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  1. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  2. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  3. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.

  4. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although pit and fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries, their efficacy may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the caries prevention of pit and fissure sealants in children and adolescents...... for comparison of sealant versus sealant. Five split-mouth studies and one parallel group study with 5 to 10 year old children found a significant difference in favour of second or third generation resin-based sealants on first permanent molars, compared to a control without sealant, with a pooled RR of 0.13 (95...... sealant group; 27% of sealed surfaces were decayed compared to 77% of surfaces without sealant.The results of the studies comparing different sealant materials were conflicting. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Sealing is a recommended procedure to prevent caries of the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars...

  5. Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    of bias and two studies at high risk of bias), 482 children evaluated; risk ratio (RR) 0.24, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45, one study at unclear risk of bias, 203 children evaluated).- Glass ionomer sealant compared with no sealant: There is insufficient evidence to make any conclusions about whether glass ionomer......, outcomes, time of outcomes reported and background fluoride exposure if this was reported.Fifteen trials compared glass ionomer with resin sealants and there is insufficient evidence to make any conclusions about the superiority of either of the two materials. Although there were 15 trials the event rate...... was very low in many of these which restricted their contribution to the results.Three trials compared resin-modified glass ionomer with resin sealant and reported inconsistent results.Two small low quality trials compared polyacid-modified resin sealants with resin sealants and found no difference...

  6. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    to 3 August 2016), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 3 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 3 August 2016. No restrictions were placed on language or date of publication. Selection criteria......Background: Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries, mainly in the pits and fissures of occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent bacteria growth that can lead to dental decay. Evidence suggests that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries....... Further research with long follow-up is needed....

  7. The economics of pit and fissure sealants in preventive dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Dinah H

    2005-08-15

    Oral diseases are progressive, cumulative, and become more intricate to treat with advancement. While dental caries is an infectious transmissible disease with children being at the highest risk, primary prevention can reduce this risk. Primary prevention in dentistry is usually considered to be community fluoridated water supplies, professional fluoride treatments, and pit and fissure sealants. While community fluoridated water supplies have been proven to be cost-effective, the cost-effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants has primarily been studied in school-based programs of children from low socio-economic backgrounds. Dental sealant programs are just one way to help increase primary prevention in the oral health disparities of children. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the cost-effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants as a preventive strategy in preventive dentistry.

  8. CDC Vital Signs–Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  9. Caries-preventive effect of a one-time application of composite resin and glass ionomer sealants after 5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beiruti, N.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Taifour, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present trial was to (1) compare the caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer sealants, placed according to the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) procedure, with composite resin sealants over time and (2) investigate the caries-preventive effect after complete disappearance of

  10. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  11. Use of a sealant to prevent prolonged air leaks after lung resection: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequaglie, Cosimo; Giudice, Gabriella; Marasco, Rita; Morte, Aniello Della; Gallo, Massimiliano

    2012-10-08

    Pulmonary air leaks are common complications of lung resection and result in prolonged hospital stays and increased costs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, compared with standard care, the use of a synthetic polyethylene glycol matrix (CoSeal®) could reduce air leaks detected by means of a digital chest drain system (DigiVent™), in patients undergoing lung resection (sutures and/or staples alone). Patients who intraoperatively showed moderate or severe air leaks (evaluated by water submersion tests) were intraoperatively randomized to receive just sutures/staples (control group) or sutures/staples plus CoSeal® (sealant group). Differences among the groups in terms of air leaks, prolonged air leaks, time to chest tube removal, length of hospital stay and related costs were assessed. In total, 216 lung resection patients completed the study. Nineteen patients (18.1%) in the control group and 12 (10.8%) patients in the sealant group experienced postoperative air leaks, while a prolonged air leak was recorded in 11.4% (n=12) of patients in the control group and 2.7% (n=3) of patients in the sealant group. The difference in the incidence of air leaks and prolonged air leaks between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.0002 and p=0.0013). The mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the sealant group (4 days) than the control group (8 days) (p=0.0001). We also observed lower costs in the sealant group than the control group. The use of CoSeal® may decrease the occurrence and severity of postoperative air leaks after lung resection and is associated with shorter hospital stay. Not registered. The trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the IRCCS-CROB Basilicata Regional Cancer Institute, Rionero in Vulture, Italy.

  12. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiiri, Anne; Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Nordblad, Anne

    2010-01-01

    the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants to be statistically significantly higher than an application of fluoride varnish every 6 months in preventing occlusal decays of first molars at 23 months (with a RR of 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 0.95); and at 4 years and 9 years (with a RR of 0.42, 95...... caries on the fluoride varnished tooth surfaces, compared to sealed plus fluoride varnished surfaces, with a RR of 0.36 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.61). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence on the superiority of pit and fissure sealants over fluoride varnish application in the prevention of occlusal......BACKGROUND: The majority of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to pit and fissure surfaces of first molars. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes in the prevention...

  13. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Mariana de Jesus; de Souza, Camilla Andrade; Leão, Jorge César Borges; Braz, Ana Karla Souza; de Araujo, Renato Evangelista; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15) according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control), only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control) brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003), 1 and 3 (p = 0.008), 1 and 4 (p = 0.000) and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000). The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1) showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone. PMID:26691968

  14. Use of a sealant to prevent prolonged air leaks after lung resection: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lequaglie Cosimo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary air leaks are common complications of lung resection and result in prolonged hospital stays and increased costs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, compared with standard care, the use of a synthetic polyethylene glycol matrix (CoSeal® could reduce air leaks detected by means of a digital chest drain system (DigiVent™, in patients undergoing lung resection (sutures and/or staples alone. Methods Patients who intraoperatively showed moderate or severe air leaks (evaluated by water submersion tests were intraoperatively randomized to receive just sutures/staples (control group or sutures/staples plus CoSeal® (sealant group. Differences among the groups in terms of air leaks, prolonged air leaks, time to chest tube removal, length of hospital stay and related costs were assessed. Results In total, 216 lung resection patients completed the study. Nineteen patients (18.1% in the control group and 12 (10.8% patients in the sealant group experienced postoperative air leaks, while a prolonged air leak was recorded in 11.4% (n = 12 of patients in the control group and 2.7% (n = 3 of patients in the sealant group. The difference in the incidence of air leaks and prolonged air leaks between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0013. The mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the sealant group (4 days than the control group (8 days (p = 0.0001. We also observed lower costs in the sealant group than the control group. Conclusion The use of CoSeal® may decrease the occurrence and severity of postoperative air leaks after lung resection and is associated with shorter hospital stay. Trial registration Not registered. The trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the IRCCS-CROB Basilicata Regional Cancer Institute, Rionero in Vulture, Italy.

  15. Fissure sealants in caries prevention:a practice-based study using survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leskinen, K. (Kaja)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse the effectiveness and cost of fissure sealant treatment in preventing dental caries in children in a practice-based research network using survival analysis. The survival times of first permanent molars in children were analysed in three countries: in Finland (age cohorts 1970–1972 and 1980–1982), in Sweden (1980–1982) and in Greece (1980–1982), and additionally at two municipal health centres in Finland (age cohorts 1988–1990 in Kemi...

  16. CDC Vital Signs–Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.

  17. Comparison of Caries Prevention With Glass Ionomer and Composite Resin Fissure Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Akbay Oba

    2009-11-01

    Conclusion: Under field conditions in which moisture control was not effective, a high-viscosity and less technique-sensitive glass ionomer material can be used as an effective sealant material, rather than resin.

  18. Silver microparticles plus fibrin tissue sealant prevents incisional hernias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Frank E; Young, David M; Grenert, James P; Harris, Hobart W

    2018-07-01

    Open abdominal surgery is frequently complicated by the subsequent development of an incisional hernia. Consequently, more than 400,000 incisional hernia repairs are performed each year, adding over $15 billion per year to U.S. health-care expenditures. While the vast majority of studies have focused on improved surgical techniques or prosthetic materials, we examined the use of metallic silver microparticles to prevent incisional hernia formation through enhanced wound healing. A rodent incisional hernia model was used. Eighty-two rats were randomly placed into two control groups (saline alone and silver microparticles alone), and three experimental groups (0 mg/cm, 2.5 mg/cm, and 25 mg/cm of silver microparticles applied with a fibrin sealant). Incisional hernia incidence and size, tensile strength, and tissue histology were assessed after 28 days. A significant reduction of both incisional hernia incidence and hernia size was observed between the control groups and 2.5 mg/cm group, and between the control and 25 mg/cm group by nearly 60% and 90%, respectively (P < 0.05). Histological samples showed a noticeable increase in new fibrosis in the treated animals as compared with the controls, whereas the tensile strength between the groups did not differ. The novel approach of using silver microparticles to enhance wound healing appears to be a safe and effective method to prevent incisional hernias from developing and could herald a new era of medicinal silver use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants in children’s and adolescent’s teeth has increased since the early 1970s. In spite ...

  20. The state-of-the-art of ART sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-03-01

    Sealing caries-prone pits and fissure systems is an effective caries-preventive measure. There are basically two types of sealant materials: glass-ionomer and resin-based materials. Low- and medium-viscosity glass-ionomers were initially used and showed a low level of retention. With the advent of the ART approach in the mid-nineties, high-viscosity glass-ionomers were introduced as sealant material and the retention rate of ART sealants increased substantially. As the effectiveness of a sealant is measured by its capacity to prevent (dentine) carious lesion development, sealant retention is considered a surrogate endpoint. The ART sealant protocol is described. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis covering low- medium- and high-viscosity glass-ionomer (ART) sealants have concluded that there is no evidence that either glass-ionomer or resin-based sealants prevent dentine carious lesions better. The annual dentine carious lesion development in teeth with high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants over the first three years is 1%. These ART sealants have a high capacity of preventing carious lesion development. Because no electricity and running water is required, ART sealants can be placed both inside and outside the dental surgery. High-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants can be used alongside resin-based sealants.41:119-124

  1. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based sealants is a proven method of preventing occlusal caries. Retention of the sealant is very essential for its efficiency. This study evaluated the retention of glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant when compared to a self-cure resin-based sealant. One hundred and seven children between the ages of 6-9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Two permanent first molars on one side of the mouth were sealed with Delton, a resin-based sealant, and the contralateral two permanent first molars were sealed with Fuji VII glass ionomer cement. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria. At the end of the study period, the retention of the resin sealant was seen to be superior to that of the glass ionomer sealant.

  2. Use of sealants: societal and professional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, P J

    1984-02-01

    At present, sealant use continues at a low level in private practice by dentists and hygienists, and is moderate in community programs although there is high interest in their use in public health settings. Widespread delegation of sealant application to hygienists has not occurred even though the majority of state dental practice acts allow it, and even though practicing hygienists are highly interested in applying sealants. Use in federally sponsored programs is minimal or nonexistent. Information about sealants and adequate clinical experience in their application appear minimal in dental training institutions, and few opportunities have existed for continuing education. Generally, knowledge about sealants among dentists is low; many hold doubtful opinions. Insurance carriers, including commercial, provider, and governmental programs, appear reluctant to reimburse for sealants without purchaser demand and organized dentistry's blessings. Although society emphasizes patient rights to informed consent, few opportunities exist for the public, including group insurance purchasers and union negotiators, to learn about sealant use in conjunction with appropriate fluoride use. Public educational materials are sparse. Manufacturer marketing efforts at present, aimed at providers alone, are at best minimal, with a few exceptions; those targeting the public are nonexistent. Organized dentistry's Council statements may have contributed to a constriction, to date, in the flow of public information about sealants from industry. Lack of communication, or miscommunication, between practitioners and dental scientists has resulted in much misinformation and confusion about the value of sealants and their use. And, the contemporary status of dental manpower and the economy of dental practice in the private sector appear to have provided an infertile environment for acceptance of sealants as a primary preventive technology. In the public sector, interest in sealants is high but

  3. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  4. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  5. Evaluation of a sealant intervention program among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Hsieh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The application of pit-and-fissure sealants was 94.54% effective in preventing caries on newly erupted permanent molars among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren. Complete sealant failure demonstrated a high risk for caries, and such teeth should immediately be resealed.

  6. Prevention of lymphocele by using gelatin-thrombin matrix as a tissue sealant after pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with gynecologic cancers: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Hyun Joo; Ju, Woong; Kim, Seung Cheol

    2017-05-01

    This prospective randomized controlled pilot study aimed to find whether gelatin-thrombin matrix used as a tissue sealant (FloSeal) can prevent the occurrence of pelvic lymphocele in patients with gynecologic cancer who has undergone pelvic lymphadenectomy. Each patient, who undergo a laparotomic pelvic lymph node dissection on both sides, was randomly assigned for FloSeal application on 1 side of the pelvis. The other side of the pelvis without any product application being the control side. The amount of lymph drainage at each side of the pelvis was measured for 3 days, and computed tomography scans were obtained 7 days and 6 months after surgery for detection of pelvic lymphocele. Among 37 cases, the median amount of lymph drainage was significantly decreased in the hemi-pelvis treated with FloSeal compared to the control hemi-pelvis (p=0.025). The occurrence of lymphocele was considerably reduced in treated hemi-pelvis (8/37, 21.6%) compared with control hemi-pelvis (12/37, 32.4%) after 7 post-operative days (p=0.219), and more decreased in the treated hemi-pelvis (5/37, 13.5%) compared with control hemi-pelvis (9/37, 24.3%) after postoperative 6 months (p=0.344). The application of FloSeal as a tissue sealant in lymph nodes resected tissues can reduce the incidence of pelvic lymphocele in gynecologic cancer patients. A large randomized controlled study could confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  7. Moisture-tolerant resin-based sealant: A boon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pit and fissure sealants are highly effective in preventing occlusal caries. The present study clinically evaluated and compared the retention and development of caries when sealed with moisture-tolerant resin-based sealant, conventional resin-based sealant with and without a bonding agent, and Glass Ionomer Cement Sealant in young permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 healthy cooperative children aged 6-9 years who were at high caries risk with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were included in the study. Teeth were divided into 4 groups using a full-factorial design, and each of the molars was sealed with the four different sealant material. Evaluation of sealant retention and development of caries was performed at 6 and 12 months using Modified Simonsen′s criteria. The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using Kruskal-Wallis Test and Mann-Whitney Test. Result and Conclusion: The result from the present study indicated that moisture-tolerant resin-based sealant could be successfully used as a pit and fissure sealant because its hydrophilic chemistry makes it less technique sensitive and simplifies the sealant application procedure.

  8. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  9. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  10. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic review on the use of matrix-bound sealants in pancreatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, F Jasmijn; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G H; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic fistula is a potentially life-threatening complication after a pancreatic resection. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the role of matrix-bound sealants after a pancreatic resection in terms of preventing or ameliorating the course of a post-operative pancreatic fistula. A systematic search was performed in the literature from May 2005 to April 2015. Included were clinical studies using matrix-bound sealants after a pancreatic resection, reporting a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula classification, in which grade B and C fistulae were considered clinically relevant. Two were studies on patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (sealants n = 67, controls n = 27) and four studies on a distal pancreatectomy (sealants n = 258, controls n = 178). After a pancreatoduodenectomy, 13% of patients treated with sealants versus 11% of patients without sealants developed a POPF (P = 0.76), of which 4% versus 4% were clinically relevant (P = 0.87). After a distal pancreatectomy, 42% of patients treated with sealants versus 52% of patients without sealants developed a POPF (P = 0.03). Of these, 9% versus 12% were clinically relevant (P = 0.19). The present data do not support the routine use of matrix-bound sealants after a pancreatic resection, as there was no effect on clinically relevant POPF. Larger, well-designed studies are needed to determine the efficacy of sealants in preventing POPF after a pancreatoduodenectomy. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. Effect of Adhesive Application on Sealant Success: A Clinical Study of Fifth and Seventh Generation Adhesive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Tandon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of fifth and seventh generation bonding agent on sealant success.Materials and Methods: Sixty-four school children aged six to nine years received sealants in four permanent molars in a split mouth design, such that each patient received sealant in the first permanent molar with fifth generation bonding agent in one arch and seventh generation bonding agent in the other arch; contra-lateral molars were sealed with sealant alone. The evaluation was carried out at baseline, three months, six months and 12 months, according to the criteria by Feigal et al, in 2000. Chi- square test was used to analyze data at P<0.05 level of significance.Results: Statistically significant differences were found for sealant retention between fifth generation and sealant group, and fifth generation and seventh generation groups; whereas, no significant difference was found for sealant retention between seventh generation and sealant group at three, six and 12 months.Conclusion: As separate etch and rinse steps are not required for seventh generation bonding agents, and almost similar results were obtained for both sealant and seventh generation groups, it can be concluded that application of sealant along with a seventh generation bonding agent may enhance sealant success and can be used for caries prevention in preventive programs.Key words:  Pit and Fissure Sealants; Dental Caries; Adhesives

  13. Sealants in dentistry: outcomes of the ORCA saturday afternoon symposium 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Splieth, C.H.; Ekstrand, K.R.; Alkilzy, M.; Clarkson, J.; Meyer-Lueckel, H.; Martignon, S.; Paris, S.; Pitts, N.B.; Rickets, D.N.; van Loveren, C.

    2010-01-01

    Sealants are a successful tool in caries prevention, but their role in preventive strategies after the caries decline has to be discussed. A survey of paediatric departments across Europe revealed that indications for pit and fissure sealants vary considerably, both nationally and internationally.

  14. Sealants in dentistry: outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splieth, C H; Ekstrand, K R; Alkilzy, M

    2009-01-01

    Sealants are a successful tool in caries prevention, but their role in preventive strategies after the caries decline has to be discussed. A survey of paediatric departments across Europe revealed that indications for pit and fissure sealants vary considerably, both nationally and internationally...

  15. Signos Vitales de los CDC–Los selladores dentales previenen las caries (Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de octubre del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los selladores dentales, que se aplican poco después de que les salgan las muelas permanentes a los niños, pueden protegerlos contra las caries hasta por nueve años. Aplicarles los selladores dentales a los niños de bajos ingresos en las escuelas podría ahorrar millones de dólares en costos de tratamientos.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  16. Prevention and mitigation of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisshaeupl, H.

    1996-01-01

    For the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), jointly developed by French and German industry, great emphasis is laid to gain further improvement in prevention of severe accidents based on the accumulative experience and proven technology of the French and German PWR reactors. In this evolutionary development, a balanced and comprehensive approach in respect to implement new passive features has been chosen. Improvements in each step of the defense in depth concept lead to a further decrease in the probability of occurrence of a severe accident with partial or even gross melting of the core. The different phenomenons that occur during such an hypothetical accident must be taken into account during the conception of specific measurements necessary to mitigate accident consequences. To cope with the consequences of a severe accident with core melt down means to deal with different phenomena which may threaten the integrity of the containment or may lead to an enhanced fission product release into the environment: high pressure reactor pressure vessel failure; energetic molten fuel coolant interaction; direct containment heating, molten core concrete interaction; hydrogen combustion; long term pressure and temperature increase in the containment. The EPR approach follows the recommendations from the DFD (Deutsch-Franzosischer Direktionsausschuss), jointly prepared by the French and German safety authorities. The EPR concept consist to prevent or eliminate as far as possible scenarios which are connected with high loads (high pressure failure of the reactor pressure vessel, or global hydrogen detonation etc..) by dedicated design provisions, and to deal with the consequences of severe accident scenarios which are not ruled out by specific safety measures. The measures comprise: the primary system depressurization; the control of hydrogen; the stabilisation and cooling of the melted core; the containment heat removal. They are completed by specific characteristics

  17. Clinical and SEM assessment of ART high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants after 8-13 years in 4 teeth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Resin composite sealants are retained longer than low-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants. Nevertheless, a systematic review showed that there is no evidence that resin composite sealants are superior to low-viscosity glass-ionomers in preventing dentine carious lesion development. This

  18. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  19. Durability of building joint sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Kar Tean Tan; Donald L. Hunston; R. Sam Williams

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the service life of building joint sealants exposed to service environments in less than real time has been a need of the sealant community for many decades. Despite extensive research efforts to design laboratory accelerated tests to duplicate the failure modes occurring in field exposures, little success has been achieved using conventional durability...

  20. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Esposito

    Full Text Available Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors.A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p0.05. Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials that were not designed or powered to demonstrate a significant advantage to fibrin sealant use. Two small case series studies evaluated the effect of fibrin sealants in

  1. Parametric Study of Sealant Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshimi

    It has become apparent in recent years the advancement of manufacturing processes in the aerospace industry. Sealant nozzles are a critical device in the use of fuel tank applications for optimal bonds and for ground service support and repair. Sealants has always been a challenging area for optimizing and understanding the flow patterns. A parametric study was conducted to better understand geometric effects of sealant flow and to determine whether the sealant rheology can be numerically modeled. The Star-CCM+ software was used to successfully develop the parametric model, material model, physics continua, and simulate the fluid flow for the sealant nozzle. The simulation results of Semco sealant nozzles showed the geometric effects of fluid flow patterns and the influences from conical area reduction, tip length, inlet diameter, and tip angle parameters. A smaller outlet diameter induced maximum outlet velocity at the exit, and contributed to a high pressure drop. The conical area reduction, tip angle and inlet diameter contributed most to viscosity variation phenomenon. Developing and simulating 2 different flow models (Segregated Flow and Viscous Flow) proved that both can be used to obtain comparable velocity and pressure drop results, however; differences are seen visually in the non-uniformity of the velocity and viscosity fields for the Viscous Flow Model (VFM). A comprehensive simulation setup for sealant nozzles was developed so other analysts can utilize the data.

  2. Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommarito, T.; Sparling, D.W.; Halbrook, R.S. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    Between 1970 and 2000 the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in several lakes across the country increased whereas those of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tended to remain stable or declined. Urbanized watersheds experienced greater rises in TPAH concentration compared to non-urban lakes. Sources for urban PAHs include industrial wastes, vehicular exhausts and oil leaks and sealants from pavement surfaces. Both coal-tar and asphalt sealants are used to protect surfaces but runoff from surfaces coated with coal-tar can have mean concentrations of 3500 mg TPAHs kg{sup -1}, much higher than runoff from asphalt-sealed or cement surfaces. Unaltered parent compounds of PAHs can have many lethal and sublethal toxic effects, but oxidation and UV radiation can alter the toxicity of these compounds, sometimes creating degradates that are many times more toxic than parent compounds. The purposes of this study were to determine if coal-tar sealants can be toxic to adult eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and to compare the toxicity of coal-tar sealant to that of asphalt sealant. Newts were exposed to sediments containing dried sealants ranging from 0 mg kg{sup -1} to 1500 mg kg{sup -1} under simultaneous exposure to UV radiation and visible light to determine concentration/response relationships. No significant mortality occurred with any treatment. Significant effects due to sealants included decreased righting ability and diminished liver enzyme activities. Coal-tar sealant was more effective in inducing these changes than was asphalt sealant.

  3. Sealants fight back aginst bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mike

    2008-09-01

    Mike Moran, business development manager, Industrial Construction, at Bostik, explains how a range of new sealants increase protection in hospital bathrooms, shower rooms and kitchen facilities against healthcare-acquired infections.

  4. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  5. Characterization of low temperature creep properties of crack sealants using bending beam rehometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Crack sealing has been widely used as a routine preventative maintenance practice. Given its proper installation, crack sealants can extend : pavement service life by three to five years. However, current specifications for the selection of crack sea...

  6. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  7. Protocol for “Seal or Varnish?” (SoV trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chestnutt Ivor Gordon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS and fluoride varnish (FV to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of the trial described in this protocol is to compare the clinical effectiveness of PFS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars in 6-7 year-olds. Secondary aims include: establishing the costs and the relative cost-effectiveness of PFS and FV delivered in a community/school setting; examining the impact of PFS and FV on children and their parents/carers in terms of quality of life/treatment acceptability measures; and examining the implementation of treatment in a community setting. Methods/design The trial design comprises a randomised, assessor-blinded, two-arm, parallel group trial in 6–7 year old schoolchildren. Clinical procedures and assessments will be performed at 66 primary schools, in deprived areas in South Wales. Treatments will be delivered via a mobile dental clinic. In total, 920 children will be recruited (460 per trial arm. At baseline and annually for 36 months dental caries will be recorded using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS by trained and calibrated dentists. PFS and FV will be applied by trained dental hygienists. The FV will be applied at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The PFS will be applied at baseline and re-examined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, and will be re-applied if the existing sealant has become detached/is insufficient. The economic analysis will estimate the costs of providing the PFS versus FV. The process evaluation will assess implementation and

  8. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  9. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yu

    integrity of S. mutans. Therefore, MAE-DB-containing pit-and-fissure sealant shows promise for preventing or controlling dental caries on occlusal pit and fissures of molars.

  10. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of a plasma-based composite biologic sealant with fibrin glue (Tisseel) for vascular anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doillon, Charles J; Dion, Yves-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Biologic sealants are needed in numerous, more and more demanding, procedures--especially with developments occurring in endovascular and laparoscopic vascular techniques. An initial pilot study in dogs showed that a 4-cm aortotomy closed with a polyester patch sutured in place by a 4-mm-spaced running suture consistently led to massive hemorrhage. We then designed a study using five dogs where two aortotomies were done to compare the effect of Tisseel to that of an autologous sealant prepared in our laboratory. Arterial pressures and heparinization were maintained throughout the surgical procedure. Both biologic sealants prevented hemorrhage from the arteriotomy at unclamping. Macroscopic and histologic assessments were performed. At killing, one week later, the autologous sealant exhibited less blood saturation of the collagen sponge compared with Tisseel. The use of autologous plasma combined with other adhesive components could be an efficient alternative to allogenic fibrin glue. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.

  12. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    A liquid solution, gingival sealant containing polymers that form a barrier film upon application was evaluated in dogs. It is a non-toxic, low viscosity, hydrophilic barrier sealant that dries in approximately 10 to 15-seconds after subgingival application. It was designed as a preventative to be applied immediately following a professional oral hygiene procedure in order to block plaque and calculus formation in the sulcus and aid in the prevention of periodontal disease in companion animals. Additionally, the polymer was designed to promote an aerobic environment in the sulcus by oxygen and water transport through engineered pores within the polymer. A 30-day split-mouth, blinded study in two groups of 15 beagle dogs was used. Plaque was significantly (p periodontal disease in dogs.

  13. The use of an internal teat sealant in combination with cloxacillin dry cow therapy for the prevention of clinical and subclinical mastitis in seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, D J; Malmo, J; Deighton, M

    2010-10-01

    Cows (n=2,053) from 6 seasonally calving dairy herds were enrolled in a trial to compare the efficacy of 2 dry cow treatments. Cows received either a combination dry cow therapy of 600 mg of cloxacillin (CL) followed by an internal teat sealant (ITS) containing 2.6 g of bismuth subnitrate in all 4 quarters immediately following their final milking for the season, or only an intramammary infusion of 600 mg of CL. All cases of clinical mastitis were recorded and cultured during the first 150 d of lactation in each herd, and cow somatic cell count (SCC) was measured between 7 and 50 d postcalving. A large difference was found between treatment groups in the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis over the first 21 d of lactation, after which time the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis was similar between treatment groups. Analysis of the relative proportions of cows with clinical mastitis was performed at both the gland and cow levels. The relative risk (RR) of clinical mastitis diagnosed within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving in a gland treated with the ITS-CL combination was, respectively, 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.44], 0.39 (0.28-0.53), and 0.58 (0.46-0.75) that of the CL group. An interaction between treatment and previous SCC was found when clinical mastitis was analyzed at the cow level. In a subset of cows that had low SCC in their previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in cows with the ITS-CL combination within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI=0.33-0.87), 0.57 (0.37-0.88), and 0.69 (0.50-0.99) that of cows that received only CL at drying off. In the subset of cows that had at least 1 high SCC in the previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in the ITS-CL combination group within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI=0.16-0.44), 0.37 (0.24-0.57), and 0.72 (0.55-0.96) that of the CL-only group. The ITS-CL combination of dry cow treatments was associated with a

  14. System 80+ design features for severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Finnicum, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    ABB-CE, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is working to develop and certify the System 80+ design, which is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the EPRI's Utility Requirements Document, and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the system is discussed along with its conformance to EPRI URD guidance, as applicable. Computer simulation of a best estimate severe accident scenario is presented to illustrate the acceptable containment performance of the design. It is concluded that by considering severe accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process, the System 80+ design represents a robust plant design that has low core damage frequencies, low containment conditional failure probabilities, and acceptable deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions

  15. Role of Fibrin Sealants in Liver Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Marieke T.; Boonstra, Elizabeth A.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fibrin sealants are widely used in liver surgery. The aim of this article is to review the literature on evidence of hemostatic and biliostatic capacities of different fibrin sealants in liver surgery. Methods: In PubMed, a literature search was done with the search terms 'fibrin

  16. Retention of fissure sealants using two different methods of application in teeth with hypomineralised molars (MIH): a 4 year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygidakis, N A; Dimou, G; Stamataki, E

    2009-12-01

    This was to evaluate the retention rate of fissure sealants applied to MIH molars with occlusal enamel opacities, using two different application methods after 4 years. 54 children exhibiting molars with MIH aged 6-7 years, participated in the study. presence of at least 2 fully erupted caries-free maxillary or mandibular first permanent molars in the opposite sides of the mouth, both with occlusal enamel opacities without breakdown. Following parental consent, sealants were applied using a half-mouth experimental design. Group A: On a randomly assigned first molar on one side of the mouth sealants Fissurit were placed using a single bottle adhesive system (One-step prior to sealant application. Group B: Sealants were applied on the contra-lateral molar using the conventional etch and seal technique. Children were seen biannually when a preventive program was applied, without replacing any lost sealant. After 4 years, 47 sets of molars (94 teeth) were available for blind evaluation. Teeth in Group A presented a better retention rate; 70.2% were fully sealed, 29.7% partly sealed and none unsealed (lost sealant). Group B revealed 25.5% fully sealed, 44.6% partly sealed and 29.7% unsealed teeth. Differences between groups A and B were statistically significant (p0.01). In hypomineralised molars with occlusal opacities sealants appear to have greater retention when applied using 5th generation adhesive systems prior to sealant.

  17. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Pranav; Xue, Jingchuan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: Kurunthachalam.kannan@health.ny.gov [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-11-15

    Resin-based dental sealants (also referred to as pit-and-fissure sealants) have been studied for their contribution to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of other potentially toxic chemicals in dental sealants. In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), was examined in 63 dental sealant products purchased from the U.S. market. BHT was found in all dental sealants at median and maximum concentrations of 56.8 and 1020 µg/g, respectively. The metabolites of BHT and BHA were detected in 39–67% of samples, at concentration ranges of sealants to inhibit oxidative reactions, remove free radicals, and inhibit potential polymerization, which would eventually prolong the shelf-life of the products. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BHT, following sealant placement, based on a worst-case scenario (application on eight teeth at 8 mg each tooth), was 930 and 6510 ng/kg bw/d for adults and children, respectively. The EDI of BHT from dental sealants was several orders of magnitude lower than the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Highlights: • Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were detected in dental sealants. • 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentration of up to 1020 µg/g was found. • Estimated daily intake of BHT after sealant placement was up to 9.52 µg/kg bw/d. • Daily intake of BHT through dental sealant application was below the acceptable daily intake.

  18. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Pranav; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based dental sealants (also referred to as pit-and-fissure sealants) have been studied for their contribution to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of other potentially toxic chemicals in dental sealants. In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), was examined in 63 dental sealant products purchased from the U.S. market. BHT was found in all dental sealants at median and maximum concentrations of 56.8 and 1020 µg/g, respectively. The metabolites of BHT and BHA were detected in 39–67% of samples, at concentration ranges of sealants to inhibit oxidative reactions, remove free radicals, and inhibit potential polymerization, which would eventually prolong the shelf-life of the products. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BHT, following sealant placement, based on a worst-case scenario (application on eight teeth at 8 mg each tooth), was 930 and 6510 ng/kg bw/d for adults and children, respectively. The EDI of BHT from dental sealants was several orders of magnitude lower than the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Highlights: • Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were detected in dental sealants. • 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentration of up to 1020 µg/g was found. • Estimated daily intake of BHT after sealant placement was up to 9.52 µg/kg bw/d. • Daily intake of BHT through dental sealant application was below the acceptable daily intake.

  19. Durability of sealants exposed to outdoor weathering and hot compression cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory T. Schueneman; Steven Lacher; Christopher G. Hunt; Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston

    2011-01-01

    Sealants play an important role in weatherproofing structures by filling gaps and preventing air and water intrusion. When incorrectly selected or improperly applied, they may fail quickly, compromising durability of the structure. To ensure reliability and prevent the need for costly repairs to structures, it is necessary to measure durability and predict life...

  20. Vital Signs: Dental Sealant Use and Untreated Tooth Decay Among U.S. School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan O; Wei, Liang; Gooch, Barbara F; Weno, Katherine; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-10-21

    Tooth decay is one of the greatest unmet treatment needs among children. Pain and suffering associated with untreated dental disease can lead to problems with eating, speaking, and learning. School-based dental sealant programs (SBSP) deliver a highly effective intervention to prevent tooth decay in children who might not receive regular dental care. SBSPs benefits exceed their costs when they target children at high risk for tooth decay. CDC used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 to estimate current prevalences of sealant use and untreated tooth decay among low-income (≤185% of federal poverty level) and higher-income children aged 6-11 years and compared these estimates with 1999-2004 NHANES data. The mean number of decayed and filled first molars (DFFM) was estimated for children with and without sealants. Averted tooth decay resulting from increasing sealant use prevalence was also estimated. All reported differences are significant at pdental sealant use has increased; however, most children have not received sealants. Increasing sealant use prevalence could substantially reduce untreated decay, associated problems, and dental treatment costs.

  1. Strategies for the prevention and mitigation of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, C.; Heusener, G.; Snell, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    The currently operating nuclear power plants have, in general, achieved a high level of safety, as a result of design philosophies that have emphasized concepts such as defense-in-depth. This type of an approach has resulted in plants that have robust designs and strong containments. These designs were later found to have capabilities to protect the public from severe accidents (accidents more severe than traditional design basis in which substantial damage is done to the reactor core). In spite of this high level of safety, it has also been recognized that future plants need to be designed to achieve an enhanced level of safety, in particular with respect to severe accidents. This has led both regulatory authorities and utilities to develop guidance and/or requirements to guide plant designers in achieving improved severe accident performance through prevention and mitigation. The considerable research programs initiated after the TMI-2 accident have provided a large body of technical data, analytical methods, and the expertise necessary to provide for an understanding of a range of severe accident phenomena. This understanding of the ways severe accidents can progress and challenge containments, combined with the wide use of probabilistic safety assessments, have provided designers of evolutionary water cooled reactors opportunities to develop designs that minimize the challenges to the plant and to the public from severe accidents, including the development of accident management strategies intended to further reduce the risk of severe accidents. This paper describes some of the recent progress made in the understanding of severe accidents and related safety assessment methodology and how this knowledge has supported the incorporation of features into representative evolutionary designs that will prevent or mitigate many of the severe accident challenges present in current plants. (author)

  2. Survival of sealants in molars affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization: 18-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical survival of sealants applied in first permanent molars (FPMs affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH, at 18 months of follow-up. Forty-one first permanent molars were selected from 21 children, 6–8 years of age. MIH was classified by one calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.80 according to EAPD criteria. The inclusion criteria were fully erupted FPMs with MIH or sound FPMs (without MIH for which sealant treatment was indicated. The FPMs were assigned to two groups: CG (control group and HG (MIH group. Both groups were treated with sealant (FluroShield. Clinical follow-up was performed from baseline to 18 months to assess anatomical form, marginal adaptation, retention and presence of caries, according to criteria set by the United States Public Health Service-Modified, and was conducted by a blinded examiner (kappa = 0.80. The actuarial method was used to evaluate the survival of the sealants. The survival rates for the groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test (α = 5%. The cumulative survival rates were 81% at 1 month, 68.8% at 6 months, 68.8% at 12 months, and 62.6% at 18 months for CG, and 88% at 1 month, 84% at 6 months, 76% at 12 months, and 72% at 18 months for HG. No significant difference was found between the groups. The sealants in molars affected by MIH presented a survival rate similar to the sealants in the control, suggesting that sealants may be an adequate approach for preventing carious lesions in MIH-affected molars.

  3. Evaluation of strategies for severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC is planning to establish regulatory oversight on severe accident management capability in the US nuclear reactor industry. Accident management includes certain preparatory and recovery measures that can be taken by the plant operating and technical personnel to prevent or mitigate the consequences of a severe accident. Following an initiating event, accident management strategies include measures to (1) prevent core damage, (2) arrest the core damage if it begins and retain the core inside the vessel, (3) maintain containment integrity if the vessel is breached, and (4) minimize offsite releases. Objectives of the NRC Severe Accident Management Program are to assure that technically sound strategies are identified and guidance to implement these strategies is provided to utilities. This paper will describe work performed to date by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) relative to severe accident strategy evaluation, as well as work to be performed and expected results. Working with Brookhaven National Laboratory, PNL evaluated a series of NRC suggested accident management strategies. The evaluation of these strategies was divided between PNL and Brookhaven National Laboratory and a similar paper will be presented by Brookhaven regarding their strategy evaluation. This paper will stress the overall safety issues related to the research and emphasize the strategies that are applicable to major safety issues. The relationship of these research activities to other projects is discussed, as well as planning for future changes in the direction of work to be undertaken

  4. PERBEDAAN TOPICAL FLUORIDE APPLICATION DAN FISSURE SEALANT DALAM MENCEGAH KARIES PADAGIGI MOLAR SATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawarti Pawarti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Topical Fluoride Application And Fissure Sealant To Prevent Dental Caries Permanent First Molars. Anatomy pits and fissures of teeth are caries initiation vulnerable areas of the permanent molars that grow at the age of 6 years where children can not perform oral hygiene. Caries prevention can be done by closing the pits and fissures or application of fluoride (topical fluoride application on the surface of the teeth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference fissure sealants and topical application of fluoride to prevent dental caries of first permanent molars. This study was a quasi-experimental study with time series, a sample was taken by purposive 117-second grade students of SDN District of North Pontianak. Data were analyzed using t-test. The result showed that fissure sealant more effective in caries prevention of first permanent molar than topical fluoride application where there were none caries teeth after and month fissure sealant, 25% sealant partially off and 11% fully off. Teeth that have done fluoride after 6 months of 3.9% of dental caries, the eighth month of 5.4% of dental caries. There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of fissure sealants with topical application of fluoride to prevent dental caries in first permanent molars p-value < 0.05, after 6-month p-value: 0.004 and after 8-month p-value: 0.001. Abstrak: Topical Fluoride Application Dan Fissure Sealant Untuk Mencegah Karies Pada Gigi Molar Satu Permanen. Anatomi pit dan fisura gigi merupakan daerah rentan inisiasi karies gigi molar satu permanen yang tumbuh pada usia 6 tahun anak belum bisa melakukan kebersihan mulutnya. Pencegahan karies dapat dilakukan dengan cara menutup pit dan fissure atau pengolesan fluor (topical fluoride application pada permukaan gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis perbedaan efektivitas fissure sealant dan topical fluoride application untuk mencegah karies gigi molar satu permanen anak

  5. Transcutaneous Drainage of Gel-Like Substance after Application of Hydrogel Dural Sealant: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Siman, Homayoun; Techy, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Incidental durotomy (IDT) is a common complication of spinal surgery. The use of collagen matrix graft along with hydrogel dural sealant is a common method of IDT repair. With this method, there have been several reported cases of detrimental dural sealant expansion in the literature. One case study reported an expansion rate greater than 300%; many report neurologic damage. This article reports the clinical course of two patients who developed postoperativ...

  6. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  7. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  8. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  9. Prevention of heavy missiles during severe PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1994-01-01

    For future pressurized water reactors, which should be designed against core melt down accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles as well as their velocities may vary to a great extend. Therefore, a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. To overcome this problem the potential sources of missiles are discussed. In section 5 it is concluded that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles endangering the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions might be tolerable, but shielding structures which protect the containment shell might be required. Here further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. In section 6 investigations are explained which will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In section 7 a device is discussed keeping the fragments of a failing reactor vessel at its place. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs

  10. Bond Strength of a Bisphenol-A-Free Fissure Sealant With and Without Adhesive Layer under Conditions of Saliva Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Sabbatini, Iliana Ferraz; Almeida, Cintia Guimarães de; Galo, Rodrigo; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Dental sealants are important for prevention of carious lesions, if they have good shear strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two sealants to saliva-contaminated and non-contaminated enamel with and without an intermediate adhesive layer underneath the sealant. Ninety flat enamel surfaces from human third molars were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=15): F (control): Fluroshield(tm) sealant; EWB (control): Embrace(tm) WetBond(tm); SB/F: Single Bond adhesive system + F; SB/EWB, s-SB/F and s-SB/EWB. In the s-SB/F and s-SB/EWB groups, the acid-etched enamel was contaminated with 0.01 mL of fresh human saliva for 20 s. Sealant cylinders were bonded to enamel surface with and without an intermediate adhesive system layer. The shear tests were performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). F presented higher mean SBS than EWB in all experimental conditions. The lowest SBS mean was obtained for EWB on contaminated enamel (p<0.05). In conclusion, an adhesive system layer should be used prior to sealant placement, in both dry and saliva-contaminated enamel. F had the best performance in all experimental conditions. EWB sealant showed very low results, but an adhesive layer underneath the sealant increased its SBS even after salivary contamination.

  11. Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis for Prevention Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document outlines the development of a high fidelity, best estimate nuclear power plant severe transient simulation capability that will complement or enhance the integral system codes historically used for licensing and analysis of severe accidents. As with other tools in the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Toolkit, the ultimate user of Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis and Prevention (ESTAP) capability is the plant decision-maker; the deliverable to that customer is a modern, simulation-based safety analysis capability, applicable to a much broader class of safety issues than is traditional Light Water Reactor (LWR) licensing analysis. Currently, the RISMC pathway’s major emphasis is placed on developing RELAP-7, a next-generation safety analysis code, and on showing how to use RELAP-7 to analyze margin from a modern point of view: that is, by characterizing margin in terms of the probabilistic spectra of the “loads” applied to systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and the “capacity” of those SSCs to resist those loads without failing. The first objective of the ESTAP task, and the focus of one task of this effort, is to augment RELAP-7 analyses with user-selected multi-dimensional, multi-phase models of specific plant components to simulate complex phenomena that may lead to, or exacerbate, severe transients and core damage. Such phenomena include: coolant crossflow between PWR assemblies during a severe reactivity transient, stratified single or two-phase coolant flow in primary coolant piping, inhomogeneous mixing of emergency coolant water or boric acid with hot primary coolant, and water hammer. These are well-documented phenomena associated with plant transients but that are generally not captured in system codes. They are, however, generally limited to specific components, structures, and operating conditions. The second ESTAP task is to similarly augment a severe (post-core damage) accident integral analyses code

  12. Microleakage, adaptation ability and clinical efficacy of two fluoride releasing fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Retention of fissure sealants and good adaptation to enamel are essential for their success. Fluoride releasing resin-based materials are widely accepted for pit and fissure sealing, but newly designed glass ionomers can serve as a good alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage and sealing ability in vitro, and to clinically assess two fluoride releasing fissure sealants. Methods. The sample for experimental study consisted of 20 freshly extracted intact human third molars, divided in two experimental groups according to the sealing material: fluoride releasing resin-based (Heliosel F and glass ionomer (Fuji Triage material. Digital images and scanning electron microscope were used to assess microleakage and adaptation ability. Sample for clinical study consisted of 60 children, aged 6-8 years, with high caries risk, divided in two groups according to the sealant material. Fissure sealant was applied to all erupted, caries-free first permanent molars. Sealants were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months using modified Ryge criteria for retention, marginal adaptation, colour match, surface smoothness and caries. Results. Microleakage was detected in more than half of the specimen, without significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05. Both materials exhibited acceptable sealing ability. Complete retention at the end of the observation period was 81.8% for resin-based, and 21.1% for glass-ionomer fissure sealant (p < 0.001. The presence of caries in sealed molars has been detected in one patient in both groups. During the 12-month observation period, Helioseal F demonstrated better retention, marginal adaptation and surface smoothness (p < 0.001. There were no differences between the two materials regarding caries and color match (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Both tested materials demonstrate satisfactory clinical and caries prophylactic characteristics that justify their use in contemporary preventive

  13. Chylothorax after mediastinal ganglioneuroma resection treated with fibrin sealant patch: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Marco; Achilli, Pietro; Guttadauro, Angelo; Vertemati, Giuseppe; Terragni, Sabina; De Simone, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Chylothorax is a severe condition resulting from the accumulation of chyle into the pleural space. We report the treatment of postoperative chylothorax after resection of mediastinal ganglioneuroma in a 17-year-old boy. Since conservative measures were not effective, we performed direct ligation of lymphatic vessels and pleurodesis. At subsequent surgical re-exploration for persisting chylothorax, accurate inspection of pleural cavity revealed residual chyle leakage. Fibrin sealant patches (TachoSil®) were placed over the source of leak with complete resolution of chylous effusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of postoperative chylothorax successfully treated by the use of a fibrin sealant patch. PMID:29221335

  14. Estimating emissions from adhesives and sealants uses and manufacturing for environmental risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Johannes; Gómez, Divina; Guhl, Walter; Funk, Torsten; Seger, Erich; Wind, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    (FEICA) SPERCs are available in several exposure assessment tools that are used under REACH. Given the limited regional variation in the manufacturing and use processes of adhesives and sealants, the SPERCs may be applicable for emission estimation not only in the EU but also in other regions. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Effectiveness of Dry Cow Therapy Comprising Antibiotic Treatment, Internal Teat Sealant, and α-Tocopherol Against New Intramammary Infections in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of dry cow therapy based on antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol administered separately or in various combinations at drying-off The study was performed on 322 uninfected quarters of 95 cows originating from three dairy herds. The new intramammary infection rates after calving were measured to evaluate the effectiveness. The quarters were divided into six groups differing in treatment, namely: control group (group C, n = 40 and five treatment groups. Treatment groups were arranged as follows: group A (antibiotic alone, n = 81, group AS (antibiotic + sealant, n = 40, group AST (antibiotic + sealant + α-tocopherol, n = 40, group T (α-tocopherol alone, n = 40, group S (sealant alone, n = 81. New infection rate amounted to 47.5% in group C. The treatment in group AST significantly prevented from the occurrence of new intramammary infections (12.5%, P 0.05, although the use of the sealant alone (group S decreased the risk of new infection (24.7%, P 0.05. Increased α-tocopherol level (P < 0.05 was detected after calving in the quarters from cows that received α-tocopherol injections. In conclusion, the combination of antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol used in dry cow therapy showed a significantly better preventive effect against new intramammary infections, than the therapeutics administered separately.

  16. ART restorations and sealants placed in Chinese school children--results after three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C J; Lo, E C; Hu, D; Wan, H

    2000-08-01

    These were to assess whether ART restorations and sealants could be provided to children in a school environment in China, to assess patient acceptability of the ART approach, and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the treatments performed. This study was conducted in Deyang, Sichuan Province, in western China. A total of 294 ART restorations were placed in 197 children and 191 fissure sealants were placed in 140 children by five middle-level dentists in four secondary schools. Standard instruments and procedures for ART were used. The restorative material used was a high-strength glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, ESPE). The treatments were evaluated annually after placement by the same examiner who had not been involved in the placement of the restorations nor sealants using explorers and mouth-mirrors. At the 3-year examination an independent external examiner evaluated the restorations using USPHS criteria. Most of the children did not report discomfort during treatment and 92% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 1-year and 3-year survival rates of small Class I restorations were 99% and 92% respectively. The corresponding figures for large Class I restorations were 90% and 77%. After 3 years, 72% of the sealants were either partially or completely retained. Only 2% of the sealed teeth developed fissure caries and these involved teeth where the sealants had been lost. Similar success rates were found using USPHS criteria. The ART approach for preventing and treating tooth decay in Chinese school children was shown to be appropriate, effective and acceptable. The 3-year survival rates of the restorations were high but were related to the size and type of the restoration.

  17. Initial experience with a synthetic sealant PleuraSeal™ after pulmonary resections: a prospective study with retrospective case matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennings Ellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative outcome and efficacy of a hydrogel tissue sealant for prevention of alveolar leakage after open lung resections. 20 consecutive patients were enrolled in the PleuraSeal™ sealant group (PSG and case matched with 20 retrospective controls (CG with standard treatment. Assessment of postoperative air leakage was performed until chest tube removal. Patients were followed until 30 days after discharge. At end of surgery, 100% in the PSG and 0% in the CG were air leak free (p The study demonstrated a superior efficacy of PleuraSeal™ sealant compared with standard surgical treatment for sustained sealing of postoperative air leakage and causes shorter air leak chest tube duration.

  18. We are to do everything possible to prevent severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental approach to safety assurance at a nuclear power plant is the principle of defence-in-depth. It means two key aspects: prevention of accidents through the creation and maintenance of engineering barriers, as well as mitigation of the consequences of accident. After Fukushima-1 accident re-evaluation was carried out of the effectiveness the defence-in-depth measures at Russian nuclear power plants, particularly in view of the very low-probability external events. The results of this evaluation demonstrated that all plants are fully compliant with the requirements of the current Russian safety standards [ru

  19. A review of bioceramics and fibrin sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guéhennec, L; Layrolle, P; Daculsi, G

    2004-09-13

    This review focuses on bone substitute composites made by mixing ceramic biomaterials with fibrin sealants. Different biomaterials such as coral, bone-derived materials, bioactive glass ceramics, and synthetic calcium phosphate have been mixed with fibrin sealant, resulting in a combination of the biological properties of the two components. This type of association has not produced identical results in all studies. In the past for some, the addition of fibrin sealant to the biomaterial failed to produce any significant, positive effect on osteointegration, whereas others found a positive impact on bone colonization. Despite the negative biological effects reported previously, bioceramic-fibrin composites have been widely used in various types of bone surgery because they are easy to manipulate. In particular, the intra-operative preparation of these composites makes it possible to add bone growth factors or autologous osteoprogenitor cells prior to bone reconstruction. The bone growth factors and autologous osteoprogenitor cells associated with the bioceramic-fibrin composites should provide surgeons with tissue engineered grafts with enhanced osteointegrative properties. This review discusses both the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the future perspectives, of using bioceramic-fibrin composites in various clinical indications.

  20. A Review of Bioceramics and Fibrin Sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Guéhennec L.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on bone substitute composites made by mixing ceramic biomaterials with fibrin sealants. Different biomaterials such as coral, bone-derived materials, bioactive glass ceramics, and synthetic calcium phosphate have been mixed with fibrin sealant, resulting in a combination of the biological properties of the two components. This type of association has not produced identical results in all studies. In the past for some, the addition of fibrin sealant to the biomaterial failed to produce any significant, positive effect on osteointegration, whereas others found a positive impact on bone colonization. Despite the negative biological effects reported previously, bioceramic-fibrin composites have been widely used in various types of bone surgery because they are easy to manipulate. In particular, the intra-operative preparation of these composites makes it possible to add bone growth factors or autologous osteoprogenitor cells prior to bone reconstruction. The bone growth factors and autologous osteoprogenitor cells associated with the bioceramic-fibrin composites should provide surgeons with tissue engineered grafts with enhanced osteointegrative properties. This review discusses both the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the future perspectives, of using bioceramic-fibrin composites in various clinical indications.

  1. Severe head injury in children - a preventable but forgotten epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe head injury in a child is a sociological disaster that crosses all sociological ... permanently disabled each year as a result of accidental injury." Over a ..... the daylight when transportation of the patient is more rapid; this results in some ...

  2. Early Prevention of Severe Neurodevelopmental Behavior Disorders: An Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Courtemanche, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    There is a very substantial literature over the past 50 years on the advantages of early detection and intervention on the cognitive, communicative, and social-emotional development of infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delay due to premature birth or social disadvantage. Most of these studies excluded children with severe delays or…

  3. Transcutaneous Drainage of Gel-Like Substance after Application of Hydrogel Dural Sealant: Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Homayoun; Techy, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Incidental durotomy (IDT) is a common complication of spinal surgery. The use of collagen matrix graft along with hydrogel dural sealant is a common method of IDT repair. With this method, there have been several reported cases of detrimental dural sealant expansion in the literature. One case study reported an expansion rate greater than 300%; many report neurologic damage. This article reports the clinical course of two patients who developed postoperative transcutaneous drainage of a gel-like substance after the use of a dural sealant, which is a previously unreported complication. Methods The clinical course and treatment outcome of two patients is presented. Results Both patients experienced postoperative transcutaneous drainage of a gel-like substance at the surgical site. Case one began draining this substance on postoperative day 14. This patient required no further intervention, and the drainage ended after 3 mL of a gel-like substance was expressed from his incision while in the clinic. Case two began draining the gel on postoperative day 16. This patient underwent two washout procedures and resolution of the drainage. No infection was ever detected. Conclusions To our knowledge, our patients are the first reported cases of transcutaneous drainage of expanded dural sealant. It is important to take into consideration the unexpected expansion of a dural sealant when using it for the repair of IDT.

  4. [PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS FOR SEVERE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkiv, M B

    2015-06-01

    Increased of proinflammatory cytokines levels, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on severe acute pancreatitis causes vasodilatation, increased permeability of the wall, accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and pleural sinuses. Transudate from acute parapancreatyc clusters of hot liquid and abdomen falls into the chest cavity through microscopic defects in the diaphragm due to the formation of pathological pleural-peritoneal connections or the relevant pressure gradient between the abdominal and pleural cavities. Remediation and removal of acute parapancreatyc clusters combined with the use of a multicomponent drug infusion therapy Cytoflavin provide a reduction in the frequency of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis from 48.3 to 31.0%. Use of the drug Cytoflavin reduces the severity of endogenous intoxication and mortality from acute lung injury from 12.9 to 6.1%.

  5. Severe accident prevention and mitigation: A utility perspective - EDF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Current plans have excellent safety records and are cost competitive. For future plants, excellence in safety will remain a prerequisite, as well as increased cost competitiveness. When contemplating solutions to Severe Accident challenges, cost effectiveness is essential in the decision making process. This cost effectiveness must be understood not only in terms of capital cost, but also of Operation and Maintenance costs as well as absence of additional risks to plant operators. Examples are given to illustrate the recommended approach

  6. LFR core design for prevention & mitigation of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: • Aiming at fully complying Gen-IV safety requirements – even in case of Fukushima-like events –, prevention and mitigation strategies must be stressed in FR design. • The safety of Lead-cooled Fast Reactors can rely on intrinsic features due to the coolant, such as: • the practical impossibility of Lead boiling, hence the unreliability of core (only) voiding for wide safety margins, and the retention of corium; • the high density of lead, for the buoyancy of Control Rods (allowing their safe positioning below the core), and the dispersion of molten core up to the setting up of a “cold melting pot”. • the possibility to adopt wide coolant channels for encouraging natural circulation, without affecting the hardness of the neutron spectrum; • the hard neutron spectrum allows the adiabatic operation of LFRs (which implies minimal criticality swings even through long cycles) with small amounts of Mas (hence with a negligible detriment to the safety features); • an effective reduction of the coolant density effect simply through the shortening of the active height

  7. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in a Portuguese Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Nélio J.; Pereira, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Paula C.; Correia, Ilidio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. Results We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents´ level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th–12th grade = 18.8 vs Portuguese adolescents. The establishment of a more targeted preventive program with better and more effective oral health education is essential, having into account socio-demographic aspects. PMID:25803849

  8. Comparison of commercial fibrin sealants in facelift surgery: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botti,1 Michele Pascali,2 Chiara Botti,1 Florian Bodog,3 Pietro Gentile,2 Valerio Cervelli2 1Villa Bella Clinic, Salò, 2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; 3University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two types of fibrin glue in patients undergoing facelift surgery. Methods: A prospective, controlled "right-left side" study was carried out in 20 patients. The two fibrin sealants used were Quixil® and Tissucol®. The two sealants were used at the same time, ie, one on one side of the face and the other on the contralateral side. Comparisons were made with regard to rates of hematoma and seroma, degree of induration, edema, ecchymosis, pain levels, and patient satisfaction. Results: The results were almost equivalent. The only exception was a significant (40 mL hematoma in a patient treated with Quixil. Bleeding was most likely due to a sudden rise in blood pressure during the immediate postoperative period. However, it must be emphasized that, while Tissucol actually seals the undermined area, thus virtually eliminating the dead space, Quixil acts differently, in that its effectiveness in preventing hematoma is linked mainly to its hemostatic effect. Conclusion: The two fibrin sealants used were nearly identical with regard to patient safety and quality of the result. Nevertheless, it is noted that, while Tissucol has both hemostatic and "gluing" effects, Quixil is mainly effective in securing hemostasis. Keywords: facelift surgery, rhytidectomy, fibrin sealants, hematoma

  9. Leak tight sealants and joint details for concrete structure in RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.; Baste, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Leak tightness may pertain to either air or water and in extreme cases each will require separate consideration based on general basic requirements. Leak-tight sealants against air pressure are required in the construction joints and around penetrations in the concrete containment structures. The containment structures should be able to withstand the maximum anticipated design pressure during the incident of a MCA with only minimal leakage (0.1% of bldg. volume per day in RAPP) which is mostly through these joints. Apart from proper joint design and preparation the sealant itself must have superb adhesion to the concrete surface and integrify throughout its service life to prevent any rupture or micro-cracks at any section of the joint. Leak tightness pertains to water tightness as well. A critical water-tight joint at the bottom dome of the prestressed concrete dousing tank at its junction with the 36 inches dia dousing water pipes constructed in RAPP-2, which should be able to withstand the water pressure, continuous submergence in the water of the tank and the longitudinal and lateral movement of the water pipes during opening and closure of the dousing valves, has been made and hydrostatically tested when not even the slight sweating was found. The construction and materials of the above joints and the sealant along with the properties and performance observed during testing/use are described. As the sealant used is an imported poly-sulphide caulking compound suggestions have also been made, which may be kept in mind while developing an Indian substitute. (author)

  10. Engaging Stakeholders in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Regarding School-Based Sealant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Gillette, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to describe the key lessons learned during the stakeholder engagement stage of planning a randomized clinical trial comparing outcomes of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) as an alternative to pit-and-fissure sealants in a school-based delivery system. Methods: Eighteen caregivers and community-based stakeholders with involvement in the school-based sealant program Sealants for Smiles from the state of Montana, were recruited for this qualitative study. United States (U.S.) Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) methodology standards were used to develop two semi-structured interview guides consisting of 6 questions. One interview guide was used for telephone interviews with caregivers and the second was used for a stakeholder focus group. Content analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Results: All participants believed that a study comparing SDF and sealants was clinically relevant. Non-caregiver stakeholders agreed with the proposed primary outcome of the study (caries prevention) whereas caregivers also emphasized the importance of child-centered outcomes such as minimizing dental anxiety associated with dental care. Stakeholders described potential concerns associated with SDF such as staining and perceptions of safety and discussed ways to address these concerns through community engagement, appropriate framing of the study, proper consent procedures, and ongoing safety monitoring during the trial. Finally, stakeholders suggested dissemination strategies such as direct communication of findings through professional organizations and encouraging insurance plans to incentivize SDF use by reimbursing dental providers. Conclusions: Involving key stakeholders in early planning is essential in developing patient-centered research questions, outcomes measures, study protocols, and dissemination plans for oral health research involving a school-based delivery system. Copyright © 2018

  11. Development of a Novel Alginate-Based Pleural Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    thoracotomy is performed on a anesthetized ventilated live rat (a), an incision is made to induce pleural air leak (b), and sealant material [ liquid ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0107 TITLE: Development of a Novel Alginate-Based Pleural Sealant PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel J. Weiss MD PhD...SUBTITLE Development of a Novel Alginate-Based Pleural Sealant 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0107 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  12. Do light cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants perform better than resin-composite sealants: a 4-year randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.W.; Mulder, J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypotheses tested were: the cumulative survival rates of dentin caries lesion-free pits and fissures of ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants with light-curing (high-intensity LED) and glass-carbomer sealants are higher than those of conventional ART sealants and

  13. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  14. Evaluation of pavement joint sealants :a new testing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-Qudais, Saad A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method to evaluate the performance of sealants, used in rigid pavement joints, was developed. A special fixture was designed to transfer cyclic in-line deflection, applied by a testing machine, to cyclic normal and shear deflections on a sealant sandwiched between two-2 x 2 x 2 in. portland cement mortar cubes. The normal and shear deflections were applied simultaneously at a specific ratio controlled by the developed fixture. The new testing method simulates field ...

  15. Tensile strength of biological fibrin sealants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Laurence; Le Dem, Nicolas; Bubenheim, Michael; Tsilividis, Basile; Mezghani, Julien; Schwartz, Lilian; Francois, Arnaud; Ertaud, Jean Yves; Bagot d'Arc, Maurice; Scotté, Michel

    2012-08-01

    Fibrin sealants are commonly used in liver surgery, although their effectiveness in routine clinical practice remains controversial. Individual sealant characteristics are based on hemostatic effects and adhesion properties that can be experimentally measured using the 'rat skin test' or the 'pig skin test'. This study used a more relevant and realistic experimental canine model to compare the differences in the adhesive properties of four fibrin sealants in hepatectomy: Tisseel/Tissucol, Tachosil, Quixil, and Beriplast. A partial hepatectomy was performed in beagle dogs under general anesthesia to obtain liver cross-sections. Fibrin sealants were allocated to dog livers using a Youden square design. The tensile strength measurement was performed using a traction system to measure the rupture stress point of a small wooden cylinder bonded to the liver cross-section. Significantly greater adhesion properties were observed with Tisseel/Tissucol compared with Quixil or Beriplast (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Similarly, Tachosil demonstrated significantly greater adhesive properties compared with Beriplast (P = 0.009) or Quixil (P = 0.014). No significant differences were observed between Tisseel/Tissucol and Tachosil or between Beriplast and Quixil. The results of this comparative study demonstrate that different fibrin sealants exhibit different adhesive properties. Tisseel/Tissucol and Tachosil provided greatest adhesion to liver cross-section in our canine model of hepatectomy. These results may enable the optimal choice of fibrin sealants for this procedure in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of fibrin sealants in cardiovascular surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousou, John A

    2013-05-01

    Fibrin sealants are used for hemostasis and tissue adherence. This systematic review summarizes published clinical data for fibrin sealant use in cardiovascular surgery. A literature search for the following terms was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE: (TISSEEL or Tissucol or Beriplast P or Evicel or Quixil or Crosseal or Reliseal or Fibringluraas or Bolheal or Tachosil or Vivostat or Vitagel or Artiss or "fibrin glue" or "fibrin sealant" or "fibrin tissue adhesive") and (cardiac or cardiovascular or vascular or heart or coronary or surgery). Case reports and series were excluded; although reports of controlled trials were preferred, uncontrolled trial data were also considered. Clinical trials and chart review analyses of fibrin sealants were identified and summarized. Although clinical trial data were available for other agents, the majority of published studies examined TISSEEL. Overall, TISSEEL and other fibrin sealants showed improvements over standard of care or control groups for a variety of predefined endpoints. Safety findings are also summarized. Data from these studies showed that fibrin sealants were well tolerated and provided effective hemostasis in a range of cardiac and aortic surgeries. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A prospective randomized trial comparing homologous and autologous fibrin sealants for the control of alveolar air leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Burcu; Erşen, Ezel; Demirkaya, Ahmet; Kara, H Volkan; Alizade, Nurlan; İşcan, Mehlika; Kaynak, Kamil; Turna, Akif

    2017-09-01

    Postoperative air leak is a common complication seen after pulmonary resection. It is a significant reason of morbidity and also leads to greater hospital cost owing to prolonged length of stay. The purpose of this study is to compare homologous sealant with autologous one to prevent air leak following pulmonary resection. A total of 57 patients aged between 20 and 79 (mean age: 54.36) who underwent pulmonary resection other than pneumonectomy (lobar or sublobar resections) were analyzed. There were 47 males (83%) and 10 females (17%). Patients who intraoperatively had air leaks were randomized to receive homologous (Tisseel; n=28) or autologous (Vivostat; n=29) fibrin sealant. Differences among groups in terms of air leak, prolonged air leak, hospital stay, amount of air leak were analyzed. Indications for surgery were primary lung cancer in 42 patients (71.9%), secondary malignancy in 5 patients (8.8%), and benign disease in 10 patients (17.5%). Lobectomy was performed in 40 patients (70.2%), whereas 17 patients (29.8%) had wedge resection. Thirteen (46.4%) patients developed complications in patients receiving homologous sealant while 11 (38.0%) patients had complication in autologous sealant group (P=0.711). Median duration of air leak was 3 days in two groups. Time to intercostal drain removal was 3.39 and 3.38 days in homologous and autologous sealant group respectively (P=0.978). Mean hospital stay was 5.5 days in patients receiving homologous sealant whereas it was 5.0 days in patients who had autologous agent (P=0.140). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of measured maximum air leak (P=0.823) and mean air leak (P=0.186). There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between two groups (P=0.711). Autologous and heterologous fibrin sealants are safe and acts similarly in terms of air leak and hospital stay in patients who had resectional surgery.

  18. The differences of saliva pH before and after application of Bis-GMA resin based-pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayub Irmadani Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pit and fissure sealant applications is one way to prevent caries. One of the effective ingredient as a pit and fissure sealant is a Bis-GMA resin. One of the active components  of  Bis-GMA  resin  is  sodium  fluoride,  which is capable  of releasing fluoride ions to the tooth surface and able to improve the repair and remineralization process through the replacement  of  calcium and phosphate ions found in saliva to increase the pH of saliva. This study was to determine the effect of pit and fissure sealant applications made from Bis-GMA resin to pH of saliva in children aged 6-12 years. The study design is pre and post test with control group design. Saliva samples were derived from 15 pediatric patients has met the criteria. The pH of saliva were taken before and after the application of pit and fissure sealant made from Bis-GMA and measured with pH meter. This study used a non-parametric test, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. The results of this study are also supported by the results of statistical tests showed p-: 0.005 (p<0.05 value, which means that there are significant differences in pH of saliva before and after the application of pit and fissure sealant made from Bis-GMA resin.

  19. The effect of surface sealants with different filler content on microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepdeniz, Ozge Kam; Temel, Ugur Burak; Ugurlu, Muhittin; Koskan, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Microleakage is still one of the most cited reasons for failure of resin composite restorations. Alternative methods to prevent microleakage have been investigated increasingly. The aim of this study is to evaluate the microleakage in Class V resin composite restorations with or without application of surface sealants with different filler content. Ninety-six cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces with the coronal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins located in dentin. The cavities restored with an adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) and resin composite (Clearfil Majesty ES-2, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan). Teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and separated into four groups according to the surface sealants (Control, Fortify, Fortify Plus, and G-Coat Plus). The teeth were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5-55° C), immersed in basic fuchsine, sectioned, and analyzed for dye penetration using stereomicroscope. The data were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-Dunn test. The results of the study indicated that there was minimum leakage at the enamel margins of all groups. Bonferroni-Dunn tests revealed that Fortify and GC-Coat groups showed significantly less leakage than the Control group and the Fortify Plus group at dentin margins in lingual surfaces (P < 0.05). The all surface sealants used in this study eliminated microleakage at enamel margins. Moreover, unfilled or nanofilled surface sealants were the most effective in decreasing the degree of marginal microleakage at dentin margins. However, viscosity and penetrability of the sealants could be considered for sealing ability besides composition.

  20. Parents' Attitude towards the Use of Fluorides and Fissure Sealants and its Effect on their Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Sigalit; Ratson, Tal; Peretz, Benjamin; Dagon, Nurit

    To characterize the attitudes of Israeli parents towards caries preventive measures. participating parents completed a 21-item questionnaire on their demographics, dental history, attitudes and satisfaction from fluorides and fissure sealants. One hundred parents (average age 41.62±4.9 years, 85 females) participated. Most of the parents (88% of the mothers and 84% of the fathers) had an academic education. Most of the parents (54%) had a favorable attitude towards the use of fluoridated gels, while only 37% of them had a positive opinion regarding fluoridated water. The satisfaction levels were very high regarding fissure sealants, fluoridated mouth rinses and fluoridated gels (78.1%, 73.6% and 72.5% respectively). The satisfaction from fluoridated water was split almost equally (50.8% were 'pleased' and 49.2% 'not pleased'). The main source for parental oral health knowledge was the dentist (83%). Parents' attitude towards caries preventive measures was significantly correlated to their gender, dental experience, level of education and the number of children in the family. positive attitude towards caries preventive measures was found among parents with higher awareness for preventive oral health measures and among bigger families. Mothers were more positive about fissure sealants than fathers. Mothers with up to 12 years of education tended to have a positive opinion regarding water fluoridation.

  1. 76 FR 79537 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental..., sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. EPA is approving this SIP... miscellaneous industrial adhesives control techniques guideline (CTG) category in accordance with the...

  2. System 80+TM PRA insights on severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Weston, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The System 80 + design is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the System 80 + design are described. The results of the System 80 + PRA are presented and the insights gained from the PRA sensitivity analyses are discussed. ABB-CE considered defense-in-depth for accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process and used robust design features to ensure that the System 80 + design achieved a low core damage frequency, low containment conditional failure probability, and excellent deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions and to ensure that the risk was properly allocated among design features and between prevention and mitigation. (author)

  3. Impact and prevention of severe exacerbations of COPD: a review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, David MG; Miravitlles, Marc; Metzdorf, Norbert; Celli, Bartolomé

    2017-01-01

    Severe exacerbations of COPD, ie, those leading to hospitalization, have profound clinical implications for patients and significant economic consequences for society. The prevalence and burden of severe COPD exacerbations remain high, despite recognition of the importance of exacerbation prevention and the availability of new treatment options. Severe COPD exacerbations are associated with high mortality, have negative impact on quality of life, are linked to cardiovascular complications, and are a significant burden on the health-care system. This review identified risk factors that contribute to the development of severe exacerbations, treatment options (bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids [CSs], oxygen therapy, and ventilator support) to manage severe exacerbations, and strategies to prevent readmission to hospital. Risk factors that are amenable to change have been highlighted. A number of bronchodilators have demonstrated successful reduction in risk of severe exacerbations, including long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting β2-agonist mono- or combination therapies, in addition to vaccination, mucolytic and antibiotic therapy, and nonpharmacological interventions, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. Recognition of the importance of severe exacerbations is an essential step in improving outcomes for patients with COPD. Evidence-based approaches to prevent and manage severe exacerbations should be implemented as part of targeted strategies for disease management. PMID:29062228

  4. Impact and prevention of severe exacerbations of COPD: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin DMG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David MG Halpin,1 Marc Miravitlles,2 Norbert Metzdorf,3 Bartolomé Celli4 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK; 2Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 3Respiratory Medicine, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmBH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 4Pulmonary Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Severe exacerbations of COPD, ie, those leading to hospitalization, have profound clinical implications for patients and significant economic consequences for society. The prevalence and burden of severe COPD exacerbations remain high, despite recognition of the importance of exacerbation prevention and the availability of new treatment options. Severe COPD exacerbations are associated with high mortality, have negative impact on quality of life, are linked to cardiovascular complications, and are a significant burden on the health-care system. This review identified risk factors that contribute to the development of severe exacerbations, treatment options (bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids [CSs], oxygen therapy, and ventilator support to manage severe exacerbations, and strategies to prevent readmission to hospital. Risk factors that are amenable to change have been highlighted. A number of bronchodilators have demonstrated successful reduction in risk of severe exacerbations, including long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting β2-agonist mono- or combination therapies, in addition to vaccination, mucolytic and antibiotic therapy, and nonpharmacological interventions, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. Recognition of the importance of severe exacerbations is an essential step in improving outcomes for patients with COPD. Evidence-based approaches to prevent and manage severe exacerbations should be implemented as part of targeted strategies for disease management. Keywords

  5. 76 FR 59087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental... manufacture, sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. This action is being... consists of Delaware's regulation for reducing VOCs from commercially-used adhesive and sealant products by...

  6. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealants placed as part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Results: The two-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the toothisolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived ...

  7. Marginal leakage of two newer glass-ionomer-based sealant materials assessed using micro-CT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Fan, M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test newer glass-ionomer-based materials as sealant materials. One glass-ionomer sealant was light-cured to obtain an early setting reaction. The null-hypothesis tested was: there is no difference in marginal leakage of sealants produced with high-viscosity glass-ionomer, with and

  8. Effect of chain extender on properties of silicone rubber sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiesheng; Wu, Shaopeng; Mi, Yixuan; Zhu, Guojun; Zheng, Shaoping

    2010-03-01

    The room-temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber sealant was prepared with chain extender. The effect of chain extender on the properties of silicone rubber sealant was discussed. The composite samples with chain extender were investigated from the aspects of tack-free time, cross-linkage density, hardness (penetration number) and adhesive strength with the concrete slab. It was found that the adding of the chain extender effectively makes the molecular chain length increase and causes the mechanical properties improvement. In addition, the increase in the amount of the chain extender reduces the cross-linkage density and hardness of silicone rubber sealant, which is accompanied with a decrease in the tack-free time. Adhesive strength is one of the most important requirements for sealant. The effect of chain extender on the adhesive strength was also investigated in this study. It was found that the increase in the amount of the chain extender makes the adhesive strength between the sealant and the concrete slab decrease.

  9. Prebiotics and probiotics: the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify whether supplementation with prebiotics and/or probiotics help prevent the development or reduce the severity of atopic dermatitis in children less than three years of age. Since 1997, immunostimulatory supplements, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been investigated. Various supplementations include probiotics (single strain or mix), probiotics with formula, probiotics mix with prebiotics, and prebiotics. In this narrative review, we examined 13 key articles on prebiotics and/or probiotics, and their effects on infant atopic dermatitis. Among the selected studies, a total of 3,023 participants received supplements or placebo. Eight out of the 13 (61.5%) studies reported a significant effect on the prevention of atopic dermatitis after supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics. Five out of the 13 (38.5%) studies indicated significant reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis after supplementation. Based on the available studies, supplementation with certain probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) appears to be an effective approach for the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis. A mix of specific probiotic strains prevented atopic dermatitis among infants. Based on studies with prebiotics, there was a long-term reduction in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Supplementation with prebiotics and probiotics appears useful for the reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis. Additional interventional studies exploring prebiotics and probiotics are imperative before recommendations can be made.

  10. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  11. Newborn Bilirubin Screening for Preventing Severe Hyperbilirubinemia and Bilirubin Encephalopathy: A Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Kalpana; Locke, Tiffany; Biringer, Anne; Booth, Allyson; Darling, Elizabeth K; Dougan, Shelley; Harrison, Jane; Hill, Stephen; Johnson, Ana; Makin, Susan; Potter, Beth; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Little, Julian

    2017-01-01

    According to the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics guideline on the management of hyperbilirubinemia, every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia with the help of predischarge total serum bilirubin or transcutaneous bilirubin measurements and/or assessments of clinical risk factors. The aim of this rapid review is 1) to review the evidence for 1) predicting and preventing severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin encephalopathy, 2) determining the efficacy of home/community treatments (home phototherapy) in the prevention of severe hyperbilirubinemia, and 3) non-invasive/transcutaneous methods for estimating serum bilirubin level. In this rapid review, studies were identified through the Medline database. The main outcomes of interest were severe hyperbilirubinemia and encephalopathy. A subset of articles was double screened and all articles were critically appraised using the SIGN and AMSTAR checklists. This review investigated if systems approach is likely to reduce the occurrence of severe hyperbilirubinemia. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Included studies assessed the association between bilirubin measurement early in neonatal life and the subsequent development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy/kernicterus. It was observed that, highest priority should be given to (i) universal bilirubin screening programs; (ii) implementation of community and midwife practice; (iii) outreach to communities for education of prospective parents; and (iv) development of clinical pathways to monitor, evaluate and track infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia. We found substantial observational evidence that severe hyperbilirubinemia can be accurately predicted and prevented through universal bilirubin screening. So far, there is no evidence of any harm. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. [School shootings in Germany: current trends in the prevention of severe, targeted violence in German schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.

  13. Safety and usability of hemostats, sealants, and adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Sandra; Spotnitz, William

    2014-08-01

    Hemostats, sealants, and adhesives are an integral part of surgical patient care. Nurses who have knowledge about these agents can better help ensure safe, efficient surgical patient care. As a caregiver and patient advocate, the perioperative nurse must understand the most current information about these agents and be prepared to facilitate the transfer of this knowledge to all caregivers. Information about these agents, including the contraindications, warnings, and precautions associated with their use as well as their preparation and application, is provided here. Algorithms designed to clarify the best options for using hemostats, sealants, and adhesives are included as well. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glass Composition for the use as a Sealant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a glass composition for the use as a sealant, particularly in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or in a solid oxide electrolyser cell (SOEC). The glass composition comprises 35-70 mol% CaO, 5-45 mol% ZnO, 5-50 mol% B2O3, 1-45 mol% SiO2, and 1 mol% or less of each element...... of the group, comprising Ba, Na and Sr, based on the total glass composition. Furthermore, the invention relates to an SOFC and an SOEC employing a sealant of said glass composition....

  15. Dental sealant knowledge, opinion, values and practice of Spanish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Martin Laura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia. Methods The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047. A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400 were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions. Results The survey population demographics included 190 men (48% and 206 women (52% with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4 years and 9.3 (± 7.5 years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb (p=0.001, but no sex differences between working sector (public/private. The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4. Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale. Statistically significant correlations were

  16. Reimbursement rates and policies for primary molar pit-and-fissure sealants across state Medicaid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Singh, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about Medicaid policies regarding reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars. The authors identified Medicaid programs that reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants and hypothesized that these programs had higher reimbursement rates than did state programs that did not reimburse for primary molar sealants. The authors obtained Medicaid reimbursement data from online fee schedules and determined whether each state Medicaid program reimbursed for primary molar sealants (no or yes). The outcome measure was the reimbursement rate for permanent tooth sealants (calculated in 2012 U.S. dollars). The authors compared mean reimbursement rates by using the t test (α = .05). Seventeen Medicaid programs reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants (34 percent), and the mean reimbursement rate was $27.57 (range, $16.00 [Maine] to $49.68 [Alaska]). All 50 programs reimbursed dentists for placement of sealants on permanent teeth. The mean reimbursement for permanent tooth sealants was significantly higher in programs that reimbursed for primary molar sealants than in programs that did not ($28.51 and $23.67, respectively; P = .03). Most state Medicaid programs do not reimburse dentists for placing sealants on primary molars, but programs that do so have significantly higher reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates are related to dentists' participation in Medicaid and children's dental care use. Reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars is a proxy for Medicaid program generosity.

  17. Neuromuscular exercises prevent severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Leonard; Krutsch, Volker; Weber, Johannes; Nerlich, Michael; Luig, Patrick; Loose, Oliver; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner

    2017-10-20

    Team handball is associated with a high risk of severe knee injury that needs to be reduced, particularly at the youth level. The purpose of this study was to show how an injury-prevention programme effectively reduces severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players. Of 23 adolescent handball teams of both sexes, 13 were randomly allocated into the intervention group (168 players) and 10 into the control group (111 players). Players of the intervention group regularly participated in an injury-prevention programme for one season. Handball exposure and sustained injuries were documented for both groups on a monthly basis. The primary outcome parameter of the injury-prevention programme was the incidence of severe knee injury. Of the 279 included players, 68 (24%) sustained 82 injuries yielding an overall incidence of 1.85 injuries per 1000 h handball exposure (intervention group: 50 injuries/incidence: 1.90/1000 h; control group: 32 injuries/incidence: 1.78/1000 h). Knee injury was the second most frequent injury in adolescent team handball. The primary outcome parameter, severe knee injury occurred significantly more often in the control group [mean age (SD) 15.1 (1.0), injury incidence 0.33/1000 h] than in the intervention group [mean age (SD) 14.9 (0.9), injury incidence 0.04/1000 h]. The odds ratio was 0.11 (95% CI 0.01-0.90), p = 0.019. Other injuries to the lower extremities showed no significant difference between the two groups. Frequent neuromuscular exercises prevent severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players and should thus be included in the practical routine as well as in the education of team coaches.

  18. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing subacute rehabilitation after severe brain injury: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-09

    To uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a subacute rehabilitation department. Pressure ulcers are a major burden for patients and also generate considerable healthcare costs. Pressure ulcers are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary care and primary care. In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical grasp and professional pride." Seven subcategories were summed up into the following three categories: organisation of clinical practice, professional assessment and interactions with the patient. The healthcare professionals' actions to prevent pressure ulcers consisted of attaining the necessary knowledge about pressure ulcer care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect: a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision of daily patient care. We believe this commitment has a very positive effect on prevention of pressure ulcers. Professional knowledge about prevention of pressure ulcer is a necessary requisite, but is not sufficient to ensure effective treatment. To transfer knowledge into practice, we recommend that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are

  19. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost

  20. [Cardiac and metabolic risk factors in severe mental disorders. Task of a prevention manager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederbogen, F; Schwarz, P; Häfner, S; Schweiger, U; Bohus, M; Deuschle, M

    2015-07-01

    People with severe mental disorders have a reduction in life expectancy of 13-30 % compared with the general population. This severe disadvantage is primarily due to an increased prevalence of cardiac and metabolic disorders, especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are the result of untoward health behavior characterized by smoking, low levels of physical activity and unhealthy dietary habits. Obesity, arterial hypertension and lipid disorders are also associated with this behavior and further increase the risk of CHD and type 2 diabetes. Thus, people with mental disorders constitute a population with a high risk of cardiovascular events. Appropriate measures for prevention and therapy are urgently indicated but rarely applied. This article presents new organizational structures to overcome this deficit with a prevention manager playing a central role in organizing and applying preventive and therapeutic care. Results from cardiology and diabetic medicine have shown the effectiveness of pooling this responsibility. The measure has the potential to reduce the increased mortality of people with severe mental disorders.

  1. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  2. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fissure sealants in children and adolescents with a high caries risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusser, Silke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] In Germany, the application of resin-based pits and fissures sealants on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars is part of individual prophylaxis for children and adolescents between six and 18 years. The individual prophylaxis is covered by the Statutory Health Insurance since 1993.The report addresses questions on medical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, as well as ethical, social, and legal implications of pit and fissure sealants in preventing dental caries for children and adolescents at high caries risk. The results of the studies indicate a protective effect of pit and fissure sealants, particularly for children and adolescents at high caries risk. Additionally, the economic evaluation suggests a tendency for cost savings in this group. Nevertheless, a general expansion of the intervention cannot be recommended. All studies show a risk of bias in favour of pit and fissure sealing and a limited transferability to the German health care system. Studies included in the economic evaluation revealed methodological flaws. Both the economic models and primary studies do not provide reliable results.

  3. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  4. Migration of PCBs from Sealants to Adjacent Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Kampmann, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    PCB in sealants can migrate into porous surfaces like concrete and brick and contaminate these materials. The study focuses on an analysis of concentration profiles in relation to alleviation of PCB contamination. The PCB content was determined in 20 samples of concrete and 6 samples of brick adj...

  5. Prevention of Severe Hypoglycemia-Induced Brain Damage and Cognitive Impairment with Verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; Michael, Trevin; Vieira de Abreu, Adriana; Agrawal, Rahul; Bortolato, Marco; Fisher, Simon J

    2018-05-03

    People with insulin-treated diabetes are uniquely at risk for severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. Since calcium influx may mediate brain damage, we tested the hypothesis that the calcium channel blocker, verapamil, would significantly reduce brain damage and cognitive impairment caused by severe hypoglycemia. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; 1) control hyperinsulinemic (200 mU.kg -1 min -1 ) euglycemic (80-100mg/dl) clamps (n=14), 2) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic (10-15mg/dl) clamps (n=16), or 3) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps followed by a single treatment with verapamil (20mg/kg) (n=11). As compared to euglycemic controls, hypoglycemia markedly increased dead/dying neurons in the hippocampus and cortex, by 16-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Verapamil treatment strikingly decreased hypoglycemia-induced hippocampal and cortical damage, by 87% and 94%, respectively. Morris Water Maze probe trial results demonstrated that hypoglycemia induced a retention, but not encoding, memory deficit (noted by both abolished target quadrant preference and reduced target quadrant time). Verapamil treatment significantly rescued spatial memory as noted by restoration of target quadrant preference and target quadrant time. In summary, a one-time treatment with verapamil following severe hypoglycemia prevented neural damage and memory impairment caused by severe hypoglycemia. For people with insulin treated diabetes, verapamil may be a useful drug to prevent hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Severe maternal morbidity due to sepsis: The burden and preventability of disease in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Sam; Lawton, Beverley; Geller, Stacie; Abels, Peter; MacDonald, Evelyn J

    2018-02-20

    Sepsis is a life-threatening systemic condition that appears to be increasing in the obstetric population. Clinical detection can be difficult and may result in increased morbidity via delays in the continuum of patient care. To describe the burden of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) caused by sepsis in New Zealand and investigate the potential preventability. A multidisciplinary expert review panel was established to review cases of obstetric sepsis admitted to intensive care or high-dependency units over an 18 month span in New Zealand. Cases were then analysed for the characteristics of infection and their preventability. Fifty cases met the inclusion criteria, most commonly due to uterine, respiratory or kidney infection. Fifty per cent (25) of these cases were deemed potentially preventable, predominantly due to delays in diagnosis and treatment. A high index of suspicion, development of early recognition systems and multi-disciplinary training are recommended to decrease preventable cases of maternal sepsis. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation after severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a sub-acute rehabilitation department. BACKGROUND: PUs is a major burden for patients and also generate considerable...... healthcare costs. PUs are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary and primary care. DESIGN: In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory...... that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life of patients with severe brain injury. This article...

  8. Severe accident analysis to prevent high pressure scenarios in the EPR TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarian, G.; Gandrille, P.; Gasperini, M.; Klein, R.

    2010-01-01

    The EPR TM has incorporated several design features in order to specifically address major severe accident safety issues. In particular, it was designed with the objective to transfer high pressure core melt scenarios into a low pressure scenario with high reliability so that a high pressure vessel failure can be practically eliminated. It is the key issue in the defense-in-depth approach, for a postulated severe accident with core melting, to prevent any risk of containment failure due to possible Direct Containment Heating or due to reactor vessel rocketing which results from vessel failure at high pressure. Temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture, which could lead to a radiological containment bypass, has also to be prevented. On the basis of the analysis of the main high pressure core melt scenarios which are calculated with the MAAP4.07 code which was developed to support the EPR TM, this paper explores the benefits of primary depressurization by dedicated valves on transient evolutions. It specifically addresses the thermal response of the structures by sensitivity studies involving the timing of valve actuation. It outlines that a grace period of at least one hour is available for a delayed valve actuation without inducing excessive loads and without increasing the risk of a temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture. (authors)

  9. Motor Recovery and Synaptic Preservation after Ventral Root Avulsion and Repair with a Fibrin Sealant Derived from Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbizan, Roberta; Castro, Mateus V.; Rodrigues, Antônio C.; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui S.; Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old) were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1) avulsion only and 2) replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera). Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the astroglial reaction and

  10. Motor recovery and synaptic preservation after ventral root avulsion and repair with a fibrin sealant derived from snake venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Barbizan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1 avulsion only and 2 replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera. Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the

  11. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: PWR, large dry containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Cho, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Maly, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in PWRs with large dry containments have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of risk assessments performed specifically for the Zion plant and from assessments of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the large dry containment to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a PWR with a large dry containment, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were identified. The report is issued to provide focus to the analyst examining an individual plant. The report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic tributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Zion and other PWRs with large dry containments. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  12. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: PWR, ice-condenser containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.J.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Cho, N.; Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Maly, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions which have been found to be important in either preventing and mitigating severe accidents in PWRs with ice-condenser containments have been identified. Thus features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of risk assessments performed specifically for the Sequoyah plant and from assessments of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the ice-condenser containment to sever accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a PWR with an ice-condenser containment, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. The report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Sequoyah and other PWRs with ice-condenser containments. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance. 14 tabs

  13. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR, Mark II containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark II containments (BWR Mark II's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Limerick and Shoreham plants and from other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark II to severe-accident containment loads were also noted. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark II, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Mark II plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  14. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  15. Ocular firework trauma: a systematic review on incidence, severity, outcome and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, R P L; Bijlsma, W R; Stilma, J S

    2010-12-01

    To provide a systematic review on ocular firework trauma with emphasis on incidence and patient demographics, the extent of ocular trauma and visual function loss, and firework regulation effects on injury rates. A literature search was performed using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic characteristics of ocular firework casualties were obtained and incidence rates of sustained trauma and vision loss calculated. Twenty-six relevant articles were suitable for calculation of trauma incidence and patient demographics, of which 17 articles could be used for calculating trauma severity and vision loss. Victims were male (77%), young (82%) and often bystander (47%). Most of the trauma was mild and temporary. Penetrating eye trauma, globe contusions and burns accounted for 18.2%, with a 3.9% enucleation rate. Mean visual acuity was >10/20 in 56.8%, with severe vision loss (firework legislation show 87% less eye trauma (pfirework traumas show severe vision loss, mostly in young males. Bystanders are as frequently injured. Firework traumas are a preventable cause of severe ocular injury and blindness because countries using restrictive firework legislation have remarkable lower trauma incidence rates.

  16. Tertiary individual prevention improves mental health in patients with severe occupational hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, K; John, S M; Finkeldey, F; Boehm, D; Skudlik, C; Wulfhorst, B; Dwinger, C; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Schmid-Ott, G

    2015-09-01

    Occupational hand eczema (OHE) is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and mental distress. Interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation measures in the framework of tertiary individual prevention (TIP) offered by the German employers' liability insurance associations include dermatological treatment, education and psychological interventions. To investigate the effects of interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation in the framework of TIP on mental health in patients with severe OHE and the relationships between recovery of OHE and improvement of mental health and QoL. A total of 122 patients participated in the study. A test battery consisting of the German versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS) was applied at the time of admission (T1) and 3 weeks after dismissal (T2). Severity of hand eczema was assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). All parameters improved significantly from T1 to T2. A relationship was established between the improvement of QoL and recovery of OHE, while there was no such relationship between the improvement of mental distress and improvement of OHE. Nonresponders had significantly more cumulative days of sickness at T1. Our data underscore the importance of psychological interventions in addition to dermatological treatment in the framework of prevention measures for OHE. These measures should be applied at an early stage of OHE prior to the occurrence of sick leave. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. [Eosinophilic pleural effusion possibly induced by fibrin sealant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takatoyo; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 74-year-old man underwent right upper lobectomy for the lung cancer and bullectomy of right lower lobe. Fibrin sealant was used for sealing the excision line. The increase of the pleural effusion with increasing C-reactive protein( CRP) and eosinophilia was noted at the 17th day after the operation. The pleural effusion was transparent and yellowish colored suggesting transudatory liquid. The eosinophil in the pleural effusion was as high as 14%. The drainage of the pleural effusion was performed for 2 days resulting in disappearing the abnormal accumulation without any additional treatment. The cause of pleural effusion was supposed to be fibrin sealant by a positive result of the drug lymphocyte stimulation test.

  18. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  19. Hemostats, sealants, and adhesives: components of the surgical toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, William D; Burks, Sandra

    2008-07-01

    The surgical toolbox is expanding, and newer products are being developed to improve results. Reducing blood loss so that bloodless surgery can be performed may help minimize morbidity and length of stay. As patients, hospital administrators, and government regulators desire less invasive procedures, the surgical technical challenge is increasing. More operations are being performed through minimally invasive incisions with laparoscopic, endoscopic, and robotic approaches. In this setting, tools that can reduce bleeding by causing blood to clot, sealing vessels, or gluing tissues are gaining an increasing importance. Thus, hemostats, sealants, and adhesives are becoming a more important element of surgical practice. This review is designed to facilitate the reader's basic knowledge of these tools so that informed choices are made for controlling bleeding in specific clinical situations. Such information is useful for all members of the operative team. The team includes surgeons, anesthesiologists, residents, and nurses as well as hematologists and other medical specialists who may be involved in the perioperative care of surgical patients. An understanding of these therapeutic options may also be helpful to the transfusion service. In some cases, these materials may be stored in the blood bank, and their appropriate use may reduce demand for other transfusion components. The product classification used in this review includes hemostats as represented by product categories that include mechanical agents, active agents, flowables, and fibrin sealants; sealants as represented by fibrin sealants and polyethylene glycol hydrogels; and adhesives as represented by cyanoacrylates and albumin cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Only those agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and presently available (February 2008) for sale in the United States are discussed in this review.

  20. A reversible thermoresponsive sealant for temporary closure of ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Niki; Zhang, Yi; Falabella, Paulo; Menefee, Roby; Whalen, John J; Humayun, Mark S; Thompson, Mark E

    2017-12-06

    Open globe injuries are full-thickness injuries sustained to the eye wall (cornea or sclera), which cause immediate drops in intraocular pressure that may lead to retinal detachment and permanent vision loss if not treated rapidly after injury. The current standard of care for open globe injuries consists of suturing the margins closed, but the technique can be time-consuming, requires specialized training and equipment, and can lead to patient discomfort, abrasion, and infection from eye rubbing. We engineered an injectable, thermoresponsive sealant (TRS) and a custom tool to occlude open globe injuries. The smart hydrogel sealant consists of physically cross-linked N -isopropylacrylamide copolymerized with butylacrylate. At low temperatures, it can be injected as a liquid, and when raised to body temperature, a heat-induced gelation converts the hydrogel into a solidified occlusion. The sealant can be repositioned or removed without causing additional trauma via exposure to cold water. In vitro and ex vivo assessments of mechanical adhesion to eye tissue revealed maintenance of intraocular pressure that is five times greater than the physiological range with reversible seal strength comparable to cyanoacrylate (super glue). In vivo assessment in a rabbit model of ocular trauma demonstrated ease of use for TRS deployment, statistically significant improvement in wound sealing, and no evidence of neurotoxicity, retinal tissue degradation, or significant chronic inflammatory response after 30 days of exposure. Given the advantages of body heat-induced gelation, rapid reversible occlusion, and in vivo safety and efficacy, shape-adaptable TRSs have translational potential as smart wound sealants for temporary occlusion of surgical incisions or traumatic injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Effectiveness of a new gelatin sealant system for dural closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shuko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2014-10-01

    Watertight dural closure is imperative after neurosurgical procedures because inadequately treated leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can have serious consequences. In this study, the authors test the use of a new gelatin glue as a dural sealant in in vitro and in vivo canine models of transdural CSF leakage. The in vitro model was sutured semicircles of canine dura mater and artificial dural substitute. The sutures were sealed with gelatin glue (n  =  20), fibrin glue (n  =  20), or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel sealant (n  =  20). Each sample was set in a device to measure water pressure, and pressure was increased until leakage occurred. Bonding strength was subjectively evaluated. The in vivo model was dogs who underwent dural excision and received either no sealant (control group; n  =  5) or gelatin glue sealant (n  =  5) before dural closure. Twenty-eight days post-surgery, the maximum intracranial pressure was measured at the cisterna magna using Valsalva maneuver and tissue adhesion was evaluated. The water pressure at which leakage occurred in the in vitro model was higher with gelatin glue (76·5 ± 39·8 mmHg) than with fibrin glue (38·3 ± 27·4 mmHg, P control group (13·8 ± 4·0 mmHg, P control group (P  =  0·005). The new gelatin glue provides an effective watertight closure when used as an adjunct to sutured dural repair.

  2. An accelerated exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C C; Hunston, D L; Tan, K T; Hettenhouser, J; Garver, J D

    2013-09-01

    The design, fabrication, and implementation of a computer-controlled exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants are described in this paper. This apparatus is unique in its ability to independently control and monitor temperature, relative humidity, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and mechanical deformation. Each of these environmental factors can be controlled precisely over a wide range of conditions during periods of a month or more. Moreover, as controlled mechanical deformations can be generated, in situ mechanical characterization tests can be performed without removing specimens from the chamber. Temperature and humidity were controlled during our experiments via a precision temperature regulator and proportional mixing of dry and moisture-saturated air; while highly uniform UV radiation was attained by attaching the chamber to an integrating sphere-based radiation source. A computer-controlled stepper motor and a transmission system were used to provide precise movement control. The reliability and effectiveness of the apparatus were demonstrated on a model sealant material. The results clearly show that this apparatus provides an excellent platform to study the long-term durability of building joint sealants.

  3. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community-dwelling women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city......, or no intervention. Results: The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in community-dwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  4. Effect of a surface sealant on the color stability of composite resins after immersion in staining solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Lauana Borges; Barreto, Luma Franciélle Cabreira; Miotti, Leonardo Lamberti; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Durand, Leticia Brandão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of surface sealants on the color stability of 2 different composite resins after immersion in coffee. Four groups were created (n = 10): microhybrid composite, microhybrid with surface sealant, nanofilled composite, and nanofilled composite with surface sealant. Half of the specimens of each group were immersed in distilled water and half were immersed in coffee for 48 hours. Color was measured before and after immersion. Groups with surface sealants presented less color variation when compared with the groups without surface sealants. The nanofilled resin specimens presented the greatest color variation within the groups without sealant. The surface sealant positively influenced the color stability of composite resin specimens immersed in coffee. When surface sealant was not applied, the microhybrid specimens had better color stability than the nanofilled.

  5. Severed cuff inflation tubing of endotracheal tube: A novel way to prevent cuff deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrut K; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Joseph, Tim T; Kamble, Deependra; Gotur, Gopal; Venkatesh, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    A well-secured endotracheal tube (ETT) is essential for safe anesthesia. The ETT has to be fixed with the adhesive plasters or with tie along with adhesive plasters appropriately. It is specially required in patients having beard, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients or in oral surgeries. If re-adjustment of the ETT is necessary, we should be cautious while removal of the plasters and tie, as there may be damage to the cuff inflation system. This can be a rare cause of ETT cuff leak, thus making maintenance of adequate ventilation difficult and requiring re-intubation. In a difficult airway scenario, it can be extremely challenging to re-intubate again. We report an incidence where the ETT cuff tubing was severed while attempting to re-adjust and re-fix the ETT and the patient required re-intubation. Retrospectively, we thought of and describe a safe, reliable and novel technique to prevent cuff deflation of the severed inflation tube. The technique can also be used to monitor cuff pressure in such scenarios.

  6. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  7. The effect of bonding agents on the microleakage of sealant following contamination with saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askarizadeh Nahid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims : An issue of concern in dentistry is the inadequacy of adhesion and proper sealing following restoration of a tooth, which can lead to marginal leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a bonding agent on the microleakage of a sealant material following contamination with saliva. Materials and Methods : In this experimental research, 48 sound premolars were divided into two groups. The first group received sealant without bonding and the other group was given sealant with bonding. After prophylaxis, the occlusal surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel and the teeth were then placed in fresh human saliva for l0 s. Following this, in the first group fissure sealant (Kerr was applied directly and cured; for the second group sealant was placed and cured after bonding (Single Bond; 3M. All samples were thermocycled (500 cycles; between 5°C and 55°C; dwell time of 30 s. Silver nitrate was used as the leakage tracer. The teeth were sectioned. Microleakage evaluation was made by stereomicroscope at 40x magnification and the results were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results : In the group that received sealant without bonding extensive microleakage was seen; placement of sealant with bonding significantly reduced microleakage. Conclusion : In the presence of contamination with saliva, use of bonding under the fissure sealant can reduce microleakage

  8. 76 FR 64237 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...-9480-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adhesives and Sealants... chemical production and polytetrafluoroethylene operations; from paint, resin, and adhesive manufacturing; and from adhesive and sealant application. This SIP revision also pertains to an addition of a new...

  9. Effectiveness of two new types of sealants: retention after 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Du, M.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Huysmans, M.C.; Frencken, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The hypotheses tested were: survival rate of fully and partially retained glass-carbomer sealants is higher than those of high-viscosity glass-ionomer, with and without energy supplied, and that of resin composite; survival rate of fully and partially retained sealants of high-viscosity

  10. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, M

    2001-01-01

    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication

  11. Process for nondestructively testing with radioactive gas using a chill set sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    An article surface is nondestructively tested for substantially invisible surface voids by absorbing a radioactive gas thereon. The adsorbed radioactive gas is disproportionately retained on those surfaces presented by the substantially invisible surface voids as compared to the remaining surfaces of the article contacted by the radioactive gas. The radiation released by the radioactive gas remaining adsorbed is used to identify the substantially invisible voids. To immobilize the radioactive gas adjacent or within the surface voids, a sealant composition is provided which is capable of being chill set. The temperatures of the article surface to be tested and the sealant composition are then related so that the article surface is at a temperature below the chill set temperature of the sealant composition and the sealant composition is at a temperature above its chill set temperature. The article portion to be tested is then coated with sealant composition to form a chill set coating thereon of substantially uniform thickness. (U.S.)

  12. Determining critical groundwater level to prevent degraded peatland from severe peat fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, E. I.; Cochrane, M. A.; Vetrita, Y.; Graham, L.; Saharjo, B. H.

    2018-05-01

    Peat fires have been a severe recurrent problem for Indonesia, but droughts due to prolonged dry season aggravate burning conditions. To get a better understanding of this issue, we studied fire conditions in a portion of the ex-Mega Rice Project (MRP) area, Central Kalimantan. To examine fire season and hydrology factors affecting peat fires we analyzed daily TRMM data, Nino 3.4 SST Anomalies, and changing groundwater levels (GWL) from 300 dipwells. Our results quantify time-lags between the period of lowest precipitation and the lowest GWL; providing some ability to predict fire risk in advance of the lowest GWL. The rise of Nino 3.4 SST anomalies is significant risk factors for peat fire as they signify dry months which may yield large fire occurrences. GWL in 2011 was lower than in 2012, but fires were more frequent in 2012, indicating that low precipitation amounts in the wet season of 2011/2012 left the peat in a dry condition early in 2012. Most of the fires occurred in areas with GWL less than -30 cm, powerfully illustrating the importance of maintaining GWL at more than -10 cm, to prevent degraded peatlands from experiencing surface and deep peat fires.

  13. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  14. Autologous fibrin sealant reduces the incidence of prolonged air leak and duration of chest tube drainage after lung volume reduction surgery: a prospective randomized blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, C; Opitz, I; Zhai, W; Rousson, V; Russi, E W; Weder, W; Lardinois, D

    2008-10-01

    Prolonged air leak is reported in up to 50% of patients after lung volume reduction surgery. The effect of an autologous fibrin sealant on the intensity and duration of air leak and on the time to chest drain removal after lung volume reduction surgery was investigated in a randomized prospective clinical trial. Twenty-five patients underwent bilateral thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery. In each patient, an autologous fibrin sealant was applied along the staple lines on one side, whereas no additional measure was taken on the other side. Randomization of treatment was performed at the end of the resection on the first side. Air leak was assessed semiquantitatively by use of a severity score (0 = no leak; 4 = continuous severe leak) by two investigators blinded to the treatment. Mean value of the total severity scores for the first 48 hours postoperative was significantly lower in the treated group (4.7 +/- 7.7) than in the control group (16.0 +/- 10.1) (P drainage were also significantly reduced after application of the sealant (4.5% and 2.8 +/- 1.9 days versus 31.8% and 5.9 +/- 2.9 days) (P = .03 and P drainage.

  15. Comparison of various concentrations of tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles on mechanical properties and remineralization of fissure sealants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tavassoli-Hojjati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties (flexural strength, micro-shear bond strength and remineralizing potential of fissure sealants by adding various concentrations of β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles.This in-vitro study consisted of five experimental groups containing prepared nano-fisssure sealants (1-5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles and two control groups containing a prepared and a commercial fissure sealant. Flexural/micro-shear bond strength values were measured using Zwick test machine. Cavities on sixty healthy premolar teeth were filled with the fissure sealants containing 0-5 wt.% of nano β-TCP. The samples were assessed for remineralization under scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDAX. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post Hoc analysis/HSD were used to analyze the data.There was no significant difference between the flexural strengths/elastic modulus of the 0-5 wt.% nano β-TCP groups (p>0.05. The average flexural strength/elastic modulus of the prepared fissure sealant group (0% was significantly higher than the commercial fissure sealant group (Clinpro (p0.05. Examining the samples under SEM showed a significant increase in thickness of the intermediate layer with increasing concentrations of β-TCP nanoparticles (p<0.05.Addition of 1-5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles to the fissure sealants significantly increased the remineralization potential without affecting the mechanical properties.

  16. A 1-year clinical evaluation of fissure sealants on permanent first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Ninawe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods : Thirty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, who were attending the school health program regularly, had participated in the study. A split-mouth design was used in which the two fissure sealants (Helioseal-F and Glass ionomer Fuji VII were randomly placed in 60 matched contralateral pairs of permanent molar teeth. Sealants were rated by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirrors and probes following the US Public Health Service criteria. The sealants were evaluated at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Results : The data obtained for retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants were tabulated and compared statistically using the Chi-square test of significance. Conclusion : The Helioseal-F sealant was better than the Glass ionomer Fuji VII sealant with respect to retention, anatomical form and surface texture. Both the materials showed similar results with respect to marginal discoloration.

  17. Does Fibrin Sealant Reduce Seroma after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Utilizing a Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Cha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common complication of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in breastreconstruction is seroma formation in the back. Many clinical studies have shown that fibrinsealant reduces seroma formation. We investigated any statistically significant differences inpostoperative drainage and seroma formation when utilizing the fibrin sealant on the site ofthe latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap harvested for immediate breast reconstruction afterskin-sparing partial mastectomy.Methods A total of 46 patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction utilizing alatissimus dorsi myocutaneous island flap. Of those, 23 patients underwent the procedurewithout fibrin sealant and the other 23 were administered the fibrin sealant. All flaps wereelevated with manual dissection by the same surgeon and were analyzed to evaluate thepotential benefits of the fibrin sealant. The correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U testwere used for analyzing the drainage volume according to age, weight of the breast specimen,and body mass index.Results Although not statistically significant, the cumulative drainage fluid volume was higherin the control group until postoperative day 2 (530.1 mL compared to 502.3 mL, but thefibrin sealant group showed more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3. The donor sitecomparisons showed the fibrin sealant group had more drainage beginning on postoperativeday 3 and the drain was removed 1 day earlier in the control group.Conclusions The use of fibrin sealant resulted in no reduction of seroma formation. Becausethe benefits of the fibrin sealant are not clear, the use of fibrin sealant must be fully discussedwith patients before its use as a part of informed consent.

  18. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Naperville, IL; Jeong, Seung-Young [Taejon, KR; McDaniel, Richard [Crest Hill, IL

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  20. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study was conducted on 28 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, aged 6.5-9.8 years. Children underwent one introductory (desensitization) appointment and three treatment sessions. During the introductory session, children had the procedures explained to them, they watched a movie projected on a screen while oral screening and assessment of cooperation level were carried out. In treatment session I, oral examination, charting, and dental x-rays were undertaken, whereas the children watched movies with or without video eyewear. During treatment sessions II/III, dental prophylaxis was carried out on upper and lower jaws in addition to the application of dental sealants on the right upper and lower and the left upper and lower permanent molars, respectively, while the children were distracted by cartoon movies using video eyewear. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Independent samples t -test was used to assess the significance of changes in pulse and O 2 saturation levels during each visit. International Caries Detection and Assessment System-code 2 was found to be the most prevalent ( n = 58; 52%). A significant difference ( P behavior in the subjects. Video eyewear distraction proved an effective tool in managing children with autism spectrum disorder during noninvasive preventive dental procedures.

  1. Comparison of microleakage between flowable nanocomposite, flowable Composite and Conventional sealant in fissure sealant therapy of the permanent teeth: an in- vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Maleki Kambakhsh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Novel dental materials including nanocomposites have been introduced in recent years. It is claimed that they have superior properties such as high esthetic., low wear, increased filler content resulting in better mechanical properties, and releasing ions i.e. fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate that are important for enamel remineralization. Considering these features, if they have retention and microleakage rates comparable with conventional sealants, these materials can be appropriate alternatives to conventional resin sealants in future. The current study aimed at comparing . microleakage of a flowable nanocomposite, a flowable composite , and a conventional sealant in fissure sealant therapy of the permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: First of all ,42 extracted sound human maxillary first premolars were collected and were randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Then the teeth were embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Occlusal fissures of the samples were cleaned using explorer, enameloplasty with ¼ round diamond bur and water/air spray was done. The prepared surfaces were etched using 36% phosphoric acid gel for 15s, rinsed and dried. Bonding agent was placed in the pits and fissures, cured for 10s after thinning with air. In the first, second , and the third group conventional sealant, flowable composite , and flowable nanocomposite were placed, respectively; and light cured for 40s. The samples were thermocycled (1000 cycles between 5-55ºC and then immersed in 2% basic Fuchsine solution for 24hs. They were then cut bucculingually and microleakage evaluation was done using stereomicroscope. The obtained data was analyzed using Kruskal wallis tests. Results: There was no significant difference in microleakage rate of the study groups. (P>0.05. Conclusion: Considering the condition of the study, it can be concluded that flowable composite and flowable nanocomposite can be used as suitable alternatives to

  2. Preventing Schizophrenia and Severe Mental Illness: A Grand Challenge for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a leading cause of disability and health expenditure worldwide and is associated with homelessness, substance use, familial and social isolation, unemployment, involvement with the criminal justice system, stigma, and excess mortality. Prevention may be feasible through intervention with help-seeking "clinical high-risk"…

  3. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielson, KK; Rogers, VC; Holt, RB; Pugh, TD; Grondzik, WA; deMeijer, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains, Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure

  4. THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVE OF HERMETIZATION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES WITH USE OF RUBBER SEALANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Leshchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The works on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferroconcrete and pig-iron, including tunnel elements for the underground, are carried out.

  5. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Asawa, Kailash; Gupta, Vivek V.; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bapat, Salil; Mishra, Prashant; Roy, Santanu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysi...

  6. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  7. Self-Healable and Reprocessable Polysulfide Sealants Prepared from Liquid Polysulfide Oligomer and Epoxy Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wentong; Bie, Mengyao; Liu, Fu; Chang, Pengshan; Quan, Yiwu

    2017-05-10

    Polysulfide sealants have been commercially applied in many industrial fields. In this article, we study the self-healing property of the epoxy resin-cured polysulfide sealants for the first time. The obtained sealants showed a flexible range of ultimate elongation of 157-478% and a tensile strength of 1.02-0.75 MPa corresponding to different polysulfide oligomers. By taking advantage of the dynamic reversible exchange of disulfide bonds, polysulfide sealants exhibited good self-healing ability under a moderate thermal stimulus. A higher molecular weight and a lower degree of cross-linking of polysulfide oligomer were helpful in improving the ultimate elongation and healing efficiency of the polysulfide sealants. After subjecting to a temperature of 75 °C for 60 min, both the tensile strength and ultimate elongation of a fully cut sample, LP55-F, were restored to 91% of the original values, without affecting the sealing property. Furthermore, the sample exhibited excellent reshaping and reprocessing abilities. These outcomes offer a paradigm toward sustainable industrial applications of the polysulfide-based sealants.

  8. Low-cost glass ionomer cement as ART sealant in permanent molars: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela HESSE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are normally performed with well-known brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC, but the cost of these materials is high for public healthcare in less-affluent communities. Given the need to research cheaper materials, it seems pertinent to investigate the retention rate of a low-cost GIC applied as atraumatic restorative treatment (ART sealants in two centers in Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-seven 6-to-8-year-old schoolchildren were selected in two cities in Brazil. The children were randomly divided into two groups, according to the tested GIC applied in the first permanent molars. The retention rate was evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test were performed. The variables were tested for association with sealant longevity, using logistic regression analyses (α = 5%. The retention rate of sealants after 12 months was 19.1%. The high-cost GIC brand presented a 2-fold-more-likely-to-survive rate than the low-cost brand (p < 0.001. Significant difference was also found between the cities where the treatments were performed, in that Barueri presented a higher sealant survival rate than Recife (p < 0.001. The retention rate of a low-cost GIC sealant brand was markedly lower than that of a well-known GIC sealant brand.

  9. A comparison between three different pit and fissure sealants with regard to marginal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin; Chalakkal, Paul; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Pavaskar, Rajdeep; Fernandes, Precylia Philo; Soni, Harleen

    2012-04-01

    THE AIM OF THIS STUDY IS TO COMPARE THE OCCURRENCE OF ENAMEL FRACTURES, SEALANT FRACTURES AND MARGINAL FISSURES AFTER PLACEMENT OF THREE SEALANTS: Helioseal F, Conseal F and Clinpro. Thirty individuals between 13 and 15 years of age, diagnosed with pit and fissure caries by visual and DIAGNOdent examination, were chosen for sealant placement on their mandibular molars. The sealants were placed at random, after which, impressions were made with polyvinyl siloxane and casts were fabricated. Dies were prepared, each of which were sputter coated with gold in order to be examined under a scanning electron microscope. The following morphologies were analyzed from dies from each of the sealant groups: Continuous margins, sealant fractures, marginal fissures and enamel fractures. After six months, they were recalled for impression making. Dies were prepared and microscopically analyzed as mentioned. Based on the time of evaluation, there were two groups: Initial group (soon after placement) and final group (after six months). Statistical analysis was done using the paired 't' test and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Clinpro had the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Conseal F and Helioseal F. The occurrence of marginal fissure was found to be least with Clinpro.

  10. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelko, Alexander Martin; Dáňová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  11. 40 CFR 63.6000 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for puncture sealant application affected sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Puncture Sealant Application... balances to demonstrate compliance, if the storage of materials, exhaust, or the wastewater from more than...

  12. Evaluation of a cavity flooding strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, TaeJon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the evaluation of accident management strategies for severe accident prevention or mitigation in a station blackout scenario for YGN 3 and 4, an external vessel cooling strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure has been estimated using the MAAP4 computer code. The sensitivity studies have been performed such as actuating timings and the number of spray pumps used. To explore external vessel cooling strategies, containment spray pumps were actuated by varying time spanning core uncovery, core melting and relocation of molten core material. It was shown that flooding of the reactor cavity using the containment spray system may prevent reactor vessel failure but may not prevent the failure of the relocation of molten core material during the station blackout sequence of YGN 3 and 4. Reactor vessel failure can be prevented by external vessel cooling using condensed water from the operation of two containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pump at the time of core uncovery. (Author) 46 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Open trial of cimetidine in the prevention of upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in patients with severe intracranial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouawad, E; Deloof, T; Genette, F; Vandesteene, A

    1983-01-01

    The present study evaluates the efficacy of Cimetidine in the prevention of clinically important gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in patients suffering from severe head injury. Fifty patients (39 males and 11 females) were included in the study. We excluded from the trial patients on anticoagulant therapy or concomitant non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents, pregnant and lactating women, and patients with previous histories of peptic ulcer disease.

  14. Prevention and management of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An evidence-based strategy exists to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality associated with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E), but it may be difficult to implement in low-resource settings. This study examines whether facilities that provide emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in Afghanistan have the capacity to manage severe PE/E cases. Methods A further analysis was conducted of the 2009–10 Afghanistan EmONC Needs Assessment. Assessors observed equipment and supplies available, and services provided at 78 of the 127 facilities offering comprehensive EmONC services and interviewed 224 providers. The providers also completed a written case scenario on severe PE/E. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize facility and provider characteristics. Student t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were significant differences between facility types, doctors and midwives, and trained and untrained providers. Results The median number of severe PE/E cases in the past year was just 5 (range 0–42) at comprehensive health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals, compared with 44 (range 0–130) at provincial hospitals and 108 (range 32–540) at regional and specialized hospitals (p Afghanistan, but providers lack knowledge in some areas, especially concerning the use of MgSO4 and diazepam. Providers who have specialized training or work at larger facilities are better at managing cases of severe PE/E. The findings suggest a need to clarify service delivery guidelines, offer refresher training, and reinforce best practices with supervision and reinforcement. PMID:24119329

  15. Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  16. The journey from traffic offender to severe road trauma victim: destiny or preventive opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Rao, Sudhakar; Burrell, Maxine; Weeramanthri, Tarun S

    2015-01-01

    Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences. Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA) State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15), and intensive care admission (ICU) or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male), 1955 (18.9%) had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4%) had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2%) required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6%) died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7%) patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05), severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15), and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11). Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0) and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6) compared to before the trauma event. Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.

  17. The journey from traffic offender to severe road trauma victim: destiny or preventive opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok M Ho

    Full Text Available Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences.Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15, and intensive care admission (ICU or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male, 1955 (18.9% had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4% had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2% required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6% died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7% patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05, severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15, and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11. Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0 and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6 compared to before the trauma event.Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.

  18. Severe Hemorrhage from the Umbilical Cord at Birth: A Preventable Cause of Neonatal Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neetu; Suresh, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe...

  19. Measures for preventing and mitigating severe accidents of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge

    1993-01-01

    Safety goals, integrity of the containment, accident management, functions of existing equipment and measures and emergency preparedness are discussed as technical basis for implementing the new safety code on the nuclear power plant safety design (HAF-0200(91)). The main quantitative safety goals are presented as core melt frequency -5 /ry for new plants and -4 /ry for existing or constructed plants, and 0.1% I, Cs release frequency -6 /ry. To keep the integrity of the containment, main efforts should be placed on the prevention of early failure of the containment and by pass or isolation failures. Should a late failure of the containment occur at a high probability, measures such as filtering vent should be considered. The leak rate of the containment could be higher than the previous 0.1-0.5 wt%/day, depending on the source term and dose results. But, a limiting leak rate of 1 wt%/day is defined. Accident management involves emergency operating procedures, training and retraining for the AM and adding some supporting equipment and display and diagnostic system for the AM. Those requirements are described. Emergency preparedness and measures can reduced the risk significantly. In the most case of accidents, sheltering is preferred as an effective protective actions

  20. Dental Health Behavior in the Prevention of Pulmonary TB at Health Centre in Several Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indirawati Tjahja Notohartojo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary TB is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. Dental health professionals such as dentists and dental nurses are in charge of health personnel to prevent, treat, cure, teeth the mouth, so as not to arise or aggravate toothache. In doing their job as dental health workers is expected to use gloves or masks, and always wash their hands to avoid the transmission of pulmonary TB disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted involving 78 dental health professionals in 50 primary health centers that were chosen in six districts in three provinces of Banten, South Kalimantan and Gorontalo. Data were obtained by interviews and processed using SPSSResults: More than 90% dental health workers in work wore masks gloves and washed their hands after work. There was a signifi cant relationship between exercise with dental health professionals with a p value of 0.007, which means a signifi cant. Conclusion: In performing their duties, dental health workers have already used personal protective equipment such asmasks, gloves, and washed their hands and did enough exercise. Recommendation: need to increase knowledge about pulmonary TB in dental health professionals.

  1. Severe hemorrhage from the umbilical cord at birth: a preventable cause of neonatal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Suresh, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe that umbilical cord bleeding from errors in cord clamping could be an important cause of acute blood loss in the delivery room and that it may result in significant clinical morbidity, especially in extremely premature infants.

  2. A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the promise of a new universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary. However, due to complacency behavior, it remains unclear whether the introduction of such vaccines would maintain high and stable levels of vaccination coverage year after year. Findings To predict the impact of universal long-term flu vaccines on influenza epidemics we developed a mathematical model that linked human cognition and memory with the transmission dynamics of influenza. Our modeling shows that universal vaccines that provide short-term protection are likely to result in small frequent epidemics, whereas universal vaccines that provide long-term protection are likely to result in severe infrequent epidemics. Conclusions Influenza vaccines that provide short-term protection maintain risk awareness regarding influenza in the population and result in stable vaccination coverage. Vaccines that provide long-term protection could lead to substantial drops in vaccination coverage and should therefore include an annual epidemic risk awareness programs in order to minimize the risk of severe epidemics.

  3. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  4. Severe acute dehydration in a desert rodent elicits a transcriptional response that effectively prevents kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManes, Matthew David

    2017-08-01

    Animals living in desert environments are forced to survive despite severe heat, intense solar radiation, and both acute and chronic dehydration. These animals have evolved phenotypes that effectively address these environmental stressors. To begin to understand the ways in which the desert-adapted rodent Peromyscus eremicus survives, reproductively mature adults were subjected to 72 h of water deprivation, during which they lost, on average, 23% of their body weight. The animals reacted via a series of changes in the kidney, which included modulating expression of genes responsible for reducing the rate of transcription and maintaining water and salt balance. Extracellular matrix turnover appeared to be decreased, and apoptosis was limited. In contrast to the canonical human response, serum creatinine and other biomarkers of kidney injury were not elevated, suggesting that changes in gene expression related to acute dehydration may effectively prohibit widespread kidney damage in the cactus mouse. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Severe Hemorrhage from the Umbilical Cord at Birth: A Preventable Cause of Neonatal Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posthemorrhagic anemia is a rare but important cause of anemia in neonates, second only to hemolytic anemia of newborn. Most cases of posthemorrhagic anemia are reported from fetomaternal hemorrhage or umbilical cord accidents in utero. This case report describes a preterm infant who developed severe anemia and shock immediately after delivery related to an acute hemorrhage through patent umbilical cord vessels secondary to a tear in the umbilical cord at the site of cord clamping. We believe that umbilical cord bleeding from errors in cord clamping could be an important cause of acute blood loss in the delivery room and that it may result in significant clinical morbidity, especially in extremely premature infants.

  6. Probiotics: Prevention of Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial-PROSPECT: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Deborah J; Johnstone, Jennie; Marshall, John C; Lauzier, Francois; Thabane, Lehana; Mehta, Sangeeta; Dodek, Peter M; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Pagliarello, Joe; Henderson, William; Taylor, Robert W; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Golan, Eyal; Herridge, Margaret; Wood, Gordon; Ovakim, Daniel; Karachi, Tim; Surette, Michael G; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Lamarche, Daphnee; Verschoor, Chris P; Duan, Erick H; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Arabi, Yaseen; Meade, Maureen

    2016-08-02

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may confer health benefits when ingested. Randomized trials suggest that probiotics significantly decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the overall incidence of infection in critically ill patients. However, these studies are small, largely single-center, and at risk of bias. The aim of the PROSPECT pilot trial was to determine the feasibility of conducting a larger trial of probiotics to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). In a randomized blinded trial, patients expected to be mechanically ventilated for ≥72 hours were allocated to receive either 1 × 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo, twice daily. Patients were excluded if they were at increased risk of L. rhamnosus GG infection or had contraindications to enteral medication. Feasibility objectives were: (1) timely recruitment; (2) maximal protocol adherence; (3) minimal contamination; and (4) estimated VAP rate ≥10 %. We also measured other infections, diarrhea, ICU and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Overall, in 14 centers in Canada and the USA, all feasibility goals were met: (1) 150 patients were randomized in 1 year; (2) protocol adherence was 97 %; (3) no patients received open-label probiotics; and (4) the VAP rate was 19 %. Other infections included: bloodstream infection (19.3 %), urinary tract infections (12.7 %), and skin and soft tissue infections (4.0 %). Diarrhea, defined as Bristol type 6 or 7 stools, occurred in 133 (88.7 %) of patients, the median length of stay in ICU was 12 days (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 7-18 days), and in hospital was 26 days (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 14-44 days); 23 patients (15.3 %) died in the ICU. The PROSPECT pilot trial supports the feasibility of a larger trial to investigate the effect of L. rhamnosus GG on VAP and other nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Clinicaltrials

  7. Early enteral nutrition prevents intra-abdominal hypertension and reduces the severity of severe acute pancreatitis compared with delayed enteral nutrition: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Kui; Li, Wei-Qin; Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Ni, Hai-Bin; Li, Gang; Zhang, Lu-Yao; Nie, Yao; Wang, Xin-Ying; Ye, Xiang-Hong; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and disease severity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Enteral nutrition (EN) was started within 48 h after admission in the EEN group and from the 8th day in the delayed enteral nutrition (DEN) group. The IAP and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) incidence were recorded for 2 weeks. The caloric intake and feeding intolerance (FI) incidence were recorded daily after EN was started. The severity markers and clinical outcome variables were also recorded. Sixty patients were enrolled to this study. No difference about IAP was found. The IAH incidence of the EEN group was significantly lower than that of the DEN group from the 9th day (8/30 versus 18/30; P = 0.009) after admission. The FI incidence of the EEN group was higher than that of the DEN group during the initial 3 days of feeding (25/30 versus 12/30; P = 0.001; 22/30 versus 9/30; P = 0.001; 15/30 versus 4/30; P = 0.002). Patients with an IAP FI incidence than those with an IAP ≥15 mmHg on the 1st day (20/22 versus 17/38; P < 0.001), the 3rd day (11/13 versus 8/47; P < 0.001), and the 7th day (3/5 versus 3/55; P = 0.005) of feeding. The severity markers and clinical outcome variables of the EEN group were significantly improved. Early enteral nutrition did not increase IAP. In contrast, it might prevent the development of IAH. In addition, EEN might be not appropriate during the initial 3-4 days of SAP onset. Moreover, EN might be of benefit to patients with an IAP <15 mmHg. Early enteral nutrition could improve disease severity and clinical outcome, but did not decrease mortality of SAP.

  8. Outcomes of severe uveitic glaucoma treated with Baerveldt implant: can blindness be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Annelie N; Cornelissen, Michiel F; Webers, Carroll A B; Erckens, Roel J; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate long-term outcomes on efficacy and safety of severe uveitic glaucoma treated with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI). A retrospective study of 47 eyes of 47 patients with uveitic glaucoma treated by a BGI between September 2002 and September 2015. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, course of the uveitis, visual acuity (VA) and complications. Mean IOP dropped from 30.6 ± 8.1 mmHg with 3.6 ± 1.1 glaucoma medications at baseline to 10.6 ± 4.3 mmHg with 1.0 ± 1.3 glaucoma medications after a mean follow-up of 63.6 ± 43.1 months. In the majority of cases, IOP remained stable during follow-up. However, especially in several patients with viral uveitis, episodes with IOP peaks were observed during a flare-up despite a functioning implant. These peaks remained below preoperative levels. During follow-up, 16 patients (34%) experienced a clinically significant VA loss, mainly because of late-stage glaucoma or hypotony maculopathy. Early postoperative complications were transient choroidal effusion (n = 5), shallow/flat anterior chamber (n = 4), hyphaema (n = 2) and suprachoroidal haemorrhage (n = 1). The most important late postoperative complication was hypotony maculopathy (n = 5), three of these in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. The BGI is an effective and safe treatment for patients with refractive secondary glaucoma due to uveitis. In a majority of patients, VA remains stable and a low and stable IOP is maintained over time with an acceptable number of complications. In particular, patients with viral uveitis and glaucoma should be closely monitored for IOP peaks that may occur during episodes of a flare-up of uveitis, whereas at the other end of the spectrum, patients with JIA seem much more prone to hypotony maculopathy. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Preventing Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children. A Randomized Trial of Mite-Impermeable Bedcovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Foden, Philip; Sumner, Helen; Shepley, Elizabeth; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Allergen exposure in sensitized individuals with asthma interacts with viruses to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. To evaluate the use of house dust mite-impermeable bedding and its impact on severe asthma exacerbations in children. We randomized mite-sensitized children with asthma (ages 3-17 yr) after an emergency hospital attendance with an asthma exacerbation to receive mite-impermeable (active group) or control (placebo group) bed encasings. Over a 12-month intervention period, the occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations was investigated. Of 434 children with asthma who consented, 286 (mean age, 7.7 yr; male sex, 65.8%) were mite sensitized, and 284 were randomized (146 to the active group and 138 to the placebo group). At 12 months, significantly fewer children in the active group than in the placebo group had attended the hospital with an exacerbation (36 [29.3%] of 123 vs. 49 [41.5%] of 118; P = 0.047). In the multivariable analysis, the risk of emergency hospital attendance was 45% lower in the active group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85; P = 0.006) than in the placebo group. The annual rate of emergency hospital attendance with exacerbations was 27% lower in the active group than in the placebo group, but this did not reach significance (estimated marginal mean [95% CI], active, 0.38 [0.26-0.56] vs. placebo, 0.52 [0.35-0.76]; P = 0.18). No difference between the groups in the risk of prednisolone use for exacerbation was found (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.17; P = 0.28). Mite-impermeable encasings are effective in reducing the number of mite-sensitized children with asthma attending the hospital with asthma exacerbations but not the number requiring oral prednisolone. This simple measure may reduce the health care burden of asthma exacerbations in children. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 69543196).

  10. Secondary benefit of maintaining normal transcranial Doppler velocities when using hydroxyurea for prevention of severe sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafuri, Djamila Labib; Chaturvedi, Shruti; Rodeghier, Mark; Stimpson, Sarah-Jo; McClain, Brandi; Byrd, Jeannie; DeBaun, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    In a retrospective cohort study, we tested the hypothesis that when prescribing hydroxyurea (HU) to children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) to prevent vaso-occlusive events, there will be a secondary benefit of maintaining low transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity, measured by imaging technique (TCDi). HU was prescribed for 90.9% (110 of 120) of children with SCA ≥5 years of age and followed for a median of 4.4 years, with 70% (n = 77) receiving at least one TCDi evaluation after starting HU. No child prescribed HU had a conditional or abnormal TCDi measurement. HU initiation for disease severity prevention decreases the prevalence of abnormal TCDi velocities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  12. Microleakage assessment of fissure sealant following fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis use before etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the microleakage level of fissure sealants prepared by a fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis prior to acid etching. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted healthy maxillary premolar teeth were randomly selected for this investigation. Teeth were then divided into three fissure sealant preparatory groups of A: Fissurotomy bur + acid etch; B: Pumice prophylaxis + acid etch and C: Acid etch alone. Sealant was applied to the occlusal fissures of all specimens using a plastic instrument. This was to avoid any air trap under the sealant. Sample teeth were first thermocycled (1000 cycles, 20 s dwell time and then coated with two layers of nail varnish leaving 2 mm around the sealant. This was then followed by immersion in basic fuchsin 3%. Processed teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage assessment using a score of 0-3. Collected data was then subjected to Kruskall-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Teeth in fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis groups had significantly reduced level of microleakage than those in acid etch alone (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Use of fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis accompanied with acid etching appears to have a more successful reduction of microleakage than acid etch alone.

  13. Impact of adhesive and photoactivation method on sealant integrity and polymer network formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of photoactivation method and hydrophobic resin (HR application on the marginal and internal adaptation, hardness (KHN, and crosslink density (CLD of a resin-based fissure sealant. Model fissures were created in bovine enamel fragments (n = 10 and sealed using one of the following protocols: no adhesive system + photoactivation of the sealant using continuous light (CL, no adhesive system + photoactivation of the sealant using the soft-start method (SS, HR + CL, or HR + SS. Marginal and internal gaps and KHN were assessed after storage in water for 24 h. The CLD was indirectly assessed by repeating the KHN measurement after 24 h of immersion in 100% ethanol. There was no difference among the samples with regard to marginal or internal adaptation. The KHN and CLD were similar for samples cured using either photoactivation method. Use of a hydrophobic resin prior to placement of fissure sealants and curing the sealant using the soft-start method may not provide any positive influence on integrity or crosslink density.

  14. Evaluation of microtensile bond strength of different fissure sealants to bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Tunc, E; Bayrak, S; Tuloglu, N; Ertas, E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of a new fissure sealant and compare it with conventional sealants which are applied to enamel alone, and also with self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives. Enamel specimens were prepared and randomly distributed into three groups according to fissure sealant (Aegis, Helioseal F, Helioseal Clear). Each group was then subdivided according to adhesive system (Clearfil S3, Single Bond, no adhesive). A universal testing machine was used to measure μTBS, and data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. μTBS values for all Aegis subgroups were significantly lower than for comparable Helioseal F and Helioseal Clear subgroups (p 0.05). In the Helioseal Clear group, μTBS values for Single Bond were significantly higher than for Clearfil S3 (p adhesive subgroups in the Aegis or Helioseal F groups (p > 0.05). Sealant μTBS values may be affected by material content. The addition of an adhesive may improve μTBS values of sealant to enamel. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in children with severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G; Mahlangu, J; Kulkarni, R; Nolan, B; Liesner, R; Pasi, J; Barnes, C; Neelakantan, S; Gambino, G; Cristiano, L M; Pierce, G F; Allen, G

    2015-06-01

    Prophylactic factor replacement, which prevents hemarthroses and thereby reduces the musculoskeletal disease burden in children with hemophilia A, requires frequent intravenous infusions (three to four times weekly). Kids A-LONG was a phase 3 open-label study evaluating the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a longer-acting factor, recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc), in previously treated children with severe hemophilia A (endogenous FVIII level of hemophilia A. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Frequency of remnants of sealants left behind in pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces after 2 and 3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Zhang, W.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The null-hypothesis tested was that there was no difference in the frequency of remnants of high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants left behind in pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars and that of resin composite and glass-carbomer sealants. MATERIALS AND

  17. Stability of Beriplast P fibrin sealant: storage and reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Ulrich; Broder, Martin; Witzke, Günther

    2006-04-26

    This study was performed to investigate the stability of Beriplast P fibrin sealant (FS) across a range of storage conditions, both pre- and post-reconstitution. Storage stability of the FS was evaluated during long-term refrigeration (24 months) with or without interim storage at elevated temperatures (40 degrees C for 1 week and 25 degrees C for 1 and 3 months). Stability of individual FS components was assessed by measuring: fibrinogen content, Factor XIII activity (FXIII), thrombin activity and aprotinin potency. The package integrity of each component was also checked (sterility testing, moisture content and pH). Storage stability was also evaluated by testing the reconstituted product for adhesion (tearing force testing after mixing the solutions) and sterility. Reconstitution stability was evaluated following 3-months' storage, for up to 50 h post-reconstitution using the same tests as for the storage stability investigations. Pre-defined specifications were met for fibrinogen content, Factor XIII activity, and thrombin activity, demonstrating storage stability. Package integrity and the functionality and sterility of the reconstituted product were confirmed throughout. Reconstitution stability was demonstrated for up to 50 h following reconstitution, in terms of both tearing force and sterility tests. In conclusion, the storage stability of Beriplast P was demonstrated over a range of 24-month storage schedules including interim exposure to elevated temperature, and the reconstituted product was stable for up to 50 h.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  19. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.; Dhiman, M.; Kulkarni, P. P.; Vijayan, P. K.; Vaze, K. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  20. ROLE OF PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF SEVERE PLANT CONDITIONS IN INDIAN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS JAIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor ‘AHWR’ is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  1. Causes of poor sealant performance in soil-gas-resistant foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.

    1994-01-01

    Sealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. Modern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeability of the material that contacts the sealant. The surface permeability of concrete walls and floors was measured by a specially designed permeameter, which measures the airflow induced by a pressure difference across a temporary test seal applied to the surface. The permeability of bulk concrete is about 10 -15 m 2 . Areas free of surface defects had surface permeability ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -16 m 2 . However, surface defects are common on concrete wall surfaces, which increase the permeability to >10 -12 m 2 , too high for standard seal designs to be adequate as the only method of soil gas and radon exclusion. Radon-resistant seals require either extended contact widths or mechanical removal of the surface layer and defects. (au) (4 refs.)

  2. Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin, S; Reddy, E R; Manjula, M; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, S T; Rajesh, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare retention and caries occurance following placement of Clinpro and FUJI VII fissure sealants, by two different techniques simultaneously in unsealed, contralateral young permanent molars of 7- to 10-year-old children affected by mild to moderate dental fluorosis at various recall intervals of 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. 80 schoolchildren with mild to moderate dental fluorosis were assigned to Group A and Group B with 40 children in each group. In Group A Clinpro fissure sealant and in Group B Fuji VII fissure sealant was used. In both the groups fissure sealants were applied by conventional fissure sealant technique (CST) on one side and enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) on the other side of the same arch. The applied fissure sealants were evaluated clinically for retention and caries incidence. Clinpro fissure sealant showed a retention rate of 95% when compared with Fuji VII (57.5%) at the end of 12 months, which was statistically significant. Regarding techniques, EST showed better results than CST in both the groups. Comparison of groups with respect to retention and techniques at different time periods was performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Comparison of different time periods with respect to retention and technique in all the groups was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks (p < 0.05). Clinpro fissure sealant showed better retention at all treatment intervals, when compared with Fuji VII. Further follow-up is required to study the efficacy of the fissure sealant placement techniques.

  3. Do fibrin sealants impact negative outcomes after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason; Jayram, Gautam; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Ball, Mark W; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary rates of postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy (PN) are low. Commercially available hemostatic agents are commonly used during this surgery to reduce this risk despite a paucity of data supporting the practice. We assessed the impact of fibrin sealant hemostatic agents, a costly addition to surgeries, during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). Between 2007 and 2011, 114 consecutive patients underwent RAPN by a single surgeon (MEA). Evicel fibrin sealant was used in the first 74 patients during renorraphy. The last 40 patients had renorraphy performed without the use of any hemostatic agents. Clinicopathologic, operative, and complication data were compared between groups. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between the use of fibrin sealants and operative outcomes. Patient demographic data and clinical tumor characteristics were similar between groups. The use of fibrin sealant did not increase operative time (166.3 vs 176.1 minutes, P=0.28), warm ischemia time (WIT) (14.4 vs 16.1 minutes, P=0.18), or length of hospital stay (2.6 vs 2.4 days, P=0.35). The omission of these agents did not increase estimated blood loss (116.6 vs 176.1 mL, P=0.8) or postoperative blood transfusion (0% vs 2.5%, P=0.17). Univariate analysis demonstrated no association between use of fibrin sealants and increased complications (P>0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed no statistically significant predictive value of omission of hemostatic agents for perioperative outcomes (P>0.05). Perioperative hemorrhage and other major complications after contemporary RAPN are rare in experienced hands. In our study, the use of fibrin sealants during RAPN does not decrease the rate of complications, blood loss, or hospital stay. Furthermore, no impact is seen on operative time, WIT, or other negative outcomes. Omitting these agents during RAPN could be a safe, effective, cost-saving measure.

  4. Treatment of venous ulcers with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAN Gatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous ulcers of the lower limbs complicated by infection or chronicity represent a serious public health problem. The elevated number of those afflicted burdens the health services, interferes in quality of life and causes absenteeism. Although there are 2,500 items on the market, ranging from the simplest dressing up to the most complex types of dressing, treatment remains a challenge. Among the substances used, fibrin sealant is the one that promotes diminution of bacterial colonization and of edema, controls hemorrhaging, alters the pain threshold by protecting the nerve endings, hydrates the wound bed and forms granulation tissue that favors healing. Its disadvantages include higher cost and utilization of human fibrinogen that can transmit infectious diseases. The Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP at São Paulo State University (UNESP developed a new sealant made up of fibrinogen extracted from large animals and from an enzyme obtained from snake venom. The present study, developed in the Health Education Clinic (CEPS of Sacred Heart University (USC aimed to evaluate the effect of the new sealant on the healing process of venous ulcers in 24 adult patients, seven of whom were male and 17 female. Two study groups were formed as follows: Group 1 (G1 - control group of 11 patients treated with essential fatty acid (EFA and Unna's boot, and Group 2 (G2 - 13 patients treated with essential fatty acid (EFA, fibrin sealant and Unna's boot. The follow-up lasted eight weeks and the sealant was applied at only the first and fourth weeks. The results showed that Group 2 presented worse lesion conditions as to healing, but, when comparing the two groups, it was noteworthy that the the sealant was effective in healing venous ulcers. There is evidence that the new sealant is recommended for leg ulcers with the following advantages: ease of application, preparation of the wound bed, diminution of pain and a higher number of

  5. Laparoendoscopic single-site myomectomy and the use of fibrin sealant (Tisseel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelito Magno

    2015-11-01

    ensured after the suturing. A fibrin sealant, Tisseel (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL, is applied over the suture site as an adjunct to hemostasis and also to prevent adhesion. The fundamental advantage of LESS is less incision, as a result, improves cosmesis. LESS myomectomy has many technical difficulties, including reduced visualization, loss of triangulation, and instrument interference. Thus, the type, location and numbers of the myomas are critical to succeed LESS myomectomy. The Food and Drug Administration has approved fibrin sealant in 1998 as an adjunct to hemostasis and sealing. Besides, certain studies have reported its anti-adhesion property. Upon mixing of the two components in the lumens of Tisseel, the combinations of thrombin and fibrinogen transformed into fibrin, forming a rubber-like tissue that adheres to the wound surface.

  6. A familial risk enriched cohort as a platform for testing early interventions to prevent severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Rudolf; Cumby, Jill; MacKenzie, Lynn E; Morash-Conway, Jessica; Glover, Jacqueline M; Aylott, Alice; Propper, Lukas; Abidi, Sabina; Bagnell, Alexa; Pavlova, Barbara; Hajek, Tomas; Lovas, David; Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William; Levy, Adrian; Alda, Martin

    2014-12-02

    Severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression, is responsible for a substantial proportion of disability in the population. This article describes the aims and design of a research study that takes a novel approach to targeted prevention of SMI. It is based on the rationale that early developmental antecedents to SMI are likely to be more malleable than fully developed mood or psychotic disorders and that low-risk interventions targeting antecedents may reduce the risk of SMI. Families Overcoming Risks and Building Opportunities for Well-being (FORBOW) is an accelerated cohort study that includes a large proportion of offspring of parents with SMI and embeds intervention trials in a cohort multiple randomized controlled trial (cmRCT) design. Antecedents are conditions of the individual that are distressing but not severely impairing, predict SMI with moderate-to-large effect sizes and precede the onset of SMI by at least several years. FORBOW focuses on the following antecedents: affective lability, anxiety, psychotic-like experiences, basic symptoms, sleep problems, somatic symptoms, cannabis use and cognitive delay. Enrolment of offspring over a broad age range (0 to 21 years) will allow researchers to draw conclusions on a longer developmental period from a study of shorter duration. Annual assessments cover a full range of psychopathology, cognitive abilities, eligibility criteria for interventions and outcomes. Pre-emptive early interventions (PEI) will include skill training for parents of younger children and courses in emotional well-being skills based on cognitive behavioural therapy for older children and youth. A sample enriched for familial risk of SMI will enhance statistical power for testing the efficacy of PEI. FORBOW offers a platform for efficient and unbiased testing of interventions selected according to best available evidence. Since few differences exist between familial and 'sporadic' SMI, the

  7. Comparative efficacy of nanofilled and microfilled resin-modified glass ionomer as pits and fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzuma Akhter Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of nanofilled and microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer as pits and fissure sealants in permanent molar teeth. Ninety six teeth having fissure at the occlusal surface were randomly divided into two groups: Group I: Treated by nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant and Group II: Treated by microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer sealants. Clinical assessment was performed by modified Ryge´s criteria by means of retention, color match, marginal adaptation at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up visit. Chi-square test was used for testing differences between the two groups; a value of p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The results revealed that at 12 months observation period, nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant showed better retention, color stability and marginal adaptation than that of microfilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealants. Furthermore, the differences between two groups in respect to marginal adaptation and color match were statistically significant (p<0.05. It can be concluded that nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant could be a better alternative to microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer sealant.

  8. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  9. A Trajectory Generation Method Based on Edge Detection for Auto-Sealant Cartesian Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Samsul Maarif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents algorithm ingenerating trajectory for sealant process using captured image. Cartesian robot as auto-sealant in manufacturing process has increased productivity, reduces human error and saves time. But, different sealant path in many engine models means not only different trajectory but also different program. Therefore robot with detection ability to generate its own trajectory is needed. This paper describes best lighting technique in capturing image and applies edge detection in trajectory generation as the solution. The algorithm comprises image capturing, Canny edge detection, integral projection in localizing outer most edge, scanning coordinates, and generating vector direction codes. The experiment results show that the best technique is diffuse lighting at 10 Cd. The developed method gives connected point to point trajectory which forms sealant path with a point to next point distance is equal to 90° motor rotation. Directional movement for point to point trajectory is controlled by generated codes which are ready to be sent by serial communication to robot controller as instruction for motors which actuate axes X and Y directions.

  10. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  11. Efficacy of fibrin-sealants in reducing biliary leakage following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Membrives, Pablo; Martínez-Baena, Darío; Lorente-Herce, José Manuel; Martín-Balbuena, Ramón

    2018-05-21

    In spite of the acquired experience with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for choledocholithiasis management, there is still a risk of biliary leakage of 5% to 15% following choledochotomy closure. We evaluate the usefulness of fibrin-collagen sealants to reduce the incidence of biliary fistula after laparoscopic choledochorrhaphy. We report a retrospective analysis of 96 patients undergoing LCBDE from March 2009 to March 2017, whose closure of the bile duct was completed by antegrade stenting and choledochorraphy or by performing a primary suture. The study population was divided into two groups according to whether they received a collagen-fibrin sealant covering the choledochorrhaphy or not, analyzing the incidence of postoperative biliary fistula in each group. Thirty-nine patients (41%) received a fibrin-collagen sponge while the bile duct closure was not covered in the remaining 57 patients (59%). The incidence of biliary fistula was 7.7% (3 patients) in the first group and 14% (8 patients) in the second group (P=.338). In patients who underwent primary choledochorraphy, the fibrin-collagen sealant reduced the incidence of biliary leakage significantly (4.5% vs. 33%, P=.020), which was a protective factor with an odds ratio of 10.5. Fibrin-collagen sealants may decrease the incidence of biliary fistula in patients who have undergone primary bile duct closure following LCBDE. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomised trial of lung sealant versus medical therapy for advanced emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Come, Carolyn E.; Kramer, Mordechai R.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Abu-Hijleh, Muhanned; Berkowitz, David; Bezzi, Michela; Bhatt, Surya P.; Boyd, Michael B.; Cases, Enrique; Chen, Alexander C.; Cooper, Christopher B.; Flandes, Javier; Gildea, Thomas; Gotfried, Mark; Hogarth, D. Kyle; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Leeds, William; Liesching, Timothy; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marquette, Charles; Mularski, Richard A.; Pinto-Plata, Victor M.; Pritchett, Michael A.; Rafeq, Samaan; Rubio, Edmundo R.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Stratakos, Grigoris; Sy, Alexander; Tsai, Larry W.; Wahidi, Momen; Walsh, John; Wells, J. Michael; Whitten, Patrick E.; Yusen, Roger; Zulueta, Javier J.; Criner, Gerard J.; Washko, George R.

    Uncontrolled pilot studies demonstrated promising results of endoscopic lung volume reduction using emphysematous lung sealant (ELS) in patients with advanced, upper lobe predominant emphysema. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ELS in a randomised controlled setting. Patients were

  13. Design approach to sealant selection for the life of the well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Ravi, K.; Driel, W.D. van; Schreppers, G.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent experience in the field has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the annular sealant are a critical factor in the success of a well. A demanding operational regime of the well such as High Pressure/High Temperature (HP/HT) and well interventions, e.g. pressure testing stimulation,

  14. Use of fibrin sealants for the localized, controlled release of cefazolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredwell, Stephen; Jackson, John K.; Hamilton, Donald; Lee, Vivian; Burt, Helen M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Fibrin sealants are used increasingly in surgery to reduce bleeding and improve wound healing. They have great potential as biocompatible, biodegradable drug delivery systems, because the sealant may adhere to the target tissue and allow controlled release of the drug over an extended period. We investigated the encapsulation, stability and controlled release of erythromycin and cefazolin from Beriplast fibrin sealants (Aventis Behring Canada). Methods Drug-loaded clots were cast in glass vials and allowed to set. We observed the clots for drug precipitation and aggregation, and we assessed the effect of drug encapsulation on clot strength. Drug stability and release from the clots in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was quantified by ultraviolet and visible violet absorbance spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Erythromycin was found to release slowly from the fibrin clots over the first 2 hours but then degrade rapidly. Cefazolin was found to be very stable in clots in PBS (97% stable at 2 d and 93% stable at 5 d). The drug released in a controlled manner over 2 days, with most being released during the first day. The dose of drug released could be varied by changing the amount placed in the thrombin solution. Clot thickness had no effect on the rate of cefazolin release. Conclusion Overall, the 2-day release profile and the excellent stability of the drug suggest that cefazolin-loaded fibrin sealants may offer an effective route of postoperative antibiotic delivery. PMID:17152573

  15. A Systematic Approach to the Study of Accelerated weathering of Building Joint Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston; Kar Tean Tan; James J. Filliben; Adam L. Pintar; Greg. Schueneman

    2012-01-01

    An accurate service life prediction model is needed for building joint sealants in order to greatly reduce the time to market of a new product and reduce the risk of introducing a poorly performing product into the marketplace. A stepping stone to the success of this effort is the precise control of environmental variables in a laboratory accelerated test apparatus in...

  16. A Test Method for Monitoring Modulus Changes during Durability Tests on Building Joint Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston; Kar Tean Tan; Gregory T. Schueneman

    2012-01-01

    The durability of building joint sealants is generally assessed using a descriptive methodology involving visual inspection of exposed specimens for defects. It is widely known that this methodology has inherent limitations, including that the results are qualitative. A new test method is proposed that provides more fundamental and quantitative information about...

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Puncture...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices 4 Table 4 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Operating Limits for Puncture...

  19. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250 discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control. In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP. The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9. Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p 0.05 or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001 bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF SEALANTS USED IN HVAC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the potential antimicrobial efficacy of sealants used in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. Recent experiments confirm field experience that duct cleaning alone may not provide adequate protection from regrowth of fu...

  1. In Vitro Comparison of Microleakage of Two Materials Used as Pit and Fissure Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Marginal seal of the material is extremely important in fissure sealant therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate microleakage of flowable composite resins and conventional fissure sealants with or without dentin bonding agent. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 60 intact extracted human premolars, divided into four groups, were cleaned with pumice/slurry, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed and dried. Groups were treated differently: Excite bonding agent followed by Helioseal F fissure sealant in group1; Helioseal F alone in group 2; Excite bonding agent followed by Tetric Flow in group 3; and Tetric Flow alone in group 4. Light-curing was done after each application. After thermocycling, the whole surface of each specimen was coated with nail varnish except for one millimeter around the fissure sealant. The teeth were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned buccolingually. The sections were analyzed for leakage under a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at a significance level of P 0.05, except for groups 2 and 4 (P = 0.002 and groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.033. Conclusion. Use of a flowable composite with bonding agent is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures; however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary.

  2. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of proximal aTraumaTic. resToraTive ... absTracT. Objective: To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (gic) ... or symptoms of periodontal disease, and clinically the ..... saliva contamination on the bond of dentine resin-.

  3. Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation in laparoscopic groin hernia repair does not increase long-term recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Andreas Qwist; Helvind, Neel Maria; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methods of groin hernia repair include laparoscopic techniques using tissue-penetrating mesh fixation or non-penetrating fixation. Concerns regarding hernia repair include postoperative chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, and recurrence. Earlier estimations of recurrence rates have......) laparoscopic groin hernia repair using either fibrin sealant or tacks for mesh fixation. METHODS: This study used data from the Danish Hernia Database to create the following cohort: All patients operated laparoscopically for primary groin hernia with a TAPP procedure using fibrin sealant for mesh fixation...... difference in long-term reoperation rates and clinical recurrences in patients undergoing TAPP repair with meshes fixated with fibrin sealant compared with tacks....

  4. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWGILL, M.G.; MOSKOWITZ, P.D.; CHERNAENKO, L.M.; NAZARIAN, A.; GRIFFITH, A.; DIASHEV, A.; ENGOY, T.

    2000-01-01

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  5. Effect of irradiation times on the polymerization depth of contemporary fissure sealants with different opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the depth of curing of 10 contemporary blue light-activated dental flowable materials at several opacities, influenced by different irradiation times using FT-IR spectroscopy. Fifty-five specimens (n = 5 with a 5-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness of translucent (Opallis Flow T, yellowed (Master Flow A2; Opallis Flow A2; Natural Flow A2; Fluroshield Yellowed, and opaque materials (Master Flow OA2; Natural Flow O; Opallis Flow OA3.5; Opallis Flow OP; Fluroshield White were obtained at six curing times (10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s using a high-intensity LED (Coltolux, Coltène/Whaledent. The degree of conversion (DC (% was obtained using the Nexus 470 FTIR Spectrometer (Nicolet Instruments, USA. The FTIR-ATR spectra for uncured and cured samples were analyzed using a ZnSe crystal. The top and bottom surfaces of the cured specimens were analyzed to obtain the depth of curing. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The highest curing depth was obtained by Natural Flow OA2, while the lowest was shown by Master Flow OA2. The shortest curing time generated similar depths of cure in comparison with the most extensive for Opallis Flow A2 and Fluroshield Yellowed. Therefore, depth of curing, influenced by the irradiation time, was dependent on the materials. Using the Natural Flow OA2 opaque sealant and the 10-s curing time for Opallis Flow A2 and Fluroshield Yellowed may represent alternative approaches to sealing tooth fissures.

  6. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  7. Percutaneous treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms: comparison of fibrin sealant against thrombin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mendes Pinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Femoral pseudoaneurysms are a complication that occurs in connection with up to 8% of percutaneous procedures. Of the available treatments, ultrasound guided thrombin injection has a high success rate and is well-tolerated by patients. The combination of thrombin and fibrinogen known as fibrin sealant forms a stable clot and can be used to treat pseudoaneurysms, particularly those with complex anatomy and larger size. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of treating femoral pseudoaneurysm in two ways: Group T was treated with thrombin alone and Group T+F was treated with fibrin sealant (thrombin+fibrinogen. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of femoral pseudoaneurysm cases treated between January 2005 and December 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were treated, 21 with thrombin alone and seven with fibrin sealant. All patients in group T were treated successfully, but only four patients in group T+F were treated successfully (57.1% success rate in Group T+F, p<0.01. The three cases of failure in group T+F needed surgery and in one of these cases the complication was embolization to the femoral bifurcation. The pseudoaneurysms that were treated with fibrin sealant were larger (25 cm3 in Group T and 57.7 cm3 in Group T+F, p=0.02 and required larger volumes of thrombin (0.5 mL in Group T and 1.0 mL in Group T+F, p<0.01. There was one complication in Group T and two complications in Group T+F (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the small number of cases reviewed, treatment with thrombin alone was superior to treating with fibrin sealant, since it caused few complications and was more effective at correcting pseudoaneurysms.

  8. Subclinical and clinical mastitis in heifers following the use of a teat sealant precalving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K I; Compton, C; Anniss, F M; Weir, A; Heuer, C; McDougall, S

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect in heifers of infusion of a bismuth subnitrate teat-canal sealant and bacterial intramammary infection (IMI) precalving on prevalence of postcalving IMI and incidence of clinical mastitis in the first 2 wk postcalving. Glands (n = 1,020) from heifers (n = 255) in 5 seasonally calving, pasture-fed dairy herds were randomly assigned within heifer to 1 of 4 treatment groups (no treatment; mammary gland secretion collection; infusion of a teat sealant; or sample collection with infusion of teat sealant). Heifers within a herd were enrolled on one calendar day, 31 d on average before the planned start of the seasonal calving period. Duplicate milk samples were collected from each gland within 4 d after calving for bacterial culture. Herd owners collected duplicate milk samples, before treatment, for bacterial culture from glands they defined as having clinical mastitis. The gland prevalence of IMI precalving was 15.5% and did not differ between herds. Bacteria isolated precalving included coagulase-negative staphylococci (76.9% of all bacteriologically positive samples), Streptococcus uberis (14.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.1%), Corynebacterium spp. (3.8%), and others (0.1%). The presence of an IMI precalving increased the risk of an IMI postcalving 3.6-fold and the risk of clinical mastitis 4-fold, relative to no IMI precalving. Infusion of the teat sealant reduced the risk of postcalving IMI due to Strep. uberis by 84%, and of clinical mastitis by 68%. Sampling the glands precalving had no effect on postcalving IMI or on clinical mastitis incidence. Use of an internal teat canal sealant in heifers precalving may be a useful tool for reducing the risk of subclinical and clinical mastitis in heifers.

  9. Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF on the Mcroleakage of Composite Flow and Fssure Sealant Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A large number of investigations have revealed that physical and chemical alterations and weight loss could occur in composite materials exposed to acidic phosphate fluoride (APF gel. The purpose of this study was to assess the microleakage of a fissure sealant and a flow composite exposed to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 60 intact human extracted premolar teeth were used. After preparing the occlusal groove, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=30. Teeth were filled with either Helioseal fissure sealant (Vivadent, Germany or Tetric flow composite (Vivadent, Germany. After that, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=15: 1.23% APF gel (Sultan, U.S.A was applied in the case subgroups, while control subgroups were preserved in normal saline solution. All of teeth were covered with 2 layers of nail varnish except for the filling zone and 1mm around the border of filling. After submerging in 0.5% fushin solution, specimens were sectioned bucco-lingually. Then dye penetration through the filling and fissure sealant was assessed by means of a stereo-microscope. The depth of dye penetration was scored. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Levene test. Results: The mean values of dye penetration were 1.26±1.09, 1.4±1.05, 1.2±1.37, and 1.4±1.35 for fissure sealant+gel, composite+gel, composite+normal saline, and normal saline groups, respectively. No significant difference was found in inter-groups (P=0.96. Conclusion: Considering the result of the present research, APF gel had no significant effect on the microleakage of Tetric flow composite filling and Helioseal fissure sealant and thus, it can be applied for routine usage.

  10. Effect of enamel sealants on tooth bleaching and on the color stability of the result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcodel, N; Hassel, A J; Sen, S; Saure, D; Rammelsberg, P; Lux, C J; Zingler, S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of enamel sealants on bleaching of natural teeth by use of 40 % hydrogen peroxide in a dental surgery. The color stability of the results from bleaching was, furthermore, determined 10 months after the bleaching procedure. In a standardized setting, four sealants (Pro Seal ® , Light Bond™ Sealant, Protecto ® , and Clinpro™ XT Varnish) were applied to and removed from human teeth in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Natural teeth served as medium; half of the teeth were sealed and the others served as controls. Hydrogen peroxide gel (40 %; Opalescence Boost; Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT, USA) was used as bleaching agent. Color measurement was performed with a spectroradiometer (Photoresearch PR670) before the bleaching process (T1) and 24 h (T2) and 10 months (T3) after bleaching. The spectroradiometer results were expressed by use of the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color notation. The L*, a*, and b* values of the sealed and the unsealed surfaces were not significantly different at any time during the study (p > 0.05), irrespective of the sealant used. Ten months after the bleaching process, mean L*, a*, and b* values were lower than at 1-day post-bleaching; the mean value of ΔE between 1-day post-bleaching and 10 months post-bleaching was 2.46 (±3.1). The results of the study suggest that the effectiveness of professional tooth whitening is not appreciably affected by the application of the four sealants tested.

  11. Effect of sealant agents on the color stability and surface roughness of nanohybrid composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Şahin, Onur; Koroglu, Aysegül; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of nanohybrid composite resins is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of 4 nanohybrid composite resin materials. Forty disks (10×2 mm) were fabricated for each nanohybrid composite resin material (Z-550, Tetric EvoCeram, Clearfill Majesty, Ice) (N=160) and divided into 4 surface treatment groups: 1 conventional polishing (control) and 3 different sealant agent (Palaseal, Optiglaze, BisCover) coupling groups (n=10). The specimens were thermocycled, and surface roughness (Ra) values were obtained with a profilometer. Scanning electron microscope images were also recorded. CIELab color parameters of each specimen were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after 7 days of storage in a coffee solution. Color differences were calculated by the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. The data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The surface treatment technique significantly affected the Ra values of the composite resins tested (Pcomposite resin material was also significant for ΔE00 values (Pcomposite resin groups, significant decreases in Ra were observed only for the Palaseal agent coupled composite resin groups (except Ice) compared with the control groups (Pcomposite resin group, except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty (Pcomposite resin groups, significant differences were observed between the color change seen with BisCover and other sealants for Clearfill Majesty composite resin (Pcomposite resins except for Ice produced smoother surfaces. All surface sealant agents provided less discoloration of nanohybrid composite resins after coffee staining compared with conventional polishing except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty composite resin. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  13. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  14. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  15. Quantifying the economic benefits of prevention in a healthcare setting with severe financial constraints: the case of hypertension control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Stergiou, George S; Kyriopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension significantly contributes to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, thus leading to rising healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to quantify the clinical and economic benefits of optimal systolic blood pressure (SBP), in a setting under severe financial constraints, as in the case of Greece. Hence, a Markov model projecting 10-year outcomes and costs was adopted, in order to compare two scenarios. The first one depicted the "current setting", where all hypertensives in Greece presented an average SBP of 164 mmHg, while the second scenario namely "optimal SBP control" represented a hypothesis in which the whole population of hypertensives would achieve optimal SBP (i.e. perspective (discounted at a 3% annual rate). Findings showed that compared to the "current setting", universal "optimal SBP control" could, within a 10-year period, reduce the occurrence of non-fatal events and deaths, by 80 and 61 cases/1000 male smokers; 59 and 37 cases/1000 men non-smokers; whereas the respective figures for women were 69 and 57 cases/1000 women smokers; and accordingly, 52 and 28 cases/1000 women non-smokers. Considering health expenditures, they could be reduced by approximately €83 million per year. Therefore, prevention of cardiovascular events through BP control could result in reduced morbidity, thereby in substantial cost savings. Based on clinical and economic outcomes, interventions that promote BP control should be a health policy priority.

  16. Enhanced 911/global position system wizard: a telemedicine application for the prevention of severe hypoglycemia--monitor, alert, and locate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, Eyal; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Zisser, Howard C

    2009-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy has an inherent risk of hypoglycemia that can lead to loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmia, seizure, and death ("dead-in-bed syndrome"). This risk of hypoglycemia is a major concern for patients, families, and physicians. The need for an automated system that can alert in the event of severe hypoglycemia is evident. In engineering systems, where there is a risk of malfunction of the primary control system, alert and safety mechanisms are implemented in layers of protection. This concept has been adopted in the proposed system that integrates a hypoglycemia prediction algorithm with a global position system (GPS) locator and short message service such that the current glucose value with the rate of change (ROC) and the location of the subject can be communicated to a predefined list. Furthermore, if the system is linked to the insulin pump, it can suspend the pump or decrease the basal insulin infusion rate to prevent the pending event. The system was evaluated on clinical datasets of glucose tracings from the DexCom Seven system. Glucose tracings were analyzed for hypoglycemia events and then a text message was broadcast to a predefined list of people who were notified with the glucose value, ROC, GPS coordinates, and a Google map of the location. In addition to providing a safety layer to a future artificial pancreas, this system also can be easily implemented in current continuous glucose monitors to help provide information and alerts to people with diabetes.

  17. Clinical Evaluation of applying a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic bonding agent on the retention and durability of fissure sealant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: As in fissure sealant therapy the tooth surface is mostly enamel, the use of an enamel bonding agent (hydrophobic bonding agent may be more cost effective than that of newer generations of bonding (hydrophilic bonding agents. The aim of this study was to compare the retention and durability of fissure sealant therapy when applying an enamel bonding agent, a dentin bonding agent and no bonding agent during 4 years. Materials and Methods: This study was done on the first permanent molars of the upper and lower jaws of 24 students of the first grade of a primary school (6-7 years old. On 36 teeth, a dentin bonding agent (Excite was applied under the fissure sealant and on 36 teeth an enamel bonding agent (Margin bond was applied under the fissure sealant. Then, 24 teeth were selected from these two groups and were compared with a group (including 24 teeth with no bonding agent under the fissure sealant (as control group. All the fissures of the teeth were evaluated annually for 4 years to find out the presence or absence of fissure sealant substance. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Results: From the statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in retention and durability of the fissure sealant substance comparing the group with dentin bonding agent (Excite and the group with enamel bonding agent (Margin bond. Also, using a bonding agent made no significant difference (P>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using a bonding agent made no improvement in the retention and durability of fissure sealant substance.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of an Adhesive Sealant for Controlling Dental Caries in Naval Personnel: One-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-20

    safeguards were employed in that a voltage monitoring strip chart recorder was employed during sealant placement to ensure continuous delivery of...adequate voltage to the ultraviolet light source (Nuva- Lite)* used for sealant polymerization. Also, a new air compressor** with suitable...ment effect in young Naval personnel. 2. The very low occlusal attack rate for untreated control teeth 3. Dirks, O. B., Houwink, B. and Kwant , G. W

  19. Knowledge and practices of caries prevention among Taiwanese dentists attending a national conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsien Lin

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: A portion of Taiwanese dentists seemed to have limited up-to-date information about certain topics related to caries prevention. The frequency of treatments for caries prevention, such as topical fluoride and sealants, did not match the perceived effectiveness of these treatments by participants.

  20. Microtensile Bond Strength of Embrace Wetbond Hydrophilic Sealant in Different Moisture Contamination: An In-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Antarmayee; Srilatha, K T; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Mohanty, Susant; Bhuyan, Sanat K; Bardhan, Debojyoti

    2015-07-01

    Contamination of etched enamel with saliva has been shown to result in sealant failure. Recently, a hydrophilic sealant has been introduced. In absence of documented literature, this in vitro study was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of Embrace Wet Bond without reduction of microtensile bond strength in the different moisture contamination. A 5mm block of sealant were built over prepared occlusal surface of 40 non-carious therapeutically extracted third molars which were sectioned into 1mm thick stick and tested using Zwick micro tensile tester. Obtained data were subjected to descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post-hoc tests. Mean microtensile bond strength of Embrace sealant was not significantly lowered in different moisture contamination groups except Group 3 (air drying), which showed very highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in μTBS as compared to Group 1 (non-contaminated). Mean μTBS of Embrace sealant remains largely unchanged even in presence of moisture. Owing to its hydrophilic property, this sealant can be a great help in cases where maintaining isolation is difficult.

  1. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 μg m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 μg m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ΣPAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  2. An essential primer for understanding the role of topical hemostats, surgical sealants, and adhesives for maintaining hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Michael; Boucher, Bradley A

    2013-09-01

    A wide variety of topical hemostats are approved as adjunctive therapies in the maintenance of hemostasis during surgical procedures in which conventional methods are insufficient or not practical. A multidisciplinary approach to the selection and application of these agents requires input from all members of the surgical team including surgeons, perioperative nurses, blood bank specialists, and pharmacists. However, pharmacist knowledge regarding topical hemostats may be limited based on lack of formal education within college of pharmacy curricula as well as their use being predominantly in the operating room setting. Furthermore, some of these agents might be procured through central supply rather than the hospital pharmacy. Topical hemostats include agents that act as a mechanical barrier to bleeding and provide a physical matrix for clotting, biologically active agents that catalyze coagulation, combination therapies, and synthetic sealants and adhesives. Although many of the topical hemostats were approved for use before the requirement for clinical trials, this review provides an overview of the available clinical evidence regarding the appropriate uses and safety considerations associated with these agents. Proper use of these agents is vital to achieving the best clinical outcomes. Specifically, knowledge of the contraindications and potential adverse events associated with topical hemostats can help prevent unwanted outcomes. Therefore, an understanding of the benefits and potential risks associated with these agents will allow hospital pharmacists to assist in the development and implementation of institutional policies regarding the safe and effective use of hemostatic agents commonly used in the surgical suite. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. Preventing HIV among U.S. women of color with severe mental illness: perceptions of mental health care providers working in urban community clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Collins, Pamela Y

    2013-01-01

    Given their knowledge of the behavioral issues related to psychiatric illness, mental health care providers are in a unique position to help prevent HIV among women with severe mental illness (SMI). We conducted in-depth interviews with providers at two New York City community clinics. We identified three major, interrelated themes pertaining to HIV prevention among women of color with SMI. Interventions that address the barriers that clinicians face in discussing sex, sexuality, and HIV with patients and train providers in the cultural considerations of cross-cultural mental health care are needed to help prevent HIV among women of color with SMI.

  4. Usefulness of hemostatic sealants for minimizing ovarian damage during laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chahien; Kim, Woo Young; Lee, Dong Hee; Lee, San Hui

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of topical hemostatic sealants and bipolar coagulation during laparoscopic ovarian endometriotic cyst resection on ovarian reserve by comparing the rates of decrease in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). A randomized prospective data collection was made on women aged 19-45 years who planned to have laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy at one of two institutions (n = 80), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea or National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea, from January 2014 to April 2016. Patients were randomly divided into two groups treated with either a topical hemostatic sealant or bipolar coagulation for hemostasis. The hemostatic group was randomized to the FloSeal or TachoSil subgroups. Preoperative and 3-month postoperative AMH levels were checked and the rates of decrease of AMH were compared. All patients enrolled were treated with dienogest (Visanne) for 6-12 months. None were lost to follow-up at postoperative 3 months, but about one-third of the patients had been lost to follow-up by 6-12 months. AMH was significantly decreased in both groups 3 months postoperatively; however, the rate of decrease in the bipolar coagulation group was greater than that in the hemostatic sealant group, 41.9% (interquartile range [IQR], 22.29-65.24) versus 18.1% (IQR, 10.94-29.90), P = 0.007. Between the two hemostatic subgroups, there was no significant difference in AMH decrease rate, 14.95% (IQR, 11.34-21.21) versus 18.1% (IQR 9.76-40.70), P = 0.204. Hemostatic sealants may be an alternative to bipolar coagulation for preservation of ovarian reserve after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for endometriosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Color and opacity of composites protected with surface sealants and submitted to artificial accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fabiano Gamero; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the color similarity, stability and opacity of composites (TPH, Charisma, and Concept, shade A2) protected with surface sealants (Fortify Plus and Biscover) and cyanoacrylate (Super Bonder). Forty specimens of each composite were made and separated into 4 groups (n=10) according to the surface protection: GI - without sealant; GII - cyanoacrylate; GIII - Fortify Plus; GIV - Biscover. Color and opacity readings were taken before and after Artificial Acelerated Aging (AAA) and the values obtained for color stability were submitted to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (P<.05). The values acquired for color similarity were submitted to 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P<.05). The specimen sufaces were compared before and after AAA using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Studied composites did not present the same values for the coordinates L*, a* and b * before AAA, indicating that there was no color similarity among them. All composites presented color alteration after AAA with clinically unacceptable values. Protected groups presented lower opacity variation after AAA, in comparison with the control goup. SEM evaluation demonstrated that AAA increased the surface irregularities in all of the studied groups. Surface sealants were not effective in maintaining composite color, but were able to maintain opacity.

  6. Autologous fibrin sealant (Vivostat®) in the neurosurgical practice: Part I: Intracranial surgical procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Certo, Francesco; Basile, Luigi; Maugeri, Rosario; Grasso, Giovanni; Meccio, Flavia; Ganau, Mario; Iacopino, Domenico G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhages, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and infections are the most challenging postoperative complications in Neurosurgery. In this study, we report our preliminary results using a fully autologous fibrin sealant agent, the Vivostat® system, in achieving hemostasis and CSF leakage repair during cranio-cerebral procedures. Methods: From January 2012 to March 2014, 77 patients were studied prospectively and data were collected and analyzed. Autologous fibrin sealant, taken from patient's blood, was prepared with the Vivostat® system and applied on the resection bed or above the dura mater to achieve hemostasis and dural sealing. The surgical technique, time to bleeding control and associated complications were recorded. Results: A total of 79 neurosurgical procedures have been performed on 77 patients. In the majority of cases (98%) the same autologous fibrin glue provided rapid hemostasis and dural sealing. No patient developed allergic reactions or systemic complications in association with its application. There were no cases of cerebral hematoma, swelling, infection, or epileptic seizures after surgery whether in the immediate or in late period follow-up. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the easy and direct application of autologous fibrin sealant agent helped in controlling cerebral bleeding and in providing prompt and efficient dural sealing with resolution of CSF leaks. Although the use of autologous fibrin glue seems to be safe, easy, and effective, further investigations are strongly recommended to quantify real advantages and potential limitations. PMID:25984391

  7. Social Marketing Risk-Framing Approaches for Dental Sealants in Rural American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88  = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. THE EFFECT OF BONDING AND SURFACE SEALANT APPLICATION ON POSTOPERATIVE SENSITIVITY FROM POSTERIOR COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan TEKÇE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the postoperative sensitivity of posterior Class I composite restoration at short-term, restorated with two different all-in-one self-etch adhesives with or without surface sealant application. Materials and Methods: 44 restorations were inserted in 11 patients who required Class I restorations in their molars. Each patient received 4 restorations, thus four groups were formed; (1 G-Aenial Bond (GC, Japan; (2 Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray, Japan; (3 G-Aenial Bond+Fortify Plus (Bisco, USA, (4 Clearfil S3 Bond+Fortify Plus. Sensitivity was evaluated at 24h, 7, 15, and 30 days using cold air, ice, and pressure stimuli using a visual analog scale. Comparisons of continuous variables between the sensitivity evaluations were performed using the Friedman’s One-Way Analysis of Variance with repeated measures test (p0.05. The use of Clearfil S3 Bond resulted in almost the same level of postoperative sensitivity as did the use of G-Aenial Bond. The highest sensitivity scores were observed for the surface sealant applied teeth without any statistical significance (p>0.05. Conclusions: Self etch adhesives displayed postoperative sensitivity. The sensitivity scores slightly decreased at the end of 30 days (p>0.05. Surface sealant application did not result in a decrease in sensitivity scores for either dentin adhesives.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls in polysulfide sealants-Occurrence and emission from a landfill station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, N. Johan; Pettersen, Harald; Ishaq, Rasha; Axelman, Johan; Bandh, Cecilia; Broman, Dag; Zebuehr, Yngve; Hammar, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 80 000 kg polysulfide sealant containing 10 000-18 000 kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was deposited at a Swedish municipal landfill station during 1965-1973. Investigations during 1994 showed that soil layers underneath the landfill had concentration of PCB not alarmingly high. The concentration of PCB congeners in ground water samples was elevated 4-750 times compared to a reference sample. Based on samples of ground water, leachate water, and flux chambers measuring evaporation of PCB from the landfill surface, the emission of PCB was estimated to be 1 g ΣPCB/yr. This very low rate was attributed to the high sorptive capacity of the sealant. Compared to a reference site, the evaporation flux was elevated for the most volatile congeners, but factors 20-1400 lower than from another landfill which was contaminated with PCB in paper-pulp fibres. - From a municipal 2-ha landfill containing 10-18 tonnes of ΣPCB bound in polysulfide sealants, only 1 g per year escape to the surroundings

  10. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Brusselle (Guy); C. VanderStichele (Christine); P. Jordens (Paul); R. Deman (René); H. Slabbynck (Hans); V. Ringoet (Veerle); G. Verleden (Geert); I.K. Demedts (Ingel); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); A. Delporte (Anja); B. Demeyere (Bénédicte); T. Claeys (Tine); J. Boelens (Jerina); E. Padalko (Elizaveta); J. Verschakelen (Johny); G. van Maele (Georges); E. Deschepper (Ellen); G.F. Joos (Guy)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases

  11. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extended Erythropoietin Treatment Prevents Chronic Executive Functional and Microstructural Deficits Following Early Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenandoah Robinson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of infant traumatic brain injury (TBI are prone to chronic neurological deficits that impose lifelong individual and societal burdens. Translation of novel interventions to clinical trials is hampered in part by the lack of truly representative preclinical tests of cognition and corresponding biomarkers of functional outcomes. To address this gap, the ability of a high-dose, extended, post-injury regimen of erythropoietin (EPO, 3000U/kg/dose × 6d to prevent chronic cognitive and imaging deficits was tested in a postnatal day 12 (P12 controlled-cortical impact (CCI model in rats, using touchscreen operant chambers and regional analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Results indicate that EPO prevents functional injury and MRI injury after infant TBI. Specifically, subacute DTI at P30 revealed widespread microstructural damage that is prevented by EPO. Assessment of visual discrimination on a touchscreen operant chamber platform demonstrated that all groups can perform visual discrimination. However, CCI rats treated with vehicle failed to pass reversal learning, and perseverated, in contrast to sham and CCI-EPO rats. Chronic DTI at P90 showed EPO treatment prevented contralateral white matter and ipsilateral lateral prefrontal cortex damage. This DTI improvement correlated with cognitive performance. Taken together, extended EPO treatment restores executive function and prevents microstructural brain abnormalities in adult rats with cognitive deficits in a translational preclinical model of infant TBI. Sophisticated testing with touchscreen operant chambers and regional DTI analyses may expedite translation and effective yield of interventions from preclinical studies to clinical trials. Collectively, these data support the use of EPO in clinical trials for human infants with TBI.

  13. Morbidity and mortality risk among patients with screening-detected severe hypertension in the Malmö Preventive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Zöller, Bengt; Arslan, Eren; Erdine, Serap; Nilsson, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Screening of hypertension has been advocated for early detection and treatment. Severe hypertension (grade 3 hypertension) is a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate not only the risk factors for developing severe hypertension, but also the prospective morbidity and mortality risk associated with severe hypertension in a population-based screening and intervention programme. In all, 18,200 individuals from a population-based cohort underwent a baseline examination in 1972-1992 and were re-examined in 2002-2006 in Malmö, Sweden. In total, 300 (1.6%) patients with severe hypertension were identified at re-examination, and predictive risk factors from baseline were calculated. Total and cause-specific morbidity and mortality were followed in national registers in all severe hypertension patients, as well as in age and sex-matched normotensive controls. Cox analyses for hazard ratios were used. Men developing severe hypertension differed from matched controls in baseline variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, as well as paternal history of hypertension (P < 0.001). Women with later severe hypertension were characterized by elevated BMI and a positive maternal history for hypertension at baseline. The risk of mortality, coronary events, stroke and diabetes during follow-up was higher among severe hypertension patients compared to controls. For coronary events, the risk remained elevated adjusted for other risk factors [hazard ratio 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.40, P = 0.011]. Family history and variables associated with metabolic syndrome are predictors for severe hypertension after a long-term follow-up. Severe hypertension is associated with increased mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and incident diabetes in spite of treatment. This calls for improved risk factor control in patients with severe hypertension.

  14. Fibrin sealants or cell saver eliminate the need for autologous blood donation in anemic patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Monsef, Jad; Buckup, Johannes; Waldstein, Wenzel; Cornell, Charles; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Reducing allogeneic blood transfusions remains a challenge in total knee arthroplasty. Patients with preoperative anemia have a particularly high risk for perioperative blood transfusions. 176 anemic patients (Hb < 13.5 g/dl) undergoing total knee replacement were prospectively evaluated to compare the effect of a perioperative cell saver (26 patients), intraoperative fibrin sealants (5 ml Evicel, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) (45 patients), preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) (21 patients), the combination of fibrin sealants and preoperative autologous blood donation (44) and no intervention (40 patients) on perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. All protocols resulted in significant reduction of allogeneic blood transfusions. Transfusion rates were similar with the use of PABD (19%), Evicel (18%), and cell saver (19%), all significantly lower than the control group (38 %, p < 0.05). Combining Evicel with PABD resulted in significantly higher wastage of autologous units (p < 0.05) with no significant reduction in allogeneic transfusion rate (14%). The use of fibrin sealant resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss compared to the PABD group (603 vs. 810 ml, p < 0.005) as well as the control group (603 vs. 822 ml, p < 0.005). While PABD proved to be the most cost-effective treatment option in anemic patients, fibrin sealants and cell saver show similar reduction in allogeneic transfusion rates compared to controls. The combination of fibrin sealants and PABD is not cost-effective and increases the number of wasted units.

  15. Knowledge, value, opinion and practice about usage of pit and fissure sealant among dental professionals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappan, N; Dhamodhar, M Dinesh; Nithin, M G; Kumar, E Senthil

    2015-12-01

    A study was aimed to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding the use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A self-administrated questionnaire were distributed to 192 private dental practitioners in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India by using simple random sampling. A convenience sampling technique was employed. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, which included information about knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. The questionnaire was obtained from the study by San Martin et al. 2013 and Kailash Asawa et al. 2014. Frequency distribution was tabulated. For frequency distribution strongly, strongly agree, and agree were combined as "agree" and strongly disagree and disagree were combined as "disagree." There were no changes in "neutral." Among the 196 study subjects 56.2% were males and 43.8% were females with their clinical experience of 52.1% for 15 years. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. The results suggest that dental practitioners had satisfactory knowledge about pit and fissure sealant and had neutral attitudes about sealants being effective. Dental practitioners adequately used the pit and fissure sealants but they did not follow the standardized procedures and specific guidelines.

  16. Sealing effectiveness of fissure sealant bonded with universal adhesive systems on saliva-contaminated and noncontaminated enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Zarean, Mehran; Razmjoei, Faranak

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of sealants is dependent upon their adhesion to enamel surface. The aim of the study was to evaluate the sealing ability of a pit and fissure sealant used with a universal adhesive (etch-and-rinse vs. self-etch modes) when the site is contaminated with saliva. Adhesive properties were evaluated as microleakage and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) characteristics. A total of 72 mandibular third molars were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=12). Occlusal pits and fissures were sealed with an unfilled resin fissure sealant (FS) material with or without saliva contamination. The groups included: 1) phosphoric acid etching + FS (control), 2) phosphoric acid etching + Scotchbond Universal (etch-and-rinse) + FS, 3) phosphoric acid etching + saliva + Scotchbond Universal (etch-and-rinse) + FS, 4) Scotchbond Universal (self-etching) + FS,5) Scotchbond Universal (self-etching) + saliva + FS, and 6) Scotchbond Universal (self-etching) + saliva + Scotchbond Universal + FS. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 0.5% fuchsin, sectioned, and evaluated by digital microscopy. Two samples from each group were also observed by SEM. The data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for a significance of p universal adhesive in etch-and-rinse or self-etch modes was similar to that of conventional acid etching. Saliva contamination had a negative effect on sealant adhesion to pretreated enamel. Key words: Pit and fissure sealant, Universal adhesive, Saliva.

  17. [Examination of the Prevention of Severe Hand Trauma Injury Cases due to Occupational Accidents--An Expert Opinion Gathering Meeting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenke, Yukichi; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Nakao, Toyoki; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Shoji, Takurou; Fukumoto, Keizo; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    We gathered seven specialists from various fields who are interested in worker injury prevention programs, based on cases of patients who had suffered refractory injuries requiring hand surgery because of industrial accidents. The patients were asked to write their thoughts and ideas on the theme, "Measures that must be implemented to prevent arm injuries." The content obtained was classified into different categories, using the KJ method, and was scripted to sort out the items. As a result, the following eleven points were identified as measures to prevent serious hand surgery-related injuries: 1. Purchase safe machinery, 2. Create a list of machines that require caution, 3. Enclose a machine's various rotating parts, 4. Carry out periodic maintenance work on the machines, 5. Indicate dangerous areas by putting up signs that attract attention, 6. Illuminate the rotating parts more brightly and avoid placing objects around them, 7. Systematically carry out safety education that creates a strong impact, 8. Encourage workers to look after their own health, 9. Announce policies on health and safety, 10. Re-examine the operational procedures, and 11. Be prepared in case an accident occurs. A perspective based on the results of this research is deemed important in creating a workplace improvement manual in the future.

  18. Autologous but not Fibrin Sealant Patches for Stump Coverage Reduce Clinically Relevant Pancreatic Fistula in Distal Pancreatectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Maximilian; D'Haese, Jan Goesta; Crispin, Alexander; Angele, Martin Kurt; Werner, Jens; Hartwig, Werner

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) causes significant morbidity and mortality after distal pancreatectomy. Patch coverage of the pancreatic stump is often used with the intention to prevent POPF. Despite numerous investigations, the effects of patch coverage remain unclear. The present meta-analysis aims to clarify the effects of patch coverage in distal pancreatectomy on the incidence of POPF. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Database according to the PRISMA Statement was performed. Subsequently a meta-analysis on rates and overall incidence of POPF and length of hospital stay was carried out. By applying the inverse variance weighting method, the combined effect size and 95 % confidence interval were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 statistics. Five randomized controlled trials and six observational clinical studies were included for final analysis. A cumulative incidence of 43 % of POPF grades A-C was identified. Patch coverage in distal pancreatectomy is significantly associated with a decreased rate of POPF grade C (p = 0.006). Patches of autologous vascularized tissue significantly reduce the overall incidence of POPF (p = 0.04) and clinically relevant POPF grade B and C (p = 0.002). Fibrin sealant patches do not influence rates of POPF after distal pancreatectomy. None of the outcomes evaluated showed adverse results for the patch group. Patch coverage after distal pancreatectomy can reduce the rate of POPF. Patch coverage with autologous vascularized tissue but not fibrin sealant patches may be used to reduce clinically relevant POPF and postoperative morbidity in distal pancreatectomy.

  19. Use of a sealant to prevent prolonged air leaks after lung resection: a prospective randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Lequaglie Cosimo; Giudice Gabriella; Marasco Rita; Morte Aniello; Gallo Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary air leaks are common complications of lung resection and result in prolonged hospital stays and increased costs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, compared with standard care, the use of a synthetic polyethylene glycol matrix (CoSeal®) could reduce air leaks detected by means of a digital chest drain system (DigiVent™), in patients undergoing lung resection (sutures and/or staples alone). Methods Patients who intraoperatively showed moderate o...

  20. Fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees. A comparison of Kirschner wires, fibrin sealant, and polydioxanone pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, B R; Royster, R M; Donigian, A M; Wright, G B; Caskey, P M

    1992-03-01

    We compared fibrin sealant, polydioxanone (PDS) pins and Kirschner wires in the fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees. Standardised osteochondral fractures of the right medial femoral condyle were made in 56 adult New Zealand white rabbits. There were equal groups of control knees, and those which had Kirschner-wire, fibrin-sealant or PDS-pin fixation. No external immobilisation was used. One animal from each group was killed at two, three and four weeks. The remaining rabbits were killed at six weeks. A fracture which healed with less than 1 mm of displacement was considered a success. There was successful healing in 29% of the control group, in all of the Kirschner-wire group, in 50% of the fibrin-sealant group, and in 86% of the PDS-pin group. The use of PDS pins appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of metal in the fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbits.

  1. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (E...

  3. Randomized clinical trial of fibrin sealant versus titanium tacks for mesh fixation in laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J R; Bisgaard, T; Assaadzadeh, S

    2011-01-01

    The use of tacks for mesh fixation may induce pain after surgery for ventral hernia. The aim of this study was to compare postoperative pain after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) with conventional mesh fixation using titanium tacks versus fibrin sealant (FS).......The use of tacks for mesh fixation may induce pain after surgery for ventral hernia. The aim of this study was to compare postoperative pain after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) with conventional mesh fixation using titanium tacks versus fibrin sealant (FS)....

  4. Effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiaofei; Li, Wei; Ling, Chen; Fok, Alex

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants in vitro. Twenty bovine incisors received 4 different sealant treatments and were divided into four groups: 1. Ultraseal XT plus (UX); 2. Enamel Loc (EL); 3. 35% phosphoric acid plus Enamel Loc (PEL); 4. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro (PPC). Beam-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into three subgroups. One subgroup underwent the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test after 24-h storage in 37°C water. The other two subgroups were also subjected to the microtensile bond strength test after 5000 and 10,000 thermal cycles, respectively. Another twelve intact human third molars were sealed using 1 of 3 methods and were divided into 3 groups of 4 each: 1. Ultraseal XT plus; 2. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro; and 3. Enamel Loc. Two specimens from each group were immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 24 h, followed by exposure to fluorescent light for 8 h, before being scanned in a micro-CT (microcomputer tomography) machine. The other two were handled in the same way after undergoing 10,000 thermal cycles. The CT images obtained were evaluated. All samples from the EL group were broken during preparation, so no µTBS results were available. After 5000 thermal cycles, the bond strengths of the three other groups (UX, PEL, PPC) decreased significantly (p artificial aging. Micro-CT, a nondestructive analytical tool, may be used to evaluate the sealant/enamel interface effectively.

  5. The effect of different enamel surface treatments on microleakage of fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Topaloglu-Ak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different techniques of surface treatment on the microleakage of fissure sealants in permanent molar teeth in vitro. Materials and methods. 96 extracted impacted human third molars were randomly divided into 8 surface treatment groups (n=12/group as 1. Er: YAG laser; (Fidelis II, Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia (125 mj, 20Hz. 2. Er: YAG laser + 37% H3PO4 (15s; 3. ER: AG laser + 37% H3PO4+Prime&Bond NT; 4. Er: YAG laser + G Bond; 5. Er: YAG laser + Prime&Bond NT; 6. 37% H3PO4; 7. 37% H3PO4 + Prime &Bond NT; 8. G Bond. Sealant material (Clinpro, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, was applied into the fissures and light-cured for 20s with LED (Bluephase C5, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling (1000×, 5-55°C, dwell time: 15s and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution for 24h at 37°C. The samples were sectioned and scored on a 3 point rating scale using a light microscope with a magnification of ×20. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Multiple comparisons were analyzed using Bonferroni test (p=0.05. Results. Er:YAG laser showed the highest microleakage scores whereas Er YAG laser + 37% H3PO4 showed the lowest. Although 37% H3PO4 group showed higher scores than Er:YAG laser + 37% H3PO4, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Etching fissures with phosphoric acid is sufficient prior to fissure sealant application.

  6. Aluminosilicate-based sealants for SOFCs and other electrochemical applications - A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Kharton, Vladislav V.; Ferreira, José M. F.

    2013-11-01

    Among different designs of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), planar design is the most promising due to easier fabrication, improved performance and relatively high power density. In planar SOFCs and other solid-electrolyte devices, gas-tight seals must be formed along the edges of each cell and between the stack and gas manifolds. For a sealant to work effectively in high-temperature SOFC environment, equilibrium needs to be achieved amid its mechanical properties and flow behavior so that it does not only maintain its hermeticity at high temperature but is also able to reduce mechanical stresses generated in the seal during thermal cycling. The most common sealants based on glass or glass-ceramic materials have been shown to operate in fuel cells for more than 1000 h with no significant degradation. Analysis of the current literature sources demonstrated that from thermal and chemical stability points of view, silicate based glass systems are more suitable than borate and borosilicate glass systems. In this work, different glass-ceramic (GC) compositions based on alkaline- and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate-based glass systems are reviewed with a special emphasis on their thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Based on these considerations, glass composition design approaches are provided that aid in search of the best seal glasses satisfying the rigid functional requirements. Among all the glass systems studied, a pyroxene based CaO-MgO-SrO-BaO-La2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 seal GC compositions have been specifically discussed because those have achieved appropriate thermal and chemical properties along with high stability. Approaches for further developments and optimization of GC sealants are briefly discussed.

  7. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring as a tool to prevent severe hypoglycaemia in selected pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Stage, E; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Among women with Type 1 diabetes who have had severe hypoglycaemia the year before pregnancy, 70% also experience this complication in pregnancy, and particularly in the first half of pregnancy. We evaluated whether routine use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring from early pregnancy...... onwards could prevent severe hypoglycaemia in these women. METHODS: All 136 consecutive pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes referred to our centre were asked about severe hypoglycaemic events in the year before pregnancy and early in pregnancy at their first antenatal visit. Women with a relevant recent...... history were informed about their additional high risk of severe hypoglycaemia, their treatment was focused on restricted insulin doses during the first 16 gestational weeks, and they were offered real-time continuous glucose monitoring on top of self-monitored plasma glucose measurements. RESULTS: Among...

  8. [Prevention and management of postresectional bronchopleural fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shigemi

    2008-07-01

    Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is still a life-threatening complication after pulmonary resection. Several factors were identified to contribute BPF. Meticulous surgical technique and the liberal use of prophylactic, pedicled flaps are important for prevention. Although these patients often present compromised and moribund, evaluation and management should proceed in a logical, stepwise fashion. In high-risk surgical patients, bronchoscopic procedures using different glues and sealants may serve as a temporary bridge until the patient's recovery or as a permanent resolution. However persistent conservative therapy may deteriorate patient's condition. Immediate creation of open window thoracotomy has been shown to be a significant predictor of wound closure afterwards. Pedicled muscle or omental flaps are useful to close bronchial stump and to fill the residual space in the thorax after pulmonary resection. Once fistula closed, the pleural space is filled with an antibiotic solution and then the open window thoracotomy closed in layers as Clagett procedure. The transternal transpericardial approach to recalcitrant postpneumonectomy BPF can be considered when patients have failed prior closure attempt. To conclude, survival and excellent result of BPF depends on early diagnosis, and aggressive surgical intervention.

  9. A case history on long-term effectiveness of clay sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents a case history in which a cadaver and the associated burial objects were found to be well-preserved after more than 2100 years of burial in Southern China. The preservation was attributed to the presence of a 60-300 cm thick kaolin or white clay layer around the tomb, which acted effectively as a barrier to moisture and air percolation. The degree of preservation in other tombs of similar age in the same area apparently depended on the mineralogy and thickness of the clay sealants used. The implication of this case history to nuclear fuel waste disposal is discussed

  10. The QUANTEC criteria for parotid gland dose and their efficacy to prevent moderate to severe patient-rated xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Ivo; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Chouvalova, Olga; Leemans, Charles R; Doornaert, Patricia; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Christianen, Miranda E M C; Vissink, Arjan; Bijl, Henk P; van Luijk, Peter; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effect in the Clinic (QUANTEC) Group defined dose-volume constraints for the parotid glands to avoid severe xerostomia. The aim of this study was to determine if application of these QUANTEC criteria also protected against moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia. The study population consisted of 307 head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiotherapy, either with 3D-CRT (56%) or with IMRT (44%). All patients participated in a standard follow-up program in which radiation-induced toxicity and quality of life were prospectively assessed. Patients who met the QUANTEC criteria were classified as low risk and otherwise as high risk. In total, 41% of the patients (treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT) were classified as low risk patients. In the group treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, it was possible to meet the QUANTEC criteria in 47% and 32% of the patients, respectively. Sparing the parotid glands with IMRT was considerably more difficult in patients with lymph node metastases and in patients with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tumours. Low risk patients reported significantly less moderate-to-severe xerostomia than high risk patients. However, the predicted risk of elderly patients and patients with pre-existing minor patient-rated xerostomia at baseline was > 20%, even when the QUANTEC criteria were met. Significantly lower rates of radiation-induced patient-rated xerostomia were found among low risk patients treated according to the QUANTEC criteria, but these criteria do not completely protect against xerostomia. Particularly in elderly patients and patients already suffering from minor xerostomia at baseline, the QUANTEC criteria do not sufficiently protect against persistent, moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia.

  11. Germany: Assessment of the efficiency of a passive safety system for prevention of severe accidents for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubelis, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of severe transient behavior in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and of the impact of newly conceived inherent mitigation measures (the use of ASD – additional shutdown device). The SFR design taken for the analysis was the SFR(v2b-ST) reactor design, and the system code to be used was selected to be the SIM-SFR code. The transients chosen for evaluation of the efficiency of mitigation measures were the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS)

  12. Parenteral Fish-Oil Lipid Emulsions in the Prevention of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalthrikkovil, Sakeer; Bashir, Rani A; Rabi, Yacov; Amin, Harish; Spence, Jill-Marie; Robertson, Helen Lee; Lodha, Abhay

    2017-06-01

    Objective  Omega-3 fatty acids are vital for brain and retinal maturation. It is not clear if early use of ω-3 fatty acids in the form of fish-oil lipid emulsions (FLEs) prevents retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate whether early administration of parenteral FLEs reduces ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥stage 3 in preterm infants. Methods  A literature search was performed to identify studies comparing parenteral FLEs with soybean-based lipid emulsions (SLEs) in preventing ROP. The main outcome was incidence of severe ROP or ROP requiring laser therapy. Results  Studies met the inclusion criteria (four RCTs and two observational studies). The pooled relative risk of ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥ stage 3 in FLEs group was 0.47 [95% CI: 0.24-0.90] and 0.40 [95% CI: 0.22-0.76] in RCTs and observational studies, respectively. FLEs also reduced cholestasis; however, other secondary outcomes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality were similar. Conclusion  The use of FLEs may reduce the incidence of severe ROP or need for laser therapy in preterm infants. A large multicenter RCT is required to confirm this. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Injectible candidate sealants for fetal membrane repair: Bonding and toxicity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic, Grozdana; Brubaker, Carrie; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Mallik, Ajit S.; Quinn, Thomas M.; Haller, Claudia; Done, Elisa; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zimmermann, Roland; Deprest, Jan; Zisch, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to test injectible surgical sealants that are biocompatible with fetal membranes, eventually for closure of iatrogenic membrane defects. Study Design Dermabond, Histoacryl, Tissucol fibrin glue, and three types of in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer hydrogels were tested for acute toxicity upon direct contact with fetal membranes for 24h. For determination of elution toxicity, extracts of sealants were incubated on amnion cell cultures for 72h. Bonding and toxicity was assessed through morphological and/or biochemical analysis. Results Extracts of all adhesives were non-toxic for cultured cells. However, only Tissucol and one type of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel, mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive, showed efficient, non-disruptive, non-toxic bonding to fetal membranes. Mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive applied over membrane defects created with a 3.5 mm trocar accomplished leak-proof closure that withstood membrane stretch in an in vitro model. Conclusion A synthetic hydrogel-type tissue adhesive emerged as potential sealing modality for iatrogenic membrane defects that merits further evaluation in vivo. PMID:20096254

  14. Successful conservative treatment of enterocutaneous fistula with cyanoacrylate surgical sealant: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Panzera, P; Martines, G

    2017-01-01

    Enterocutaneous (EC) fistula is an abnormal communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin. The majority of EC fistulas result from surgery. Only 15-25% of EC fistulas are spontaneous and they often result from underlying diseases such as Crohn's disease, radiation and chemotherapy. A 62-year old woman who, in 2012, underwent Pylorus-preserving cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD sec. Traverso-Longmire), due to an advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pT3N1M1). After surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with folfirinox regimen. In December 2016, as a result of the appearance of metastatic liver lesions and perianastomotic recurrence, the patient underwent second line treatment with Gemcitabine and pab-paclitaxel. After five months from the beginning of this new second line therapy she presented an EC fistula. The fistula of the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and with percutaneous injection of cyanoacrylic sealant. The result suggests the advisability of percutaneous injection of sealant devices, such as cyanoacrylate glue; in order to successfully control stable Enterocutaneous fistulas with acceptable morbidity and mortality especially in particular situations, such as, with low output EC fistulas without signs of complications or on patients considered not suitable for surgery, a conservative approach could ensure the control of the fistula. This approach is easy and safe, viable and useful for future trials on the efficacy in conservative treatment of EC fistula.

  15. Evaluation of Fibrin Sealants and Tissue Adhesives in Oral Surgery for Patients with Bleeding Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Ak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two local haemostatic agents administered together with preoperative dose of replacement therapy for oral surgical procedures in patients with bleeding disorders METHODS: Twenty-one patients were divided into three groups randomly. Patients in Group 1 (n=7 received preoperative replacement therapy with postoperative fibrin sealant application in the surgical site. Patients in Group 2 (n=7 received preoperative replacement therapy with postoperative tissue adhesive application in the surgical site. Patients in Group 3 (n=7 were given total dose of replacement therapy pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS: No postoperative bleeding was observed in 17 patients including five patients in Group 1 (71.42%, six patients in Group 2 (85.71% and six patients in Group 3 (85.71%. Haemorrhagic complication was observed in only four patients among all groups. CONCLUSION: We conclude that utilization of fibrin sealants and tissue adhesives in oral surgery is beneficial due to the lessened amount of factor concentrates used for replacement therapy and the rapid haemostasis at the operation side to perform serial surgical procedures in the same session.

  16. Cost-effectiveness, in a randomized trial, of glass-ionomer-based and resin sealant materials after 4 yr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, A.S.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.; Frencken, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study, conducted from a government program perspective, compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of oral health interventions, in particular their delivery to underserved populations in whom dental sealants constitute an important, high-yielding complement to toothbrushing in dental-caries

  17. A clinical trial to evaluate the retention of a silver cermet-ionomer cement used as a fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R W; Ball, I A

    1993-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was under-taken to compare the retention of a silver cermet-ionomer cement, Ketac Silver, with a conventional, autopolymerizing BIS-GMA resin sealant, Delton, using matched pairs of fissure sites within each subject's mouth. One hundred twenty matched contralateral pairs of fissure sites in first and second permanent molars of 53 school children were sealed with the two materials. The choice of site and material was selected at random. The ages of the children ranged from five to 16 years; first permanent molars were sealed in the five- to 10-year age group, and second permanent molars in the 11- to 16-year age group. Sealants were assessed as present, partly present, or absent at 6, 12, and 24 months. The number of pairs of sites available for reassessment declined from 102 at six months to 59 at 24 months as patients were lost to the study. Retention rates were higher for the Ketac Silver sealants at all three inspection intervals (P cermet cement was better retained than conventional resin sealants in younger children.

  18. Behavior of adhesion forces of silicone adhesive sealants and mastic butyl under the influence of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wanderley da

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives are products that can keep materials together by bonds between the surfaces. Sealants are products that can keep filled a space between two surfaces, through a barrier that is configured as a 'bridge' between the two surfaces. The mastic is a product made of a mixture of substances with the primary butyl polymer, with the consistency of a mass not dried that can be used as a sealant. The polysiloxane, also known as silicone are the most important synthetic polymers with inorganic structure, and are matrices of silicone adhesive sealants. To demonstrate the behavior of the adhesive forces of these products under different conditions, we used five different techniques. These products were subjected to two different conditions to verify the behavior of adhesion, one at the environmental condition and another under the ionizing radiation. The results showed not only differences between products (silicone and mastic), but also that the adhesive forces have different behaviors under the conditions which the samples were subjected. With this was reached the goal of this study that aspired show the differences between the mastic and silicone, this last one is often considered - erroneously - the same as mastic. Thus it was proven that: 1. silicone can be regarded as an adhesive and a sealant at ambient conditions, 2. mastic improves substantially adhesion in an environment of ionizing radiation and this property can be an excellent alternative to the adhesive market. (author)

  19. Effectiveness of Fibrin Sealant Patch in Reducing Drain Volume after Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Women with Gynecologic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Cheong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fibrin sealant in decreasing postoperative lymphatic drainage in women after pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy during gynecologic cancer surgery. Methods. This study is a retrospective case-control study. Forty-five patients who underwent staging surgery were enrolled. Twenty-seven patients were in the fibrin sealant group (group A and 18 in the control group (group B. The two groups were compared for the total volume of drain, hospital stay, harvested lymph node, and incidence of asymptomatic lymphocele. Lymphocele formation was evaluated by computed tomography (CT on 3 months after surgery. Results. There were no significant differences in patient demographics between group A and B with respect to age, BMI, and harvested lymph nodes. Patients who received fibrin sealants had reduced total volume of drainage from postoperative days 2 to 5 compared to the control group (group A versus group B: 994.819±745.85 ml versus 1847.89±1241.41 ml; P=0.015. However no differences were observed in hospital stay (P=0.282, duration of drain (P=0.207, and incidence of asymptomatic lymphocele at 3 months (P=0.126. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that the application of fibrin sealants after pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy may reduce lymphatic drainage in gynecologic malignancy.

  20. Validation of micro-CT against the section method regarding the assessment of marginal leakage of sealants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Fan, M.W.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the micro-CT and related software against the section method using the stereomicroscope for marginal leakage assessment along the sealant-enamel interface. METHODS: Pits and fissures of the occlusal surface of 10 teeth were sealed with a

  1. 40 CFR Table 14 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limitations for Puncture Sealant Application Affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limitations for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources 14 Table 14 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 14 Table 14 to Subpart XXXX...

  2. Analysing uncertainty around costs of innovative medical technologies: the case of fibrin sealant (QUIXIL) for total knee replacement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Bastide, Philippe; Buxton, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a relatively simple cost model comparing the costs of using a commercial fibrin sealant (QUIXIL®) in addition to conventional haemostatic treatment vs. conventional treatment alone in total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, and demonstrates and discusses how one- and two-way

  3. Reduced frequency and severity of residential fires following delivery of fire prevention education by on-duty fire fighters: cluster randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Joseph; Garis, Len; Plecas, Darryl; Jennings, Charles

    2012-04-01

    In 2008, Surrey Fire Services, British Columbia, commenced a firefighter-delivered, door-to-door fire-prevention education and smoke alarm examination/installation initiative with the intention of reducing the frequency and severity of residential structure fires in the City of Surrey. High-risk zones within the city were identified and 18,473 home visits were undertaken across seven temporal delivery cohorts (13.8% of non-apartment dwellings in the city). The frequency and severity of fires pre- and post- the home visit intervention was examined in comparison to randomized high-risk cluster controls. Overall, the frequency of fires was found to have reduced in the city overall, however, the reduction in the intervention cohorts was significantly larger than for controls. Furthermore, when fires did occur within the intervention cohorts, smoke detectors were activated more frequently and the fires were confined to the object of origin more often post-home visits. No equivalent pattern was observed for the cluster control. On-duty fire fighters can reduce the frequency and severity of residential fires through targeted, door-to-door distribution of fire prevention education in high-risk areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combination of heterologous fibrin sealant and bioengineered human embryonic stem cells to improve regeneration following autogenous sciatic nerve grafting repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Roghayeh; Kyrylenko, Sergiy; Castro, Mateus Vidigal; Ferreira, Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem, and the preferred surgical method for treating it is the end-to-end neurorrhaphy. When it is not possible due to a large nerve gap, autologous nerve grafting is used. However, these surgical techniques result in nerve regeneration at highly variable degrees. It is thus very important to seek complementary techniques to improve motor and sensory recovery. One promising approach could be cell therapy. Transplantation therapy with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is appealing because these cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into specialized cell types and have self-renewal ability. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to find conditions under which functional recovery is improved after sciatic nerve neurorrhaphy. We assumed that hESC, either alone or in combination with heterologous fibrin sealant scaffold, could be used to support regeneration in a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury and repair via autografting with end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Five millimeters of the sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 J mice were transected off and rotated 180 degrees to simulate an injury, and then stumps were sutured. Next, we applied heterologous fibrin sealant and/or human embryonic stem cells genetically altered to overexpress fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) at the site of the injury. The study was designed to include six experimental groups comprising neurorrhaphy (N), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant (N + F), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + doxycycline (N + F + D), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + wild-type hESC (N + F + W), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + hESC off (N + F + T), and neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + hESC on via doxycycline (N + F + D + T). We evaluated the recovery rate using Catwalk and von Frey functional recovery tests, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis. The experiments indicated that

  5. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in

  6. Subsurface Endospore-Forming Bacteria Possess Bio-Sealant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sreenivasulu; Lingamgunta, Lakshman Kumar; Kannali, Jayakumar; Gajula, Swarna Kumari; Bandikari, Ramesh; Dasari, Sreenivasulu; Dalavai, Veena; Chinthala, Paramageetham; Gundala, Prasada Babu; Kutagolla, Peera; Balaji, Vinodh Kumar

    2018-04-24

    Concrete is a strong and fairly inexpensive building substance, but has several disadvantages like cracking that allows corrosion, thus reducing its lifespan. To mitigate these complications, long-lasting microbial self-healing cement is an alternative that is eco-friendly and also actively repairs cracks. The present paper describes the detailed experimental investigation on compressive strength of cement mortars, mixed with six alkaliphilic bacteria, isolated from subsurface mica mines of high alkalinity. The experiments showed that the addition of alkaliphilic isolates at different cell concentrations (10 4 and 10 6 cells/ml) enhanced the compressive strength of cement mortar, because the rapid growth of bacteria at high alkalinity precipitates calcite crystals that lead to filling of pores and densifying the concrete mix. Thus, Bacillus subtilis (SVUNM4) showed the highest compressive strength (28.61%) of cement mortar at 10 4 cells/ml compared to those of other five alkaliphilic isolates (Brevibacillus sp., SVUNM15-22.1%; P. dendritiformis, SVUNM11-19.9%; B. methylotrophicus, SVUNM9-16%; B. licheniformis, SVUNM14-12.7% and S. maltophilia, SVUNM13-9.6%) and controlled cement mortar as well. This method resulted in the filling of cracks in concrete with calcite (CaCO 3 ), which was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our results showed that the alkaliphilic bacterial isolates used in the study are effective in self-healing and repair of concrete cracks.

  7. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  8. Red peppers with moderate and severe pungency prevent the memory deficit and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Daily, James W; Park, Sunmin

    2015-01-01

    Dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, but red pepper extract improves glucose homeostasis. We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of different red pepper extracts improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats with β-amyloid-induced dementia. Male diabetic rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) (AD) or β-amyloid (35-25, non-plaque forming), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days (Non-AD). AD rats were divided into four dietary groups receiving either 1% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of either low, moderate and severe pungency red peppers (AD-LP, AD-MP, and AD-SP) or 1% dextrin (AD-CON) in Western diets (43% energy as fat). The ascending order of control memory deficit measured by passive avoidance test and water maze test. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-amyloid induced glucose intolerance, although serum insulin levels were elevated during the late phase of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All of the red pepper extracts prevented the glucose intolerance in AD rats. Consistent with OGTT results, during euglycemic hyperinulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates were lower in AD-CON than Non-AD-CON with no difference in whole body glucose uptake. Hepatic glucose output at the hyperinsulinemic state was increased in AD-CON. β-amyloid accumulation exacerbated hepatic insulin resistance, but all red pepper extract treatments reversed the insulin resistance in AD rats. The extracts of moderate and severe red peppers were found to prevent the memory deficit and exacerbation of insulin resistance by blocking tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid accumulation in diabetic rats with experimentally induced Alzheimer's-like dementia. These results suggest that red pepper consumption might be an effective intervention for preventing age-related memory deficit.

  9. Percutaneous BioOrganic Sealing of Duodenal Fistulas: Case Report and Review of Biological Sealants with Potential Use in Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor, E-mail: vwadhwa1@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology (United States); Leeper, William R., E-mail: rob.leeper@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (United States); Tamrazi, Anobel, E-mail: atamraz1@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Biological sealants are being increasingly used in a variety of surgical specialties for their hemostatic and sealing capabilities. However, their use in interventional radiology has not been widely reported. The authors describe a case of duodenal perforation occurring after 15 years of gastric bypass surgery, in whom surgical diversion was unsuccessfully attempted and the leakage was successfully controlled using percutaneous administration of a combination of biological and organic sealants.

  10. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  11. Fissure sealants: in vitro evaluation of abrasion wear and superficial roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro wear and superficial roughness of four materials (Delton Dyract Flow, Dentsply; Filtek Flow, Vitremer, 3M ESPE used as fissure sealant in 32 extracted human molars divided in four groups (n = 8 after abrasion with toothbrush/dentifrice. Impressions of each occlusal surface were made to analyze wear and circular specimens were prepared to analyze the roughness. Teeth and specimens were mounted in a toothbrushing machine. The replicas were observed using a SEM to determine the superficial wear. Wear: there were no statistically significant differences either between Delton and Filtek Flow or between Dyract Flow and Vitremer. Roughness: there were no statistical differences between Filtek Flow and Dyract Flow, Dyract Flow and Vitremer, Vitremer and Delton., Considering the clinical practice, if caries activity is present the use of Vitremer is suggested not only for its well known fluoride release, but it presented good roughness results.

  12. Use of FloSeal Sealant in the Surgical Management of Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Clapp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Surgery is sometimes required for the management of tubal ectopic pregnancies. Historically, surgeons used electrosurgery to obtain hemostasis. Topical hemostatic sealants, such as FloSeal, may decrease the reliance on electrosurgery and reduce thermal injury to the tissue. Case. A 33-year-old G1 P0 received methotrexate for a right tubal pregnancy. The patient became symptomatic six days later and underwent a laparoscopic right salpingotomy. After multiple unsuccessful attempts to obtain hemostasis with electrocoagulation, FloSeal was used and hemostasis was obtained. Six weeks later, a hysterosalpingogram (HSG confirmed tubal patency. The patient subsequently had an intrauterine pregnancy. Conclusion. FloSeal helped to achieve hemostasis during a laparoscopic salpingotomy and preserve tubal patency. FloSeal is an effective alternative and adjunct to electrosurgery in the surgical management of tubal pregnancy.

  13. Dextran/Albumin hydrogel sealant for Dacron(R) vascular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Anna; Butruk, Beata; Wasiak, Iga; Ciach, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a novel type of hydrogel coating prepared from the copolymer of human serum albumin and oxidized dextran. The material was designed as a hydrogel sealant for polyester (Dacron®)-based vascular grafts. Dextran was chosen as a coating material due to its anti-thrombogenic properties. Prepared hydrogels were compared with similar, already known biomaterial made from gelatine with the same cross-linking agent. Obtained hydrogels, prepared from various ratios of oxidized dextran/albumin or oxidized dextran/gelatine, showed different cross-linking densities, which caused differences in swelling, degradation rate and mechanical properties. Permeability tests confirmed the complete tightness of the hydrogel-modified prosthesis. Results showed that application of the hydrogel coating provided leakage-free prosthesis and eliminated the need of pre-clotting.

  14. The effect of biological sealants and adhesive treatments on matrix metalloproteinase expression during renal injury healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Lloris-Carsí

    Full Text Available Renal injuries are relatively common in cases of abdominal trauma. Adhesives and sealants can be used to repair and preserve damaged organs. Using a rat model, this study explores the activity of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP during the healing of renal injuries treated by two biological adhesives (TachoSil and GelitaSpon and a new synthetic elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex.Renal traumatic injuries were experimentally induced in 90 male Wistar rats by a Stiefel Biopsy Punch in the anterior aspect of the left kidney. Animals were divided into five groups: 1, sham non-injured (n = 3; 2, non-treated standard punch injury (n = 6; 3, punch injury treated with TachoSil (n = 27; 4, punch injury treated with GelitaSpon (n = 27; and, 5, punch injury treated with Adhflex (n = 27. Wound healing was evaluated 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by determining the expression of MMPs, and the histopathological evolution of lesions.Histologically, the wound size at 6 days post-injury was larger in Adhflex-treated samples than in the other treatments, but the scarring tissue was similar at 18 days post-injury. Only the MMPs subtypes 1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 were sufficiently expressed to be quantifiable. Both time since injury and treatment type had a significant influence on MMPs expression. Two days after injury, the expression of MMP8 and MMP9 was predominant. MMP2 expression was greater 6 days after injury. The Adhflex-treated group had a significantly higher MMPs expression than the other treatment groups at all healing stages.All three sealant treatments induced almost similar expression of MMPs than untreated animals indicating a physiological healing process. Given that all renal trauma injuries must be considered emergencies, both biological and synthetic adhesives, such as Adhflex, should be considered as a treatment options.

  15. Efficiency of two constructs called "fear of disease" and "perceived severity of disease" on the prevention of gastric cancer: Application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiani-Moghadam, Mohamad Hosein; Seyedi-Andi, Seyed Jalil; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Khafri, Sorayya; Ghadimi, Reza; Parsian, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Among all cancers, malignancies of gastrointestinal tract are the most common cancer among Iranian population. Dietary behavior is thought to be the most important risk factor in gastric cancer. Fear and perceived severity are two important constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Despite the evidence of the impact of these two constructs in modifying dietary habits against gastric cancer, their efficiency is not well established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the efficiency of the mentioned constructs. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 participants (180 males and 180 females) aged over 30 years old who presented to health centers in Babol, Iran in 2014. They were selected by a cluster sampling method in a population covered by health centers in Babol. Data collection was done using a questionnaire with acceptable reliability and validity, designed by a researcher based on two constructs of protection motivation theory. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 20 using descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, linear and logistic regression analysis. The participants who entered in the study achieved 38.6 and 69.7% of the scores of fear and perceived severity, respectively. There was a significant difference between perceived severity with level of education (pprotection motivation theory with predicting 38% of the variance of nutritional high risk behaviors had an effective role against gastric cancer and may help in the design and implementation of educational programs for the prevention of gastric cancer.

  16. Comparison of cephalonium alone and in combination with an internal teat sealant for dry cow therapy in seasonally calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A J; Chambers, G; Laven, R A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of combining an internal teat sealant (ITS) and a long-acting cephalonium-based dry cow therapy (DCT) on the prevalence of cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving, and the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the first 100 days after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based, dairy farm in the South Canterbury region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive cephalonium DCT (n=289) or cephalonium and internal teat sealant (n=304) at the end of lactation. Cows were inspected twice daily by farm staff during the dry period and following calving for signs of mastitis. Individual SCC were determined from herd tests conducted in the previous lactation and following calving. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships with the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, and survival analysis was used to model time to the first case of clinical mastitis following calving at the cow and quarter level. The OR for a cow with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, including age and individual SCC in the preceding lactation in the model, was 0.53 (95% CI=0.32-0.89) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.017). At the cow level, including age and preceding SCC in the model, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis by farm staff in the first 100 days of lactation was 0.60 (95% CI=0.39-0.98) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.04). At the quarter level, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis, with age included in the model, was 0.41 (95% CI=0.23-0.74) for the combination therapy compared to cephalonium alone (pmastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the 100 days after calving, and the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving. This study adds to the evidence that the prevention of intra mammary

  17. Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city......, or no intervention. Results: The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in communitydwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  18. Effect of occlusal calculus utilized as a potential "biological sealant" in special needs patients with gastric feeding tubes: a qualitative in vitro contrast to pit and fissure sealant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Barry M; Sharp, Harry K; Fourmy, Emily E; Phebus, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report and in vitro investigation was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of intact occlusal calculus of primary molars extracted from a special needs patient who received nutrition via a gastric feeding tube. An adolescent with a history of developmental disturbance presented for routine dental care in a hospital facility. Prophylaxis was performed, and 2 mandibular permanent molars were restored. Five primary molars were extracted due to mobility and delayed retention. Heavy deposits of intact calculus were present on the occlusal surfaces of the primary teeth. The extracted teeth were immersed in methylene blue dye solution, invested in acrylic resin, sectioned into blocks, and photographed at 20× and 40× magnification. Previously photographed calculus-free molars with pit and fissure sealants were reviewed and served as contrasting "restorations." The occlusal calculus on the primary teeth extracted from the patient absorbed the dye, while the comparison teeth containing pit and fissure sealants exhibited varying degrees of marginal dye penetration (microleakage). No marginal microleakage was noted in the calculus specimens, indicating that this substrate may serve as a "natural" occlusal surface sealant and that its removal from occlusal surfaces during routine oral prophylaxis may be unnecessary.

  19. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 μg kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 μg kg–1). Concentrations of ∑PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

  20. Enamel pretreatment with Er:YAG laser: effects on the microleakage of fissure sealant in fluorosed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Memarpour,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage and penetration of fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth with fluorosis after pretreatment of the occlusal surface. Materials and Methods A total of 120 third molars with mild dental fluorosis were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20. The tooth surfaces were sealed with an unfilled resin fissure sealant (FS material. The experimental groups included: 1 phosphoric acid etching (AE + FS (control; 2 AE + One-Step Plus (OS, Bisco + FS; 3 bur + AE + FS; 4 bur + AE + OS + FS; 5 Er:YAG laser + AE + FS; and 6 Er:YAG laser + AE + OS + FS. After thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin and sectioned. Proportions of mircoleakage (PM and unfilled area (PUA were measured by digital microscope. Results Overall, there were significant differences among all groups in the PM (p = 0.00. Group 3 showed the greatest PM, and was significantly different from groups 2 to 6 (p < 0.05. Group 6 showed the lowest PM. Pretreatment with Er:YAG with or without adhesive led to less PM than bur pretreatment. There were no significant differences among groups in PUA. Conclusions Conventional acid etching provided a similar degree of occlusal seal in teeth with fluorosis compared to those pretreated with a bur or Er:YAG laser. Pretreatment of pits and fissures with Er:YAG in teeth with fluorosis may be an alternative method before fissure sealant application.

  1. [Characteristic situation on prevention of nosocomial infection in the hospital for the severely multi-disabled--experiences in care and treatment of 4 kinds of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Y; Tanaka, H; Yano, Y; Yano, T; Yoshida, K

    1997-12-01

    We experienced Hepatitis A, B, C and fulminant hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in our hospital for the severely multi-disabled (SMD) who had both severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and some of whom might be further complicated by blindness and/or deafness. In this hospital, 100 SMDs are hospitalized. Case 1: The disabled, 25 year old male, was transmitted Hepatitis A from a nurse. Case 2: The disabled, 60 year old female carrier of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) who has been cared for more than 10 years. Case 3: The disabled, 46 year old male carrier of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (RNA type 3), has been cared for more than 4 years. Case 4: The disabled, 39 year old male, had a fever of 39 degrees C for 9 days and suddenly died. He was diagnosed as fulminant hepatitis due to HSV-1 by necropsy. The hospitals for SMD are characteristic in prevention of nosocomial infections; 1) The disabled infected is not aware of the fact that he or she is the source of infection and that the other disabled living with him or her are in risk of infection, because of their severe mental condition. 2) All of the disabled need complete or incomplete helps for activities of daily life (ADL), so that the disabled who is the carrier of some pathogen constantly gives risk of infection to staffs, including medical staffs (doctor, nurse and therapist), psychologist and helpers by bloody secretion from wounds, saliva, urine, feces as well as menstrual blood. 3) If a carrier of some pathogen is hospitalized, the staffs should serve under risk of infection involving blood-mediated infectious disease for many years, because SMDs are permitted lifelong stay in the hospitals for SMD, which also play a role of care house or institution, by public expense in Japan. In case of an outbreak of Hepatitis A, nosocomial infection ended in the original case (a nurse), another nurse and a case of the disabled by general treatment and care against communicable diseases of the digestive

  2. Effect of dry period length on the effect of an intramammary teat sealant on the risk of mastitis in cattle treated with antibiotics at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, R A; Balcomb, C C; Tulley, W T; Lawrence, K E

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, under farm conditions, the use of a teat sealant in addition to whole herd dry cow antibiotic therapy on the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at pasture, and to evaluate the impact of dry period length on that risk and the impact of the teat sealant on that risk. Dairy cows in three herds which used routine whole herd antibiotic therapy were randomly assigned to receive either treatment with an internal teat sealant (n=322) or no additional treatment (n=313) at drying-off between March and May 2010. All clinical mastitis cases during the dry period and to the end of the subsequent lactation were recorded by farm staff; factors affecting risk of clinical mastitis were then analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Median duration of the dry period was 112 days with >25% of cows having a dry period >130 days. The incidence risk of mastitis during lactation for cows treated with teat sealant was 9.9 (95% CI=6.9-13.7) cases per 100 cows compared with 17.9 (95% CI=13.8-22.6) cases per 100 cows for cows treated with antibiotic alone. The addition of a teat sealant to dry cow antibiotic therapy decreased the risk of clinical mastitis only in the first 33 days after calving (Hazard risk 0.24 (95% CI=0.12-0.48)). Length of dry period did not significantly affect the risk of clinical mastitis, or the effect of adding teat sealant to dry cow antibiotic therapy on the risk of clinical mastitis. In these herds where, based on the mastitis history, whole herd antibiotic therapy had been recommended, the use of a teat sealant significantly reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. This effect was limited to the first 33 days after calving; subsequently there was no significant effect of treatment. There was no effect of dry period length on risk of clinical mastitis, nor any significant interaction with treatment. Combination therapy with teat sealant and antibiotic was effective under New Zealand conditions in herds using whole

  3. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer sealant protected with two different resin-based agents over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, A T; Tunc, E S; Bayrak, Ş

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different resin coating materials on the clinical performance of a conventional glass ionomer sealant. Permanent first mandibular molars of 60 children aged 6-9 years were sealed with Fuji VII. In each child, G-Coat Plus coating agent was applied to molars on one side and Heliobond coating agent to molars on the opposite side of the mouth. Clinical evaluations were carried out at 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after sealant and coating application. At 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after sealant and coating application, total sealant retention rates were 88%, 40%, 19%, 15% and 9% for molars coated with G-Coat Plus, and 93%, 47%, 17%, 15% and 7% for those coated with Heliobond. The differences between the two coating agents were not statistically significant (p>0.05). No incidence of caries was observed in either group during the two-year evaluation period. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare differences in retention rates and caries incidence by coating agent. Although retention rates of Fuji VII were relatively low and similar for both resin coating agents tested, dental caries were not observed in either group during the 24-month study period. In children with a high risk of caries and partially erupted molars, the use of a glass ionomer sealant with a resin-based coating agent should be encouraged.

  4. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2008-12-01

    Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

  5. Performance of a polymer sealant coating in an arctic marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.; Cowgill, M.; Griffith, A.; Chernaenko, L.; Diashev, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of using a polymer-based coating, Polibrid 705, to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment has been successfully demonstrated using a combination of field and laboratory testing. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Northern Navy and deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading dock. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors, exposed to the full annual Arctic weather cycle. The 12 months of field testing gave rise to little degradation of the sealant coating, except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at a research laboratory in St. Petersburg. The laboratory tests examined a variety of properties, including bond strength between the coating and the substrate, thermal cycling resistance, wear resistance, flammability, and ease of decontamination. The Polibrid 705 coating met all the Russian Navy qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities

  6. Measurement of properties of sealant materials for solid oxide fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, R.J.; Sammes, N.M.; Zhang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal expansion of ceramic materials, ceramic cements and steels was studied, and their compatibility with materials used in the SOFC system was evaluated. A number of ceramic cements, a glass paste and a glass ceramic were examined to identify their potential as a sealing material in a tubular fuel cell system. Thermal expansion coefficients of these materials were compared for thermal matching with materials employed in the fuel cell construction, such as yttria stabilised with 8 mole% zirconia (8YSZ) and stainless steel. A reasonable match was found for Macor, a glass ceramic, with one of the steel samples studied and with 8YSZ. Candidate sealants were tested for bonding quality, which made it evident that the ceramic cements had to be discarded. Good bonds between Macor and one of the steel samples and Macor and 8YSZ were formed, resulting in a gas tight seal. Uncertainty remains regarding the long term effect of the interface reactions between steel and Macor. Exposure of the Macor and a steel-Macor-8YSZ assembly to the different fuel cell gas atmospheres revealed that the Macor reacts with hydrogen, the long term effect of which is also unknown. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  7. Evaluation of a fissure sealant program as part of community-based teaching and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Philippus J; Kroon, Jeroen; White, John G

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995 the Department of Community Dentistry of the University of Pretoria has been involved in the rendering of mobile primary oral health care services to children in the Hammanskraal area of Gauteng, South Africa, as part of their students' community-based training. Mokonyama Primary School was identified as the first school where a primary oral health care service could be rendered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact (outcomes) of a fissure sealant program on the dentition status of the school children. Seven years after the implementation of the program, the dentition status of children at Mokonyama was compared with that of a comparable group of children from the same area who were not exposed to the program. The results showed that the decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary dentition (dmft) in the six-year-old group in Mokonyama (1.74) did not differ significantly from the dmft (1.43) of the control group (p = 0.49). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT) of 0.59 for the fifteen-year-old group in Mokonyama, however, differed significantly (p = 0.0001) from the DMFT of the control group (2.38). Fifteen-year-old children in Mokonyama had 75.2 percent fewer caries than their counterparts in the control group.

  8. Wound healing and degradation of the fibrin sealant Beriplast P following partial liver resection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroez, Monika; Lang, Wiegand; Dickneite, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of the fibrin sealant (FS) Beriplast P in an experimental liver surgery model in rabbits. A partial liver resection was performed in 21 rabbits, and the wound area covered with Beriplast P to ensure hemostasis. Wound healing of the resection sites was evaluated morphologically over 11 weeks. Degradation of the FS was evaluated by measuring the thickness of the remaining fibrin layer. Plasma samples were analyzed for antibodies against fibrinogen, albumin, thrombin, fibrin, and factor XIII. No postoperative hemorrhage was observed, indicating successful hemostasis throughout. The FS was degraded with a half-life of about 25 days postapplication and was completely replaced by granulation tissue within 9 weeks. The FS degradation and tissue development followed the general stages of wound healing: inflammation and resorption, proliferation, organization and production of collagen, maturation, and scarring. An immune reaction was elicited against the main four human proteins of the FS. The antibody titers peaked on day 14, with a gradual decrease thereafter. We conclude that the FS accomplished hemostasis, facilitated healing in accordance with natural processes, and was completely degraded over time. In humans, the reduced immunogenicity of the FS would potentially increase its degradation half-life.

  9. Investigation of Performance of SCN-1 Pure Glass as Sealant Used in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-03-01

    As its name implies, self-healing glass seal has the potential of restoring its mechanical properties upon being reheated to stack operating temperature, even when it has experienced some cooling induced damage/crack at room temperature. Such a self-healing feature is desirable for achieving high seal reliability during thermal cycling. On the other hand, self-healing glass is also characterized by its low mechanical stiffness and high creep rate at the typical operating temperature of SOFCs. Therefore, from a design’s perspective, it is important to know the long term geometric stability and thermal mechanical behaviors of the self-healing glass under the stack operating conditions. These predictive capabilities will guide the design and optimization of a reliable sealing system that potentially utilizes self-healing glass as well as other ceramic seal components in achieving the ultimate goal of SOFC. In this report, we focused on predicting the effects of various generic seal design parameters on the stresses in the seal. For this purpose, we take the test cell used in the leakage test for compliant glass seals conducted in PNNL as our initial modeling geometry. The effect of the ceramic stopper on the geometry stability of the self-healing glass sealants is studied first. Then we explored the effect of various interfaces such as stopper and glass, stopper and PEN, as well stopper and IC plate, on the geometry stability and reliability of glass during the operating and cooling processes.

  10. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues

  11. Prevention of coronary heart disease in people with severe mental illnesses: a qualitative study of patient and professionals' preferences for care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christine A; Osborn, David PJ; Nazareth, Irwin; King, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) and there is growing emphasis on the need to monitor their physical health. However, there is little consensus on how services for the primary prevention of CHD should be organised for this patient group. We explored the views of people with SMI and health professionals from primary care and community mental health teams (CMHTs) on how best to provide these services. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of patients with SMI (n = 31) and staff from primary care (n = 10) and community mental health teams (n = 25) in North Central London. Transcripts of the qualitative interviews were analysed using a 'framework' approach to identify the main themes in opinions regarding various service models. Results Cardiovascular risk factors in people with SMI were of concern to participants. However, there was some disagreement about the best way to deliver appropriate care. Although staff felt that primary care should take responsibility for risk factor screening and management, patients favoured CHD screening in their CMHT. Problems with both approaches were identified. These included a lack of familiarity in general practice with SMI and antipsychotic side effects and poor communication of physical health issues to the CMHT. Lack of knowledge regarding CHD risk factor screening and difficulties in interpreting screening results and implementing appropriate interventions exist in secondary care. Conclusion Management of physical health care for people with SMI requires complex solutions that cross the primary-secondary care interface. The views expressed by our participants suggest that neither primary nor secondary care services on their own can provide a comprehensive service for all patients. The increased risk of CHD associated with SMI and antipsychotic medications requires flexible solutions with clear lines of responsibility

  12. Prevention of coronary heart disease in people with severe mental illnesses: a qualitative study of patient and professionals' preferences for care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth Irwin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe mental illness (SMI are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD and there is growing emphasis on the need to monitor their physical health. However, there is little consensus on how services for the primary prevention of CHD should be organised for this patient group. We explored the views of people with SMI and health professionals from primary care and community mental health teams (CMHTs on how best to provide these services. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of patients with SMI (n = 31 and staff from primary care (n = 10 and community mental health teams (n = 25 in North Central London. Transcripts of the qualitative interviews were analysed using a 'framework' approach to identify the main themes in opinions regarding various service models. Results Cardiovascular risk factors in people with SMI were of concern to participants. However, there was some disagreement about the best way to deliver appropriate care. Although staff felt that primary care should take responsibility for risk factor screening and management, patients favoured CHD screening in their CMHT. Problems with both approaches were identified. These included a lack of familiarity in general practice with SMI and antipsychotic side effects and poor communication of physical health issues to the CMHT. Lack of knowledge regarding CHD risk factor screening and difficulties in interpreting screening results and implementing appropriate interventions exist in secondary care. Conclusion Management of physical health care for people with SMI requires complex solutions that cross the primary-secondary care interface. The views expressed by our participants suggest that neither primary nor secondary care services on their own can provide a comprehensive service for all patients. The increased risk of CHD associated with SMI and antipsychotic medications requires flexible solutions with clear

  13. No difference in sexual dysfunction after transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach for inguinal hernia with fibrin sealant or tacks for mesh fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Andresen, K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative sexual dysfunction in relation to laparoscopic groin hernia surgery may be related to methods of mesh fixation. However, this has not been investigated earlier. Moreover, results regarding sexual dysfunction in females have not been reported systematically. The aim...... of this study was to compare fibrin sealant versus tacks for fixation of mesh regarding sexual dysfunction in males and females. METHODS: Using the Danish Hernia Database, patients operated laparoscopically for groin hernia with a transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) procedure with fibrin sealant or tacks...... for mesh fixation were sent a questionnaire regarding sexual dysfunction. Sexually active patients without recurrence were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Pain during sexual activity was present in 115 of 1019 (11.3 %) males and 17 of 147 (11.6 %) females. There was no difference between fibrin sealant...

  14. Dental sealants and restorations and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy; Rue, Tessa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Martin, Michael; Seminario, Ana Lucia; DeRouen, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Resin-based dental sealants and composites contain bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate, a bisphenol A (BPA) derivative. The authors hypothesized that a greater number of sealants or restorations would be associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations. The authors examined urinary BPA measurements (in nanograms per milliliter) and oral examination data for 1,001 children aged 6 to 19 years from data sets of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). They categorized children according to number of occlusal sealants and number of restorations, with four categories in each of the two groups. They estimated associations by using unadjusted and adjusted tobit regression models. The lowest quartile of BPA concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL, whereas the highest quartile ranged from 7.3 ng/mL to 149 ng/mL. In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 16 sealants had geometric mean BPA concentrations 25 percent higher than those of children with no sealants (95 percent confidence interval [CI], -14 percent to 82 percent; P = .23). In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 42 restorations had geometric mean BPA concentrations 20 percent higher than those of children with no restorations (95 percent CI, -6 percent to 53 percent; P = .13). Neither of these adjusted estimates was statistically significant. Though the findings were in the direction hypothesized, the authors did not observe a statistically significant association between a greater number of sealants or restorations and higher urinary BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent of oral and systemic exposure to BPA from resin-based dental restorative materials over time. Dentists should follow this issue carefully as it develops and as the body of evidence grows. There is insufficient evidence to change practice at this time.

  15. Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, James A; Ngari, Moses; Thitiri, Johnstone; Mwalekwa, Laura; Timbwa, Molline; Hamid, Fauzat; Ali, Rehema; Shangala, Jimmy; Mturi, Neema; Jones, Kelsey D J; Alphan, Hassan; Mutai, Beatrice; Bandika, Victor; Hemed, Twahir; Awuondo, Ken; Morpeth, Susan; Kariuki, Samuel; Fegan, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study in four hospitals in Kenya (two rural hospitals in Kilifi and Malindi, and two urban hospitals in Mombasa and Nairobi) with children aged 60 days to 59 months without HIV admitted to hospital and diagnosed with SAM. We randomly assigned eligible participants (1:1) to 6 months of either daily oral co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (given as water-dispersible tablets; 120 mg per day for age malnutrition (kwashiorkor), and 1221 (69%) were stunted (length-for-age Z score child-years of observation, 122 (14%) of 887 children in the co-trimoxazole group died, compared with 135 (15%) of 891 in the placebo group (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·71-1·16, p=0·429; 16·0 vs 17·7 events per 100 child-years observed (CYO); difference -1·7 events per 100 CYO, 95% CI -5·8 to 2·4]). In the first 6 months of the study (while participants received study medication), 63 suspected grade 3 or 4 associated adverse events were recorded among 57 (3%) children; 31 (2%) in the co-trimoxazole group and 32 (2%) in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·58-1·65). The most common adverse events of these grades were urticarial rash (grade 3, equally common in both groups), neutropenia (grade 4, more common in the co-trimoxazole group), and anaemia (both grades equally common in both groups). One child in the placebo group had fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis with concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia. Daily co

  16. Coating of Dacron vascular grafts with an ionic polyurethane: a novel sealant with protein binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, M D; Dempsey, D J; Bide, M J; Quist, W C; LoGerfo, F W

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sealant that would seal prosthetic vascular graft interstices and be accessible for protein binding. Crimped knitted Dacron vascular grafts were cleaned (CNTRL) and hydrolyzed in boiling sodium hydroxide (HYD). These HYD grafts were sealed using an 11% solids solution of a polyether-based urethane with carboxylic acid groups (PEU-D) via a novel technique that employs both trans-wall and luminal perfusion. Carboxylic acid content, determined via methylene blue dye uptake, was 2.3- and 4.2-fold greater in PEU-D segments (1.0+/-0.27 nmol/mg) as compared to HYD and CNTRL segments, respectively. Water permeation through PEU-D graft (1.1+/-2 ml/cm2 min(-1)) was comparable to collagen-impregnated Dacron (9.8+/-10 ml/cm2 min(-1)). Non-specific 125I-albumin (125I-Alb) binding to PEU-D segments (18+/-3 ng/mg) was significantly lower than HYD and CNTRL segments. 125I-Alb linkage to PEU-D using the crosslinker EDC resulted in 5.7-fold greater binding (103+/-2 ng/mg) than non-specific PEU-D controls. However, covalent linkage of 125I-Alb to PEU-D was 4.9- and 5.9-fold less than CNTRL and HYD segments with EDC, respectively. Thus, ionic polyurethane can be applied to a pre-formed vascular graft, seal the interstices and create "anchor" sites for protein attachment.

  17. Enhanced safety features of CHASHMA NPP UNIT-2 to encounter selected severe accidents, various challenges involved to prove the adequacy of severe accidents prevention/mitigation measures and to write management guidelines with one possible solution to these challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Minhaj, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes enhanced safety features of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-2 (C-2), a 325 MWe PWR to encounter selected severe accidents and discusses various challenges involved to prove the adequacy of severe accidents encountering measures and to write severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) in compliance with the recently introduced national regulations based on the new IAEA nuclear safety standards. C-2 is being built by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Its twin, Unit-1 (C-1) also a 325 MWe PWR, was commissioned in 2000. Nuclear power safety with reference to severe accidents should be treated as a global issue and therefore the developed countries should include the people of developing countries in nuclear power industry's various severe accidents based research and development programs. The implementation of this idea may also deliver few other useful and mutually beneficial byproducts. (author)

  18. Influence of surface sealant on the translucency of composite resin: effect of immersion time and immersion media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso Garcia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of surface sealant on the translucency of composite resin immersed in different solutions. The study involved the following materials: Charisma, Fortify and coffee, Coca-Cola®, tea and artificial saliva as solutions. Sixty-four specimens (n = 8 were manufactured and immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1 °C. Samples were immersed in the solutions for three times a day and re-immersed in artificial saliva until the translucency readings. The measurements were carried out at nine times: T1 - 24 hours after specimen preparation, T2 - 24 hours after immersion in the solutions, T3 - 48 hours and T4 to T9 - 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, after immersion. The translucency values were measured using a JOUAN device. The results were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5%. The surface sealant was not able to protect the composite resin against staining, the coffee showed the strongest staining action, followed by tea and regarding immersion time, a significant alteration was noted in the translucency of composite resin after 21 days.

  19. Bone marrow transplantation from genetically HLA-nonidentical donors in children with fatal inherited disorders excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies: use of two monoclonal antibodies to prevent graft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabado, N; Le Deist, F; Cant, A; De Graeff-Meeders, E R; Fasth, A; Morgan, G; Vellodi, A; Hale, G; Bujan, W; Thomas, C; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Wijdenes, J; Fischer, A

    1996-09-01

    For children with life-threatening inborn errors of metabolism without a matched related bone marrow donor, transplantation from an HLA genetically nonidentical donor is the only therapeutic option. To reduce the high risk of graft rejection in this setting without increasing the conditioning regimen, a protocol based on the infusion of an antiadhesion antibody directed against the CD11a (leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) molecule was performed by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group with promising results. To optimize engraftment, and thereby survival, further, the additional blockade of a second important leukocyte adhesion and signalization pathway mediated by the CD2 and LFA-3 interaction was attempted in a multicenter protocol conducted by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group. Results of this study (ie, engraftment and survival) were compared with a historical control group that received the anti-LFA-1 antibody alone. Factors that may have affected engraftment and survival were also considered in this study. Forty-four children with inborn errors, including inherited immunodeficiencies (excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies), Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and malignant osteopetrosis, received bone marrow from HLA-nonidentical related donors or from HLA-identical unrelated donors at 13 European centers between August 1990 and June 1993. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by use of either erythrocyte (E) rosetting or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to prevent graft-versus-host disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and cyclophosphamide for all patients plus etoposide for patients with osteopetrosis, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Infusions of MoAbs specific for the CD11a and the CD2 molecules were started 4 and 3 days, respectively, before and

  20. Bone induction by composites of bioresorbable carriers and demineralized bone in rats: a comparative study of fibrin-collagen paste, fibrin sealant, and polyorthoester with gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    fibrin-collagen paste and fibrin sealant inhibited bone induction and produced a chronic inflammation; part of the fibrin-collagen paste was still present at 4 weeks. Polyorthoester with gentamicin was almost completely absorbed, induced minimal tissue reaction, and did not inhibit osteoinduction....

  1. Detection of occlusal caries with impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence before and after placement of fissure sealants: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Diana; Ekstrand, Kim; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    , the DIAGNOdent pen and ICDAS at baseline, after bleaching, etching and placement of a clear fissure sealant. A digital radiograph was exposed at baseline. After the assessments, the actual lesion depth was histologically determined.  Results : Bleaching did not affect the readings but significantly higher ACIS...

  2. Sealing of minimally invasive Class II fillings (slot) using an adhesive patch: sealant margin extension for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Seemann, Rainer; Filli, Tilla; Attin, Thomas; Imfeld, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential of an adhesive patch to seal small, unbeveled, Class II, box-only (slot) composite fillings. After minimal access cavity preparation with an 80 pm diamond bur, 40 box-only Class II cavities were prepared mesially and distally in 20 extracted human molars using a u-shaped PCS insert (EMS). One cavity per tooth was adhesively filled with a hybrid composite material in one increment. A patch, acting as an adhesive matrice, was applied to the other cavity of each tooth to seal the restoration. The margin of the patch was located in areas easily accessible to oral hygiene measures and self-cleaning. All the teeth were subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in a computer-controlled masticator device. In 10 teeth, caries was induced in a microbial-based artificial mouth model and quantitatively determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Microleakage was assessed in the other 10 teeth in two planar sections after immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. The results showed no demineralization at the filling margins protected with the patch. Microleakage was observed in one sample only and was limited to the enamel. In contrast, the margins of fillings without the patch application showed a mean demineralization depth of 146 +/- 42 microm and dye penetration into the dentin in five sections. This innovative approach to sealing restorative margins with an adhesive patch results in less leakage and filling margin demineralization and merits further investigation.

  3. Signos Vitales de los CDC–Los selladores dentales previenen las caries (Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de octubre del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los selladores dentales, que se aplican poco después de que les salgan las muelas permanentes a los niños, pueden protegerlos contra las caries hasta por nueve años. Aplicarles los selladores dentales a los niños de bajos ingresos en las escuelas podría ahorrar millones de dólares en costos de tratamientos.

  4. Inhalation exposure during spray application and subsequent sanding of a wood sealant containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael R; West, Gavin H; Burrelli, Leonard G; Dresser, Daniel; Griffin, Kelsey N; Segrave, Alan M; Perrenoud, Jon; Lippy, Bruce E

    2017-07-01

    Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber. Dust control methods during sanding were compared. Filter-based sampling, electron microscopy, and real-time particle counters provided measures of exposure. Airborne nanoparticles above background levels were detected by particle counters for all exposure scenarios. Nanoparticle number concentrations and particle size distributions were similar for sanding of treated versus untreated wood. Very few unbound nanoparticles were detected in aerosol samples via electron microscopy, rather nano-sized ZnO was contained within, or on the surface of larger airborne particles. Whether the presence of nanoscale ZnO in these aerosols affects toxicity merits further investigation. Mass-based exposure measurements were below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit for Zn, although there are no established exposure limits for nanoscale ZnO. Local exhaust ventilation was effective, reducing airborne nanoparticle number concentrations by up to 92% and reducing personal exposure to total dust by at least 80% in terms of mass. Given the discrepancies between the particle count data and electron microscopy observations, the chemical identity of the airborne nanoparticles detected by the particle counters remains uncertain. Prior studies attributed the main source of nanoparticle emissions during sanding to copper nanoparticles generated from electric sander motors. Potentially contrary results are presented suggesting the sander motor may not have been

  5. Effect of platelet rich plasma and fibrin sealant on facial nerve regeneration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Tarik Y; Lehar, Mohamed; Verhaegen, Pauline; Carson, Kathryn A; Byrne, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin sealant (FS) on facial nerve regeneration. Prospective, randomized, and controlled animal study. Experiments involved the transection and repair of facial nerve of 49 male adult rats. Seven groups were created dependant on the method of repair: suture; PRP (with/without suture); platelet poor plasma (PPP) (with/without suture); and FS (with/without suture) groups. Each method of repair was applied immediately after the nerve transection. The outcomes measured were: 1) observation of gross recovery of vibrissae movements within 8-week period after nerve transection and repair using a 5-point scale and comparing the left (test) side with the right (control) side; 2) comparisons of facial nerve motor action potentials (MAP) recorded before and 8 weeks after nerve transection and repair, including both the transected and control (untreated) nerves; 3) histologic evaluation of axons counts and the area of the axons. Vibrissae movement observation: the inclusion of suturing resulted in overall improved outcomes. This was found for comparisons of the suture group with PRP group; PRP with/without suture groups; and PPP with/without suture groups (P .05). The movement recovery of the suture group was significantly better than the FS group (P = .014). The recovery of function of the PRP groups was better than that of the FS groups, although this did not reach statistical significance (P = .09). Electrophysiologic testing: there was a significantly better performance of the suture group when compared with the PRP and PPP without suture groups in nerve conduction velocity (P facial nerve axotomy models occurred when the nerve ends were sutured together. At the same time, the data demonstrated a measurable neurotrophic effect when PRP was present, with the most favorable results seen with PRP added to suture. There was an improved functional outcome with the use of PRP in comparison with FS or no bioactive

  6. Wellbore Completion Systems Containment Breach Solution Experiments at a Large Scale Underground Research Laboratory : Sealant placement & scale-up from Lab to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, H.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation seeks to develop sealant technology that can restore containment to completed wells that suffer CO2 gas leakages currently untreatable using conventional technologies. Experimentation is performed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (MT-URL) located in NW Switzerland. The laboratory affords investigators an intermediate-scale test site that bridges the gap between the laboratory bench and full field-scale conditions. Project focus is the development of CO2 leakage remediation capability using sealant technology. The experimental concept includes design and installation of a field scale completion package designed to mimic well systems heating-cooling conditions that may result in the development of micro-annuli detachments between the casing-cement-formation boundaries (Figure 1). Of particular interest is to test novel sealants that can be injected in to relatively narrow micro-annuli flow-paths of less than 120 microns aperture. Per a special report on CO2 storage submitted to the IPCC[1], active injection wells, along with inactive wells that have been abandoned, are identified as one of the most probable sources of leakage pathways for CO2 escape to the surface. Origins of pressure leakage common to injection well and completions architecture often occur due to tensile cracking from temperature cycles, micro-annulus by casing contraction (differential casing to cement sheath movement) and cement sheath channel development. This discussion summarizes the experiment capability and sealant testing results. The experiment concludes with overcoring of the entire mock-completion test site to assess sealant performance in 2018. [1] IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (September 2005), section 5.7.2 Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites, page 244

  7. Fluorides and Other Preventive Strategies for Tooth Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Tanzer, Jason M; Milgrom, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    We focus on scalable public health interventions that prevent and delay the development of caries and enhance resistance to dental caries lesions. These interventions should occur throughout the life cycle, and need to be age appropriate. Mitigating disease transmission and enhancing resistance are achieved through use of various fluorides, sugar substitutes, mechanical barriers such as pit-and-fissure sealants, and antimicrobials. A key aspect is counseling and other behavioral interventions that are designed to promote use of disease transmission-inhibiting and tooth resistance-enhancing agents. Advocacy for public water fluoridation and sugar taxes is an appropriate dental public health activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinicians' preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Roxana; Gahnberg, Lars; Gabre, Pia

    2011-05-01

    Clinicians handle diagnosis and treatment planning of caries in different ways, and the underlying factors leading to management of risk and choice of treatment strategies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' and dental hygienists' choices of preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries. A sample of dental records from 432 of a total of 3372 children in a Swedish county identified as at high risk of developing caries, aged 3-19 years, was randomly selected for analysis in the study. Information of importance for the therapists' choice of caries management strategies were obtained from the dental records. The results showed that therapists considered tooth brushing instruction and fluoride treatment at the clinic to be of primary importance as treatment given in 60% of the cases, respectively. Fluoride treatment at home and diet counselling were both chosen in half of the cases. Fissure sealant therapy was used in 21% of the cases, and 15% of the patients did not receive any preventive treatment at all. The results also showed that girls more often received fluoride treatment, tooth brushing instruction and oral hygiene information than boys. In the majority of the children and adolescents, several preventive measures were given. The more background factors included in the risk assessment, the more preventive measures were given. The differences between the treatments given to girls and the boys need to be further investigated. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Cardiac sympathetic innervation assessed with (123)I-MIBG retains prognostic utility in diabetic patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction evaluated for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, P; Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Cozar-Santiago, P; Sánchez-Jurado, R; Estornell-Erill, J; Valle-Muñoz, A; Quesada-Dorador, A; Payá-Serrano, R; Ferrer-Rebolleda, J; Ridocci-Soriano, F

    2016-01-01

    Scintigraphy with iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation (CSI) that has proven to be an independent predictor of survival. Recent studies have shown that diabetic patients with heart failure (HF) have a higher deterioration in CSI. It is unknown if (123)I-MIBG has the same predictive value for diabetic and non-diabetic patients with advanced HF. An analysis is performed to determine whether CSI with (123)I-MIBG retains prognostic utility in diabetic patients with HF, evaluated for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Seventy-eight consecutive HF patients (48 diabetic) evaluated for primary prevention ICD implantation were prospectively enrolled and underwent (123)I-MIBG to assess CSI (heart-to-mediastinum ratio - HMR). A Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of (123)I-MIBG images for prediction of cardiac events in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The primary end-point was a composite of arrhythmic event, cardiac death, or admission due to HF. During a mean follow-up of 19.5 [9.3-29.3] months, the primary end-point occurred in 24 (31%) patients. Late HMR was significantly lower in diabetic patients (1.30 vs. 1.41, p=0.014). Late HMR≤1.30 was an independent predictor of cardiac events in diabetic (hazard ratio 4.53; p=0.012) and non-diabetic patients (hazard ratio 12.31; p=0.023). Diabetic patients with HF evaluated for primary prevention ICD show a higher deterioration in CSI than non-diabetics; nevertheless (123)I-MIBG imaging retained prognostic utility for both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. A comprehensive overview of the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants and subsequent implications in terms of injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010's by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: -58 % fatalities and -64 % hospitalized (compared to -39% and -55% for pedestrians, and -21% and -44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars.

  11. Management of a child with severe hypodontia in the mixed dentition stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H J; Tahmassebi, J F

    2014-12-01

    Severe hypodontia is a condition characterized by developmental absence of six or more teeth and affects 0.14-0.3% of the overall population. Hypodontia can have a marked psychosocial effect and functional implications for a growing child. A 10-year-old girl with a medical history of hypothyroidism and repaired spinal bifida was referred to the Leeds Dental Institute as she was becoming increasingly concerned about her appearance. On clinical examination, the patient had severe wear of her over-retained maxillary primary central incisors, microdontia of mandibular anterior teeth (32, 34, 41, 42, 43), and loss of anterior vertical dimension. Radiographic examination revealed that the patient had 11 missing permanent teeth (14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24, 31, 35, 44), an ectopic mandibular left canine and taurodontism of the permanent molars. Management of the patient included an intensive preventive programme with placement of fissure sealants; scaling of calculus deposition on microdont teeth; composite resin reconstruction of microdont teeth; fabrication of removable partial overdentures tailored aesthetically to match the patient's age; orthodontic consultation and monitoring for the eruption of ectopic canine and permanent dentition. The patient and her parents reported marked improvement in self-esteem following dental treatment. After 2 years of follow-up, a new pair of dentures were made and designed to allow ease of eruption of the existing permanent dentition. All permanent teeth have erupted. The patient is ready for further assessment and planning for future orthodontic and restorative/implant treatment. This case illustrates the essential role of the paediatric dentist in the management of hypodontia in the mixed dentition stage.

  12. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  13. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the

  14. Surgical Treatment of Pressure Ulcers with a Fibrin Sealant in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: A Cost-Consequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Jose Manuel Arévalo; Lozano, Virginia; Oyagüez, Itziar; Casado, Miguel Angel

    2015-11-01

    A comparative study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a fibrin sealant (Tissucol Duo [known as Tisseel in the United States], Baxter International, Deerfield, Illinois) to improve postoperative outcomes in patients with spinal cord injury undergoing surgical treatment for pressure ulcers (PrUs). Between January and June 2011, 27 patients underwent surgical treatment for PrUs with the direct application of Tissucol Duo sprayed before closure. The costs and outcomes obtained in this cohort were compared with those obtained in a previous retrospective study where 71 patients underwent conventional surgery. Lower rates of hematoma-seroma were observed in the study group (3.7% vs 33.8%; P costs. The application of Tissucol Duo during surgical treatment of PrUs in patients with spinal cord injury has been shown to be effective in reducing postoperative complications and in shortening the duration of the hospital stay with a consequent savings in costs.

  15. Acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants containing melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Yi; Piao, Yin-Zhu; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) on the acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants. 45S5BAG (glass (180 ± 30 nm) and added into a resin matrix [Bis-GMA/TEGDMA 50/50 (wt%) containing 1% of DMAEMA/CQ 2:1 (wt%)] with varying filler proportions; 0% 45S5BAG+50% glass (BAG0); 12.5% 45S5BAG+37.5% glass (BAG12.5); 25% 45S5BAG+25% glass (BAG25); 37.5% 45S5BAG+12.5% glass (BAG37.5); and 50% 45S5BAG+0% glass (BAG50). To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0). Then, the change in pH and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 were measured. In addition, flexural strength, water sorption and solubility were analyzed. The acid neutralizing properties of each group exhibited increasing pH values as more 45S5BAG was added, and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 became shorter as the proportion of 45S5BAG increased (P0.05), except for BAG50. The novel pit and fissure sealants neutralized the acid solution (pH 4.0) and exhibited appropriate mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, these compounds are suitable candidates for caries-inhibiting dental materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  17. [Impact of screening and treatment of low systemic blood flow in the prevention of severe intraventricular haemorrhage and/or death in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego Erroz, Ignacio; Alonso Quintela, Paula; Jiménez Gonzalez, Aquilina; Terroba Seara, Sandra; Rodríguez Blanco, Silvia; Rosón Varas, María; Castañón López, Leticia

    2018-04-02

    To assess the effect of a protocolised intervention for low systemic blood flow (SBF) in the occurrence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or death in pre-term infants. A study with a quasi-experimental design with retrospective controls was conducted on pre-term infants of less than 30weeks of gestational age, born between January 2016 and July 2017, who were consecutively included in the intervention period. The control cohort included pre-term infants (born between January 2013 and December 2015) matched by gestational age, birth weight, and gender (two controls for each case). The cases of low SBF diagnosed according to functional echocardiography during the study period received dobutamine (5-10μg/kg/min) for 48hours. The study included 29 cases (intervention period) and 54 controls (pre-intervention period). Ten out of 29 (34.5%) infants received dobutamine for low SBF during the intervention period, with 3/29 (10.3%) cases of severe IVH and/or death compared to 17/54 (31.5%) in the control cohort (p=.032). There was an independent association between the intervention and a decreased occurrence of severe IVH/death after adjusting for confounding factors both in the logistic regression model [OR 0.11 (95%CI: 0.01-0.65), p=.015], as well as in the sensitivity analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting [OR 0.23 (95%CI: 0.09-0.56); p=.001]. In this study with retrospective controls, a protocolised screening, and treatment for low SBF was associated with a decreased occurrence of severe IVH or death in preterm infants. Large, adequately powered trials, are needed in order to determine whether postnatal interventions directed at low SBF can improve neurological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Severe Hemolysis in a Patient With Erythrocytosis During Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption Therapy Was Prevented by Changing From Membrane-Based Technique to a Centrifuge-Based One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Wu, Buyun; Kong, Ling; Gong, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) usually adopts membrane to separate plasma from blood. Here, we reported a case with erythrocytosis experienced severe hemolysis and membrane rupture during CPFA, which was avoided by changing from membrane-based technique to a centrifuge-based one. A 66-year-old man was to receive CPFA for severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 922 μmol/L, direct bilirubin 638 μmol/L) caused by obstruction of biliary tract. He had erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 230 g/L, hematocrit 0.634) for years because of untreated tetralogy of Fallot. Severe hemolysis and membrane rupture occurred immediately after blood entering into the plasma separator even at a low flow rate (50 mL/min) and persisted after changing a new separator. Finally, centrifugal plasma separation technique was used for CPFA in this patient, and no hemolysis occurred. After 3 sessions of CPFA, total bilirubin level decreased to 199 μmol/L with an average decline by 35% per session. Thereafter, the patient received endoscopic biliary stent implantation, and total bilirubin level returned to nearly normal. Therefore, centrifugal-based plasma separation can also be used in CPFA and may be superior to a membrane-based one in patients with hyperviscosity.

  19. Avaliação clínica de um cimento de ionômero de vidro utilizado como selante oclusal: a clinical evaluation Use of a glass ionomer cement as an occlusal sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cheque BERNARDO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabendo-se do papel do flúor na Odontologia Preventiva, cada vez mais procuram-se materiais restauradores com propriedades de liberação deste íon. Dentre os selantes oclusais, grande expectativa existe em relação aos cimentos de ionômero de vidro, particularmente os fotopolimerizáveis, por possuírem melhores propriedades. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar um destes cimentos, Vitremer (3M, aplicado em: combinação ou não com um adesivo. A avaliação foi realizada em 159 dentes, 6 e 12 meses após a aplicação do selante, observando-se sua retenção e a presença ou ausência de lesão de cárie. Concluiu-se que a técnica modificada, com adesivo, propiciou significativamente melhor retenção após 6 e 12 meses que a técnica convencional, não havendo diferença entre molares e pré-molares. Apenas um dente do grupo sem adesivo desenvolveu lesão de cárie após a perda do material.Since fluoride’s properties are widely known in the field of Preventive Dentistry, fluoride-releasing materials have been extensively investigated. Among the occlusal sealants, there is great expectation regarding the results that can be achieved with light-curing glass-ionomer cements due to their excellent properties. The aim of this study was to assess the use of one of these cements, Vitremer (3M as an occlusal sealant. The material was applied using two different techniques; either associated or not with an adhesive system. After 6 and 12 months of observation, an evaluation was performed in 159 teeth to verify its retention as well as the presence of caries lesions. The technique that included the adhesive system showed better retention than the conventional one. Total retention was 84.9% for the experimental technique and 37.2% for the conventional technique after 12 months. There was no difference between bicuspids and molars regarding retention. Caries lesion was observed in a single tooth, for which a total loss of material was observed

  20. Regular extra curricular sports practice does not prevent moderate or severe variations in self-esteem or trait anxiety in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsinger, Caroline; Laure, Patrick; Ambard, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Department (east France) during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 %) and 956 girls (53.4 %), in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation). 722 pupils (40.3 %) reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group), whereas, 195 (10.9 %) pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group). The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale) and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale) of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation) of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation "or less than "mean - two standard deviations") was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities. Key PointsA regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self-esteem and

  1. Activation/modulation of adaptive immunity emerges simultaneously after 17DD yellow fever first-time vaccination: is this the key to prevent severe adverse reactions following immunization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M A; Silva, M L; Marciano, A P V; Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Eloi-Santos, S M; Ribeiro, j G L; Correa-Oliveira, R; Homma, A; Kroon, E G; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A

    2007-04-01

    Over past decades the 17DD yellow fever vaccine has proved to be effective in controlling yellow fever and promises to be a vaccine vector for other diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it elicits such broad-based immunity are still unclear. In this study we describe a detailed phenotypic investigation of major and minor peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations aimed at characterizing the kinetics of the adaptive immune response following primary 17DD vaccination. Our major finding is a decreased frequency of circulating CD19+ cells at day 7 followed by emerging activation/modulation phenotypic features (CD19+interleukin(IL)10R+/CD19+CD32+) at day 15. Increased frequency of CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related(HLA-DR+) at day 7 and CD8+HLA-DR+ at day 30 suggest distinct kinetics of T cell activation, with CD4+ T cells being activated early and CD8+ T cells representing a later event following 17DD vaccination. Up-regulation of modulatory features on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at day 15 seems to be the key event leading to lower frequency of CD38+ T cells at day 30. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the co-existence of phenotypic features associated with activation events and modulatory pathways. Positive correlations between CD4+HLA-DR+ cells and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and the association between the type 0 chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation status of CD4+ and CD8+ cells further support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that this controlled microenviroment seems to be the key to prevent the development of serious adverse events, and even deaths, associated with the 17DD vaccine reported in the literature.

  2. A 12-month clinical evaluation of pit-and-fissure sealants placed with and without etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems in newly-erupted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this one-year clinical study was to investigate the effect of two adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond, a two-step etch-and-rinse and Clearfil SE Bond, a two-step self-etch system on pit-and-fissure sealant retention in newly-erupted teeth. This study compared the success of the sealants in mesial and distopalatal grooves with and without these two adhesive systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a clinical trial, 35 children aged 6-8 years undergoing sealant placement were recruited. This one-year clinical study scored 70 mesial and 70 distopalatal sealants of newly-erupted permanent maxillary first molar, with a split-mouth design. All children received sealant alone in one permanent maxillary molar tooth. Children were randomized into two groups. One group received Self-etch (Se bond plus sealant and the other group received Single Bond plus sealant in another permanent maxillary molar tooth. Clinical evaluation at 3, 6 and 12 months was performed and the retention was studied in terms of the success and failure. RESULTS: The success rate of sealant in the distopalatal groove, using SeB at 3, 6 and 12 months was 93.3% (95% CI: 68.0, 99.8, 73.3% (95% CI: 44.9, 92.2 and 66.7% (95% CI: 38.4, 88.2, respectively. It was greater than that of the distopalatal groove in SB group with a success rate of 62.5% (95% CI: 35.4, 84.8, 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7 and 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7, at the three evaluation periods. The success rate of sealant in the mesial groove using SeB was 86.6% (95% CI: 59.5, 98.3, 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7 and 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7, while this was 100% (95% CI: 79.4, 100.0, 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0 and 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0 using SB, at 3, 6 and 12-month evaluation periods. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of these two bonding agents in pit-and-fissure sealants under both isolated and contaminated conditions. Further, Se bond seemed to be less sensitive to moisture contamination.

  3. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50–500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  4. REGULAR EXTRA CURRICULAR SPORTS PRACTICE DOES NOT PREVENT MODERATE OR SEVERE VARIATIONS IN SELF-ESTEEM OR TRAIT ANXIETY IN EARLY ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Binsinger

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade in the Vosges Department (east France during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 % and 956 girls (53.4 %, in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation. 722 pupils (40.3 % reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group, whereas, 195 (10.9 % pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group. The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation" or less than "mean - two standard deviations" was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities

  5. Assessment of Pain and Quality of Life in Lichtenstein Hernia Repair Using a New Monofilament PTFE Mesh: Comparison of Suture vs. Fibrin-Sealant Mesh Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelny, René H; Petter-Puchner, Alexander H; Redl, Heinz; May, Christopher; Pospischil, Wolfgang; Glaser, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common operations in general surgery. The Lichtenstein tension-free operation has become the gold standard in open inguinal hernia repair. Despite the low recurrence rates, pain and discomfort remain a problem for a large number of patients. The aim of this study was to compare suture fixation vs. fibrin sealing by using a new monofilament PTFE mesh, i.e., the Infinit(®) mesh by W. L. Gore & Associates. This study was designed as a controlled prospective single-center two-cohort study. A total of 38 patients were enrolled and operated in Lichtenstein technique either standard suture mesh fixation or fibrin-sealant mesh fixation were used as described in the TIMELI trial. Primary outcome parameters were postoperative complications with the new mesh (i.e., seroma, infection), pain, and quality of life evaluated by the VAS and the SF-36 questionnaire. Secondary outcome was recurrence assessed by ultrasound and physical examination. Follow-up time was 1 year. Significantly, less postoperative pain was reported in the fibrin-sealant group compared to the suture group at 6 weeks (P = 0.035), 6 months (P = 0.023), and 1 year (P = 0.011) postoperatively. Additionally, trends toward a higher postoperative quality of life, a faster surgical procedure, and a shorter hospital stay were seen in the fibrin-sealant group. Fibrin-sealant mesh fixation in Lichtenstein hernioplasty effectively reduces acute and chronic postoperative pain. Monofilament, macro-porous, knitted PTFE meshes seem to be a practicable alternative to commonly used polypropylene meshes in open inguinal hernia repair.

  6. Assessment of pain and quality of life in Lichtenstein hernia repair using a new monofilament PTFE mesh: comparison of suture vs. fibrin sealant mesh fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René H Fortelny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common operations in general surgery. The Lichtenstein tension-free operation has become the gold standard in open inguinal hernia repair. Despite the low recurrence rates, pain and discomfort remain a problem for a large number of patients. The aim of this study was to compare suture fixation vs. fibrin sealing by using a new monofilament PTFE mesh, i.e. the Infinit® mesh by W. L. Gore & Associates. Methods: This study was designed as a controlled prospective single-centre two cohort study. A total of 38 patients were enrolled and operated in Lichtenstein technique either standard suture mesh fixation or fibrin sealant mesh fixation were used as described in the TIMELI trial. Primary outcome parameters were postoperative complications with the new mesh (i.e. seroma, infection, pain and quality of life evaluated by the VAS and the SF-36 questionnaire. Secondary outcome was recurrence assessed by ultrasound and physical examination. Follow-up time was 1 year.Results: Significantly less postoperative pain was reported in the fibrin sealant group compared to the suture group at 6 weeks (P=0.035, 6 months (P=0.023 and 1 year (P=0.011 postoperatively. Additionally trends towards a higher postoperative quality of life, a faster surgical procedure and a shorter hospital stay were seen in the fibrin sealant group.Conclusion: Fibrin sealant mesh fixation in Lichtenstein hernioplasty effectively reduces acute and chronic postoperative pain. Monofilament, macro-porous, knitted PTFE meshes seem to be a practicable alternative to commonly used polypropylene meshes in open inguinal hernia repair.

  7. Individualized dosimetry-based activity reduction of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC prevents severe and rapid kidney function deterioration from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, Sofie van; Baete, Kristof; Vanbilloen, Bert; Terwinghe, Christelle; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Clement, Paul M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Medical Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, Eric van; Verslype, Chris [KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, Kris [KU Leuven, Division of Public Health and Primary Care (I-Biostat), Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); UZ Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Assessment of kidney function evolution after {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with capped activity administration based on a 37-Gy threshold of biological effective dose (BED) to the kidney. In a prospective phase II study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours were evaluated for therapy using 185 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreotide with amino acid coinfusion. Planar whole-body images were acquired at four time-points after injection and kidney volumes were measured using CT/MRI. BED to the kidneys was estimated using an extended BED formula and biexponential renal clearance. Based on published BED dose-toxicity relationships, we allowed a maximal kidney BED of 37 Gy; if the calculated BED exceeded 37 Gy, treatment activity was reduced accordingly. Kidney function was assessed at baseline and at 18 months, predominantly using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The rate of renal function decline was expressed as annual glomerular filtration rate loss (aGFRL). Only 22 of 50 patients reached the 18-months time-point, with most missing patients having died due to disease progression. In the 22 patients who reached 18 months, no rapid kidney function deterioration was observed over the 18 months, aGFRL >33 % was not seen, and only three patients showed an increase of one toxicity grade and one patient an increase of two grades. No significant correlations between kidney volume (p = 0.35), baseline GFR (p = 0.18), risk factors for renal function loss (p = 0.74) and aGFRL were observed. Among the 28 patients who did not reach 18 months, one developed grade 4 kidney toxicity at 15 months after PRRT. Prospective dosimetry using a 37 Gy BED as the threshold for kidney toxicity is a good guide for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC PRRT and is associated with a low risk of rapid renal function deterioration and evolution to severe nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  8. Use of HLA-B*58:01 genotyping to prevent allopurinol induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Taiwan: national prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tai-Ming; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chen, Shih-Yang; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Chrong-Reen; Weng, Chia-Tse; Yu, Chia-Li; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Lai, Wen-Ter; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Yin, Guang-Dar; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Liou, Teh-Ling; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Der-Yuan; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Weng, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Chen-Hung; Liu, Ming-Fei; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lee, Jia-Jung; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Wu, Chen-Ching; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Luo, Shue-Fen; Yang, Ya-Hui; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Chou, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hung-Ting; Wang, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chun-Lin; Chang, Chia-Shuo; Lee, Ming-Ta Michael; Chen, Pei; Wong, Chih-Shung; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of prospective screening for the HLA-B*58:01 allele to identify Taiwanese individuals at risk of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) induced by allopurinol treatment. Design National prospective cohort study. Setting 15 medical centres in different regions of Taiwan, from July 2009 to August 2014. Participants 2926 people who had an indication for allopurinol treatment but had not taken allopurinol previously. Participants were excluded if they had undergone a bone marrow transplant, were not of Han Chinese descent, and had a history of allopurinol induced hypersensitivity. DNA purified from 2910 participants’ peripheral blood was used to assess the presence of HLA-B*58:01. Main outcome measures Incidence of allopurinol induced SCARs with and without screening. Results Participants who tested positive for HLA-B*58:01 (19.6%, n=571) were advised to avoid allopurinol, and were referred to an alternate drug treatment or advised to continue with their prestudy treatment. Participants who tested negative (80.4%, n=2339) were given allopurinol. Participants were interviewed once a week for two months to monitor symptoms. The historical incidence of allopurinol induced SCARs, estimated by the National Health Insurance research database of Taiwan, was used for comparison. Mild, transient rash without blisters developed in 97 (3%) participants during follow-up. None of the participants was admitted to hospital owing to adverse drug reactions. SCARs did not develop in any of the participants receiving allopurinol who screened negative for HLA-B*58:01. By contrast, seven cases of SCARs were expected, based on the estimated historical incidence of allopurinol induced SCARs nationwide (0.30% per year, 95% confidence interval 0.28% to 0.31%; P=0.0026; two side one sample binomial test). Conclusions Prospective screening of the HLA-B*58:01 allele, coupled with an alternative drug treatment for carriers, significantly decreased the incidence

  9. An observational cohort study on persistency of internal teat sealant residues in milk after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabera, Fidèle; Dufour, Simon; Keefe, Greg; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-04

    Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of quarters with an observable internal teat sealant (ITS) plug at first milking following calving and investigate persistency of ITS residues in milk after calving. An observational cohort study was carried out on 557 quarters of 156 cows treated with ITS in 6 farms in Quebec, Canada. The presence of an ITS plug at first milking and ITS residues in milk at each milking were observed by producers. The effects of various factors on the odds of observing an ITS plug and persistency of ITS residues in milk were studied using generalized logistic mixed and generalized negative binomial mixed models, respectively. Milk samples were taken on the day before dry-off and on 2 occasions after calving for bacterial identification to detect intramammary infection (IMI) using bacteriological culture followed by MALDI-TOF identification. The association between the absence of an ITS plug and the presence of new IMI was assessed using a mixed logistic regression model. Internal teat sealant plugs after calving were more often observed in rear quarters and in quarters receiving ITS alone at drying-off versus antimicrobial and ITS. We observed an average (standard deviation) persistency of 4.0 d (2.3 d). When an ITS plug was still present at first milking (83% of quarters), the elimination of ITS residues in milk after calving was significantly longer (4.5 d, on average) compared with 1.2 d when an ITS plug was absent. In cows with an ITS plug at calving, we observed a higher number of days of excretion in older cows. When a plug could not be observed, rear quarters, older cows, and cows with a long dry period duration excreted ITS residues for a significantly longer period. The lack of a significant association between the absence of a plug and the odds of new IMI at calving suggests that despite the loss of the plug, cows were still protected against new IMI. Although we were able to highlight some statistically significant risk

  10. Dental abnormalities and preventive oral care in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendronneau, M; Kérourédan, O; Taque, S; Sixou, J L; Bonnaure-Mallet, M

    2014-06-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare, severe, autosomal recessive disorder that results in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction, immunodeficiency, facial dysmorphism and growth failure. Little is known about oral features associated with SIOD. Some of the dental anomalies encountered are specific to SIOD and have only been reported in individuals with SIOD. This paper describes the clinical and radiographic dental manifestations of SIOD in two Caucasian brothers. Both lived to be about 10 years old. After a variety of symptoms were reported, a diagnosis of SIOD was finally made when the brothers were, respectively, 5 and 8 years old. At that time, dental anomalies, such as dyschromia, bulbous crowns, short and thin roots, had not been taken into account to establish the diagnosis. However, knowledge of the dental features characteristic of this disease could have helped make the diagnosis. Although both were caries- and periodontal disease-free, special attention was focused on prevention, including dietary counselling, plaque control, oral hygiene instructions and the use of fluoridated toothpaste. The two patients were followed every 6 months, for over 2 years (until their death), by both a private dentist and a university hospital dentist, which helped them maintain good oral health. Oral hygiene was assessed at each appointment and fissure sealants were placed by the private practitioner on their first permanent molars. This report describes dental anomalies specific to SIOD that could facilitate diagnosis. Clinicians and dentists should work in collaboration to diagnose and treat children with SIOD. These patients require regular and specific dental management because of their fragile health and their characteristic dental anomalies. Ideally, preventive visits should be scheduled every 6 months in addition to curative visits as needed.

  11. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Bonding Agent on the Tensile Bond Strength of Two Pit and Fissure Sealants Using Invasive and Non-invasive Techniques: An in-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Adlakha, Vivek; Babaji, Prashant; Chandna, Preetika; Thomas, Abi M; Chopra, Saroj

    2013-10-01

    Newer technologies and the development of pit and fissure sealants have shifted the treatment philosophy from 'drill and fill' to that of 'seal and heal'. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bonding agents on the tensile bond strengths of two pit and fissure sealants by using invasive and non-invasive techniques. One hundred and twenty bicuspids were collected and teeth were divided into two groups: Group-I (Clinpro) and Group-II (Conseal f) with 60 teeth in each group. For evaluating tensile bond strengths, occlusal surfaces of all the teeth were flattened by reducing buccal and lingual cusps without disturbing fissures. Standardised polyvinyl tube was bonded to occlusal surfaces with respective materials. Sealants were applied, with or without bonding agents, in increments and they were light cured. Tensile bond strengths were determined by using Universal Testing Machine. Data were then statistically analysed by using Student t-test for comparison. A statistically significant difference was found in tensile bond strength in invasive with bonding agent group than in non-invasive with bonding agent group. This study revealed that invasive techniques increase the tensile bond strengths of sealants as compared to non- invasive techniques and that the use of a bonding agent as an intermediate layer between the tooth and fissure sealant is beneficial for increasing the bond strength.

  12. Free volume of mixed cation borosilicate glass sealants elucidated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and its correlation with glass properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Prasanta K.; Rath, Sangram K.; Sharma, Sandeep K.; Sudarshan, Kathi; Pujari, Pradeep K.; Chongdar, Tapas K.; Gokhale, Nitin M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of La+3/Sr+2 ratios, which is varied from 0.08 to 5.09, on density, molar volume, packing fraction, free volume, thermal and electrical properties in strontium lanthanum aluminoborosilicate based glass sealants intended for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications is evaluated. The studies reveal expansion of the glass network evident from increasing molar volume and decreasing packing fraction of glasses with progressive La+3 substitutions. The molecular origin of these macroscopic structural features can be accounted for by the free volume parameters measured from positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The La+3 induced expanded glass networks show increased number of subnanoscopic voids with larger sizes, as revealed from the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity. A remarkably direct correspondence between the molar volume and fractional free volume trend is established with progressive La2O3 substitution in the glasses. The effect of these structural changes on the glass transition temperature, softening temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stability as well as electrical conductivity has been studied.

  13. Synaptic plasticity and sensory-motor improvement following fibrin sealant dorsal root reimplantation and mononuclear cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Suzana U.; Barbizan, Roberta; Spejo, Aline B.; Ferreira, Rui S.; Barraviera, Benedito; Góes, Alfredo M.; de Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Root lesions may affect both dorsal and ventral roots. However, due to the possibility of generating further inflammation and neuropathic pain, surgical procedures do not prioritize the repair of the afferent component. The loss of such sensorial input directly disturbs the spinal circuits thus affecting the functionality of the injuried limb. The present study evaluated the motor and sensory improvement following dorsal root reimplantation with fibrin sealant (FS) plus bone marrow mononuclear cells (MC) after dorsal rhizotomy. MC were used to enhance the repair process. We also analyzed changes in the glial response and synaptic circuits within the spinal cord. Female Lewis rats (6–8 weeks old) were divided in three groups: rhizotomy (RZ group), rhizotomy repaired with FS (RZ+FS group) and rhizotomy repaired with FS and MC (RZ+FS+MC group). The behavioral tests electronic von-Frey and Walking track test were carried out. For immunohistochemistry we used markers to detect different synapse profiles as well as glial reaction. The behavioral results showed a significant decrease in sensory and motor function after lesion. The reimplantation decreased glial reaction and improved synaptic plasticity of afferent inputs. Cell therapy further enhanced the rewiring process. In addition, both reimplanted groups presented twice as much motor control compared to the non-treated group. In conclusion, the reimplantation with FS and MC is efficient and may be considered an approach to improve sensory-motor recovery following dorsal rhizotomy. PMID:25249946

  14. A review of the literature: the economic impact of preventive dental hygiene services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Stull C; Connolly, Irene M; Murphree, Kellie R

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of dental hygiene as a discipline of prevention, the inception of systemic fluoride in community water systems, the continual research conducted by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), and the success of dental sealants have all contributed to the decrease in incidences of dental diseases. The prevalence of employer-based dental insurance must also be recognized as contributing to a substantial paradigm shift on the utilization of oral health preventive services. This review of the economic impact of oral health preventive services on the consumer and the private dental practice suggests that these services have had a significant impact. Dentistry's challenge remains to extend these considerable gains in oral health status to the 150 million U.S. citizens who do not have access to oral health care services identified in the 2000 Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Utilizing preventive, therapeutic, and educational aspects of dental hygiene services, reaching communities without fluoridation of the public water supply, and incorporating mass pediatric dental sealant programs analogous to immunization programs would improve the oral health status of underserved populations.

  15. The cost-effectiveness of three interventions for providing preventive services to low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of loan repayment programmes, revising Medicaid fee-for-service rates, and changing dental hygienist supervision requirements on access to preventive dental care for children in Georgia. We estimated cost savings from the three interventions of preventive care for young children after netting out the intervention cost. We used a regression model to evaluate the impact of changing the Medicaid reimbursement rates. The impact of supervision was evaluated by comparing general and direct supervision in school-based dental sealant programmes. Federal loan repayments to dentists and school-based sealant programmes (SBSPs) had lower intervention costs (with higher potential cost savings) than raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate. General supervision had costs 56% lower than direct supervision of dental hygienists for implementing a SBSP. Raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate by 10 percentage points would improve utilization by Loan repayment could serve almost 13 000 children for a cost of $400 000 and a potential cost saving of $176 000. The three interventions all improved met need for preventive dental care. Raising the reimbursement rate alone would marginally affect utilization of Medicaid services but would not substantially increase acceptance of Medicaid by providers. Both loan repayment programmes and amending supervision requirements are potentially cost-saving interventions. Loan repayment programmes provide complete care to targeted areas, while amending supervision requirements of dental hygienists could provide preventive care across the state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  17. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood-a current opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paddy

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in young children remains a public health problem particularly for children whose families are socioeconomically deprived. A child's first dental visit should be at approximately 12 months of age and this should facilitate the provision of anticipatory guidance concerning oral health and dental development to the child's parents/guardians. Compliance with dietary advice is of key importance and motivational interviewing shows promise in relation to parents adopting good oral health practices for their children. Twice daily toothbrushing using toothpaste that contains in the range of 1000- 1500ppmF is a most important preventive measure. It is important to use a minimal amount of toothpaste, insure that it is not swallowed, have parental or adult supervision during toothbrushing and avoid rinsing with water following brushing with toothpaste. The professional application of topical fluoride varnish twice yearly is a proven caries preventative measure. The application of pit and fissure sealants to teeth with deep pits and fissures is recommended.

  18. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um selante associado a componentes de um sistema adesivo dental Shear bond strength of an enamel sealant using components of a dental adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Maria MUSSOLINO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilindros de selante, padronizados, foram unidos ao esmalte das superfícies vestibulares de incisivos bovinos, após serem planificadas e condicionadas, com ácido fosfórico a 37%, durante 30 segundos. Foram utilizados 40 dentes, aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos, cujas coroas foram secionadas, de modo a obter-se duas porções, cervical e incisal. No Grupo I, após o condicionamento, aplicou-se o selante Fluroshield; no Grupo II, antes da aplicação do selante, uma camada do "primer" do Probond foi aplicada; no Grupo III, após o "primer", aplicou-se o adesivo do Probond; e no Grupo IV, somente o adesivo foi aplicado antes do selante. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água a 37°C, durante 36 horas, e então submetidos aos ensaios de cisalhamento. A análise estatística revelou significante diminuição na resistência ao cisalhamento, quando o "primer" foi aplicado previamente ao selante, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do selante foi semelhante quando o adesivo do Probond foi aplicado, com ou sem o "primer". A resistência ao cisalhamento do selante ao esmalte é maior no terço incisal que no terço cervical da coroa.Standardized cylinders of sealants were bonded to the flattened labial enamel of bovine incisor teeth that had previously been subjected to 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. A total of 40 teeth were tested, randomly divided in four groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, the sealant Fluroshield was applied after etching; in Group II after etching, the "primer" of Probond was used before the sealant; in Group III after etching, the bond of Probond was used after the "primer"; and in Group IV only the bond was applied before the sealant. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C during 36 hours, before shear testing using a Universal Testing Machine. There was significant reduction in shear bond strength of the sealant when only the "primer" was used previously to the application of the sealant. There were no

  19. Implications for high-precision dose radiation therapy planning or limited surgical resection after percutaneous computed tomography-guided lung nodule biopsy using a tract sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. de Groot, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Precision radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiation therapy and limited resection are being used more frequently to treat intrathoracic malignancies. Effective local control requires precise radiation target delineation or complete resection. Lung biopsy tracts (LBT on computed tomography (CT scans after the use of tract sealants can mimic malignant tract seeding (MTS and it is unclear whether these LBTs should be included in the calculated tumor volume or resected. This study evaluates the incidence, appearance, evolution, and malignant seeding of LBTs. Methods and materials: A total of 406 lung biopsies were performed in oncology patients using a tract sealant over 19 months. Of these patients, 326 had follow-up CT scans and were included in the study group. Four thoracic radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging, and a pathologist examined 10 resected LBTs. Results: A total of 234 of 326 biopsies (72%, including primary lung cancer [n = 98]; metastases [n = 81]; benign [n = 50]; and nondiagnostic [n = 5] showed an LBT on CT. LBTs were identified on imaging 0 to 3 months after biopsy. LBTs were typically straight or serpiginous with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm. Most LBTs were unchanged (92% or decreased (6.3% over time. An increase in LBT thickness/nodularity that was suspicious for MTS occurred in 4 of 234 biopsies (1.7%. MTS only occurred after biopsy of metastases from extrathoracic malignancies, and none occurred in patients with lung cancer. Conclusions: LBTs are common on CT after lung biopsy using a tract sealant. MTS is uncommon and only occurred in patients with extrathoracic malignancies. No MTS was found in patients with primary lung cancer. Accordingly, potential alteration in planned therapy should be considered only in patients with LBTs and extrathoracic malignancies being considered for stereotactic body radiation therapy or wedge resection.

  20. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsson, Eric S; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants.

  1. 'Change means sacrificing a good life': perceptions about severity of type 2 diabetes and preventive lifestyles among people afflicted or at high risk of type 2 diabetes in Iganga Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayega, Roy W; Etajak, Samuel; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Tomson, Goran; Kiguli, Juliet

    2014-08-21

    Interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes ought to be acceptable to target communities. We assessed perceptions about type 2 diabetes and lifestyle change among people afflicted or at high risk of this disease in a low income setting in Iganga Uganda. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) of eight participants each were conducted, balancing rural and peri-urban (near the Municipality) residence and gender. The FGDs involved people with suspected type 2 diabetes (based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), people with suspected pre-diabetes and obese people with normal FPG. Content analysis was conducted. Diabetes was perceived to be a very severe disease. Its severity was attributed to its incurability and its numerous health effects. Men were also concerned about reduced sexual performance. However, participants' strong concerns about the severity of diabetes were not reflected in their perceptions about the risk factors and lifestyles associated with it. While people with diabetes perceive obesity as 'sickness', those without diabetes perceive it as a sign of 'success'. Although participants are willing to change their diet, they mention numerous barriers including poverty, family size, and access to some foods. Because of their good taste, reduction of high risk foods like sugar and fried food is perceived as 'sacrificing a good life'. Increments in physical activity were said to be feasible, but only in familiar forms like domestic work. An over-arching theme emerged that 'lifestyle changes are viewed as sacrificing a good life'. Health promotion should target both community norms and individual awareness regarding obesity, physical activity and diet, and should address the notion that obesity and unhealthy foods represent a good life. Health educators should plan with clients on how to overcome barriers and misconceptions to lifestyle change, leveraging the pervasive perception of type 2 diabetes as a severe disease to motivate change.

  2. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  3. The use of FloSeal haemostatic sealant in the management of epistaxis: a prospective clinical study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakelam, O C; Dimitriadis, P A; Stephens, J

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION It is standard practice in the UK that if conservative measures or chemical cautery fail to control epistaxis, patients receive nasal packing which is often uncomfortable, requires admission and has well documented associated morbidity. Our study aims to evaluate the use of FloSeal haemostatic sealant in managing patients with epistaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were identified from those referred with active epistaxis. A successful outcome was defined as complete haemostasis with FloSeal alone, with no further significant bleeding requiring admission or further interventions in the subsequent 7 days. Patients reported satisfaction using a ten-point visual analogue scale. Ear, nose and throat doctors recorded patient demographics, time to prepare FloSeal, length of stay, need for further treatment and adverse events on an electronic database. RESULTS 30 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean time to prepare FloSeal was 5 minutes. The success rate of FloSeal was 90%. The mean length of stay was 2.75 hours. The mean patient satisfaction with FloSeal was 8.4/10. No adverse events occurred. DISCUSSION FloSeal was found to be effective in controlling anterior epistaxis. There was a single case of posterior epistaxis which required operative management. The literature largely supports FloSeal in anterior epistaxis, but indicates sphenopalatine artery ligation as the definitive management of posterior epistaxis. CONCLUSIONS Our data support the use of FloSeal in patients with anterior epistaxis not controlled with conservative measures or chemical cautery. It was found to be easy to use, is well tolerated by patients and is efficient in financial terms.

  4. Barium boron silicate glass-ceramic for use as sealant in planar SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.J.; Castanho, S.R.H. Mello; Reis, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Glass-ceramic seals play an important role in the performance of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). In this work glass-ceramic seals are discussed from the point of view of the thermal behavior of the glass and the electrochemical parameters obtained from polarization curves such as corrosion current densities (i corr ), and corrosion potential (E corr ). A seal material must have a combination of thermal-mechanical and electrochemical properties in order to seal cell components and stacks and prevent side reactions. It must be stable in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres and withstand thermal cycles between room temperature and the cell operating temperature (800 to 900°C). Glass-ceramics in the system BaO- B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 were investigated and compared from the point of view of sealing ability. Dilatometric analysis, thermal stability against crystallization, microstructure and electrochemical durability are discussed. (author)

  5. [Indoor air pollution by polychlorinated biphenyl compounds in permanently elastic sealants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, U; Bork, M; Balfanz, E; Leidel, J

    1990-10-01

    A common cause for indoor pollution by polycholorinated biphenyls (PCB) are defective capacitors of luminous discharge lamps. This paper describes elastic sealing compounds as another source of PCB pollution in buildings. In several rooms of a large school building indoor concentrations of 1000 ng PCB/m3 and more were registered. The total PCB concentration in sealing compounds ranged between 124,000 and 327,000 ppm. Blood specimens drawn from the school's personnel did not show elevated PCB concentrations, but additional incorporation of PCB via the respiratory tract cannot be excluded. We do not presume that any impairment of the health has been caused by this pollutant, but we think that reduction of the PCB indoor concentrations would be advisable for prophylactic purposes. Attention should be given to so-called open PCB systems such as elastic sealing compounds. Although they have been prohibited 1978, there might be a widespread use in older buildings.

  6. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) as a candidate biological scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells in osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Patrícia Rodrigues; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Cruz; Justulin, Luis Antônio; Kaneno, Ramon; de Assis Golim, Marjorie; Dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho; Creste, Camila Fernanda Zorzella; Oba, Eunice; Maia, Leandro; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui Seabra

    2017-09-29

    The injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) directly into the bone of osteoporotic (OP) patients for rapid recovery has been studied worldwide. Scaffolds associated with MSCs are used to maintain and avoid cell loss after application. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) derived from snake venom was evaluated for the cytotoxicity of its main components and as a three-dimensional biological scaffold for MSCs to repair a critical femur defect in osteoporotic rats. The cytotoxicity of HFS was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and transmission electron microscopy. The cells were cultured, characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated into the osteogenic lineage. Two-month-old rats underwent ovariectomy to induce OP. After 3 months, a 5 mm critical bone defect was made in the distal end of the rat femurs and filled with HFS; HFS + MSCs; and HFS + MSCs D (differentiated into the osteogenic lineage) to evaluate the effects. An injury control group (injury and no treatment) and blank control group (no injury and no treatment) were also included. The animals were observed at days 14 and 28 by microtomographic (micro-CT) analyses, histologic and biochemical analysis, as well as scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that one of the compounds of HFS, the thrombin-like enzyme extracted from snake venom, had no cytotoxic effects on the MSCs. OP was successfully induced, as demonstrated by the significant differences in the levels of 17β-estradiol, Micro-CT analyses and alkaline phosphatase between the ovariectomized (OVX) and non-ovariectomized (NOVX) groups. The histological data revealed that at 14 days after surgery in both the OVX and NOVX animals, the HFS + CTMs and HFS + CTMsD showed a higher formation of bone cells at the site in relation to the control group (without treatment). Collagen formation was evidenced through bone neoformation in all treated and control groups

  7. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Guanghui; Ma, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. The objective of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficiency and safety of administration of fibrin sealant (FS) for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing primary THA. Potential relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Gray academic studies were also identified from the reference list of included studies. There was no language restriction. Pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -153.77, 95% CI: -287.21 to -20.34, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.05, P = 0.02) and transfusion rate (RD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.03, P = 0.01) between groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01to 0.01, P = 0.51) or other side effects. Administration of fibrin sealant in total hip arthroplasty may reduce total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Moreover, no adverse effect was related to FS. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of six different methods of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealant: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objectives : The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants after using six different preparation techniques: (a brush, (b pumice slurry application, (c bur, (d air polishing, (e air abrasion, and (f longer etching time. Material & Method : The study was conducted on 60 caries-free first premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose. These teeth were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 teeth each. Teeth were prepared using one of six occlusal surface treatments prior to placement of Clinpro" 3M ESPE light-cured sealant. The teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles and stored in 0.9% normal saline. Teeth were sealed apically and coated with nail varnish 1 mm from the margin and stained in 1% methylene blue for 24 hours. Each tooth was divided buccolingually parallel to the long axis of the tooth, yielding two sections per tooth for analysis. The surfaces were scored from 0 to 2 for the extent of microleakage. Statistical Analysis : Results obtained for microleakage were analyzed by using t-tests at sectional level and chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA at the group level. Results : The results of round bur group were significantly superior when compared to all other groups. The application of air polishing and air abrasion showed better results than pumice slurry, bristle brush, and longer etching time. Round bur group was the most successful cleaning and preparing technique. Air polishing and air abrasion produced significantly less microleakage than traditional pumice slurry, bristle brush, and longer etching time.

  10. Retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant and a photochromatic flowable composite resin placed on occlusal pits and fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant (Fluroshield and a photochromatic flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow Chroma placed on occlusal pits and fissures and submitted to thermal or chemical cycling regimens. Penetration assessment - ten premolars were sealed with each material, isolated (except for the sealed surface and immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B. The teeth were serially sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. The images of the sections were digitized and analyzed (ImageLab. The distance between the most superficial and the deepest points on the occlusal central groove was calculated to determine the groove′s total depth. The length of the central groove filled with the sealant was divided by its total depth to obtain the percentage of sealing of the occlusal groove. Retention assessment - 30 premolars were sealed, their occlusal surfaces were photographed and the area occupied by the sealing materials was demarcated (ImageLab. The teeth were submitted to different treatments: thermocycled, stored in artificial saliva and immersed in acetic acid and saliva (10 cycles/day protocol for 30 days. New photographs were taken to assess the final area occupied by the materials. The difference between the final and initial area was calculated to obtain the material loss. The data was analyzed (two-way anova and Tukey′s test P < 0.05. Both materials presented similar penetration of the occlusal central groove. After thermal and chemical cycling, the materials did not differ with respect to retention, except for immersion in acetic acid. In this case, Tetric Flow Chroma presented greater retention than Fluoroshield.

  11. Evaluation of a novel approach in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, J; Walsh, L J; Naser-Ud Din, S; Ngo, H; Manton, D J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative efficacy of a resin fissure sealant, nano-filled self-adhesive protective coating, resin infiltrant, glass ionomer cement (GIC), and GIC containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in preventing the formation of subsurface lesions of enamel (SLE) adjacent to orthodontic brackets by acting as an enamel surface sealant (ESS). Eighty-five enamel specimens with molar tubes bonded at their centre were randomly divided into five groups, each treated with a different material at the bracket's periphery. Specimens were stored in an acetate demineralization solution at pH 4.5 for 7 days at 37 °C then imaged using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to determine the difference in fluorescence (∆F) between sound- and acid-exposed enamel. Lesion cross-sections were then examined using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to measure lesion depth. The use of GIC alone or incorporating CPP-ACP significantly reduced ∆F compared with other materials. Backscattered SEM images showed no measurable demineralization for enamel treated with either GIC material in contrast with other groups, which showed statistically significant demineralization levels. The fluoride-releasing effects and CPP-ACP benefits of the GIC materials show promise as an effective ESS in inhibiting enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  14. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  15. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  16. A comparison of the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts after calving in cows also given internal teat sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L K; Laven, R A

    2018-01-01

    To compare, in cows treated with an internal teat sealant, the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts (SCC) after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farm in the Manawatu-Whanganui region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive either a short-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=291) or a long-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=288) at the end of lactation. Cows were managed on-farm with routine husbandry procedures through the dry period and following calving. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the association between length of action of dry-cow therapy and the proportion of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL at the first herd test after calving. Age of cow, mean SCC for the preceding season and interval from calving to the first post-calving herd test were all associated with the proportion of cows with an individual SCC >150,000 cells/mL at the first herd test (pcow therapy was not associated with decreased odds of cows having a SCC >150,000 cells/mL at the first herd test compared with treatment with long-acting dry-cow therapy (OR=0.724; 95% CI=0.40-1.30). In this herd, which routinely used internal teat sealants, the use of short-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy did not result in an increased proportion of cows with elevated SSC post-calving. This was a single farm, single year study but indicates that in this herd, changing from a long-acting to a short-acting antimicrobial may have no impact on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis.

  17. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  18. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  19. Avaliação clínica de uma resina composta modificada por poliácido, utilizada como selante oclusal, quando aplicada por dentista, THD e graduando Clinical evaluation of a polyacid-modified resin composite, used as an occlusal sealant, when applied by dentist, dental hygienist and undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Tarkany BASTING

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por finalidade comparar as diferenças de retenção de uma resina composta modificada por poliácido (Variglass V.L.C., utilizada como selante oclusal, quando aplicada por dentista, THD e graduando em Odontologia. Foram seladas as superfícies oclusais de 370 primeiros molares permanentes superiores de crianças entre 6 e 8 anos de idade provenientes de escolas públicas do município de Piracicaba. As avaliações clínicas foram realizadas após seis e oito meses da aplicação do selante. Aos seis meses, verificou-se que 78,42% dos selantes clinicamente aceitáveis permaneceram retidos sobre a superfície oclusal. O índice de perdas totais corresponderam a 10,20% do total de selantes aplicados. O melhor índice de retenção total foi obtido quando aplicado por graduando. Aos 12 meses, houve um aumento do número de selantes perdidos (43,79% e conseqüente decréscimo do número de selantes totalmente retidos (18,96%, não havendo diferenças significativas de retenção do selante quando aplicado por dentista, THD e graduando. Nos casos de perdas totais do selante, não se constatou presença de lesão cariosa.The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences of clinical retention of a polyacid-modified resin composite (Variglass V.L.C., used as an occlusal sealant, when applied by dentist, dental hygienist and undergraduate in Dentistry. The occlusal surfaces of 370 superior first molars of children ageing from 6 to 8 years from public schools in Piracicaba, were sealed. The presented data are related to the final evaluation after 6 and 12 months. It was observed that after 6 months, 78.42% of the sealants clinically acceptable, remained on the occlusal surfaces and that the completely lost sealants reached 10.20%. The best results of the sealants retention were obtained when the sealants were applied by an undergraduate. After 12 months, there was an increase of completely lost sealants (43.79% and a decrease of

  20. Natural Type II Collagen Hydrogel, Fibrin Sealant, and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Promising Combination for Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Mariana; Bordeaux-Rego, Pedro; Giardini-Rosa, Renata; Duarte, Adriana S S; Baratti, Mariana Ozello; Zorzi, Alessandro Rozim; de Miranda, João Batista; Lenz Cesar, Carlos; Luzo, Ângela; Olalla Saad, Sara Teresinha

    2017-10-01

    Objective Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited ability of self-regeneration and the current clinical treatments have restricted capacity to restore damages induced by trauma or diseases. Therefore, new techniques are being tested for cartilage repair, using scaffolds and/or stem cells. Although type II collagen hydrogel, fibrin sealant, and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent suitable alternatives for cartilage formation, their combination has not yet been investigated in vivo for focal articular cartilage defects. We performed a simple experimental procedure using the combination of these 3 compounds on cartilage lesions of rabbit knees. Design The hydrogel was developed in house and was first tested in vitro for chondrogenic differentiation. Next, implants were performed in chondral defects with or without ASCs and the degree of regeneration was macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. Results Production of proteoglycans and the increased expression of collagen type II (COL2α1), aggrecan (ACAN), and sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) confirmed the chondrogenic character of ASCs in the hydrogel in vitro. Importantly, the addition of ASC induced a higher overall repair of the chondral lesions and a better cellular organization and collagen fiber alignment compared with the same treatment without ASCs. This regenerating tissue also presented the expression of cartilage glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of the 3 compounds is effective for articular cartilage repair and may be of future clinical interest.

  1. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  2. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  3. Avaliação da microinfiltração marginal e profundidade de penetração dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro utilizados como selantes oclusais Evaluation of marginal microleakage and depth of penetration of glass ionomer cements used as occlusal sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Lourdes Calvo Fracasso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: the aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro comparison of marginal microleakage (MM and the depth of penetration (DP of glass ionomer cements (GIC and a resin sealant (RS into occlusal pit and fissures. METHODS: for that purpose, 60 intact third molars were equally distributed to 5 groups: G1 - 37% phosphoric acid / Delton; G2 - 40% polyacrylic acid / Ketac-Molar / nail varnish; G3 - Fuji Plus conditioner / Fuji Plus/ nail varnish; G4 -37% phosphoric acid / Vitremer / Finishing gloss; G5 -37% phosphoric acid / Vitremer prepared with a 1:4 ratio of powder / Finishing gloss. The teeth were submitted to a thermal treatment corresponding to 300 cycles (15 sec, 5/55(0C, followed by complete coating with nail varnish, except for 1mm beyond the contour of the sealant. Afterwards, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours. Thereafter, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and microscopically analyzed (150x magnification by means of predetermined scores. The results were subject to the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: there was no statistical difference between the materials tested in relation to the DP, being that all groups displayed nearly complete filling of the fissures. No sealant material was able to prevent dye penetration; however, the GICs provided better results of MM, with significant difference when compared to the RS. CONCLUSION: all materials investigated presented a satisfactory degree of penetration into the fissures; however, the glass ionomer cements displayed better performance in the marginal microleakage test compared to the resin sealant.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar in vitro a microinfiltração marginal (MM e o grau de profundidade de penetração (DP de cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIV e um selante resinoso (SR em fossas e fissuras oclusais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: para tanto, 60 terceiros molares hígidos foram igualmente distribuídos em 5 grupos: G1- ácido fosf

  4. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention and treatment of long-term social disability amongst young people with emerging severe mental illness with social recovery therapy (The PRODIGY Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; French, Paul; Banerjee, Robin; Barton, Garry; Berry, Clio; Byrne, Rory; Clarke, Timothy; Fraser, Rick; Gee, Brioney; Greenwood, Kathryn; Notley, Caitlin; Parker, Sophie; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Jon; Yung, Alison R; Hodgekins, Joanne

    2017-07-11

    Young people who have social disability associated with severe and complex mental health problems are an important group in need of early intervention. Their problems often date back to childhood and become chronic at an early age. Without intervention, the long-term prognosis is often poor and the economic costs very large. There is a major gap in the provision of evidence-based interventions for this group, and therefore new approaches to detection and intervention are needed. This trial provides a definitive evaluation of a new approach to early intervention with young people with social disability and severe and complex mental health problems using social recovery therapy (SRT) over a period of 9 months to improve mental health and social recovery outcomes. This is a pragmatic, multi-centre, single blind, superiority randomised controlled trial. It is conducted in three sites in the UK: Sussex, Manchester and East Anglia. Participants are aged 16 to 25 and have both persistent and severe social disability (defined as engaged in less than 30 hours per week of structured activity) and severe and complex mental health problems. The target sample size is 270 participants, providing 135 participants in each trial arm. Participants are randomised 1:1 using a web-based randomisation system and allocated to either SRT plus optimised treatment as usual (enhanced standard care) or enhanced standard care alone. The primary outcome is time use, namely hours spent in structured activity per week at 15 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes assess typical mental health problems of the group, including subthreshold psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms, depression and anxiety. Time use, secondary outcomes and health economic measures are assessed at 9, 15 and 24 months post-randomisation. This definitive trial will be the first to evaluate a novel psychological treatment for social disability and mental health problems in young people presenting with social

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  7. Preventing Advanced Carious Lesions with Caries Atraumatic Restorative Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tammi O

    2016-06-01

    An alternative approach to controlling dental caries and preventing the associated pain, called atraumatic restorative technique (ART), is described for populations in need, where dental hygienists restore decayed teeth with glass ionomer restorations without prior removal of all decayed tooth structure. There are populations whose decay needs are not adequately being met within the current oral health care delivery system. These include those in poverty conditions, vulnerable children, and the elderly who are often in long-term care facilities without adequate resources or opportunities for traditional dentistry. ART provides a viable option for controlling caries and relieving the pain of untreated decay. The purpose of this article is to suggest that the evidence surrounding ART be viewed objectively and that dental hygienists, with additional education in this approach, can contribute to relieving the pain of untreated dental decay. Evidence suggests that teeth can be effectively restored with ART. Dental hygienists represent an appropriate workforce to provide ART with their current background and education combined plus a brief training program; it is suggested that dental hygiene educational programs include ART within the curriculum. Along with dental sealants and fluoride varnish application, ART can be an important component of a comprehensive preventive program to address the unmet needs of vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  9. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  11. Wear and superficial roughness of glass ionomer cements used as sealants, after simulated toothbrushing Desgaste e rugosidade superficial de cimentos de ionômero de vidro utilizados como selantes, após escovação simulada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rios

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the properties (wear and roughness of glass ionomer cements that could influence their indication as pit and fissure sealants. The utilized materials were Fuji Plus, Ketac-Molar and Vitremer (in two different proportions: 1:1 and ¼:1. The resin-based sealant Delton was used as control. By means of an electronic balance (precision of 10-4 g, wear was measured in function of weight loss after simulated toothbrushing. Superficial roughness was determined by means of a surface roughness-measuring apparatus. The results revealed that diluted Vitremer and Fuji Plus were less resistant to toothbrushing abrasion and had the greatest increase in superficial roughness.Although in clinical situations luting or diluted ionomer cements are often utilized as alternatives to resin-based sealants, the resultsof this study revealed that the properties of those cements are worse than those of restorative ionomers, whichpresented results similar to those of the evaluated resin sealant.O presente estudo foi conduzido in vitro com o intuito de constatar as propriedades (desgaste e rugosidade dos CIV, as quais influenciam na sua indicação como material selador de fossas e fissuras. Os materiais empregados foram Fuji Plus, Ketac-Molar e Vitremer (duas proporções: 1:1 e ¼:1. O selante Delton foi controle. A determinação do desgaste foi obtida através da quantidade de massa perdida após a escovação e a rugosidade através da análise quantitativa da superfície. Os resultados mostraram que o Vitremer diluído e o Fuji Plus apresentaram maior grau de desgaste e maior aumento de rugosidade. Apesar de clinicamente se encontrar um maior uso dos ionômeros de vidro cimentantes ou diluídos como forma alternativa para material selador; este trabalho permitiu concluir que estes possuem propriedades bastante inferiores quando comparados aos ionômeros restauradores que, por sua vez, possuem resultados semelhantes

  12. Bond strength of a pit-and-fissure sealant associated to etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems to saliva-contaminated enamel: individual vs. simultaneous light curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Torres, Carolina Paes; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb de Menezes; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant [Fluroshield (F), Dentsply/Caulk] associated with either an etch-and-rinse [Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), 3M/ESPE] or a self-etching adhesive system [Clearfil S3 Bond (S3), Kuraray Co., Ltd.] to saliva-contaminated enamel, comparing two curing protocols: individual light curing of the adhesive system and the sealant or simultaneous curing of both materials. Mesial and distal enamel surfaces from 45 sound third molars were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=15), according to the bonding technique: I - F was applied to 37% phosphoric acid etched enamel. The other groups were contaminated with fresh human saliva (0.01 mL; 10 s) after acid etching: II - SB and F were light cured separately; III - SB and F were light cured together; IV - S3 and F were light cured separately; V - S3 and F were light cured simultaneously; VI - F was applied to saliva-contaminated, acid-etched enamel without an intermediate bonding agent layer. SBS was tested to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Fisher's test (alpha=0.05).The debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope to assess the failure modes. Three representative specimens from each group were observed under scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis. Mean SBS in MPa were: I-12.28 (+/-4.29); II-8.57 (+/-3.19); III-7.97 (+/-2.16); IV-12.56 (+/-3.11); V-11.45 (+/-3.77); and VI-7.47 (+/-1.99). In conclusion, individual or simultaneous curing of the intermediate bonding agent layer and the resin sealant did not seem to affect bond strength to saliva-contaminated enamel. S3/F presented significantly higher SBS than the that of the groups treated with SB etch-and-rinse adhesive system and similar SBS to that of the control group, in which the sealant was applied under ideal dry, noncontaminated conditions.

  13. Implications of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Guidelines on Statin Underutilization for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus Among Several US Networks of Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhabue, Ehimare; Rittner, Sarah S; Carroll, Joseph E; Crawford, Phillip M; Dant, Lydia; Laws, Reesa; Leo, Michael C; Puro, Jon; Persell, Stephen D

    2017-07-03

    cardiovascular disease prevention in this high-risk population. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy with non-absorbable hemostatic sealant (Quikclot®) versus nephrostomy tube placement: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Ho Sung; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) using a non-absorbable hemostatic sealant (Quikclot(®)) as an adjunct compared to nephrostomy tube placement in patients exhibiting significant parenchymal bleeding following PNL. We identified 113 PNL cases performed between May 2011 and October 2014. For patients with insignificant parenchymal bleeding following stone removal, defined as a clear visualization of the surgical field at full irrigation of the nephroscope, tubeless PNL was performed. For patients with significant parenchymal bleeding, we introduced the tubeless Quikclot(®) technique as of September 2013 and have performed it ever since. Formerly, nephrostomy placement PNL was performed. In this study, 40 Quikclot(®) applied PNL cases were matched with an equal number of nephrostomy placement cases by propensity scoring based on body mass index, stone size, and Guy's stone score. The mean postoperative drop in hematocrit was comparative between the Quikclot(®) group and the nephrostomy group on both postoperative days 1 (p = 0.459) and 2 (p = 0.325). Quikclot(®) application was associated with lower VAS scores throughout the postoperative period, lower cumulative analgesic requirement (p = 0.025), and with shorter hospitalization (p = 0.002). Complication rates were comparable with no need for blood transfusions in any patients. Tubeless Quikclot(®) PNL was safe and provided effective hemostasis of significant parenchymal bleeding. By avoiding nephrostomy placement, we were able to reduce postoperative pain, analgesic requirements, and hospitalization. Application of Quikclot(®) may be considered prior to nephrostomy placement in patients with significant parenchymal bleeding.

  15. Stable glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells: Influence of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, Jose M.F. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pascual, Maria J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based glass-ceramics in the system SrO-CaO-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} have been synthesized for sealing applications in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The parent glass composition in the primary crystallization field of diopside has been doped with different amounts of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1, 3, 5 wt.%). The sintering behavior by hot-stage microscopy (HSM) reveals that all the investigated glass compositions exhibit a two-stage shrinkage behavior. The crystallization kinetics of the glasses has been studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) while X-ray diffraction adjoined with Rietveld-R.I.R. analysis have been employed to quantify the amount of crystalline and amorphous phases in the glass-ceramics. Diopside and augite crystallized as the primary crystalline phases in all the glass-ceramics. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (9.06-10.14) x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} after heat treatment at SOFC operating temperature for a duration varying between 1 h and 200 h. Further, low electrical conductivity, good joining behavior and negligible reactivity with metallic interconnects (Crofer22 APU and Sanergy HT) in air indicate that the investigated glass-ceramics are suitable candidates for further experimentation as sealants in SOFC. (author)

  16. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  18. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  19. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  20. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  3. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  6. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  7. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.

  8. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. Severe accidents in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Dumitrescu, Iulia; Tunaru, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

  10. Severe accidents: in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A ''severe'' nuclear accident refers to a reactor accident that could exceed reactor design specifications to such a degree as to prevent cooling of the reactor's core by normal means. This report summarizes the work of a NEA Senior Group of Experts who have studied the potential response of existing light-water reactors to severe accidents and have found that current designs of reactors are far more capable of coping with severe accidents than design specifications would suggest. The report emphasises the specific knowledge and means that can be used for diagnosing a severe accident and for managing its progression in order to prevent or mitigate its consequences

  11. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  12. Severe Ventral Erosion of Penis Caused by Indwelling Urethral Catheter and Inflation of Foley Balloon in Urethra—Need to Create List of “Never Events in Spinal Cord Injury” in order to Prevent These Complications from Happening in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Never Events are serious, largely preventable patient safety incidents that should not occur if the available preventative measures have been implemented. We propose that a list of “Never Events” is created for spinal cord injury patients in order to improve the quality of care. To begin with, following two preventable complications related to management of neuropathic bladder may be included in this list of “Never Events.” (i Severe ventral erosion of glans penis and penile shaft caused by indwelling urethral catheter; (ii incorrect placement of a Foley catheter leading to inflation of Foley balloon in urethra. If a Never Event occurs, health professionals should report the incident through hospital risk management system to National Patient Safety Agency's Reporting and Learning System, communicate with the patient, family, and their carer as soon as possible about the incident, undertake a comprehensive root cause analysis of what went wrong, how, and why, and implement the changes that have been identified and agreed following the root cause analysis.

  13. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  14. Chronic Dosing with Membrane Sealant Poloxamer 188 NF Improves Respiratory Dysfunction in Dystrophic Mdx and Mdx/Utrophin-/- Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E Markham

    Full Text Available Poloxamer 188 NF (national formulary (NF grade of P-188 improves cardiac muscle function in the mdx mouse and golden retriever muscular dystrophy models. However in vivo effects on skeletal muscle have not been reported. We postulated that P-188 NF might protect diaphragm muscle membranes from contraction-induced injury in mdx and mdx/utrophin-/- (dko muscular dystrophy models. In the first study 7-month old mdx mice were treated for 22 weeks with subcutaneous (s.c. injections of saline or P-188 NF at 3 mg/Kg. In the second, dkos were treated with saline or P-188 NF (1 mg/Kg for 8 weeks beginning at age 3 weeks. Prednisone was the positive control in both studies. Respiratory function was monitored using unrestrained whole body plethysmography. P-188 NF treatment affected several respiratory parameters including tidal volume/BW and minute volume/BW in mdx mice. In the more severe dko model, P-188 NF (1 mg/Kg significantly slowed the decline in multiple respiratory parameters compared with saline-treated dko mice. Prednisone's effects were similar to those seen with P-188 NF. Diaphragms from P-188 NF or prednisone treated mdx and dko mice showed signs of muscle fiber protection including less centralized nuclei, less variation in fiber size, greater fiber density, and exhibited a decreased amount of collagen deposition. P-188 NF at 3 mg/Kg s.c. also improved parameters of systolic and diastolic function in mdx mouse hearts. These results suggest that P-188 NF may be useful in treating respiratory and cardiac dysfunction, the leading causes of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

  15. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  16. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs, around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  17. Topical fibrin sealant versus intravenous tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-08-01

    Efficacy and safety of topical application of a fibrin sealant (FS) compared with intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical application of FS or intravenous administration of TXA on blood loss after TKA. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing FS with TXA for TKA patients. The mean difference (MD) of blood loss, hemoglobin value, and odds ratios (ORs) of transfusion requirements and adverse events in FS and TXA groups were pooled throughout the study. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Five studies involving 359 patients were included (181 FS vs. 178 TXA). TXA use had a significantly lower prevalence of blood transfusion (OR = 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67 to 5.90, P = 0.0004) and higher hemoglobin level (MD = -1.23; 95% CI, -2.19 to -0.27, P = 0.01) than FS in the early postoperative period. No significant difference was seen in total blood loss between the two groups (MD = 198.06; 95% CI, -267.45 to 663.57; P = 0.40). There were no significant differences in adverse events, superficial infections, or deep-vein thrombosis among study groups. Our meta-analysis suggests that intravenous administration of TXA for patients undergoing TKA may reduce blood-transfusion requirements and maintain higher hemoglobin levels compared with topical application of FS in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in total calculated blood loss and prevalence of complications between the two groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  20. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  1. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  2. Antingens for a Vaccine that Prevents Severe Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    3,210,682 220,620 sum 6,076,570 4,845,314 Table 3: Number of sequencing reads for uninfected blood and blood with cultured parasites o determine if the...Trends Parasitol, 22(3):99-101 2. Kappe SHI, Duffy PE. 2006. Malaria liver stage culture : in Hyg, 74(5):706-7 3. Duffy PE, Muta 367(9528):2037-9. 4...classified as the short (S) allele. SNPs that flanked the dinucleotide repeat region and that varied in frequency between Caucasian and Yoruba

  3. International cooperation for the cure and prevention of severe hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Lawrence B; Uderzo, Cornelio; Masera, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) is the most frequent life-threatening noninfectious disease of childhood in the Middle East, South Asia, and Pacific Islands where it accounts for a significant proportion of childhood mortality, morbidity, and related health care expenses. In spite of major advances in supportive care during the last decade, many patients in low-income and middle-income countries still fare poorly because of high treatment costs and lack of accessible multidisciplinary teams, not to consider the risk of blood-borne infections, primarily hepatitis C. In selected low-risk patients with a compatible sibling, TM is highly curable by bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which also improves the quality of life and is cost-effective. Starting in 2008, the Cure2Children Foundation (C2C), an Italian Non-Governmental Organization, has supported a BMT network in Pakistan, which during 2012 was extended to India. The primary aim of this project was to assess feasibility, outcomes, and costs of matched-related BMT for thalassemia in young low-risk children using a well-established and tolerable strategy. A total of 100 matched-related BMTs have been performed to date by partner institutions within this C2C-supported network; in the 50 low-risk cases with TM, over 90% disease-free survival was obtained with procedure expenses within 10,000 USD/BMT, that is, an outcome comparable to that obtained in affluent countries but with a fraction of the expenses. This cure rate was also obtained in start-up BMT centers (1 in Pakistan and 1 in India) within a structured and intensive cooperation program. Twinning and other international cooperation strategies based on shared principles and a common vision may substantially facilitate access to BMT.

  4. Morbidity of severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, J G

    2001-10-01

    Although obesity is an easy diagnosis to make, its etiologies, pathophysiology, and symptomatology are extraordinarily complex. Progress in surgical technique and anesthesiological management has substantially improved the safety of performing operations on the severely obese in the last 20 years. These improvements have occurred more or less empirically, without a full understanding of etiology or pathophysiology, although this has advanced concomitantly with improvements in practice. This review has attempted to provide a framework to facilitate progress in the neglected areas of patient selection and choice of operation, in an effort to improve long-term outcome. Despite the disparate etiologies of obesity and its diverse comorbidities and complications, there are unifying interdependent pathogenetic mechanisms of great relevance to the practice of antiobesity surgery. The rate of eating, whether driven by HPA dysfunction, ambient stress, or related hereditary susceptibility factors including the increased energy demands of an expanded body fat mass, participates in a cycle that results in disordered satiety (see Fig. 3). This leads to substrate overload, causing extensive metabolic abnormalities such as atherogenesis, insulin resistance, thrombogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This interpretation of the pathophysiology of obesity ironically accords with the original meaning of the word obesity: "to overeat." The ultimate solution to the problem of obesity--preventing it--will not be forthcoming until the food industry is forced to lower production and change its marketing strategies, as the liquor and tobacco industries in the United States were compelled to do. This cannot occur until the large and fast-growing populations of industrialized nations become educated in the personal implications of the energy principle. Regardless of whether school curricula are modified to prioritize health education, the larger problems of cultural and economic change remain for

  5. Severe Aplastic Anemia (SAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Print this page My Cart Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease ... leukemia (ALL) Other diseases What is severe aplastic anemia (SAA)? SAA is a bone marrow disease. The ...

  6. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in the provision of specific preventive dental interventions among children in the UK: Children's Dental Health Survey 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, R; Kassim, S; Sabbah, W

    2017-06-09

    Aim To assess socioeconomic inequality regarding specific preventive interventions (fissure sealants or any treatment to prevent caries) and dental visits among UK children.Method Data were from the Children's Dental Health Survey 2003, which included participants from England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The number of children in the analysis was 2,286. Variables were sex, age, area of residency (for example, England), mother's education, family social class, and deprivation level. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed.Results There were no significant socioeconomic differences in the use of preventive services. Deprivation and family social class (for example, intermediate and manual) were significantly associated with less regular dental visits (odd ratio 0.41, 95% CI [0.28, 0.63]; odd ratio 0.53, 95% CI [0.31, 0.89]; odd ratio 0.37, 95% CI [0.24, 0.58], respectively). Regular dental visits were associated with reporting preventive care for caries (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI [1.45, 3.49]) and with the number of sealed tooth surfaces (rate ratio 1.73, 95% CI [1.16, 2.60]).Conclusion Despite apparent socioeconomic inequalities in regular dental visits, there was no significant inequality in using specific preventive interventions by children in the UK. This finding should be interpreted with caution considering the relatively small subsample included in this analysis.

  9. Development and characterization of glass-ceramic sealants in the (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3) system for Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedim, Hichem; Nonnet, Helene; Mear, Francois O.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of glass-ceramic sealants plays a crucial role in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell performance and durability. In order to develop suitable sealants, operating around 800 degrees C, two parent glass compositions, CAS1B and CAS2B, from the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 system were prepared and explored. The thermal and physicochemical properties of the glass ceramics and their crystallization behavior were investigated by HSM. DTA and XRD analyses. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the crystalline phases were investigated by microprobe analysis. Bonding characteristic as well as chemical interactions of the parent glass with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and ferritic steel-based interconnect (Crofere (R)) were also investigated. The preliminary results revealed the superiority of CAS2B glass for sealing application in SOECs. The effect of minor additions of V 2 O 5 , K 2 O and TiO 2 on the thermal properties was also studied and again demonstrated the advantages of the CAS2B glass composition. Examining the influence of heat treatment on the seal behavior showed that the choice of the heating rate is a compromise between delaying the crystallization process and delaying the viscosity drop. The thermal Expansion Coefficients (TEC) obtained for the selected glass ceramic are within the desired range after the heat treatment of crystallization. The crystallization kinetic parameters of the selected glass composition were also determined under non-isothermal conditions by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation. (authors)

  10. Efficacy of a Self-expanding Tract Sealant Device in the Reduction of Pneumothorax and Chest Tube Placement Rates After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Matched Controlled Study Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrar, Judy U; Gupta, Sanjay; Ensor, Joe E; Mahvash, Armeen; Sabir, Sharjeel H; Steele, Joseph R; McRae, Stephen E; Avritscher, Rony; Huang, Steven Y; Odisio, Bruno C; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Tam, Alda L

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the use of a self-expanding tract sealant device (BioSentry™) on the rates of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion after percutaneous lung biopsy. In this retrospective study, we compared 318 patients who received BioSentry™ during percutaneous lung biopsy (treated group) with 1956 patients who did not (control group). Patient-, lesion-, and procedure-specific variables, and pneumothorax and chest tube insertion rates were recorded. To adjust for potential selection bias, patients in the treated group were matched 1:1 to patients in the control group using propensity score matching based on the above-mentioned variables. Patients were considered a match if the absolute difference in their propensity scores was ≤equal to 0.02. Before matching, the pneumothorax and chest tube rates were 24.5 and 13.1% in the control group, and 21.1 and 8.5% in the treated group, respectively. Using propensity scores, a match was found for 317 patients in the treatment group. Chi-square contingency matched pair analysis showed the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (20.8 vs. 32.8%; p = 0.001) and chest tube (8.2 vs. 20.8%; p 30 cases of both treatment and control cases demonstrated similar findings: the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (17.6 vs. 30.2%; p = 0.002) and chest tube (7.2 vs. 18%; p = 0.001) rates. The self-expanding tract sealant device significantly reduced the pneumothorax rate, and more importantly, the chest tube placement rate after percutaneous lung biopsy.

  11. Efficacy of a Self-expanding Tract Sealant Device in the Reduction of Pneumothorax and Chest Tube Placement Rates After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Matched Controlled Study Using Propensity Score Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrar, Judy U., E-mail: judy.ahrar@mdanderson.org; Gupta, Sanjay [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Ensor, Joe E. [Houston Methodist Research Institute, The Houston Methodist Cancer Center (United States); Mahvash, Armeen; Sabir, Sharjeel H.; Steele, Joseph R.; McRae, Stephen E.; Avritscher, Rony; Huang, Steven Y.; Odisio, Bruno C.; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J.; Tam, Alda L. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the use of a self-expanding tract sealant device (BioSentry™) on the rates of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion after percutaneous lung biopsy.Materials and MethodsIn this retrospective study, we compared 318 patients who received BioSentry™ during percutaneous lung biopsy (treated group) with 1956 patients who did not (control group). Patient-, lesion-, and procedure-specific variables, and pneumothorax and chest tube insertion rates were recorded. To adjust for potential selection bias, patients in the treated group were matched 1:1 to patients in the control group using propensity score matching based on the above-mentioned variables. Patients were considered a match if the absolute difference in their propensity scores was ≤equal to 0.02.ResultsBefore matching, the pneumothorax and chest tube rates were 24.5 and 13.1% in the control group, and 21.1 and 8.5% in the treated group, respectively. Using propensity scores, a match was found for 317 patients in the treatment group. Chi-square contingency matched pair analysis showed the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (20.8 vs. 32.8%; p = 0.001) and chest tube (8.2 vs. 20.8%; p < 0.0001) rates compared to the control group. Sub-analysis including only faculty who had >30 cases of both treatment and control cases demonstrated similar findings: the treated group had significantly lower pneumothorax (17.6 vs. 30.2%; p = 0.002) and chest tube (7.2 vs. 18%; p = 0.001) rates.ConclusionsThe self-expanding tract sealant device significantly reduced the pneumothorax rate, and more importantly, the chest tube placement rate after percutaneous lung biopsy.

  12. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  13. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350 0 F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage

  14. Natural Products and Dietary Prevention of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of cancer prevention was first introduced in studies using the natural form of vitamin A in the prevention of epithelial cancers. Ever since, research on cancer prevention has grown and become a rather specialized field study. Cancer is a multistage process, and takes several years for...

  15. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  16. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or mania, decrease the effectiveness of medication, enhance impulsive behavior, and severely cloud judgment. Beginning to feel better It might sound strange, but someone dealing with depression may be most likely to attempt suicide just when he or she seems to have ...

  17. The management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelce, J.; Brignon, P.

    1987-01-01

    In considering severe accidents in water power reactors, a major problem that arises is how to manage them in such a way that the situation can be controlled as well as possible, from the aspects both of preventing serious damage to the core of limiting the discharge of radioactivity. A number of countries have announced provisions in the field of accident management, some already set up, others planned, but these mainly apply to preventing damage to the core. Part of this report deals with this aspect, to show that there is a fairly wide consensus on how problems should be approached. Attitudes vary, on the other hand, in the approach to mitigate radioactive release. In fact, few countries have proposed concrete steps to manage severe accidents in the final stages when the core is seriously damaged. Since it is difficult to compare different approaches, only the French approach is described. This description is however very brief, because in the five or six years since it was defined, the approach has been presented many times. The stress is placed more on the comments which this type of approach suggests, to make the subsequent general discussion easier

  18. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  19. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  20. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  1. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  2. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  3. [Analysis of activities of the preventive dentistry service in the Health Area 8 of the Valencia Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena Puy, M C; Ausina Márquez, V

    1996-02-29

    We describe and analize the activities we carried out in a surgery from a preventive dentistry unit. Longitudinal descriptive study from 1993 since 1994. Health Area 8 from the Valencian Autonomous Region. Children from 3 to 14 year-old attendant to the preventive dentistry unit's surgery (2.497). We visited 5.012 children. The highest percentage of population corresponded to the zona 4, where began at first the preventive service. The activities distribution was as follow: oral explorations and plaque control (100%), fluoride topic aplication (90.38%), diet control (36.81%), pit and fisure sealants (6.46%), profilaxis (8.71%), radiological diagnosis (6.46%), dental emergencies (2.17%). The users origin was: 38.88% school oral explorations made over 6- and 10-year-old children; 63.71% from self-request; and 16.45% sent by other health professionals. 41.42% were continuated visits. Demand of preventive dental services is very high in our health area, although incorporation of therapeutic techniques is wished by the population. This demand increase as well as the surgery is closer to the user. People from big cities are stubborn using these services from smallest villages, even having transport facilities. Children start coming to the consults between 5-6 year-old, keeping an acceptable control until 12 approximately.

  4. Antigen Loading (e.g., Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 of Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs Reduces Their Capacity to Prevent Diabetes in the Non-Obese Diabetes (NOD-Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Model of Adoptive Cotransfer of Diabetes As Well As in NOD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Funda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs are being researched as a promising intervention strategy also in autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D. T1D is a T-cell-mediated, organ-specific disease with several well-defined and rather specific autoantigens, i.e., proinsulin, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65, that have been used in animal as well as human intervention trials in attempts to achieve a more efficient, specific immunotherapy. In this study, we have tested tolerogenic DCs for their effectiveness to prevent adoptive transfer of diabetes by diabetogenic splenocytes into non-obese diabetes (NOD-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID recipients. While i.p. application of tolDCs prepared from bone marrow of prediabetic NOD mice by vitamin D2 and dexamethasone significantly reduced diabetes transfer into the NOD-SCID females, this effect was completely abolished when tolDCs were loaded with the mouse recombinant GAD65, but also with a control protein—ovalbumin (OVA. The effect was not dependent on the presence of serum in the tolDC culture. Similar results were observed in NOD mice. Removal of possible bystander antigen-presenting cells within the diabetogenic splenocytes by negative magnetic sorting of T cells did not alter this surprising effect. Tolerogenic DCs loaded with an immunodominant mouse GAD65 peptide also displayed diminished diabetes-preventive effect. Tolerogenic DCs were characterized by surface maturation markers (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC II and the lipopolysaccharide stability test. Data from alloreactive T cell proliferation and cytokine induction assays (IFN-γ did not reveal the differences observed in the diabetes incidence. Migration of tolDCs, tolDCs-GAD65 and tolDCs-OVA to spleen, mesenteric- and pancreatic lymph nodes displayed similar, mucosal pattern with highest accumulation in pancreatic lymph nodes present up to 9 days after the i.p. application. These data document that mechanisms by which tol

  5. Use of caries-preventive agents in children: findings from the dental practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical regions. The objective of the present study was to characterise the use of specific caries-preventive agents for paediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of practising clinicians. The present study surveyed clinicians from the Dental Practice-based Research Network who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey consisted of a questionnaire that presented a range of questions about caries risk assessment and the use of preventive techniques in children aged 6 to 18 years. Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used caries-preventive agents of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries-preventive agents ranged from 36% to 7%,with the most commonly used agent being non-prescription fluoride rinse. Clinicians who practised in a large group practice model and clinicians who come from the Scandinavian region use caries risk assessment more frequently compared to clinicians who come from regions that had, predominantly, clinicians in private practice. Whether or not clinicians used caries risk assessment with their paediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries-preventive treatments on patients. Although clinicians reported the use of some form of in-office caries-preventive agent, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practising clinicians about the benefits of caries-preventive agents, or a function of differing financial incentives, or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk.

  6. Preventive Detention: A Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Mishra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available State, ever since, its emergence, has been concerned with the maintenance of law and order and protecting people from external aggression and internal threats, thereby, ensuring safety and security to its inhabitants. The authority to maintain law and order empowers the state to use coercive power. It also emanates from various laws that are enacted from time to time. More often than not, coercive laws are self-contradictory because on the one hand they guarantee rights to people and on the other hand, they take away the right of a person or persons. Therefore, it is not wrong to say that modern states are repository of contradictions and India is no exception. There are several undemocratic provisions in the Indian Constitution; preventive detention is one of them. It seeks to detain a person to prevent him/her from indulging in any activity which is likely to pose a threat to the security of the State. In Britain and America this provision was used during World War II while, in India it can be used even in peacetime. This provision has been extensively used against the political dissidents during the post-colonial period. Justice Mahajan of the Supreme Court of India has held that ‘preventive detention laws are repugnant to democratic constitution and they cannot be found to exist in any of the democratic countries of the world’. The question that one can ask at this juncture is that why did the Government of ‘independent’ India retain preventive detention laws? And further, framed new ones. This research contribution examines the circumstances which compelled the Government to frame ‘preventive detention’ laws, and its use during national emergency and peace time.

  7. Deterministic analyses of severe accident issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.S.; Moody, F.J.; Muralidharan, R.; Claassen, L.B.

    2004-01-01

    Severe accidents in light water reactors involve complex physical phenomena. In the past there has been a heavy reliance on simple assumptions regarding physical phenomena alongside of probability methods to evaluate risks associated with severe accidents. Recently GE has developed realistic methodologies that permit deterministic evaluations of severe accident progression and of some of the associated phenomena in the case of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). These deterministic analyses indicate that with appropriate system modifications, and operator actions, core damage can be prevented in most cases. Furthermore, in cases where core-melt is postulated, containment failure can either be prevented or significantly delayed to allow sufficient time for recovery actions to mitigate severe accidents

  8. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  9. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  10. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  11. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  12. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  13. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  14. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  15. Preventing proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjens, G.

    1983-01-01

    Challenging the argument that nuclear proliferation may be stabilizing, the author cites the Israeli attack on Iraq as evidence that emergent nuclear states may be moved to attack their adversaries.The larger the number of decision makers who can unleash nuclear weapons, the greater the liklihood of their use. Several reasons are cited for nations to seek nuclear capability: the accelerated spread of technology, the deterioration in US-Soviet relations and strength relative to their nations, the high cost of conventional weapons, and a loss of confidence in the international safeguards system. The imposition of constraints, such as a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, on nuclear trade and technology transfer are likely to have a high cost. The US position on this issue is likely to be determined by the balance of power with the Soviet Union. 5 references

  16. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use...... the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  17. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  18. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  19. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  20. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  1. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  2. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.

  3. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting.

  4. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  5. Prevention and Reduction of Atrophic Acne Scars with Adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel in Subjects with Moderate or Severe Facial Acne: Results of a 6-Month Randomized, Vehicle-Controlled Trial Using Intra-Individual Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, Brigitte; Bissonnette, Robert; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Barankin, Benjamin; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Tan, Jerry

    2018-04-01

    Very few clinical trials have investigated the effect of topical acne treatment on scarring. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of adapalene 0.3%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A0.3/BPO2.5) in atrophic acne scar formation in patients with acne. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled study, subjects with moderate or severe facial acne (Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA] score 3 or 4; ≥ 25 inflammatory lesions; ten or more atrophic acne scars) applied A0.3/BPO2.5 or vehicle daily per half face for 24 weeks. Subjects with acne requiring systemic treatment were excluded. Assessments included investigator atrophic acne scar count, Scar Global Assessment (SGA), acne lesion count, IGA, skin roughness and skin texture, subject self-assessment of clinical acne-related scars and satisfaction questionnaire, tolerability, and safety. Included subjects (n = 67) had mainly moderate acne (92.5% IGA 3); mean scores at baseline were approximately 40 acne lesions and 12 scars per half face. By week 24, the change from baseline in total scar count was - 15.5% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus  + 14.4% for vehicle (approximately 30% difference), with a mean of 9.5 scars versus 13.3 per half face, respectively (p vehicle (p vehicle (p vehicle side, most commonly skin irritation (14.9 vs. 6%, respectively). Topical A0.3/BPO2.5 prevented and reduced atrophic scar formation. Scar count increased with vehicle (+ 14.4%) but decreased with A0.3/BPO2.5 (- 15.5%) over 24 weeks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02735421.

  6. Severe congenital neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tidwell et al1 demonstrate that mutations in the start codon (protein synthesis is initiated at the codon ATG) of neutrophil elastase (ELANE) result in the production of N-terminally truncated elastase, which mislocates to the nucleus and results in severe congenital neutr...... neutropenia (SCN)....

  7. Severe asthma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciznar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma are clinically, physiologically and biologically a heterogeneous group. About half of children referred for medical examination for severe asthma have true severe, therapy resistant asthma. The rest of referred patients have difficult to treat asthma. Symptoms persist mostly due to drug non-compliance, inappropriate inhalation technique, persistent environmental exposures or co-morbid conditions. Compared with adults have children more frequently atopic form of severe asthma. This is associated with eosinophilia in peripheral blood and sensitization to inhaled allergens. The IgE levels are high. Therapy of co-morbidities and improvement of treatment compliance lead in most cases to full asthma control. Proportion of children will benefit from biologics like anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, administered by subcutaneous injections in 2 to 4 week intervals. By this therapy it is not only possible to suppress symptoms, but also decrease the total steroid dose and the risk of adverse effects associated with its long-term administration. By achieving a full asthma control we lower future risk of exacerbations and probably improve long-term prognosis of disease, frequently persisting for the rest of life. (author)

  8. Development of Krsko Severe Accident Management Database (SAMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Kocnar, R.

    1996-01-01

    Severe Accident Management is a framework to identify and implement the Emergency Response Capabilities that can be used to prevent or mitigate severe accidents and their consequences. Krsko Severe Accident Management Database documents the severe accident management activities which are developed in the NPP Krsko, based on the Krsko IPE (Individual Plant Examination) insights and Generic WOG SAMGs (Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance). (author)

  9. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  11. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  12. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 on metallic interconnect and interaction with glass-ceramic sealant for solid oxide fuel cells application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeacetto, Federico; De Miranda, Auristela; Cabanas Polo, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Cr-containing stainless steels are widely used as metallic interconnects for SOFCs. Volatile Cr-containing species, which originate from the oxide formed on steel, can poison the cathode material and subsequently cause degradation in the SOFC stack. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promisin...... between Mn1.5Co1.5O4 coated Crofer22APU and a new glass-ceramic sealant, after 500 h of thermal tests in air, thus suggesting that the spinel protection layer can effectively act as a barrier to outward diffusion of Cr. [All rights reserved Elsevier].......Cr-containing stainless steels are widely used as metallic interconnects for SOFCs. Volatile Cr-containing species, which originate from the oxide formed on steel, can poison the cathode material and subsequently cause degradation in the SOFC stack. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising...... coating materials due to its high electrical conductivity, good CTE match with the stainless steel substrate and an excellent chromium retention capability. In this work Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel coatings are deposited on Crofer22APU substrates by cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by sintering...

  14. Physical and thermal behaviour of Sr-La-Al-B-Si based SOFC glass sealants as function of SrO content and B2O3/SiO2 ratio in the matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Prasanta Kumar; Rath, S. K.; Chongdar, T. K.; Gokhale, N. M.; Kulkarni, A. R.

    2011-05-01

    A series of SOFC glass sealants with composition SrO (x), La2O3 (15), Al2O3 (15), B2O3 (40 - x), and SiO2 (30) [x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30] (wt.%) [SLABS] are investigated for their structure property correlations at different compositions. Quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows structural rigidity with increasing SrO content, as demonstrate by an increase in the Si-O-Si/O-Si-O bending and B-O-B stretching frequencies. The role of SrO as a modifier dominates the control of the structure and behaviour of glasses compared with the effect of network formers, i.e., the B2O3/SiO2 ratio. Consequent to the structural changes, increasing substitution of B2O3 by SrO the glasses causes increases in the density, glass transition temperature and dilatometric softening point. On the other hand, the crystallization temperatures show a decreasing trend and the coefficient of thermal expansion increases with increase in substitution.

  15. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  16. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  17. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  19. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries for 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  20. Teaching Prevention in Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for including prevention in the clinical medicine clerkship. Summarizes current guidelines, presents examples of curricula in several medical schools, and proposes a future direction that stresses integrating teaching preventive medicine into internal medicine clerkships and across the entire four-year medical curriculum. (DB)

  1. NPP Krsko Severe Accident Management Guidelines Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Krajnc, B.; Bilic-Zabric, T.; Spiler, J.

    2002-01-01

    Severe Accident Management is a framework to identify and implement the Emergency Response Capabilities that can be used to prevent or mitigate severe accidents and their consequences. The USA NRC has indicated that the development of a licensee plant specific accident management program will be required in order to close out the severe accident regulatory issue (Ref. SECY-88-147). Generic Letter 88-20 ties the Accident management Program to IPE for each plant. The SECY-89-012 defines those actions taken during the course of an accident by the plant operating and technical staff to: 1) prevent core damage, 2) terminate the progress of core damage if it begins and retain the core within the reactor vessel, 3) maintain containment integrity as long as possible, and 4) minimize offsite releases. The subject of this paper is to document the severe accident management activities, which resulted in a plant specific Severe Accident Management Guidelines implementation. They have been developed based on the Krsko IPE (Individual Plant Examination) insights, Generic WOG SAMGs (Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidances) and plant specific documents developed within this effort. Among the required plant specific actions the following are the most important ones: Identification and documentation of those Krsko plant specific severe accident management features (which also resulted from the IPE investigations). The development of the Krsko plant specific background documents (Severe Accident Plant Specific Strategies and SAMG Setpoint Calculation). Also, paper discusses effort done in the areas of NPP Krsko SAMG review (internal and external ), validation on Krsko Full Scope Simulator (Severe Accident sequences are simulated by MAAP4 in real time) and world 1st IAEA Review of Accident Management Programmes (RAMP). (author)

  2. Cholera - management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Hannah G; Bowman, Conor; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    Cholera is an acute secretory diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is likely to have originated in the Indian sub-continent; however, it spread to cause six worldwide pandemics between 1817-1923. The ongoing seventh worldwide pandemic of cholera began in 1961. The intensity, duration and severity of cholera epidemics have been increasing, signaling the need for more effective control and prevention measures. The response to the cholera pandemics of the 19th century led to the development of safe and effective sanitation and water systems which have effectively removed the risk of cholera in many settings. However, such systems are not in place to protect billions of people worldwide. Although some progress has been made in expanding access to water in recent years, achieving optimal infrastructure will, in the most optimistic scenario, take decades. Climate change, extreme weather events and rapid urbanisation suggests that alternatives to the current paradigm of providing large centralised water and sanitation systems should be considered, including smaller decentralised systems. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding management of cholera with a focus on prevention measures including vaccination and water and sanitation interventions. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  4. Obesity prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Severe fuel damage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1987-10-01

    After the descriptions of the generation of a Severe Fuel Damage Accident in a LWR the hypothetical course of such an accident is explained. Then the most significant projects are described. At each project the experimental facility, the most important results and the concluding models and codes are discussed. The selection of the projects is concentrated on the German Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS), tests performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and smaller projects in France and Great Britain. 25 refs., 26 figs. (Author)

  6. [Use of fibrin glue in the prevention of leakage in pancreatico-jejunal anastomoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, M; Jeremic, M; Stojanović, P; Stojiljković, M; Gmijović, D; Stanojković, Z; Savić, V; Djordjević, V; Cvetković, Z; Kostov, M; Colović, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the protective effects of fibrin sealing on the pancreatico-jejunostomy (PJA), the high-risk anastomosis following pancreas head resection. Experimental study was performed on the mongrel dogs, divided in two groups (20 animals each): Experimental group-with end to end "dunking" PJA, protected by temporary occlusion of the pancreatic duct with fibrin sealant/Tissucol/Immuno Ag/, while control group was without any protective procedure. The animals were followed 5 months in order to study: protective effects of such procedure on the PJA quantified with the percent of anastomotic leakage, effects of the exocrine secretion and effects the endocrine function Results: PJA leakage occurred in 13.33% in control group. No leakage was registered in experimental group. Biochemical, histological and electron microscopic study showed slight transitory elevation of amylase levels. Fibrin glue plug was dissolved and pancreatic juice output was reestablished 12th days postoperatively. Long term follow-up showed no damages of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Pancreatic duct occlusion with fibrin glue appeared to be an useful method in the prevention of pancreatico-jejunostomy leakage, without negative effects on the exocrine and endocrine pancreas.

  7. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  8. Several crimes solved

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2007-01-01

    A member of a contractor's personnel suspected of having committed several thefts in and around Building 180 has recently been questioned by the French police. He was immediately tried by the court in Bourg-en-Bresse and sentenced to six months in prison, with a requirement to serve at least three months. His arrest was facilitated, among other things, by a video recording, fast and detailed statements to the CERN Fire Brigade and close collaboration between the members of the personnel concerned, the Reception and Access Control Service and the police. Several laptops and other items of electronic equipment were seized during a search of the culprit's home. A stolen digital camera has yet to be returned to its owner as he has not reported the theft to the CERN Fire Brigade and the police. The person concerned is therefore requested to go to the Gendarmerie in Saint-Genis-Pouilly with the necessary proof of ownership. In addition, the French authorities have informed CERN that the presumed authors of the a...

  9. Therapeutic interventions in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Senna, Gianenrico; Mitchell, Patrick D; O'Byrne, Paul M; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Varricchi, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The present paper addresses severe asthma which is limited to 5-10% of the overall population of asthmatics. However, it accounts for 50% or more of socials costs of the disease, as it is responsible for hospitalizations and Emergency Department accesses as well as expensive treatments. The recent identification of different endotypes of asthma, based on the inflammatory pattern, has led to the development of tailored treatments that target different inflammatory mediators. These are major achievements in the perspective of Precision Medicine: a leading approach to the modern treatment strategy. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, has been the only biologic treatment available on the market for severe asthma during the last decade. It prevents the linkage of the IgE and the receptors, thereby inhibiting mast cell degranulation. In clinical practice omalizumab significantly reduced the asthma exacerbations as well as the concomitant use of oral glucocorticoids. In the "Th2-high asthma" phenotype, the hallmarks are increased levels of eosinophils and other markers (such as periostin). Because anti-IL-5 in this condition plays a crucial role in driving eosinophil inflammation, this cytokine or its receptors on the eosinophil surface has been studied as a potential target for therapy. Two different anti-IL-5 humanized monoclonal antibodies, mepolizumab and reslizumab, have been proven effective in this phenotype of asthma (recently they both came on the market in the United States), as well as an anti-IL-5 receptor alpha (IL5Rα), benralizumab. Other monoclonal antibodies, targeting different cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-17 and TSLP) are still under evaluation, though the preliminary results are encouraging. Finally, AIT, Allergen Immunotherapy, a prototype of Precision Medicine, is considered, also in light of the recent evidences of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet efficacy and safety in mite allergic asthma patients. Given the high costs of these therapies

  10. Analytic functions of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gunning, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The theory of analytic functions of several complex variables enjoyed a period of remarkable development in the middle part of the twentieth century. After initial successes by Poincaré and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the theory encountered obstacles that prevented it from growing quickly into an analogue of the theory for functions of one complex variable. Beginning in the 1930s, initially through the work of Oka, then H. Cartan, and continuing with the work of Grauert, Remmert, and others, new tools were introduced into the theory of several complex variables that resol

  11. Severe accident research in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Reocreux, M.; Tattegrain, A.

    1988-01-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, an overall safety objective was issued in 1977 by the safety authority which set an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences; this resulted, in particular, in the elaboration of the ''H'' procedures, aimed at reducing significantly the risk of core uncovery subsequent to the loss of redunbant safety-related systems. The U1 symptom-oriented procedure, based on the nuclear steam supply system ''cooling states'', was introduced later, in order to prevent core melting in situations where the operating crew was confused by multiple failures and/or inappropriate previous actions. In the event that a core-melt should occur, the ultimate procedures U2, U4 and U5 - the latter providing a venting of the containment through a filtration system - should enable the radioactive releases to be limited to characteristics compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans. Such emergency management procedures necessitate a significant study effort in order to be elaborated and qualified; this also presupposes that an adequate level of scientific knowledge has been gained as regards the response of specific components of a PWR under beyond-design conditions. The purpose of severe accident research in France is to attain a level of basic knowledge such that emergency procedures may be conceived and ultimately tested

  12. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  13. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.

  14. Use of simulators in severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear utility industry is moving in a deliberate fashion through a coordinated industry severe accident working group to study and augment, where appropriate, the existing utility organizational and emergency planning structure to address accident and severe accident management. Full-scope simulators are used extensively to train licensed operators for their initial license examinations and continually thereafter in licensed operator requalification training and yearly examinations. The goal of the training (both initial and requalification) is to ensure that operators possess adequate knowledge, skills and abilities to prevent an event from progressing to core damage. The use of full-scope simulators in severe accident management training is in large part viewed by the industry as being premature. The working group study has not progressed to the point where the decision to employ full-scope simulators can be logically considered. It is not however premature to consider part-task or work station simulators as invaluable research tools to support the industry's study. These simulators could be employed, subject to limitations in the current state of knowledge regarding severe accident progression and phenomenological responses, in the validation and verification (V and V) of severe accident models or codes as they are developed. The U.S. nuclear utility industry has made substantial strides in the past 12 years in the accident prevention, mitigation and management arena. These strides are a product of the industry's preference for a logical and systematic approach to change. (orig.)

  15. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  16. Method of assessing severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.; Okrent, D.; Jae, M.; Lim, H.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Swider, J.; Xing, L.; Yu, D.

    1991-01-01

    Accident management can be defined as the innovative use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a severe accident. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been completed that yield the principal plant vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be categorized as (1) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency. (2) dominant sequences with respect to various risk measures. (3) dominant threats that challenge safety functions. (4) dominant threats with respect to failure of safety systems. For each sequence/threat and each combination of strategy, there may be several options available to the operator. Each strategy/option involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. These considerations include uncertainties in key phenomena, operator behavior, system availability and behavior, and available information. This paper presents a methodology for assessing severe accident management strategies given the key uncertainties delineated at two workshops held at the University of California, Los Angeles. Based on decision trees and influence diagrams, the methodology is currently being applied to two case studies: cavity flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to prevent vessel penetration or failure, and drywell flooding in a boiling water reactor to prevent vessel and/or containment failure

  17. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  18. CANDU severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a EU member since January first 2007. This country faces now new challenges which imply also the nuclear power reactors now in operation. Romania operates since 1996 a CANDU nuclear power reactor and soon will start up a second unit. In EU PWR reactors are mostly operated, so that the Romania's reactors have to meet EU standards. Safety analysis guidelines require to model severe accidents for reactors of this type. Starting from previous studies a thermal-hydraulic model for a degraded CANDU core was developed. The initiating event is assumed to be a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator and coolant and the failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 1000 deg. C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the decay heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) uncover, then disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. All the quantity of calandria moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield water tank surrounding the calandria vessel. The thermal hydraulics phenomena described above are modeled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. (authors)

  19. Treatment of severe tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurikainen, E; Johansson, R; Akaan-Penttilä, E; Haapaniemi, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1995-96 we selected a group of 26 patients who were suffering from severe invalidating idiopathic tinnitus (IT) in order to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitation and some alternative therapies. All patients were assessed thoroughly by means of audiology and radiology regarding any objective cause for the symptom. In order to help patients control their symptom by increasing knowledge and adding supportive elements, they were given basic education (presentations of the anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing system, psychological and social aspects of IT, guided and non-guided group discussions, relaxation therapy, physiotherapy, music therapy) for 4 months, comprising one 2-h session bi-weekly. This type of group therapy was found to be extremely helpful, although no objective evaluation revealed effects on IT sensation (VAS) or psychometric measures (SLC-90). In a second limb of the study, the same patients attended a 6-day intensive course in a spa. The purpose was to evaluate the possible usefulness of the widely recommended alternative therapies for IT. All patients had an opportunity to sample the treatments. Six months later only a few had tried any of these treatments, but all reported that the lessons were the most helpful in association with supportive group discussions. The results indicated that none of these therapies can be recommended, based on rational medical practise.

  20. Preventive dentistry: practitioners' recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, P S; Sawai, R; Bowen, W H; Meyerowitz, C

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare published evidence supporting procedures to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease, in low-risk patients, with the actual preventive recommendations of practicing dentists. Methods included (1) a survey questionnaire of general dentists practicing in western New York State concerning the preventive procedures they would recommend and at what intervals for low-risk children, young adults, and older adults; and (2) review of the published, English-language literature for evidence supporting preventive dental interventions. The majority of dentists surveyed recommended semiannual visits for visual examination and probing to detect caries (73% to 79%), and scaling and polishing to prevent periodontal disease (83% to 86%) for low-risk patients of all ages. Bite-wing radiographs were recommended for all age groups at annual or semiannual intervals. In-office fluoride applications were recommended for low-risk children at intervals of 6 to 12 months by 73% of dentists but were recommended for low-risk older persons by only 22% of dentists. Application of sealants to prevent pit and fissure caries was recommended for low-risk children by 22% of dentists. Literature review found no studies comparing different frequencies of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs to determine the optimal screening interval in low-risk patients. Two studies of the effect of scaling and polishing on the prevention of periodontal disease found no benefit from more frequent than annual treatments. Although fluoride is clearly a major reason for the decline in the prevalence of dental caries, there are no studies of the incremental benefit of in-office fluoride treatments for low-risk patients exposed to fluoridated water and using fluoridated toothpaste. Comparative studies using outcome end points are needed to determine the optimal frequency of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs for the early detection of caries, and of scaling