeled using Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP. Trial experiments were also performed to test the viability of using DT neutrons to create ample quantities of Tc99m. Modeling and test results will follow.

  11. Angular dependence of neutron yield and of spectrum of neutrons producted in pA and π-A interactions

    Bayukov, Yu.D.; Gavrilov, V.B.; Goryainov, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron spectra are measured in the T kinetic energy range from 6 up to 20a MeV. Neutrons escape from C, Cu, Pb, U nuclei under the angles of THETA=10 deg + 160 deg in p+A → n+x reaction at 7.5 GeV/c and in π - +A → n+x reaction at 5.0 GeV/c. In the 80-200 MeV secondary neutron energy range the obtained data are compared with the results of simultaneous measurements of proton spectra. The effect of itopic symmetry of fast nucleon yield from non-symmetric nuclei are under considereation. Division of contributions of quasi-free and deep inelastic nuclear processes to fast neutron formation is carried out on the basis of the data obtained

  12. Neutron spectra produced by moderating an isotopic neutron source

    Carrillo Nunnez, Aureliano; Vega Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2001-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study has been carried out to determine the neutron spectra produced by an isotopic neutron source inserted in moderating media. Most devices used for radiation protection have a response strongly dependent on neutron energy. ISO recommends several neutron sources and monoenergetic neutron radiations, but actual working situations have broad spectral neutron distributions extending from thermal to MeV energies, for instance, near nuclear power plants, medical applications accelerators and cosmic neutrons. To improve the evaluation of the dosimetric quantities, is recommended to calibrate the radiation protection devices in neutron spectra which are nearly like those met in practice. In order to complete the range of neutron calibrating sources, it seems useful to develop several wide spectral distributions representative of typical spectra down to thermal energies. The aim of this investigation was to use an isotopic neutron source in different moderating media to reproduce some of the neutron fields found in practice. MCNP code has been used during calculations, in these a 239PuBe neutron source was inserted in H2O, D2O and polyethylene moderators. Moderators were modeled as spheres and cylinders of different sizes. In the case of cylindrical geometry the anisotropy of resulting neutron spectra was calculated from 0 to 2 . From neutron spectra dosimetric features were calculated. MCNP calculations were validated by measuring the neutron spectra of a 239PuBe neutron source inserted in a H2O cylindrical moderator. The measurements were carried out with a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6LiI(Eu) scintillator. From the measurements the neutron spectrum was unfolded using the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Some of the moderators with the source produce a neutron spectrum close to spectra found in actual applications, then can be used during the calibration of radiation protection devices

  13. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    Ciganek, L.; Pasta, J.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.)

  14. Eye damage following neutron bomb explosion

    Ciganek, L; Pasta, J

    1986-11-01

    A brief review is presented of primary and secondary eye damage due to neutron and/or gamma radiation following the explosion of a neutron bomb. Of early radiation damage of the eye, flash blindness is the most serious effect. Most other early changes can only be expected following doses of at least 1 - 5 Gy. They are therefore worth considering only in cases of irradiation of the head alone since at these doses death of the individual due to damage of other vital systems occurs before the eye symptoms have time to develop. Of delayed effects, the development of radiation cataract, radiodermatitis developing in tumors, the dry eye syndrome, and other changes leading to the development of radiation syndrome can be expected which result in the reduction in the quality of life and may lead to death due to systemic disease. (L.O.).

  15. Secondary reactions as a tool to produce exotic nuclei

    Dufour, J.P.; Fleury, A.; Bimbot, R.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using secondary reactions as tool to produce new isotopes is considered. This question is renewed with the emergence of intense beams of energetic heavy ions in the range of 20 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Three different methods are considered. They involve either the 'in situ' production of a secondary radioactive target, which interacts with the primary beam, or the production of a radioactive secondary beam by an inverse fusion or a fragmentation process. Very heavy or very neutron deficient isotopes can be produced by these methods

  16. Neutron Depolarization in Superconductors

    Zhuchenko, N. K.

    1995-04-01

    The dependences of neutron depolarization on applied magnetic field are deduced along the magnetization hysteresis loop in terms of the Bean model of the critical state. The depolarization in uniaxial superconductors with the reversible magnetization, including uniaxial magnetic superconductors, is also considered. A strong depolarization is expected if the neutrons travel along the vortex lines. On calcule la dépendance en champ magnétique de la dépolarisation des neutrons le long du cycle d'hystérésis en termes du modèle critique de Bean. On considère aussi la dépolarisation dans les supraconducteurs uniaxiaux en fonction de l'aimantation réversible, y compris pour les supraconducteurs magnétiques. On attend une forte dépolarisation si les neutrons se propagent le long des vortex.

  17. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  18. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  19. High energy neutron generator

    Barjon, R.; Breynat, G.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a generator of fast neutrons only slightly contaminated by neutrons of energy less than 15 MeV, comprising a source of charged particles of energy equal to at least 15 MeV, a target made of lithium deuteride, and means for cooling the target. The target comprises at least two elements placed in series in the path of the charged particles and separated from each other, the thickness of each of the elements being selected as a function of the average energy of the charged particles emitted from the source and the energy of the fast neutrons to be generated such that neutrons of energy equal to at least 15 MeV are emitted in the forward direction in response to the bombardment of the target from behind by the charged particles. The target cooling means comprises means for circulating between and around the elements a gas which does not chemically react with lithium deuteride

  20. The neutron computer tomography

    Matsumoto, G.; Krata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of computer tomography (CT) was applied for neutrons instead of X-rays. The neutron radiography image of samples was scanned by microphotometer to get the transmission data. This process was so time-consuming that the number of incident angles to samples could not be increased. The transmission data was processed by FACOM computer and CT image was gained. In the experiment at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 at Tokai-mura with 18 projection angles, the resolution of paraffin in the aluminum block was less than 0.8 mm. In the experiment at Van de Graaf accelerator of Nagoya University, this same resolution was 1.2 mm because of the angle distribution of neutron beam. This experiment is the preliminary one, the facility which utilizes neutron television and video-recorder will be necessary for the next stage. (Auth.)

  1. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  2. The intense neutron generator

    Lewis, W B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  3. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  4. Neutron resonance averaging

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

  5. Neutron flux monitoring device

    Goto, Yasushi; Mitsubori, Minehisa; Ohashi, Kazunori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a neutron flux monitoring device for preventing occurrence of erroneous reactor scram caused by the elevation of the indication of a start region monitor (SRM) due to a factor different from actual increase of neutron fluxes. Namely, judgement based on measured values obtained by a pulse counting method and a judgment based on measured values obtained by a Cambel method are combined. A logic of switching neutron flux measuring method to be used for monitoring, namely, switching to an intermediate region when both of the judgements are valid is adopted. Then, even if the indication value is elevated based on the Cambel method with no increase of the counter rate in a neutron source region, the switching to the intermediate region is not conducted. As a result, erroneous reactor scram such as 'shorter reactor period' can be avoided. (I.S.)

  6. Neutron induced radiation damage

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1977-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the number of displaced atoms of type j caused by a primary knock-on of type i. The Kinchin-Pease model is used, but considerably generalised to allow for realistic atomic potentials. Two cases are considered in detail: the single particle problem causing a cascade and the neutron initiated problem which leads to multiple subcascades. Numerical results have been obtained for a variety of scattering laws. An important conclusion is that neutron initiated damage is much more severe than atom-initiated damage and leads to the number of displaced atoms being a factor of (A+1) 2 /4A larger than the single primary knock-on theory predicts. A is the ratio of the atomic mass to the neutron mass. The importance of this result to the theory of neutron sputtering is explained. (orig.) [de

  7. Directionally positionable neutron beam

    Dance, W.E.; Bumgardner, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus for forming and directionally positioning a neutron beam. The apparatus includes an enclosed housing rotatable about a first axis with a neutron source axially positioned on the axis of rotation of the enclosed housing but not rotating with the housing. The rotatable housing is carried by a vertically positionable arm carried on a mobile transport. A collimator is supported by the rotatable housing and projects into the housing to orientationally position its inlet window at an adjustably fixed axial and radial spacing from the neutron source so that rotation of the enclosed housing causes the inlet window to rotate about a circle which is a fixed axial distance from the neutron source and has the axis of rotation of the housing as its center. (author)

  8. Cylindrical neutron generator

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  9. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  10. Studsvik thermal neutron facility

    Pettersson, O.A.; Larsson, B.; Grusell, E.; Svensson, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Studsvik thermal neutron facility at the R2-0 reactor originally designed for neutron capture radiography has been modified to permit irradiation of living cells and animals. A hole was drilled in the concrete shielding to provide a cylindrical channel with diameter of 25.3 cm. A shielding water tank serves as an entry holder for cells and animals. The advantage of this modification is that cells and animals can be irradiated at a constant thermal neutron fluence rate of approximately 10 9 n cm -2 s -1 (at 100 kW) without stopping and restarting the reactor. Topographic analysis of boron done by neutron capture autoradiography (NCR) can be irradiated under the same conditions as previously

  11. The intense neutron generator

    Lewis, W.B.

    1966-01-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through μ-, π- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  12. Neutrons and fusion

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  13. Scope of neutron interferometry

    Rauch, H.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with the interferometry of well separated coherent beams, where the phase of the beams can be manipulated individually. The basic equation of the dynamical neutron diffraction theory are recalled. The various contributions to the interaction of as low neutron with its surroundings are discussed: the various terms denote the nuclear, magnetic, electromagnetic, intrinsic, gravitational, and weak interaction respectively. Applications to nuclear physics, fundamental physics and solid state physics are successively envisaged

  14. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  15. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  16. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  18. Neutron electromagnetic form factors

    Finn, J.M.; Madey, R.; Eden, T.; Markowitz, P.; Rutt, P.M.; Beard, K.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Keane, D.; Manley, D.M.; Watson, J.W.; Zhang, W.M.; Kowalski, S.; Bertozzi, W.; Dodson, G.; Farkhondeh, M.; Dow, K.; Korsch, W.; Tieger, D.; Turchinetz, W.; Weinstein, L.; Gross, F.; Mougey, J.; Ulmer, P.; Whitney, R.; Reichelt, T.; Chang, C.C.; Kelly, J.J.; Payerle, T.; Cameron, J.; Ni, B.; Spraker, M.; Barkhuff, D.; Lourie, R.; Verst, S.V.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Jiang, W.-D.; Flanders, B.; Pella, P.; Arenhoevel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon form factors provide fundamental input for nuclear structure and quark models. Current knowledge of neutron form factors, particularly the electric form factor of the neutron, is insufficient to meet these needs. Developments of high-duty-factor accelerators and polarization-transfer techniques permit new experiments that promise results with small sensitivities to nuclear models. We review the current status of the field, our own work at the MIT/Bates linear accelerator, and future experimental efforts

  19. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  20. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  1. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  2. Quantum physics with neutrons

    Durstberger, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Klepp, J.; Sulyok, G.; Rauch, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fundamental quantum properties like quantum coherence and entanglement are among the most interesting features of quantum mechanics. The physical system of interest is the (massive) neutron subjected to interferometric and polarimetric measurements. Neutrons are proper objects for a study of quantum mechanical behavior: they allow for rather easy experimental control and the neutron spin is the simplest two-level system with easy manipulation by magnetic fields. In combination with interferometric measurements the system has enough intrinsic richness to show interesting quantum features such as entanglement. The coupling of the neutron to an external magnetic field allows for selective manipulations of the spinor quantum states. This can be used, on the one hand, to create entangled states where the entanglement occurs between different degrees of freedom (e.g. spin and path) and, on the other hand, one can introduce dephasing and decoherence by varying magnetic fields. We investigate different kinds of entanglement for the neutron system and mechanisms for decoherence and dephasing. We discuss weak measurements and their realization for neutrons where information about the system can be revealed without disturbing the system too much. Beyond the theoretical work we develop experimental strategies to check the results directly in suitably designed experiments. The experimental work is done at the Institute Laue-Langvine (ILL) in Grenoble, France. (author)

  3. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  4. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  5. LHD neutron diagnostics

    Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Kobuchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) project will step into a next stage, i.e. experiment by using deuterium gases after two years of preparation. A comprehensive set of neutron and γ-ray diagnostics is going to be installed on the LHD towards extension of energetic-particle (EP) physics research in heliotron plasmas. Conceptual design of fusion products diagnostics for the LHD was made in late 1990s. After conclusion of agreements for the LHD deuterium experiment with local government bodies, development of FPs diagnostics has begun lately. Because there are a lot of tasks to do, all Japan fusion neutron and γ-ray diagnostics team has been organized in the collaboration framework of National Institute for Fusion Science. FPs diagnostics system on the LHD will consist of 1) wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor (NFM), 2) neutron activation system (NAS), 3) vertical neutron camera (VNC). In addition to these, we are developing a directional scintillating fiber detector, an artificial diamond detector and a γ-ray scintillation detector for confinement study of MeV ions. A neutron energy spectrometer prototype is also being developed and tested in KSTAR. In this paper, roles of NFM, NAS and VNC and current status of implementation onto the LHD are briefly described. (author)

  6. Neutrons for materials science

    Windsor, C.G.; Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Sayers, C.M.; Sinclair, R.N.; Schofield, P.; Wright, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    The discussion will be limited to applied materials research performed on a customer/contractor basis. The information obtained using neutrons must therefore compete both scientifically and financially with information obtained using other techniques, particularly electron microscopy, X-ray, NMR, infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. It will be argued that the unique nature of the information gained from neutrons often outweighs the undoubted difficulties of access to neutron beams. Examples are given. Small angle scattering has emerged as the neutron technique of widest application in applied materials research. The penetration of neutron beams through containment vessels, as well as through the sample, allows the measurement of 'in situ' time dependent experiments within a furnace, cryostat, pressure vessel or chemical reactor vessel. High resolution powder diffraction is another technique with wide applications. Structural studies are possible on increasing complex phases. The structure and volume fraction of minority phases can be measured at levels appreciably below that possible by X-ray diffraction. A rapidly growing field at present is the measurement of internal strains through the small shifts in lattice spacing. Inelastic scattering measurements exploit the unique property of neutrons to measure the orientations of vibrating molecules. (author)

  7. Neutron flux monitoring device

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  8. Neutron Diffractometer; Neutronski difraktometar

    Zivadinovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    RA nuclear reactor is considered as a relatively strong neutron source producing the thermal neutron flux of about 3x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} sec when operating at nominal power of 6.5 MW. Neutron diffraction method is applied in the field of solid state physics, material science, crystallography, magnetism, nuclear physic. Neutron diffractometer at the RA reactor consists of: system for obtaining collimated neutron beam from the horizontal experimental channel neutron monochromator; goniometer and electronic equipment for measurements and collecting the the measurement data. Nuklearni reaktor RA koji pri radu na snazi od 6,5 MW ima fluks termalnih neutrona oko 3x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} sec predstavlja relativno jak izvor neutrona. Tehnika difrakcije neutrona primenjuje se u istrazivanjima fizike crvstog stanja, strukture materijala, kristalografije, magnetizma, nuklearne fizike. Neutronski difraktometar na reaktoru RA sastoji se od sistema za dobijanje kolimisanog snopa neutrona kroz horizontalni kanal reaktora; neutroskog monohromatora; goniometra i elektronskih uredjaja za merenja i registrovanje rezultata. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis i seme neutronskog difraktometra sa pratecom opremom i elektronskim komponentama.

  9. Neutron measuring device

    Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Seki, Eiji; Kita, Yoshio; Nishitani, Takeo.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns measurement for neutrons in a tokamak type thermonuclear device and it can measure total amount of generated neutrons accurately throughout the operation period even if an error is caused in counted values by plasma disruption. That is, the device comprises (1) a means for detecting presence or absence of occurrence of plasma disruption and the time for the initiation of the occurrence, (2) a first data processing means for processing detection signals, (3) a means for detecting neutrons generated in plasmas and (4) a second data processing means for calculating integrated values for the number of neutrons generated from the start to the completion of electric discharge when no disruption occurs and calculating integrated values for the number of generated neutrons from the start of electric discharge to the time at the initiation of occurrence of the disruption when disruption is present. In the thus constituted device, even if an error is caused by frequent occurrence of plasma disruption, total time integrated amount of neutrons generated in the plasmas can be measured accurately. (I.S.)

  10. Neutron beam applications

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S.

    2000-05-01

    For the materials science by neutron technique, the development of the various complementary neutron beam facilities at horizontal beam port of HANARO and the techniques for measurement and analysis has been performed. High resolution powder diffractometer, after the installation and performance test, has been opened and used actively for crystal structure analysis, magnetic structure analysis, phase transition study, etc., since January 1998. The main components for four circle diffractometer were developed and, after performance test, it has been opened for crystal structure analysis and texture measurement since the end of 1999. For the small angle neutron spectrometer, the main component development and test, beam characterization, and the preliminary experiment for the structure study of polymer have been carried out. Neutron radiography facility, after the precise performance test, has been used for the non-destructive test of industrial component. Addition to the development of main instruments, for the effective utilization of those facilities, the scattering techniques relating to quantitative phase analysis, magnetic structure analysis, texture measurement, residual stress measurement, polymer study, etc, were developed. For the neutron radiography, photographing and printing technique on direct and indirect method was stabilized and the development for the real time image processing technique by neutron TV was carried out. The sample environment facilities for low and high temperature, magnetic field were also developed

  11. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  12. Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy

    Fairchild, R.G.; Miola, U.J.; Ettinger, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recent development of various borated compounds and the utilization of one of these (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) to treat brain tumors in clinical studies in Japan has renewed interest in neutron capture therapy. In these procedures thermal neutrons interact with 10 B in boron containing cells through the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction producing charged particles with a maximum range of approx. 10μm in tissue. Borated analogs of chlorpromazine, porphyrin, thiouracil and deoxyuridine promise improved tumor uptake and blood clearance. The therapy beam from the Medical Research Reactor in Brookhaven contains neutrons from a modified and filtered fission spectrum and dosimetric consequences of the use of the above mentioned compounds in conjunction with thermal and epithermal fluxes are discussed in the paper. One of the important problems of radiation dosimetry in capture therapy is determination of the flux profile and, hence, the dose profile in the brain. This has been achieved by constructing a brain phantom made of TE plastic. The lyoluminescence technique provides a convenient way of monitoring the neutron flux distributions; the detectors for this purpose utilize 6 Li and 10 B compounds. Such compounds have been synthesized specially for the purpose of dosimetry of thermal and epithermal beams. In addition, standard lyoluminescent phosphors, like glutamine, could be used to determine the collisional component of the dose as well as the contribution of the 14 N(n,p) 14 C reaction. Measurements of thermal flux were compared with calculations and with measurements done with activation foils

  13. Pulsed neutron generator for use with pulsed neutron activation techniques

    Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-output, transportable, pulsed neutron generator has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use with Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) techniques. The PNA neutron generator generates > 10 10 14 MeV D-T neutrons in a 1.2 millisecond pulse. Each operation of the unit will produce a nominal total neutron output of 1.2 x 10 10 neutrons. The generator has been designed to be easily repaired and modified. The unit requires no additional equipment for operation or measurement of output

  14. Transport calculation of medium-energy protons and neutrons by Monte Carlo method

    Ban, Syuuichi; Hirayama, Hideo; Katoh, Kazuaki.

    1978-09-01

    A Monte Carlo transport code, ARIES, has been developed for protons and neutrons at medium energy (25 -- 500 MeV). Nuclear data provided by R.G. Alsmiller, Jr. were used for the calculation. To simulate the cascade development in the medium, each generation was represented by a single weighted particle and an average number of emitted particles was used as the weight. Neutron fluxes were stored by the collisions density method. The cutoff energy was set to 25 MeV. Neutrons below the cutoff were stored to be used as the source for the low energy neutron transport calculation upon the discrete ordinates method. Then transport calculations were performed for both low energy neutrons (thermal -- 25 MeV) and secondary gamma-rays. Energy spectra of emitted neutrons were calculated and compared with those of published experimental and calculated results. The agreement was good for the incident particles of energy between 100 and 500 MeV. (author)

  15. Influence of core model parameters on the characteristics of neutron beams of the research reactor

    N. A. Khafizova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IRT MEPhI reactor is equipped with a number of facilities at horizontal experimental channels (HEC. Knowing of parameters influencing spatio-angular distribution of irradiation fields is essential for each application area. The research for neutron capture therapy (NCT facility at HEC of the reactor was made. Calculation methods have been used to estimate how the reactor core parameters influence neutron beam characteristics at the HEC output. The impact of neutron source model in Monte Carlo calculations by MCNP code on the parameters of neutron and secondary photon field at the output of irradiation beam tubes of research reactor is estimated. The study shows that specifying neutron source with fission reaction rate distribution in SDEF option gives almost the same results as criticality calculation considered the most accurate. Our calculations show that changes of the core operational parameters have insignificant influence on characteristics of neutron beams at HEC output.

  16. Computed image analysis of neutron radiographs

    Dinca, M.; Anghel, E.; Preda, M.; Pavelescu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Similar with X-radiography, using neutron like penetrating particle, there is in practice a nondestructive technique named neutron radiology. When the registration of information is done on a film with the help of a conversion foil (with high cross section for neutrons) that emits secondary radiation (β,γ) that creates a latent image, the technique is named neutron radiography. A radiographic industrial film that contains the image of the internal structure of an object, obtained by neutron radiography, must be subsequently analyzed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the structural integrity of that object. There is possible to do a computed analysis of a film using a facility with next main components: an illuminator for film, a CCD video camera and a computer (PC) with suitable software. The qualitative analysis intends to put in evidence possibly anomalies of the structure due to manufacturing processes or induced by working processes (for example, the irradiation activity in the case of the nuclear fuel). The quantitative determination is based on measurements of some image parameters: dimensions, optical densities. The illuminator has been built specially to perform this application but can be used for simple visual observation. The illuminated area is 9x40 cm. The frame of the system is a comparer of Abbe Carl Zeiss Jena type, which has been adapted to achieve this application. The video camera assures the capture of image that is stored and processed by computer. A special program SIMAG-NG has been developed at INR Pitesti that beside of the program SMTV II of the special acquisition module SM 5010 can analyze the images of a film. The major application of the system was the quantitative analysis of a film that contains the images of some nuclear fuel pins beside a dimensional standard. The system was used to measure the length of the pellets of the TRIGA nuclear fuel. (authors)

  17. Reactions with fast radioactive beams of neutron-rich nuclei

    Aumann, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    The neutron dripline has presently been reached only for the lightest nuclei up to the element oxygen. In this region of light neutron-rich nuclei, scattering experiments are feasible even for dripline nuclei by utilizing high-energy secondary beams produced by fragmentation. In the present article, reactions of high-energy radioactive beams will be exemplified using recent experimental results mainly derived from measurements of breakup reactions performed at the LAND and FRS facilities at GSI and at the S800 spectrometer at the NSCL. Nuclear and electromagnetically induced reactions allow probing different aspects of nuclear structure at the limits of stability related to the neutron-proton asymmetry and the weak binding close to the dripline. Properties of the valence-neutron wave functions are studied in the one-neutron knockout reaction, revealing the changes of shell structure when going from the beta-stability line to more asymmetric loosely bound neutron-rich systems. The vanishing of the N=8 shell gap for neutron-rich systems like {sup 11}Li and {sup 12}Be, or the new closed N=14, 16 shells for the oxygen isotopes are examples. The continuum of weakly bound nuclei and halo states can be studied by inelastic scattering. The dipole response, for instance, is found to change dramatically when going away from the valley of stability. A redistribution of the dipole strength towards lower excitation energies is observed for neutron-rich nuclei, which partly might be due to a new collective excitation mode related to the neutron-proton asymmetry. Halo nuclei in particular show strong dipole transitions to the continuum at the threshold, being directly related to the ground-state properties of the projectile. Finally, an outlook on future experimental prospects is given. (orig.)

  18. Reactions with fast radioactive beams of neutron-rich nuclei

    Aumann, T.

    2005-11-01

    The neutron dripline has presently been reached only for the lightest nuclei up to the element oxygen. In this region of light neutron-rich nuclei, scattering experiments are feasible even for dripline nuclei by utilizing high-energy secondary beams produced by fragmentation. In the present article, reactions of high-energy radioactive beams will be exemplified using recent experimental results mainly derived from measurements of breakup reactions performed at the LAND and FRS facilities at GSI and at the S800 spectrometer at the NSCL. Nuclear and electromagnetically induced reactions allow probing different aspects of nuclear structure at the limits of stability related to the neutron-proton asymmetry and the weak binding close to the dripline. Properties of the valence-neutron wave functions are studied in the one-neutron knockout reaction, revealing the changes of shell structure when going from the beta-stability line to more asymmetric loosely bound neutron-rich systems. The vanishing of the N=8 shell gap for neutron-rich systems like 11 Li and 12 Be, or the new closed N=14, 16 shells for the oxygen isotopes are examples. The continuum of weakly bound nuclei and halo states can be studied by inelastic scattering. The dipole response, for instance, is found to change dramatically when going away from the valley of stability. A redistribution of the dipole strength towards lower excitation energies is observed for neutron-rich nuclei, which partly might be due to a new collective excitation mode related to the neutron-proton asymmetry. Halo nuclei in particular show strong dipole transitions to the continuum at the threshold, being directly related to the ground-state properties of the projectile. Finally, an outlook on future experimental prospects is given. (orig.)

  19. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-08-20

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with

  20. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni 3 Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T C on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with different ordering temperatures. This

  1. Measured Neutron Spectra and Dose Equivalents From a Mevion Single-Room, Passively Scattered Proton System Used for Craniospinal Irradiation

    Howell, Rebecca M., E-mail: rhowell@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Burgett, Eric A.; Isaacs, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho (United States); Price Hedrick, Samantha G.; Reilly, Michael P.; Rankine, Leith J.; Grantham, Kevin K.; Perkins, Stephanie; Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To measure, in the setting of typical passively scattered proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) treatment, the secondary neutron spectra, and use these spectra to calculate dose equivalents for both internal and external neutrons delivered via a Mevion single-room compact proton system. Methods and Materials: Secondary neutron spectra were measured using extended-range Bonner spheres for whole brain, upper spine, and lower spine proton fields. The detector used can discriminate neutrons over the entire range of the energy spectrum encountered in proton therapy. To separately assess internally and externally generated neutrons, each of the fields was delivered with and without a phantom. Average neutron energy, total neutron fluence, and ambient dose equivalent [H* (10)] were calculated for each spectrum. Neutron dose equivalents as a function of depth were estimated by applying published neutron depth–dose data to in-air H* (10) values. Results: For CSI fields, neutron spectra were similar, with a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate continuum between the evaporation and thermal peaks. Neutrons in the evaporation peak made the largest contribution to dose equivalent. Internal neutrons had a very low to negligible contribution to dose equivalent compared with external neutrons, largely attributed to the measurement location being far outside the primary proton beam. Average energies ranged from 8.6 to 14.5 MeV, whereas fluences ranged from 6.91 × 10{sup 6} to 1.04 × 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}/Gy, and H* (10) ranged from 2.27 to 3.92 mSv/Gy. Conclusions: For CSI treatments delivered with a Mevion single-gantry proton therapy system, we found measured neutron dose was consistent with dose equivalents reported for CSI with other proton beamlines.

  2. Semiconductor Thermal Neutron Detector

    Toru Aoki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The  CdTe  and  GaN  detector  with  a  Gd  converter  have  been developed  and  investigated  as  a  neutron  detector  for neutron  imaging.  The  fabricated  Gd/CdTe  detector  with  the  25  mm  thick  Gd  was  designed  on  the  basis  of  simulation results  of  thermal  neutron  detection  efficiency  and  spatial  resolution.  The  Gd/CdTe  detector  shows  the  detection  of neutron  capture  gamma  ray  emission  in  the  155Gd(n,  g156Gd,  157Gd(n,  g158Gd  and  113Cd(n,  g114Cd  reactions  and characteristic X-ray emissions due to conversion-electrons generated inside the Gd film. The observed efficient thermal neutron detection with the Gd/CdTe detector shows its promise in neutron radiography application. Moreover, a BGaN detector has also investigated to separate neutron signal from gamma-ray clearly. 

  3. Neutrons for materials science

    Windsor, C.G.; Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Sayers, C.M.; Sinclair, R.N.; Schofield, P.; Wright, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The discussion will be limited to applied materials research performed on a customer/contractor basis. The information obtained using neutrons must therefore compete both scientifically and financially with information obtained using other techniques, particular electron microscopy, X-ray, NMR, infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. It will be argued that the unique nature of the information gained from neutrons often outweighs the undoubted difficulties of access to neutron beams. Small-angle scattering has emerged as the neutron technique of widest application in applied materials research. The penetration of neutron beams through containment vessels, as well as through the sample, allows the measurement of in situ time-dependent experiments within a furnace, cryostat, pressure vessel or chemical reactor vessel. Examples will be given of small-angle scattering projects from the nuclear metallurgy, coal, oil, cement, detergent and plastics industries. High-resolution powder diffraction is another technique with wide applications. Structural studies are possible on increasingly complex phases. The structure and volume fraction of minority phase can be measured at levels appreciably below that possible by X-ray diffraction. A rapidly growing field at present is the measurement of internal strains through the small shifts in lattice spacing. Neutron diffraction is unique in being able to measure the full strain tensor from a specified volume within a bulk specimen. Inelastic scattering measurements exploit the unique property of neutrons to measure the orientations of vibrating molecules. Examples will be chosen from the field of catalysis where inelastic spectroscopy has revealed the nature of the bonding of hydrocarbon molecules. (author)

  4. Neutron activation studies on JET

    Loughlin, M.J.; Forrest, R.A.; Edwards, J.E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Extensive neutron transport calculations have been performed to determine the neutron spectrum at a number of points throughout the JET torus hall. The model has been bench-marked against a set of foil activation measurements which were activated during an experimental campaign with deuterium/tritium plasmas. The model can predict the neutron activation of the foils on the torus hall walls to within a factor of three for reactions with little sensitivity to thermal neutrons. The use of scandium foils with and without a cadmium thermal neutron absorber was a useful monitor of the thermal neutron flux. Conclusions regarding the usefulness of other foils for benchmarking the calculations are also given

  5. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  6. Support for cold neutron utilization

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  7. Measurement of Neutron Energy Spectrum Emitted by Cf-252 Source Using Time-of-Flight Method

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Yong-Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The techniques proposed to detect the neutrons usually require the detection of a secondary recoiling nucleus in a scintillator (or other type of detector) to indicate the rare collision of a neutron with a nucleus. This is the same basic technique, in this case detection of a recoil proton that was used by Chadwick in the 1930 s to discover and identify the neutron and determine its mass. It is primary technique still used today for detection of fast neutron, which typically involves the use of a hydrogen based organic plastic or liquid scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier tube. The light output from such scintillators is a function of the cross section and nuclear kinematics of the n + nucleus collision. With the exception of deuterated scintillators, the scintillator signal does not necessarily produce a distinct peak in the scintillator spectrum directly related to the incident neutron energy. Instead neutron time-of-flight (TOF) often must be utilized to determine the neutron energy, which requires generation of a prompt start signal from the nuclear source emitting the neutrons. This method takes advantage of the high number of prompt gamma rays. The Time-of-Flight method was used to measure neutron energy spectrum emitted by the Cf-252 neutron source. Plastic scintillator that has a superior discrimination ability of neutron and gamma-ray was used as a stop signal detector and liquid scintillator was used as a stat signal detector. In experiment, neutron and gamma-ray spectrum was firstly measured and discriminated using the TOF method. Secondly, neutron energy spectrum was obtained through spectrum analysis. Equation of neutron energy spectrum that was emitted by Cf-252 source using the Gaussian fitting was obtained.

  8. Pulse-shape discrimination of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in NaI(Tl)

    Share, G.H.; Kurfess, J.D.; Theus, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination can be used to separate neutron and gamma-ray interactions depositing energies up to in excess of 50 MeV in NaI(Tl) crystals. The secondary alpha particles, deuterons and protons produced in the neutron interactions are also resolvable. (Auth.)

  9. Analysis of the experimental data on carbon-neutron interactions for energy below 20MeV

    Haouat, G.; Lachkar, J.; Patin, Y.; Sigaud, J.; Cocu, F.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of the neutron-induced cross sections of carbon has been completed for the energy region 10 -4 eV to 20MeV. The recommended data are based on experiments, some of them being done in this laboratory. Energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons and photons are included. The adopted values are discussed [fr

  10. Absolute measurement and international intercomparison of 0.1-0.8 MeV monoenergetic neutron fluence rate

    Ma Hongchang; Lu Hanlin; Rong Chaofan

    1988-01-01

    The methods for absolute measurement of 0.1-18MeV monoenergetic neutron fluence rate are described. Which include proton recoil telescope, semicoducetor telescope, hydrogen filled proportional counter and associated particale method. A long counter used as secondary recent international intercomparison of neutron fluence rate organized by BIPM, and the results were given

  11. Characterization of Deuteron-Deuteron Neutron Generators

    Waltz, Cory Scott

    A facility based on a next-generation, high-flux D-D neutron generator (HFNG) was commissioned at the University of California Berkeley. The characterization of the HFNG is presented in the following study. The current generator design produces near mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons at outputs of 108 n/s. Calculations provided show that future conditioning at higher currents and voltages will allow for a production rate over 1010 n/s. Characteristics that effect the operational stability include the suppression of the target-emitted back streaming electrons, target sputtering and cooling, and ion beam optics. Suppression of secondary electrons resulting from the deuterium beam striking the target was achieved via the implementation of an electrostatic shroud with a voltage offset of greater than -400 V relative to the target. Ion beam optics analysis resulted in the creation of a defocussing extraction nozzle, allowing for cooler target temperatures and a more compact design. To calculate the target temperatures, a finite difference method (FDM) solver incorporating the additional heat removal effects of subcooled boiling was developed. Validation of the energy balance results from the finite difference method calculations showed the iterative solver converged to heat removal results within about 3% of the expected value. Testing of the extraction nozzle at 1.43 mA and 100 kV determined that overheating of the target did not occur as the measured neutron flux of the generator was near predicted values. Many factors, including the target stopping power, deuterium atomic species, and target loading ratio, affect the flux distribution of the HFNG neutron generator. A detailed analysis to understand these factors effects is presented. Comparison of the calculated flux of the neutron generator using deuteron depth implantation data, neutron flux distribution data, and deuterium atomic species data matched the experimentally calculated flux determined from indium foil

  12. Experimental study on secondary electron emission characteristics of Cu

    Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Yudong; Wang, Pengcheng; Liu, Weibin; Pei, Guoxi; Zeng, Lei; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2018-02-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) of a surface is the origin of the multipacting effect which could seriously deteriorate beam quality and even perturb the normal operation of particle accelerators. Experimental measurements on secondary electron yield (SEY) for different materials and coatings have been developed in many accelerator laboratories. In fact, the SEY is just one parameter of secondary electron emission characteristics which include spatial and energy distribution of emitted electrons. A novel experimental apparatus was set up in China Spallation Neutron Source, and an innovative method was applied to obtain the whole characteristics of SEE. Taking Cu as the sample, secondary electron yield, its dependence on beam injection angle, and the spatial and energy distribution of secondary electrons were achieved with this measurement device. The method for spatial distribution measurement was first proposed and verified experimentally. This contribution also tries to give all the experimental results a reasonable theoretical analysis and explanation.

  13. Conception of a New Recoil Proton Telescope for Real-Time Neutron Spectrometry in Proton-Therapy

    Combe, Rodolphe; Arbor, Nicolas; el Bitar, Ziad; Higueret, Stéphane; Husson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Neutrons are the main type of secondary particles emitted in proton-therapy. Because of the risk of secondary cancer and other late occurring effects, the neutron dose should be included in the out-of-field dose calculations. A neutron spectrometer has to be used to take into account the energy dependence of the neutron radiological weighting factor. Due to its high dependence on various parameters of the irradiation (beam, accelerator, patient), the neutron spectrum should be measured independently for each treatment. The current reference method for the measurement of the neutron energy, the Bonner Sphere System, consists of several homogeneous polyethylene spheres with increasing diameters equipped with a proportional counter. It provides a highresolution reconstruction of the neutron spectrum but requires a time-consuming work of signal deconvolution. New neutron spectrometers are being developed, but the main experimental limitation remains the high neutron flux in proton therapy treatment rooms. A new model of a real-time neutron spectrometer, based on a Recoil Proton Telescope technology, has been developed at the IPHC. It enables a real-time high-rate reconstruction of the neutron spectrum from the measurement of the recoil proton trajectory and energy. A new fast-readout microelectronic integrated sensor, called FastPixN, has been developed for this specific purpose. A first prototype, able to detect neutrons between 5 and 20 MeV, has already been validated for metrology with the AMANDE facility at Cadarache. The geometry of the new Recoil Proton Telescope has been optimized via extensive Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainty sources have been carefully studied in order to improve simultaneously efficiency and energy resolution, and solutions have been found to suppress the various expected backgrounds. We are currently upgrading the prototype for secondary neutron detection in proton therapy applications.

  14. Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices

    Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-06

    This slide presentation explores single event effect, environmental neutron flux, system response, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) neutron testing facility, examples of SEE measurements, and recent interest in thermal neutrons.

  15. Development of highly effective neutron shields and neutron absorbing materials

    Tsuda, K.; Matsuda, F.; Taniuchi, H.; Yuhara, T.; Iida, T.

    1993-01-01

    A wide range of materials, including polymers and hydrogen-occluded alloys that might be usable as the neutron shielding material were examined. And a wide range of materials, including aluminum alloys that might be usable as the neutron-absorbing material were examined. After screening, the candidate material was determined on the basis of evaluation regarding its adaptabilities as a high-performance neutron-shielding and neutron-absorbing material. This candidate material was manufactured for trial, after which material properties tests, neutron-shielding tests and neutron-absorbing tests were carried out on it. The specifications of this material were thus determined. This research has resulted in materials of good performance; a neutron-shielding material based on ethylene propylene rubber and titanium hydride, and a neutron-absorbing material based on aluminum and titanium hydride. (author)

  16. Study of neutron fields around an intense neutron generator.

    Kicka, L; Machrafi, R; Miller, A

    2017-12-01

    Neutron fields in the vicinity of the newly built neutron facility, at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), have been investigated in a series of Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. The facility hosts a P-385 neutron generator based on a deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. The neutron fluence at different locations around the neutron generator facility has been simulated using MCNPX 2.7E Monte Carlo particle transport program. To characterize neutron fields, three neutron sources were modeled with distributions corresponding to different incident deuteron energies of 90kV, 110kV, and 130kV. Measurements have been carried out to determine the dose rate at locations adjacent to the generator using bubble detectors (BDs). The neutron intensity was evaluated and the total dose rates corresponding to different applied acceleration potentials were estimated at various locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the Neutron Detector Response for Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum by Monte Carlo Transport Simulation

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Carlson, Brett V.; Federico, Claudio A.; Gonzalez, Odair L.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere make an important contribution to the dose accumulated in electronic circuits and aircraft crew members at flight altitude. High-energy neutrons are produced in spallation reactions and intranuclear cascade processes by primary cosmic-ray particle interactions with atoms in the atmosphere. These neutrons can produce secondary neutrons and also undergo a moderation process due to atmosphere interactions, resulting in a wider energy spectrum, ranging from thermal energies (0.025 eV) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. The Long-Counter (LC) detector is a widely used neutron detector designed to measure the directional flux of neutrons with about constant response over a wide energy range (thermal to 20 MeV). ). Its calibration process and the determination of its energy response for the wide-energy of cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum is a very difficult process due to the lack of installations with these capabilities. The goal of this study is to assess the behavior of the response of a Long Counter using the Monte Carlo (MC) computational code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended). The dependence of the Long Counter response on the angle of incidence, as well as on the neutron energy, will be carefully investigated, compared with the experimental data previously obtained with 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources and extended to the neutron spectrum produced by cosmic rays. (Author)

  18. Imaging with cold neutrons

    Lehmann, E.H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 A). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects-choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  19. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siciliano, Edward R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as “ship effect” neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  20. Neutron source multiplication method

    Clayton, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  1. Neutron shielding material

    Nodaka, M.; Iida, T.; Taniuchi, H.; Yosimura, K.; Nagahama, H.

    1993-01-01

    From among the neutron shielding materials of the 'kobesh' series developed by Kobe Steel, Ltd. for transport and storage packagings, silicon rubber base type material has been tested for several items with a view to practical application and official authorization, and in order to determine its adaptability to actual vessels. Silicon rubber base type 'kobesh SR-T01' is a material in which, from among the silicone rubber based neutron shielding materials, the hydrogen content is highest and the boron content is most optimized. Its neutron shielding capability has been already described in the previous report (Taniuchi, 1986). The following tests were carried out to determine suitability for practical application; 1) Long-term thermal stability test 2) Pouring test on an actual-scale model 3) Fire test The experimental results showed that the silicone rubber based neutron shielding material has good neutron shielding capability and high long-term fire resistance, and that it can be applied to the advanced transport packaging. (author)

  2. Fast neutron dosimetry

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1988--1990 the magnetic resonance dosimetry project was completed, as were the 250 MeV proton shielding measurements. The first cellular experiment using human cells in vitro at the 1 GeV electron storage ring was also accomplished. More detail may be found in DOE Report number-sign DOE/EV/60417-002 and the open literature cited in the individual progress subsections. We report Kinetic Energy Released in Matter (KERMA), factor measurements in several elements of critical importance to neutron radiation therapy and radiation protection for space habitation and exploration for neutron energies below 30 MeV. The results of this effort provide the only direct measurements of the oxygen and magnesium kerma factors above 20 MeV neutron energy, and the only measurements of the iron kerma factor above 15 MeV. They provide data of immediate relevance to neutron radiotherapy and impose strict criteria for normalizing and testing nuclear models used to calculate kerma factors at higher neutron energies

  3. Neutron halos in hypernuclei

    Lue, H F; Meng, J; Zhou, S G

    2003-01-01

    Properties of single-LAMBDA and double-LAMBDA hypernuclei for even-N Ca isotopes ranging from the proton dripline to the neutron dripline are studied using the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogolyubov theory with a zero-range pairing interaction. Compared with ordinary nuclei, the addition of one or two LAMBDA-hyperons lowers the Fermi level. The predicted neutron dripline nuclei are, respectively, sup 7 sup 5 subLAMBDA Ca and sup 7 sup 6 sub 2 subLAMBDA Ca, as the additional attractive force provided by the LAMBDA-N interaction shifts nuclei from outside to inside the dripline. Therefore, the last bound hypernuclei have two more neutrons than the corresponding ordinary nuclei. Based on the analysis of two-neutron separation energies, neutron single-particle energy levels, the contribution of continuum and nucleon density distribution, giant halo phenomena due to the pairing correlation, and the contribution from the continuum are suggested to exist in Ca hypernuclei similar to those that appear in ordinary ...

  4. Storing of free neutrons

    Trinks, U.

    1978-12-01

    The applied method makes use of the interaction between the magnetic moment μ vector of the neutron and a magnetic field B vector. By means of superconducting magnets there can easily be achieved potential walls of μ B approximately 2 x 10 -7 eV. The principle of magnetic storing was first used for the storage ring NESTOR and showed immediate success: the stored neutrons decreased exponentially with a time constant tau = (907 +- 70) sec corresponding to the natural lifetime of the neutrons within the statistical errors. This means that there occurred no measurable additional losses (e.g. by resonance excitation) Neutrons therefore could be observed in the storage ring during about 5 half-lives (in principle of course longer, too). The orbit dynamics for neutrons in the storage ring is smilar to that in circular accelerators for charged particles. It is so well understood that the problem of the storage ring for uncharged particles (with magnetic moment) may be considered to e solved. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Neutrons for sale

    Daviss, B.

    1997-01-01

    A fusion machine, in the form of a sphere small enough to fit on a desktop, is described. It can be switched on and off at will and produces virtually no radioactive waste. The fusion sphere creates an electric potential which forms deuterium ions into beams and accelerates them towards the centre. Nuclei of deuterium inside a central spherical wire grid fuse to create neutrons, helium -3 and traces of hydrogen and tritium. The rudimentary device is expected to go on sale in a commercial form in 1998. The immediate applications are those which require a yield of neutrons falling in the range 10 7 to 10 10 neutrons per second. This is expected to be well within the capability of the sphere and would allow neutron activation analysis to be carried out for the detection of hidden high explosives in airport baggage checks, or impurities in ores as they are mined for example. With higher neutron yields other applications such as the treatment of tumours could become viable but the technical problems are likely to multiply with the increasing yields. (UK)

  6. Neutrons and art

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.

    2004-01-01

    Following modern trends in art objects connoisseurship, through examination of the structure of art objects supports traditional studies conducted by art historians based on composition, iconographic and stylistic comparisons. It must be emphasized that complete technological examinations are carried out by means of comprehensive physical and chemical studies. Among various methods used for the examination of art objects, methods which apply neutrons such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron-induced autoradiography are crucial due to their high sensitivity, reproducibility and capability of simultaneous determination of several tens of elements. Systematic studies on art objects using instrumental neutron activation analysis and neutron autoradiography have been carried out in the institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. It was possible to accumulate a number of essential data on the concentration of trace elements particularly in chalk grounds and pigments (such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, smalt), Chinese porcelain, Thai ceramics, silver denarius, jewellery made of copper alloys, as well as in the clay fillings of Egyptian mummies. The above mentioned examination of art objects prior to their conservation helps to determine precisely the materials used in the process of creating art objects, as well as to identify the appropriate place of origin of particular materials. (author)

  7. Neutron instrumentation system

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  8. The Advanced Neutron Source

    Peretz, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is to be a multipurpose neutron research center, constructed around a high-flux reactor now being designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Its primary purpose is to place the United States in the forefront of neutron scattering in the twenty-first century. Other research programs include nuclear and fundamental physics, isotope production, materials irradiation, and analytical chemistry. The ANS will be a unique and invaluable research tool because of the unprecedented neutron flux available from the high-intensity research reactor. But this reactor would be ineffective without world-class research facilities that allow the fullest utilization of the available neutrons. And, in turn, those research facilities will not produce new and exciting science without a broad population of users from all parts of the nation and the world, placed in a stimulating environment in which experiments can be effectively conducted and in which scientific exchange is encouraged. This paper discusses the measures being taken to ensure that the design of the ANS focuses not only on the reactor, but on providing the experiment and user support facilities needed to allow its effective use

  9. SUSANS With Polarized Neutrons.

    Wagh, Apoorva G; Rakhecha, Veer Chand; Strobl, Makus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Super Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SUSANS) studies over wave vector transfers of 10(-4) nm(-1) to 10(-3) nm(-1) afford information on micrometer-size agglomerates in samples. Using a right-angled magnetic air prism, we have achieved a separation of ≈10 arcsec between ≈2 arcsec wide up- and down-spin peaks of 0.54 nm neutrons. The SUSANS instrument has thus been equipped with the polarized neutron option. The samples are placed in a uniform vertical field of 8.8 × 10(4) A/m (1.1 kOe). Several magnetic alloy ribbon samples broaden the up-spin neutron peak significantly over the ±1.3 × 10(-3) nm(-1) range, while leaving the down-spin peak essentially unaltered. Fourier transforms of these SUSANS spectra corrected for the instrument resolution, yield micrometer-range pair distribution functions for up- and down-spin neutrons as well as the nuclear and magnetic scattering length density distributions in the samples.

  10. Neutron nuclear physics under the neutron science project

    Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The concept of fast neutron physics facility in the Neutron Science Research project is described. This facility makes use of an ultra-short proton pulse (width < 1 ns) for fast neutron time-of-flight works. The current design is based on an assumption of the maximum proton current of 100 {mu}A. Available neutron fluence and energy resolution are explained. Some of the research subjects to be performed at this facility are discussed. (author)

  11. Investigations on fast neutron interactions with constructional materials

    Vasvary, L.; Divos, F.; Petoe, G.; Csikai, J.; Mumba, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of flight-time difference the direct and scattered neutrons, as well as gammas produced in the target head, and samples were separated. Using this method the attenuation of primary neutrons and gammas originating from the target head was studied in addition to the measurements on the thickness dependence of the secondary gamma yield from extended samples of Al, Fe, Pb, paraffin and reinforced concrete. Results indicate a geometry dependence of the removal cross sections. The removal cross section of brick, gravel, sand, river sand, reinforced concrete and water was also measured by activation threshold detector technique. (author)

  12. Simulating Makrofol as a detector for neutron-induced recoils

    Zhang, G.; Becker, F.; Urban, M.; Xuan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The response of solid-state nuclear track detector is extremely dependent on incident angles of neutrons, which determine the angular distribution of secondary particles. In this paper, the authors present a method to investigate the angular response of Makrofol detectors. Using the C++-based Monte-Carlo tool-kit Geant4 in combination with SRIM and our MATLAB codes, we simulated the angular response of Makrofol. The simulations were based on the restricted energy loss model, and the concept of energy threshold and critical angle. Experiments were carried out with 252 Cf neutrons to verify the simulation results. (authors)

  13. Leading neutron energy and p{sub T} distributions in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The production of energetic neutrons in ep collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The neutron energy and p{sub T}{sup 2} distributions were measured with a forward neutron calorimeter and tracker in a 40 pb{sup -1} sample of inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data and a 6 pb{sup -1} sample of photoproduction data. The neutron yield in photoproduction is suppressed relative to DIS for the lower neutron energies and the neutrons have a steeper p{sub T}{sup 2} distribution, consistent with the expectation from absorption models. The distributions are compared to HERA measurements of leading protons. The neutron energy and transverse-momentum distributions in DIS are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the predictions of particle exchange models. Models of pion exchange incorporating absorption and additional secondary meson exchanges give a good description of the data. (orig.)

  14. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications. Final Report

    Entine, G.; Nagargar, V.; Sharif, D.

    1990-08-01

    Personnel engaged in space flight are exposed to significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Presently, there exist no compact neutron sensor capable of being integrated in a flight instrument to provide real time measurement of this radiation flux. A proposal was made to construct such an instrument using special PIN silicon diode which has the property of being insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. Studies were performed to determine the design and construction of a better reading system to allow the PIN diode to be read with high precision. The physics of the device was studied, especially with respect to those factors which affect the sensitivity and reproducibility of the neutron response. This information was then used to develop methods to achieve high sensitivity at low neutron doses. The feasibility was shown of enhancing the PIN diode sensitivity to make possible the measurement of the low doses of neutrons encountered in space flights. The new PIN diode will make possible the development of a very compact, accurate, personal neutron dosimeter

  15. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  16. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft - a neutron track etch detector

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Varga, M. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, P.O. Box 125, Gajev trg 6 (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, P.O. Box 125, Gajev trg 6 (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2007-12-15

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect.

  17. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft - a neutron track etch detector

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Planinic, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect

  18. Strong Neutron Pairing in core+4n Nuclei.

    Revel, A; Marqués, F M; Sorlin, O; Aumann, T; Caesar, C; Holl, M; Panin, V; Vandebrouck, M; Wamers, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Atar, L; Avdeichikov, V; Beceiro-Novo, S; Bemmerer, D; Benlliure, J; Bertulani, C A; Boillos, J M; Boretzky, K; Borge, M J G; Caamaño, M; Casarejos, E; Catford, W N; Cederkäll, J; Chartier, M; Chulkov, L; Cortina-Gil, D; Cravo, E; Crespo, R; Datta Pramanik, U; Díaz Fernández, P; Dillmann, I; Elekes, Z; Enders, J; Ershova, O; Estradé, A; Farinon, F; Fraile, L M; Freer, M; Galaviz, D; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Golubev, P; Göbel, K; Hagdahl, J; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Heine, M; Heinz, A; Henriques, A; Ignatov, A; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Kahlbow, J; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kanungo, R; Kelic-Heil, A; Knyazev, A; Kröll, T; Kurz, N; Labiche, M; Langer, C; Le Bleis, T; Lemmon, R; Lindberg, S; Machado, J; Marganiec, J; Movsesyan, A; Nacher, E; Najafi, M; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Paschalis, S; Perea, A; Petri, M; Pietri, S; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Ribeiro, G; Rigollet, C; Röder, M; Rossi, D; Savran, D; Scheit, H; Simon, H; Syndikus, I; Taylor, J T; Tengblad, O; Thies, R; Togano, Y; Velho, P; Volkov, V; Wagner, A; Weick, H; Wheldon, C; Wilson, G; Winfield, J S; Woods, P; Yakorev, D; Zhukov, M; Zilges, A; Zuber, K

    2018-04-13

    The emission of neutron pairs from the neutron-rich N=12 isotones ^{18}C and ^{20}O has been studied by high-energy nucleon knockout from ^{19}N and ^{21}O secondary beams, populating unbound states of the two isotones up to 15 MeV above their two-neutron emission thresholds. The analysis of triple fragment-n-n correlations shows that the decay ^{19}N(-1p)^{18}C^{*}→^{16}C+n+n is clearly dominated by direct pair emission. The two-neutron correlation strength, the largest ever observed, suggests the predominance of a ^{14}C core surrounded by four valence neutrons arranged in strongly correlated pairs. On the other hand, a significant competition of a sequential branch is found in the decay ^{21}O(-1n)^{20}O^{*}→^{18}O+n+n, attributed to its formation through the knockout of a deeply bound neutron that breaks the ^{16}O core and reduces the number of pairs.

  19. Oxygen enhancement ratio as a function of neutron energy with mammalian cells in culture

    Rini, F.J.; Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Chinese hamster cells (V79) in culture under oxic and hypoxic conditions were irradiated with several neutron beams spanning a wide energy range to determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Eight essentially monoenergetic neutron beams, ranging from 0.22 to 13.6 MeV and a 0.11-MeV neutron spectrum, were produced at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Additional experiments were performed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, where neutrons are produced for radiotherapy by bombarding a beryllium target with 35-MeV deuterons. This beam has a broad energy spectrum with a mean energy of about 15 MeV. A maximum OER of about 1.9 was observed for 13.6-MeV neutrons. The OER values of the monoenergetic neutrons decreased with energy, plateaued at about 1.45 for the energy range from 0.22 to 2.0 MeV and increased slightly to about 1.55 for lower energy spectrum. In the light of microdosimetric data obtained for the neutron beams at RARAF, the OER appears to depend primarily on the intermediate-LET secondaries produced by neutrons in tissue, such as protons, while in contrast high LET-secondaries, such as α-particles and recoil ions, play a minor role. The studies using the NRL neutron beam resulted in a lower OER of about 1.67 as compared to the monoenergetic 13.6-MeV beam. This is a consequence of the fact that more of the dose is deposited by intermediate LET secondaries for the NRL neutron beam

  20. Level gauge using neutron radiation

    Mathew, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for determining the level of a solid or liquid material in a container comprises: a vertical guide within or alongside the container; a sensor positioned within the guide; means for moving the sensor along the guide; and means for monitoring the position of the sensor. The sensor comprises a source of fast neutrons, a detector for thermal neutrons, and a body of a neutron moderating material in close proximity to the detector. Thermal neutrons produced by fast neutron irradiation of the solid or liquid material, or thermal neutrons produced by irradiation of the neutron-moderating material by fast or epithermal neutrons reflected by the solid or liquid material, are detected when the sensor is positioned at or below the level of the material in the container